Nouakchott, Mauritania

University of Nouakchott
Nouakchott, Mauritania

The University of Nouakchott is a university in the city of Nouakchott, capital of Mauritania. It was established in 1981 and has more than 8,000 students. Wikipedia.

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Lekweiry K.M.,University of Nouakchott | Salem M.S.O.A.,University of Nouakchott | Basco L.K.,Institute Of Recherche Biomedicale Des Armees | Basco L.K.,Aix - Marseille University | And 3 more authors.
Malaria Journal | Year: 2015

Malaria has become a major public health problem in Mauritania since the 1990s, with an average of 181,000 cases per year and 2,233,066 persons at risk during 1995-2012. This paper provides the first publicly available overview of malaria incidence and distribution in Mauritania. Information on the burden and malaria species distribution is critical for guiding national efforts in malaria control. As the incidence of malaria changes over time, regular updates of epidemiological data are necessary. © 2015 Mint Lekweiry et al.; licensee BioMed Central.

Dehghanpour S.,Alzahra University | Welter R.,University of Strasbourg | Barry A.H.,University of Nouakchott | Tabasi F.,Alzahra University
Spectrochimica Acta - Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy | Year: 2010

Synthetic methods for several novel phosphoramidate compounds containing the P(O)NHC(O) bifunctional group were developed. These compounds with the general formula R1C(O)NHP(O)(N(R2)(CH2C6 H5))2, where R1 = CCl2H, p-ClC6H4, p-BrC6H4, o-FC6H4 and R2 = hydrogen, methyl, benzyl, were characterized by several spectroscopic methods and analytical techniques. The effects of phosphorus substituents on the rotation rate around the P-Namine bond were also investigated. 1H NMR study of the synthesized compounds demonstrated that the presence of bulky groups attached to the phosphorus center and electron withdrawing groups in the amide moiety lead to large chemical-shift non-equivalence (ΔδH) of diastereotopic methylene protons. The crystal structures of CCl2HC(O)NHP(O)(NCH3(CH2C6 H5))2, p-ClC6H4C(O)NHP(O)(NCH3(CH2C 6H5))2, CCl2HC(O)NHP(O)(N(CH2C6H5) 2)2 and p-BrC6H4C(O)NHP(O)(N(CH2C6 H5)2)2 were determined by X-ray crystallography using single crystals. The coordination around the phosphorus center in these compounds is best described as distorted tetrahedral and the P(O) and C(O) groups are anti with respect to each other. In the compound Br-C6H4C(O)NHP(O)(N(CH2C6 H5)2)2 (with two independent molecules in the unit cell), two conformers are connected to each other via two different N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds forming a non-centrosymmetric dimer. In the crystalline lattice of other compounds, the molecules form centrosymmetric dimers via pairs of same N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds. The structure of CCl2HC(O)NHP(O)(N(CH2C6H5) 2)2 reveals an unusual intramolecular interaction between the oxygen of C{double bond, long}O group and amine nitrogen. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Maoulainine L.B.M.,University of Nouakchott | Jelassi A.,Institute National Of Recherche Et Danalyse Physico Chimique Inrap | Hassen I.,Institute National Of Recherche Et Danalyse Physico Chimique Inrap | Boukhari A.O.M.S.O.,University of Nouakchott
International Food Research Journal | Year: 2012

Sun spurge plants (Euphorbia helioscopia, L.) were collected from the north of Tunisia. Dried plant parts namely flowers, leaves and stem were individually extracted with methanol and ethanol. Extracts were screened for their antioxidant activity using the 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical test. Total phenolics and total flavonoids amounts were also measured. The highest radical scanvenging effect was observed in flowers methanolic extract with IC 50 value of 26.66 ± 0.000μg/ml. While, relatively poorer antioxidant activity were observed in the same extracts of leaves and stem with respective IC 50 values of 65.25 ± 0.004 and 80.17± 0.012 μg/ml. The IC 50 values ranged from 27.55 ± 0.005 to 179.02 ± 0.957μg/ml in ethanol extracts of the above mentioned tested samples. Polyphenols and total flavonoids amounts varied in significant way among tested aerial parts of Euphorbia helioscopia and among two used solvents, the highest phenolics and flavonoids contents were found in methanolic flowers extracts (51.49 ± 0.012 mg GAE/g dry weights, 11.38 ± 0.004 mg QE/dry weight respectively). However, ethanol extract of stem gave the lowest amounts of total phenolics and flavonoids (4.80 ± 0.001 mg GAE/g dry weight and 1.69 ± 0.001 mg QE/dry weight respectively).

Ould Bilal B.,Center International Of Formation Et Of Recherche En Energie Solaire Cifres | Sambou V.,Center International Of Formation Et Of Recherche En Energie Solaire Cifres | Ndiaye P.A.,Center International Of Formation Et Of Recherche En Energie Solaire Cifres | Kebe C.M.F.,Center International Of Formation Et Of Recherche En Energie Solaire Cifres | Ndongo M.,University of Nouakchott
Renewable Energy | Year: 2010

Potou is an isolated site, located in the northern coast of Senegal. The populations living in this area have no easy access to electricity supply. The use of renewable energies can contribute to the improvement of the living conditions of these populations. The methodology used in this paper consists in Sizing a hybrid solar-wind-battery system optimized through multi-objective genetic algorithm for this site and the influence of the load profiles on the optimal configuration. The two principal aims are: the minimization of the annualized cost system and the minimization of the loss of power supply probability (LPSP).To study the load profile influence, three load profiles with the same energy (94 kW h/day) have been used.The achieved results show that the cost of the optimal configuration strongly depends on the load profile. For example, the cost of the optimal configuration decreases by 7% and 5% going from profile 1 to 2 and for those ones going from 1 to 3. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Binet T.,University of Portsmouth | Failler P.,University of Portsmouth | Chavance P.N.,UICN | Mayif M.A.,University of Nouakchott
Global Environmental Change | Year: 2013

This article investigates whether the European Union-Mauritania fisheries agreement, which allocates part of the Europe's financial contribution to the conservation of marine ecosystems located within the Banc d'Arguin National Park, can be regarded as a payment for ecosystem service. A framework for qualification as such payment scheme was established based on an extensive literature review. The criteria identified for the qualification as a payment to ecosystem service pertain to: (1) the definition of the ecosystem service(s) involved; (2) the mechanism involved by the payment; and (3) the nature of the transaction. Interviews with local beneficiaries and subsequent data analysis led to the conclusion that this mechanism could be regarded as a payment to ecosystem service and so, through the European Union-Mauritania Fisheries agreement, the European Union were investing to protect local fish resources that could be exploited by its fishing fleet. This agreement, involving the first International Payment to Ecosystem Service of this kind, marks an important step towards better consideration of marine conservation in international public policy and foreign fishing policy in particular. However, this payment is small when compared to revenues generated through the exploitation of developing countries' fishing grounds by fishing countries. Nevertheless it opens the door for more detailed applications of payment to ecosystem service schemes to other ecosystems contexts, and can provide a useful alternative source of financing of marine biodiversity conservation. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Houmeida A.,University of Nouakchott | Heeley D.H.,Memorial University of Newfoundland | Belknap B.,Eastern Virginia Medical School | White H.D.,Eastern Virginia Medical School
Journal of Biological Chemistry | Year: 2010

We have studied the mechanism of activation of native cardiac thin filaments by calcium and rigor myosin. The acceleration of the rate of 2′-deoxy-3′-O-(N-methylanthraniloyl)ADP (mdADP) dissociation from cardiac myosin-S1-mdADP-Pi and cardiac myosin-S1-mdADP by native cardiac muscle thin filaments was measured using double mixing stopped-flow fluorescence. Relative to inhibited thin filaments (no bound calcium or rigor S1), fully activated thin filaments (with both calcium and rigor-S1 bound) increase the rate of product dissociation from the physiologically important pre-power stroke myosin-mdADP-Pi by a factor of ∼75. This can be compared with only an ∼6-fold increase in the rate of nucleotide diphosphate dissociation from nonphysiological myosin-mdADP by the fully activated thin filaments relative to the fully inhibited thin filaments. These results show that physiological levels of regulation are not only dependent on the state of the thin filament but also on the conformation of the myosin. Less than 2-fold regulation is due to a change in affinity of myosin-ADP-Pi for thin filaments such as would be expected by a simple "steric blocking" of the myosin-binding site of the thin filament by tropomyosin. Although maximal activation requires both calcium and rigor myosin-S1 bound to the cardiac filament, association with a single ligand produces ∼70% maximal activation. This can be contrasted with skeletal thin filaments in which calcium alone only activated the rate of product dissociation ∼20% of maximum, and rigor myosin produces ∼30% maximal activation. © 2010 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

Wuehler S.E.,Helen Keller International | El Hafed Ould Dehah C.M.,University of Nouakchott
Maternal and Child Nutrition | Year: 2011

Progress towards reducing mortality and malnutrition among children <5 years of age has been less than needed to achieve related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), so several international agencies joined to 'reposition children's right to adequate nutrition in the Sahel', starting with an analysis of current activities related to infant and young child nutrition (IYCN). The main objectives of the situational analysis are to compile, analyse, and interpret available information on infant and child feeding, and the nutrition and health situation of children <2 years of age in Mauritania as one of the six target countries (Burkina Faso, Chad, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Senegal). These findings are available to assist countries in identifying inconsistencies and filling gaps in current programming. Between August and November of 2008, key informants responsible for conducting IYCN-related activities in Mauritania were interviewed, and 46 documents were examined on the following themes: optimal breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices, prevention of micronutrient deficiencies, prevention of mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), management of acute malnutrition, food security, and hygienic practices. Mauritania is on track to reaching the MDG of halving undernutrition among children <5 years of age by 2015. National policy documents, training guides, and programmes address nearly all of the key IYCN topics, specifically or generally. Exceptions are the use of zinc supplements in diarrhoea treatment, prevention of zinc deficiency, and dietary guidelines for preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV. Substantial infrastructure capacity building was also recently implemented in nutritionally high-risk regions, and increases were reported in exclusive breastfeeding rates among children <6 months. The recent National Behaviour Change Communication Strategy is intended to address the needs of adapting programme activities to local needs. Despite these noteworthy accomplishments, the prevalence of acute malnutrition remains high, mortality rates did not decrease as malnutrition rates decreased, the overall prevalence of desirable nutrition-related practices is low, and human resources are reportedly insufficient to carry out all nutrition-related programme activities. Very little nutrition research has been conducted in Mauritania, and key informants identified gaps in adapting international programmes to local needs. Monitoring and evaluation reports have not been rigorous enough to identify which programme activities were implemented as designed or whether programmes were effective at improving nutritional and health status of young children. Therefore, we could not confirm which programmes might have been responsible for the reported improvements, or if other population-wide changes contributed to these changes. The policy framework is supportive of optimal IYCN practices, but greater resources and capacity building are needed to (i) support activities to adapt training materials and programme protocols to fit local needs, (ii) expand and track the implementation of evidence-based programmes nationally, (iii) improve and carry out monitoring and evaluation that identify effective and ineffective programmes, and (iv) apply these findings in developing, disseminating, and improving effective programmes. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Ould Ahmed Louly A.W.,University of Nouakchott | Ould Ahmed Louly A.W.,CNRS Institute of Molecular Sciences of Marseilles | Gaydou E.M.,CNRS Institute of Molecular Sciences of Marseilles | Ould El Kebir M.V.,University of Nouakchott
Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

Muscle lipids and fatty acids (FA) of three largely consumed seawater species of Serranidae (Epinephelus aeneus, Cephalopholis taeniops, and Serranus scriba) from the Mauritanian coast, were determined through 1. year. The lipid contents were relatively poor, ranging from 0.8% to 2.3% showing a significant seasonal dependency. Amongst the 35 FA identified, 35-51% were saturated FA (SFA), 21-33% monounsaturated FA (MUFA), and 18-34% polyunsaturated FA (PUFA). Palmitic acid was found to be the main SFA, and was seasonal dependent, with a mean value of 30.5% for E. aeneus, 27.9% for C. taeniops, and 20.9% for S. scriba. Amongst MUFA, oleic acid, with 11-16%, was the main acid in all three species. The n6 PUFA level was low, in particular for C. taeniops (1.3-1.6%), and a little higher for S. scriba (3.6-4.2%). The three species were characterised by high amounts of n3 PUFA. Amongst them, docosa-4,7,10,13,16,19-hexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6. n3) was the highest with 5-9% for C. taeniops, 13-17% for S. scriba, and 10-16% for E. aeneus. Eicosa-5,8,11,14,17-pentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5. n3), was the second highest n3 PUFA, with 4-13%. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Ould Ahmedou Salem M.S.,University of Nouakchott | Mint Lekweiry K.,University of Nouakchott | Mint Deida J.,University of Nouakchott | Ould Emouh A.,Teyarett Health Center | And 3 more authors.
American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2015

The occurrence of Plasmodium vivax malaria was reported in Nouakchott, Mauritania in the 1990s. Several studies have suggested the frequent occurrence of P. vivax malaria among Nouakchott residents, including those without recent travel history to the southern part of the country where malaria is known to be endemic. To further consolidate the evidence for P. vivax endemicity and the extent of malaria burden in one district in the city of Nouakchott, febrile illnesses were monitored in 2012-2013 in the Teyarett health center. The number of laboratory-confirmed P. vivax cases has attained more than 2,000 cases in 2013. Malaria transmission occurs locally, and P. vivax is diagnosed throughout the year. Plasmodium vivax malaria is endemic in Nouakchott and largely predominates over Plasmodium falciparum. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

Bilal B.O.,Center International Of Formation Et Of Recherche En Energie Solaire Cifres | Bilal B.O.,University of Nouakchott | Sambou V.,Center International Of Formation Et Of Recherche En Energie Solaire Cifres | Kebe C.M.F.,Center International Of Formation Et Of Recherche En Energie Solaire Cifres | And 2 more authors.
Energy Procedia | Year: 2012

The objective of this paper is to propose a methodology for designing a stand-alone hybrid PV/wind/diesel/battery minimizing the Levelized Cost of Energy (LCE) and the CO 2 emission using genetic algorithm. The methodology developed was applied using solar radiation, temperature and wind speed data, collected on the site of Gandon, located in the northwestern of Senegal. Obtained results were presented as optimal Pareto front. The optimal number of devices, the Levelized Cost of Energy (LCE) and the CO 2 emission were determined for each solution. An influence study of the size of diesel generator on the optimal configuration was carried. © 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

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