Nyala, Sudan
Nyala, Sudan

Nyala University is a public university located in Nyala in South Darfur, Sudan.Nyala University is a member of the Federation of the Universities of the Islamic World.It is also a member of the Association of African Universities.In 2005 there was a dispute between the administration and the students over their exams results, as a result of which the administration decided to close the university. On 25 August 2005 fifteen of the protesting students were arrested by security forces, and some were flogged. Wikipedia.


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Eltahir Y.M.,University of Nyala
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment | Year: 2011

The objective of this study was to determine the bacterial contaminations in drinking water in Nyala city, South Darfur, Sudan with special reference to the internally displaced people camps (IDPs). Two hundred and forty water samples from different sites and sources including bore holes, hand pumps, dug wells, water points, water reservoir and household storage containers were collected in 2009. The most probable number method was used to detect and count the total coliform, faecal coliform and faecal enterococci. Results revealed that the three indicators bacteria were abundant in all sources except water points. Percentages of the three indicators bacteria count above the permissible limits for drinking water in all samples were 46.4% total coliform, 45.2% faecal coliform and 25.4% faecal enterococci whereas the highest count of the indicators bacteria observed was 1,600 U/100 ml water. Enteric bacteria isolated were Escherichia coli (22.5%), Enterococcus faecalis (20.42%), Klebsiella (15.00%), Citrobacter (2.1%) and Enterobacter (3.33%). The highest contamination of water sources was observed in household storage containers (20%) followed by boreholes (11.25%), reservoirs (6.24%), hand pumps (5.42%) and dug wells (2.49%). Contamination varied from season to season with the highest level in autumn (18.33%) followed by winter (13.75%) and summer (13.32%), respectively. All sources of water in IDP camps except water points were contaminated. Data suggested the importance of greater attention for household contamination, environmental sanitation control and the raise of awareness about water contamination. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Taoufik A.,University Utrecht | Ibrahin H.,University of Nyala | Hassan S.M.,University of Khartoum | Jongejan F.,University Utrecht | And 3 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2012

The recombinant Bm86-based tick vaccines have shown their efficacy for the control of cattle ticks, . Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and . R. annulatus infestations. However, cattle ticks often co-exist with multi-host ticks such as . Hyalomma and . Amblyomma species, thus requiring the control of multiple tick infestations for cattle and other hosts. Vaccination trials using a . R. microplus recombinant Bm86-based vaccine were conducted in cattle and camels against . Hyalomma dromedarii and in cattle against . Amblyomma cajennense immature and adult ticks. The results showed an 89% reduction in the number of . H. dromedarii nymphs engorging on vaccinated cattle, and a further 32% reduction in the weight of the surviving adult ticks. In vaccinated camels, a reduction of 27% and 31% of tick engorgement and egg mass weight, respectively was shown, while egg hatching was reduced by 39%. However, cattle vaccination with Bm86 did not have an effect on . A. cajennense tick infestations. These results showed that Bm86 vaccines are effective against . R. microplus and other tick species but improved vaccines containing new antigens are required to control multiple tick infestations. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


El Nour M.E.M.,Sudan University of Science and Technology | Yagoub S.O.,University of Nyala
Journal of Applied Sciences | Year: 2010

The research aimed to study the diastatic power (PD) of sorghum malt, to purify the α and β-amylase s and to characterize these enzymes. In this study the amylolytic activity initiated during the germination of sorghum was determined. Fourth day of germination of sorghum grains showed the highest of the amount of Diastatic Power (DP) (62.0 IOB), no significant variation (p<0.05) between the extraction procedures followed either by distilled water or water with 2% peptone. DEAE-cellulose chromatography was used for the partial purification of α-and β-amylases. The results obtained from the last purification steps is 6.94 fold of α-amylase in fifth day of germination, whereas β-amylase is 35.42 fold in fourth day of germination. These amylases isolated from sorghum malt have interesting characteristics such as, storage stability of purified α and β-amylases at different temperature (-20 and 4°C) for 56 days. No significant loss (p<0.05) in the enzymes activity during the storage period for 56 days in-20°C, whereas the loss of enzyme activity at 4°C during the period of 56 days were 19% for a and 34% for β-amylases. The maximum activity of α-amylase was obtained at temperature 70 and 50°C for β-amylase, it was clear that the α-amylase is more stable than β-amylase. The optimum pH for both α and β-amylases were 5.0 and 5.5, respectively. Therefore, these characterizations meet the prerequisites need for food industry. © 2010 Asian Network for Scientific Information.


Pauciullo A.,Justus Liebig University | Shuiep E.S.,University of Nyala | Cosenza G.,University of Naples Federico II | Ramunno L.,University of Naples Federico II | Erhardt G.,Justus Liebig University
Gene | Year: 2013

κ-casein is a glycosilated protein belonging to a family of phosphoproteins (αs1, β, αs2, κ) that represent the major protein component in mammalian milk. κ-casein plays an essential role in the casein micelle stabilization, determining the size and the specific function. In the present paper, we report for the first time the characterization of the nucleotide sequence of the whole κ-casein-encoding gene (CSN3) plus 1045 nucleotides at the 5' flanking region in Camelus dromedarius. The promoter region and the complete cDNA were also provided for the first time in Camelus bactrianus. The gene is spread over 9.3. kb and consists of 5 exons varying in length from 33. bp (exon 3) to 494. bp (exon 4), and 4 introns from 1200. bp (intron 3) to 2928. bp (intron 2). Highly conserved sequences, located in the 5' flanking region, have been found. The regulatory regions of camels seems to be more related to equids than to other compared species. 17 polymorphic sites have been detected, one of these (g.1029T>C) is responsible for the creation of a new putative consensus sequence for the transcription factor HNF-1. In general, these SNPs are the first reported in camels for casein loci. Finally, seven interspersed repeated elements were also identified at intronic level. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | Directorate of Animal Health, University of Gezira, Qassim University, University of Nyala and Sudan University of Science and Technology
Type: | Journal: Journal of pathogens | Year: 2016

Out of 92 donkeys examined for gastrointestinal parasites, 90 animals were found infected by one or more gastrointestinal parasites with an overall prevalence rate of 97.78%. The distributions of the recovered parasites in the different parts of the body were as follows: stomach, 92.4%, small intestine, 19.6%, caecum, 88%, colon, 80.4%, rectum, 73.9%, and cranial mesenteric artery, 64.1%. A significant difference was found between mean parasite counts and seasons. Hot wet season had higher mean parasites count (5411.5 1694.4) in comparison with hot dry (1795.9 399.6) and cool dry (1719.9 522.4) seasons. Although there was no significant difference between age and mean parasite count, animals more than four years old had high mean count (3361.3 921.8) in comparison with 2330 744.3 and 2030.2 873.1 for young and adults animals, respectively. No significant positive or negative correlation was found between total parasite counts of infected animals and any of the climatic factors. The parasites identified were Habronema spp. (40.2%), Trichostrongylus axei (30.4%), Parascaris equorum (18.5%), Anoplocephala perfoliata (4.35%), Gastrodiscus aegyptiacus (8.7%), large strongyles (84%), small strongyles (72%), and Oxyuris equi (1.1%).


Ishag H.Z.A.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Ishag H.Z.A.,University of Nyala | Li C.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Huang L.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 4 more authors.
Virus Research | Year: 2013

Pokeweed antiviral protein (PAP) is a plant-derived N-glycosidase ribosomal-inactivating protein isolated from Phytolacca americana. The antiviral activity of PAP has been described in several viruses. This study was to investigate the antiviral activity of PAP against Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection in vitro and in vivo. Antiviral activity of PAP against JEV infection was evaluated in vitro using plaque forming assay, qRT-PCR and Western blot analysis. In vitro results showed that PAP inhibited replication of JEV in a dose-dependent manner with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 300ng/ml (23.1nM). Depurination assay suggested that the antiviral activity of PAP against JEV infection might be partially due to depurination of JEV genomic RNA. In vivo studies showed that PAP (1.0mg/kg) administered intraperitoneally decreased infection in mice challenged with a lethal dose of JEV, presenting a survival of 87.5% or 85.7% when administered pre-infection or post-infection. Collectively, our studies demonstrated that PAP possesses antiviral activity against JEV infection in vitro and in vivo, providing evidences for further development of PAP as an antiviral agent against JEV infection. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, University of Nyala and Nanjing Agricultural University
Type: | Journal: Virus research | Year: 2016

Griffithsin (GRFT) is a broad-spectrum antiviral protein against several glycosylated viruses. In our previous publication, we have shown that GRFT exerted antiviral activity against Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection. Herein, we further elucidated the mechanism by which GRFT inhibits JEV infection in BHK-21 cells. In vitro experiments using Pull-down assay and Co-immunoprecipitation (CO-IP) assay showed that GRFT binds to the JEV glycosylated viral proteins, specifically the enveloped (E) and premature (prM) glycoproteins. The binding of GRFT to the JEV was competitively inhibited by increasing concentrations of mannose; in turns abolished anti-JEV activity of GRFT. We suggested that, the binding of GRFT to the glycosylated viral proteins may contribute to its anti-JEV activity. Collectively, our data indicated a possible mechanism by which GRFT exerted its anti-JEV activity. This observation suggests GRFTs potentials in the development of therapeutics against JEV or other flavivirus infection.


Norain T.M.,University of Nyala | Ismail I.B.,King Faisal University | Abdoun K.A.,King Saud University | Al-Haidary A.A.,King Saud University
Italian Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2013

This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with chromium chloride, CrCl3.6H2O (2mg kg-1 basal diet) on the performance and immune response of broiler chickens under heat stress condition (25-43°C). A total of 80 one-day-old broiler chicks (Ross-308) were assigned to two treatment groups according to a completely randomized design. Each treatment consisted of four equal replicates, each contained ten chicks. Chicks were fed on basal diets supplemented with different concentrations of chromium (0 and 2 mg kg-1 CrCl3) from 1 to 35 days of age. Chromium supplementation as feed additives resulted in a slightly lower rectal temperature, and significantly (P<0.05) lower respiration rate for the broiler chickens received diet supplemented with chromium compared to the control (0 mg kg-1 CrCl3). Dietary chromium supplementation increased final body weight (BW) at the end of the production period (5 weeks). Average weight gain was significantly (P<0.05) higher in chickens fed on chromium supplemented diet. Feed intake was not influenced by dietary chromium supplementation, however, the efficiency of feed conversion was improved (P<0.05) in chromium supplemented chickens. Furthermore, dressing percentage was significantly (P<0.05) higher in Cr-treated chickens compared to control chickens. Chromium supplementation significantly (P<0.05) improved the immune response to Newcastle Disease Virus vaccine (NDV). The present results suggest that dietary chromium supplementation provides a good nutritional management approach to ameliorate heat stress induced depression in production performance and immune response of broiler chickens. © T.M. Norain et al., 2013.


Shuiep E.T.S.,Justus Liebig University | Shuiep E.T.S.,University of Nyala | Giambra I.J.,Justus Liebig University | El Zubeir I.E.Y.M.,University of Khartoum | Erhardt G.,Justus Liebig University
International Dairy Journal | Year: 2013

This work was designed to detect occurrence of biochemical polymorphism of αs1-casein in two ecotypes of Sudanese camel (Camelus dromedarius) and to characterize these variants on molecular level. Milk samples were screened for αs1-casein variability by isoelectric focusing, using skimmed milk, as well as isolated αs1-casein. Two protein patterns, named αs1-casein A and C, were identified, whereas the major allele A revealed frequencies of 0.8214 and 0.8615 in the two ecotypes. CSN1S1*A and CSN1S1*C are both characterized by missing of exon 16 on mRNA-level compared with the previously described CSN1S1*B. However, the sequence of exon 16 occurs on DNA-level in both. Therefore, this exon seems to be skipped out during mRNA-processing. Furthermore, CSN1S1*C shows a single G > T nucleotide substitution in exon 5, leading to a non-synonymous amino acid exchange (p.Glu30 > Asp30; GenBank ID: JF429138). A polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism-method was established as a DNA-based test for this nucleotide substitution. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Shuiep E.S.,University of Nyala | El Zubeir I.E.M.,University of Khartoum | Yousif I.A.,University of Khartoum
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2014

In this study, a questionnaire was designed to investigate some socioeconomic aspects of rearing camels under semi intensive and traditional nomadic production systems in Sudan.The illiterate camel herders were 24% and 88%, and their averages ages were 51.4±9.8 and 30.2±7.2 years, in the semi intensive and the nomadic production system, respectively. Caring of quality of herds in term of productivity rather than herd size is the major characteristic of the semi intensive system which is practiced by more educated herders. They are fully adopting regular two times milking per day coupled with selling camel milk, the return of which has positively contributed to their well being. However, caring of quantity (herd size) which is very important socially coupled with irregular milking associated with the conserved attitude against selling milk are the most important characteristics of the nomadic system. Although the concept is traditionally unaccepted among camel herders in Sudan, interviewed nomadic families showed however, more flexibility concerning selling camel milk. Actually, 48% of the nomadic interviewees are selling fermented milk. Nevertheless, selling small ruminants and/or young male camels is still the major sources of income for nomadic herders. The salaries of hired laborers in addition to the cost of feeding explain the high cost of rearing camels in the semi intensive system. However, participation of household in husbandry practices in addition to the free utilization of natural pastures reduced the cost of raising camels to the minimum in the nomadic system. © 2014, Fundacion CIPAV. All rights reserved.

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