The University of Nottingham is a public research university based in Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, England, United Kingdom. It was founded as University College Nottingham in 1881 and granted a Royal Charter in 1948.Nottingham's main campus, University Park, is situated on the outskirts of the City of Nottingham, with a number of smaller campuses and a teaching hospital located elsewhere in Nottinghamshire. Outside the United Kingdom, Nottingham has campuses in Semenyih, Malaysia and Ningbo, China. Nottingham is organised into five constituent faculties, within which there are more than 50 departments, institutes and research centres. Nottingham has around 44,000 students and 9,000 staff and had a total income of £520 million in 2012/13, of which £100 million was from research grants and contracts.Nottingham is currently ranked 23rd in the UK by the Complete University Guide Table 2015. Several of its subjects have been consistently ranked in the top ten, including Economics, Law, and Pharmacy. A 2014 survey suggested it is the most targeted university by the UK's top employers. In 2012 Nottingham was ranked 13th in the world in terms of the number of alumni listed among CEOs of the Fortune Global 500. It is also ranked 2nd in the 2012 Summer Olympics table of British medal winners. In the 2011 GreenMetric World University Ranking, Nottingham was the world's most sustainable campus.It is a member of the Association of Commonwealth Universities, the Virgo Consortium, the European University Association, the Russell Group, Universities UK, Universitas 21 and participates in the Sutton Trust Summer School programme. Wikipedia.
University of Nottingham | Date: 2015-04-08
A capillary refill measurement apparatus (1), comprising a support element (14) configured to receive the weight of a user through their foot, a light source (22) for illuminating a region of the foot that exerts weight onto the support element (14), a light detector (24) arranged to receive light from the illuminated region (36) of the foot and generate an output based on the received light, and a processor (26) configured to determine a capillary refill rate from the output of the light detector (24) when the user adjusts the amount of weight received by the support element (14).
University of Nottingham | Date: 2014-12-18
This invention relates to transduction of cargo molecules into living cells, such as protein transduction, in particular a delivery molecule for transduction of a cargo into a cell comprising: a cargo-binding molecule and/or a cargo; a glycosaminoglycan (GAG) binding element, which is capable of binding to GAG on the surface of the cell; and a protein transduction domain. Methods of transduction, methods of producing or modifying cargo for transduction, delivery molecules for transduction and methods of treatment using transduction, or using transduced cells are also provided.
University of Nottingham | Date: 2015-04-22
The invention relates to a method for producing functionalised monomers, the method comprising: a) providing a starting material selected from terpenes and terpenoids; b) forming a derivative of the starting material by incorporation of a hydroxyl group; c) esterifying the hydroxyl group of the derivative to introduce a moiety containing a vinyl group, so as to produce a functionalised monomer. The functionalised monomer can be polymerised to obtain a bio-derived polymer.
University of Nottingham and NewSouth Innovations PTY Ltd | Date: 2015-04-17
Anti-angiogenic treatments, treatments of hyperpermeability disorders, treatments of neuropathic and neurodegenerative disorders, pain treatments, methods of reducing the risk of pre-eclampsia and compounds for use in such methods are described.
The Regents Of The University Of California, University of Nottingham and University of Sheffield | Date: 2016-08-05
Sultan A.A.,University of Nottingham
Blood | Year: 2013
Knowledge of the absolute risk (AR) for venous thromboembolism (VTE) in women around pregnancy and how potential risk factors modify this risk is crucial in identifying women who would benefit most from thromboprophylaxis. We examined a large primary care database containing 376 154 pregnancies ending in live birth or stillbirth from women aged 15 to 44 years between 1995 and 2009 and assessed the effect of risk factors on the incidence of antepartum and postpartum VTE in terms of ARs and incidence rate ratios (IRR), using Poisson regression. During antepartum, varicose veins, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), urinary tract infection, and preexisting diabetes were associated with an increased risk for VTE (ARs, ≥139/100 000 person-years; IRRs, ≥1.8/100 000 person-years). Postpartum, the strongest risk factor was stillbirth (AR, 2444/100 000 person-years; IRR, 6.2/100 000 person-years), followed by medical comorbidities (including varicose veins, IBD, or cardiac disease), a body mass index (BMI) of 30 kg/m(2) or higher, obstetric hemorrhage, preterm delivery, and caesarean section (ARs, ≥637/100 000 person-years; IRRs, ≥1.9/100 000 person-years). Our findings suggest that VTE risk varies modestly by recognized factors during antepartum; however, women with stillbirths, preterm births, obstetric hemorrhage, caesarean section delivery, medical comorbidities, or a BMI of 30 kg/m(2) or higher are at much higher risk for VTE after delivery. These risk factors should receive careful consideration when assessing the potential need for thromboprophylaxis during the postpartum period.
Conselice C.J.,University of Nottingham
Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2014
I present a comprehensive review of the evolution of galaxy structure in the Universe from the first galaxies currently observable at z ∼ 6 down to galaxies observable in the local Universe. Observed changes in galaxy structures reveal formation processes that only galaxy structural analyses can provide. This pedagogical review provides a detailed discussion of the major methods used to study galaxies morphologically and structurally, including the well-established visual method for morphology; Sérsic fitting to measure galaxy sizes and surface brightness profile shapes; and nonparametric structural methods [such as the concentration (C), asymmetry (A), clumpiness (S) (CAS) method and the Gini/M20 parameters, as well as newer structural indices]. These structural indices measure fundamental properties of galaxies, such as their scale, star-formation rate, and ongoing merger activity. Extensive observational results demonstrate how broad galaxy morphologies and structures change with time up to z ∼ 3, from small, compact and peculiar systems in the distant Universe to the formation of the Hubble sequence, dominated by spirals and ellipticals. Structural methods accurately identify galaxies in mergers and allow measurements of the merger history out to z ∼ 3. I depict properties and evolution of internal structures of galaxies, such as bulges, disks, bars, and at z>1 large star-forming clumps. I describe the structure and morphologies of host galaxies of active galactic nuclei and starbursts/ submillimeter galaxies, along with how morphological galaxy quenching occurs. The role of environment in producing structural changes in galaxies over cosmic time is also discussed. Galaxy sizes can also change with time, with measured sizes up to a factor of 2-5 smaller at high redshift at a given stellar mass. I conclude with a discussion of how the evolving trends, in sizes, structures, and morphologies, reveal the formation mechanisms behind galaxies and provides a new and unique way to test theories of galaxy formation. Copyright © 2014 by Annual Reviews.
Bath P.M.W.,University of Nottingham
The Lancet | Year: 2015
Background High blood pressure is associated with poor outcome after stroke. Whether blood pressure should be lowered early after stroke, and whether to continue or temporarily withdraw existing antihypertensive drugs, is not known. We assessed outcomes after stroke in patients given drugs to lower their blood pressure. Methods In our multicentre, partial-factorial trial, we randomly assigned patients admitted to hospital with an acute ischaemic or haemorrhagic stroke and raised systolic blood pressure (systolic 140-220 mm Hg) to 7 days of transdermal glyceryl trinitrate (5 mg per day), started within 48 h of stroke onset, or to no glyceryl trinitrate (control group). A subset of patients who were taking antihypertensive drugs before their stroke were also randomly assigned to continue or stop taking these drugs. The primary outcome was function, assessed with the modified Rankin Scale at 90 days by observers masked to treatment assignment. This study is registered, number ISRCTN99414122. Findings Between July 20, 2001, and Oct 14, 2013, we enrolled 4011 patients. Mean blood pressure was 167 (SD 19) mm Hg/90 (13) mm Hg at baseline (median 26 h [16-37] after stroke onset), and was significantly reduced on day 1 in 2000 patients allocated to glyceryl trinitrate compared with 2011 controls (difference -7·0 [95% CI -8·5 to -5·6] mm Hg/-3·5 [-4·4 to -2·6] mm Hg; both p<0·0001), and on day 7 in 1053 patients allocated to continue antihypertensive drugs compared with 1044 patients randomised to stop them (difference -9·5 [95% CI -11·8 to -7·2] mm Hg/-5·0 [-6·4 to -3·7] mm Hg; both p<0·0001). Functional outcome at day 90 did not differ in either treatment comparison - the adjusted common odds ratio (OR) for worse outcome with glyceryl trinitrate versus no glyceryl trinitrate was 1·01 (95% CI 0·91-1·13; p=0·83), and with continue versus stop antihypertensive drugs OR was 1·05 (0·90-1·22; p=0·55). Interpretation In patients with acute stroke and high blood pressure, transdermal glyceryl trinitrate lowered blood pressure and had acceptable safety but did not improve functional outcome. We show no evidence to support continuing prestroke antihypertensive drugs in patients in the first few days after acute stroke. Funding UK Medical Research Council. © 2015 Bath et al. Open Access article distributed under the terms of CC BY.
MacColl A.D.C.,University of Nottingham
Trends in Ecology and Evolution | Year: 2011
Natural selection is the process that results in adaptive evolution, but it is not the cause of evolution. The cause of natural selection and, therefore, of adaptive evolution, is any environmental factor (agent of selection) that results in differential fitness among phenotypes. Surprisingly little is known about selective agents, how they interact or their relative importance across taxa. Here, I outline three approaches for their investigation: functional analysis, correlational analysis and experimental manipulation. By refocusing attention on the structure and consequences of ecological variation, a better characterisation of selective agents would improve understanding of natural selection and evolution, including adaptive radiation, coevolution, the niche, the evolutionary ecology of the ranges of species and their response to environmental change. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.
Byrne H.M.,University of Nottingham
Nature Reviews Cancer | Year: 2010
This Timeline article charts progress in mathematical modelling of cancer over the past 50 years, highlighting the different theoretical approaches that have been used to dissect the disease and the insights that have arisen. Although most of this research was conducted with little involvement from experimentalists or clinicians, there are signs that the tide is turning and that increasing numbers of those involved in cancer research and mathematical modellers are recognizing that by working together they might more rapidly advance our understanding of cancer and improve its treatment. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.