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Nyala, Sudan

Nyala University is a public university located in Nyala in South Darfur, Sudan.Nyala University is a member of the Federation of the Universities of the Islamic World.It is also a member of the Association of African Universities.In 2005 there was a dispute between the administration and the students over their exams results, as a result of which the administration decided to close the university. On 25 August 2005 fifteen of the protesting students were arrested by security forces, and some were flogged. Wikipedia.

Norain T.M.,University of Nyala | Ismail I.B.,King Faisal University | Abdoun K.A.,King Saud University | Al-Haidary A.A.,King Saud University
Italian Journal of Animal Science

This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with chromium chloride, CrCl3.6H2O (2mg kg-1 basal diet) on the performance and immune response of broiler chickens under heat stress condition (25-43°C). A total of 80 one-day-old broiler chicks (Ross-308) were assigned to two treatment groups according to a completely randomized design. Each treatment consisted of four equal replicates, each contained ten chicks. Chicks were fed on basal diets supplemented with different concentrations of chromium (0 and 2 mg kg-1 CrCl3) from 1 to 35 days of age. Chromium supplementation as feed additives resulted in a slightly lower rectal temperature, and significantly (P<0.05) lower respiration rate for the broiler chickens received diet supplemented with chromium compared to the control (0 mg kg-1 CrCl3). Dietary chromium supplementation increased final body weight (BW) at the end of the production period (5 weeks). Average weight gain was significantly (P<0.05) higher in chickens fed on chromium supplemented diet. Feed intake was not influenced by dietary chromium supplementation, however, the efficiency of feed conversion was improved (P<0.05) in chromium supplemented chickens. Furthermore, dressing percentage was significantly (P<0.05) higher in Cr-treated chickens compared to control chickens. Chromium supplementation significantly (P<0.05) improved the immune response to Newcastle Disease Virus vaccine (NDV). The present results suggest that dietary chromium supplementation provides a good nutritional management approach to ameliorate heat stress induced depression in production performance and immune response of broiler chickens. © T.M. Norain et al., 2013. Source

Eltahir Y.M.,Yangzhou University | Eltahir Y.M.,University of Nyala | Qian K.,Yangzhou University | Jin W.,Yangzhou University | Qin A.,Yangzhou University
Virology Journal

Background: Chicken anemia virus (CAV) is the causative agent of chicken infectious anemia. CAV putative intergenotypic recombinants have been reported previously. This fact is based on the previous classification of CAV sequences into three genotypes. However, it is unknown whether intersubtype recombination occurs between the recently reported four CAV genotypes and five subtypes of genome sequences. Results: Phylogenetic analysis, together with a variety of computational recombination detection algorithms, was used to investigate CAV approximately full genomes. Statistically significant evidence of intersubtype recombination was detected in the parent-like and two putative CAV recombinant sequences. This event was shown to occur between CAV subgroup A1 and A2 sequences in the phylogenetic trees. Conclusions: We revealed that intersubtype recombination in CAV genome sequences played a role in generating genetic diversity within the natural population of CAV. © 2011 Eltahir et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Abdelrahman A.A.,State Ministry of Health | Eltahir Y.M.,University of Nyala
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment

The objective of this study was to determine the bacterial contaminations in drinking water in Nyala city, South Darfur, Sudan with special reference to the internally displaced people camps (IDPs). Two hundred and forty water samples from different sites and sources including bore holes, hand pumps, dug wells, water points, water reservoir and household storage containers were collected in 2009. The most probable number method was used to detect and count the total coliform, faecal coliform and faecal enterococci. Results revealed that the three indicators bacteria were abundant in all sources except water points. Percentages of the three indicators bacteria count above the permissible limits for drinking water in all samples were 46.4% total coliform, 45.2% faecal coliform and 25.4% faecal enterococci whereas the highest count of the indicators bacteria observed was 1,600 U/100 ml water. Enteric bacteria isolated were Escherichia coli (22.5%), Enterococcus faecalis (20.42%), Klebsiella (15.00%), Citrobacter (2.1%) and Enterobacter (3.33%). The highest contamination of water sources was observed in household storage containers (20%) followed by boreholes (11.25%), reservoirs (6.24%), hand pumps (5.42%) and dug wells (2.49%). Contamination varied from season to season with the highest level in autumn (18.33%) followed by winter (13.75%) and summer (13.32%), respectively. All sources of water in IDP camps except water points were contaminated. Data suggested the importance of greater attention for household contamination, environmental sanitation control and the raise of awareness about water contamination. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

Taoufik A.,University Utrecht | Ibrahin H.,University of Nyala | Hassan S.M.,University of Khartoum | Jongejan F.,University Utrecht | And 3 more authors.

The recombinant Bm86-based tick vaccines have shown their efficacy for the control of cattle ticks, . Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and . R. annulatus infestations. However, cattle ticks often co-exist with multi-host ticks such as . Hyalomma and . Amblyomma species, thus requiring the control of multiple tick infestations for cattle and other hosts. Vaccination trials using a . R. microplus recombinant Bm86-based vaccine were conducted in cattle and camels against . Hyalomma dromedarii and in cattle against . Amblyomma cajennense immature and adult ticks. The results showed an 89% reduction in the number of . H. dromedarii nymphs engorging on vaccinated cattle, and a further 32% reduction in the weight of the surviving adult ticks. In vaccinated camels, a reduction of 27% and 31% of tick engorgement and egg mass weight, respectively was shown, while egg hatching was reduced by 39%. However, cattle vaccination with Bm86 did not have an effect on . A. cajennense tick infestations. These results showed that Bm86 vaccines are effective against . R. microplus and other tick species but improved vaccines containing new antigens are required to control multiple tick infestations. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Shuiep E.T.S.,Justus Liebig University | Shuiep E.T.S.,University of Nyala | Giambra I.J.,Justus Liebig University | El Zubeir I.E.Y.M.,University of Khartoum | Erhardt G.,Justus Liebig University
International Dairy Journal

This work was designed to detect occurrence of biochemical polymorphism of αs1-casein in two ecotypes of Sudanese camel (Camelus dromedarius) and to characterize these variants on molecular level. Milk samples were screened for αs1-casein variability by isoelectric focusing, using skimmed milk, as well as isolated αs1-casein. Two protein patterns, named αs1-casein A and C, were identified, whereas the major allele A revealed frequencies of 0.8214 and 0.8615 in the two ecotypes. CSN1S1*A and CSN1S1*C are both characterized by missing of exon 16 on mRNA-level compared with the previously described CSN1S1*B. However, the sequence of exon 16 occurs on DNA-level in both. Therefore, this exon seems to be skipped out during mRNA-processing. Furthermore, CSN1S1*C shows a single G > T nucleotide substitution in exon 5, leading to a non-synonymous amino acid exchange (p.Glu30 > Asp30; GenBank ID: JF429138). A polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism-method was established as a DNA-based test for this nucleotide substitution. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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