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Norman, OK, United States

The University of Oklahoma is a coeducational public research university located in Norman, Oklahoma. Founded in 1890, it had existed in Oklahoma Territory near Indian Territory for 17 years before the two became the state of Oklahoma. As of 2007 the university had 29,931 students enrolled, most located at its main campus in Norman. Employing nearly 3,000 faculty members, the school offers 152 baccalaureate programs, 160 master's programs, 75 doctorate programs, and 20 majors at the first professional level. David Lyle Boren, a former U.S. Senator and Oklahoma Governor, has served as President of the University of Oklahoma since 1994.The school is ranked first among public universities in enrollment of National Merit Scholars and among the top ten in the graduation of Rhodes Scholars. PC Magazine and the Princeton Review rated it one of the "20 Most Wired Colleges" in both 2006 and 2008, while the Carnegie Foundation classifies it as a research university with "very high research activity." Located on its Norman campus are two prominent museums, the Fred Jones Jr. Museum of Art, specializing in French Impressionism and Native American artwork, and the Sam Noble Oklahoma Museum of Natural History, specializing in the natural history of Oklahoma.The school, well known for its athletic programs, has won 7 NCAA Division I National Football Championships. Its baseball team has won 2 NCAA national championships and the women's softball team won the national championship in 2000 and 2013. The gymnastics teams have won four national championships since 2002 and its football program has the best winning percentage of any Division I-FBS team since the introduction of the AP Poll in 1936, playing in four BCS national championship games since the inception of the BCS system in 1998. Wikipedia.

Wesner J.S.,University of Oklahoma
Ecology | Year: 2010

Organisms with complex life histories (CLH) often cross habitat or ecosystem boundaries as they develop from larvae to adults, coupling energy flow between, ecosystems as both prey (bottom-up) and consumers (top-down). Predation effects on one stage of this life cycle can therefore cascade across ecosystems, magnifying the impact of local prédation. The majority of prédation studies have assessed effects only on a local level, within the habitat of the predator. I used large outdoor stream mesocosms to test the hypothesis that predation in an aquatic habitat alters the magnitude and trophic structure of a prey assemblage in a terrestrial habitat. I also tested how a consumer in the terrestrial habitat (web-weaving spiders) responded to these changes in prey export. Two fish species were the predators (red shiner, Cyprinella lutrensis and orangethroat darter, Etheostoma spectabile) in an experiment with three treatments: both fish species monocultures plus a Ashless control. Fish prédation reduced aquatic insect emergence biomass by 50% compared to the ashless control and altered the trophic structure of the emergent community, reducing emerging insect predator biomass by 50%, but had no effect on other insect trophic groups. Spiders captured only insects that were unaffected by fish, prédation (mostly chironomids) and therefore did not respond numerically to overall changes in insect abundance or biomass. Patterns of insect emergence were largely driven by a strong negative relationship between fish and a predatory dragonfly (Pantala flavescens). The results of this experiment show that prédation in one habitat can have strong effects on the biomass and trophic structure of subsidies entering adjacent habitats, resulting in contrasting predictions for the role of these subsidies in recipient food webs. In the absence offish, aquatic habitats produced terrestrial insect communities with higher biomass (bottomup potential) and a higher proportion of predators (top-down potential) than when fish were present. © 2010 by the Ecological Society of America.

Cichewicz R.H.,University of Oklahoma
Natural product reports | Year: 2010

The covalent modification of chromatin is an important control mechanism used by fungi to modulate the transcription of genes involved in secondary metabolite production. To date, both molecular-based and chemical approaches targeting histone and DNA posttranslational processes have shown great potential for rationally directing the activation and/or suppression of natural-product-encoding gene clusters. In this Highlight, the organization of the fungal epigenome is summarized and strategies for manipulating chromatin-related targets are presented. Applications of these techniques are illustrated using several recently published accounts in which chemical-epigenetic methods and mutant studies were successfully employed for the de novo or enhanced production of structurally diverse fungal natural products (e.g., anthraquinones, cladochromes, lunalides, mycotoxins, and nygerones).

Platelet activation frequently accompanies sepsis and contributes to the sepsis-associated vascular leakage and coagulation dysfunction. Our previous work has implicated peptidoglycan (PGN) as an agent causing systemic inflammation in gram-positive sepsis. We used flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy to define the effects of PGN on the activation of human platelets. PGN induced platelet aggregation, expression of the activated form of integrin αIIbβ3, and exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS). These changes were dependent on immunoglobulin G and were attenuated by the Fcγ receptor IIa-blocking antibody IV.3, suggesting they are mediated by PGN-anti-PGN immune complexes signaling through Fcγ receptor IIa. PS exposure was not blocked by IV.3 but was sensitive to inhibitors of complement activation. PGN was a potent activator of the complement cascade in human plasma and caused deposition of C5b-9 on the platelet surface. Platelets with exposed PS had greatly accelerated prothrombinase activity. We conclude that PGN derived from gram-positive bacteria is a potent platelet agonist when complexed with anti-PGN antibody and could contribute to the coagulation dysfunction accompanying gram-positive infections.

Nan N.,University of Oklahoma
MIS Quarterly: Management Information Systems | Year: 2011

Although information systems researchers have long recognized the possibility for collective-level information technology use patterns and outcomes to emerge from individual-level IT use behaviors, few have explored the key properties and mechanisms involved in this bottom-up IT use process. This paper seeks to build a theoretical framework drawing on the concepts and the analytical tool of complex adaptive systems (CAS) theory. The paper presents a CAS model of IT use that encodes a bottom-up IT use process into three interrelated elements: agents that consist of the basic entities of actions in an IT use process, interactions that refer to the mutually adaptive behaviors of agents, and an environment that represents the social organizational contexts of IT use. Agent-based modeling is introduced as the analytical tool for computationally representing and examining the CAS model of IT use. The operationability of the CAS model and the analytical tool are demonstrated through a theory-building exercise translating an interpretive case study of IT use to a specific version of the CAS model. While Orlikowski (1996) raised questions regarding the impacts of employee learning, IT flexibility, and workplace rigidity on IT-based organization transformation, the CAS model indicates that these factors in individual-level actions do not have a direct causal linkage with organizational-level IT use patterns and outcomes. This theory-building exercise manifests the intriguing nature of the bottom-up IT use process: collective-level IT use patterns and outcomes are the logical and yet often unintended or unforeseeable consequences of individual-level behaviors. The CAS model of IT use offers opportunities for expanding the theoretical and methodological scope of the IT use literature.

Callaghan A.V.,University of Oklahoma
Current Opinion in Biotechnology | Year: 2013

Metabolomics is a powerful tool for the assessment of expressed (in vivo or in situ) biological processes. Metabolite profiling is often employed during field investigations of hydrocarbon-laden environments for the purpose(s) of determining the extent of intrinsic or enhanced natural attenuation of contaminants, developing remediation strategies, and/or gaining a better understanding of microbial processes. During the last twenty-five years, the elucidation of anaerobic biodegradation pathways has not only provided metabolic and molecular biomarkers for environmental assessments of anaerobic hydrocarbon metabolism, but also an avenue for integrative field studies. The combination of metabolomics with compound-specific isotope analysis, molecular surveys and/or microcosm studies has demonstrated the need for multiple assessment methods for better resolution of in situ microbial activity. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

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