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Nottingham, United Kingdom

The University of Nottingham is a public research university based in Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, England, United Kingdom. It was founded as University College Nottingham in 1881 and granted a Royal Charter in 1948.Nottingham's main campus, University Park, is situated on the outskirts of the City of Nottingham, with a number of smaller campuses and a teaching hospital located elsewhere in Nottinghamshire. Outside the United Kingdom, Nottingham has campuses in Semenyih, Malaysia and Ningbo, China. Nottingham is organised into five constituent faculties, within which there are more than 50 departments, institutes and research centres. Nottingham has around 44,000 students and 9,000 staff and had a total income of £520 million in 2012/13, of which £100 million was from research grants and contracts.Nottingham is currently ranked 23rd in the UK by the Complete University Guide Table 2015. Several of its subjects have been consistently ranked in the top ten, including Economics, Law, and Pharmacy. A 2014 survey suggested it is the most targeted university by the UK's top employers. In 2012 Nottingham was ranked 13th in the world in terms of the number of alumni listed among CEOs of the Fortune Global 500. It is also ranked 2nd in the 2012 Summer Olympics table of British medal winners. In the 2011 GreenMetric World University Ranking, Nottingham was the world's most sustainable campus.It is a member of the Association of Commonwealth Universities, the Virgo Consortium, the European University Association, the Russell Group, Universities UK, Universitas 21 and participates in the Sutton Trust Summer School programme. Wikipedia.

Lesanovsky I.,University of Nottingham
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2011

We study a one-dimensional atomic lattice gas in which Rydberg atoms are excited by a laser and whose external dynamics is frozen. We identify a parameter regime in which the Hamiltonian is well approximated by a spin Hamiltonian with quasilocal many-body interactions which possesses an exact analytic ground state solution. This state is a superposition of all states of the system that are compatible with an interaction induced constraint weighted by a fugacity. We perform a detailed analysis of this state which exhibits a crossover between a paramagnetic phase with short-ranged correlations and a crystal. This study also leads us to a class of spin models with many-body interactions that permit an analytic ground state solution. © 2011 American Physical Society. Source

Conselice C.J.,University of Nottingham
Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2014

I present a comprehensive review of the evolution of galaxy structure in the Universe from the first galaxies currently observable at z ∼ 6 down to galaxies observable in the local Universe. Observed changes in galaxy structures reveal formation processes that only galaxy structural analyses can provide. This pedagogical review provides a detailed discussion of the major methods used to study galaxies morphologically and structurally, including the well-established visual method for morphology; Sérsic fitting to measure galaxy sizes and surface brightness profile shapes; and nonparametric structural methods [such as the concentration (C), asymmetry (A), clumpiness (S) (CAS) method and the Gini/M20 parameters, as well as newer structural indices]. These structural indices measure fundamental properties of galaxies, such as their scale, star-formation rate, and ongoing merger activity. Extensive observational results demonstrate how broad galaxy morphologies and structures change with time up to z ∼ 3, from small, compact and peculiar systems in the distant Universe to the formation of the Hubble sequence, dominated by spirals and ellipticals. Structural methods accurately identify galaxies in mergers and allow measurements of the merger history out to z ∼ 3. I depict properties and evolution of internal structures of galaxies, such as bulges, disks, bars, and at z>1 large star-forming clumps. I describe the structure and morphologies of host galaxies of active galactic nuclei and starbursts/ submillimeter galaxies, along with how morphological galaxy quenching occurs. The role of environment in producing structural changes in galaxies over cosmic time is also discussed. Galaxy sizes can also change with time, with measured sizes up to a factor of 2-5 smaller at high redshift at a given stellar mass. I conclude with a discussion of how the evolving trends, in sizes, structures, and morphologies, reveal the formation mechanisms behind galaxies and provides a new and unique way to test theories of galaxy formation. Copyright © 2014 by Annual Reviews. Source

Knowledge of the absolute risk (AR) for venous thromboembolism (VTE) in women around pregnancy and how potential risk factors modify this risk is crucial in identifying women who would benefit most from thromboprophylaxis. We examined a large primary care database containing 376 154 pregnancies ending in live birth or stillbirth from women aged 15 to 44 years between 1995 and 2009 and assessed the effect of risk factors on the incidence of antepartum and postpartum VTE in terms of ARs and incidence rate ratios (IRR), using Poisson regression. During antepartum, varicose veins, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), urinary tract infection, and preexisting diabetes were associated with an increased risk for VTE (ARs, ≥139/100 000 person-years; IRRs, ≥1.8/100 000 person-years). Postpartum, the strongest risk factor was stillbirth (AR, 2444/100 000 person-years; IRR, 6.2/100 000 person-years), followed by medical comorbidities (including varicose veins, IBD, or cardiac disease), a body mass index (BMI) of 30 kg/m(2) or higher, obstetric hemorrhage, preterm delivery, and caesarean section (ARs, ≥637/100 000 person-years; IRRs, ≥1.9/100 000 person-years). Our findings suggest that VTE risk varies modestly by recognized factors during antepartum; however, women with stillbirths, preterm births, obstetric hemorrhage, caesarean section delivery, medical comorbidities, or a BMI of 30 kg/m(2) or higher are at much higher risk for VTE after delivery. These risk factors should receive careful consideration when assessing the potential need for thromboprophylaxis during the postpartum period. Source

Ebling F.J.P.,University of Nottingham
Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology | Year: 2015

Seasonal cycles of fattening and body weight reflecting changes in both food intake and energy expenditure are a core aspect of the biology of mammals that have evolved in temperate and arctic latitudes. Identifying the neuroendocrine mechanisms that underlie these cycles has provided new insights into the hypothalamic control of appetite and fuel oxidation. Surprisingly, seasonal cycles do not result from changes in the leptin-responsive and homeostatic pathways located in the mediobasal and lateral hypothalamus that regulate meal timing and compensatory responses to starvation or caloric restriction. Rather, they result from changes in tanycyte function, which locally regulates transport and metabolism of thyroid hormone and retinoic acid. These signals are crucial for the initial development of the brain, so it is hypothesized that seasonal neuroendocrine cycles reflect developmental mechanisms in the adult hypothalamus, manifest as changes in neurogenesis and plasticity of connections. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. Source

Background High blood pressure is associated with poor outcome after stroke. Whether blood pressure should be lowered early after stroke, and whether to continue or temporarily withdraw existing antihypertensive drugs, is not known. We assessed outcomes after stroke in patients given drugs to lower their blood pressure. Methods In our multicentre, partial-factorial trial, we randomly assigned patients admitted to hospital with an acute ischaemic or haemorrhagic stroke and raised systolic blood pressure (systolic 140-220 mm Hg) to 7 days of transdermal glyceryl trinitrate (5 mg per day), started within 48 h of stroke onset, or to no glyceryl trinitrate (control group). A subset of patients who were taking antihypertensive drugs before their stroke were also randomly assigned to continue or stop taking these drugs. The primary outcome was function, assessed with the modified Rankin Scale at 90 days by observers masked to treatment assignment. This study is registered, number ISRCTN99414122. Findings Between July 20, 2001, and Oct 14, 2013, we enrolled 4011 patients. Mean blood pressure was 167 (SD 19) mm Hg/90 (13) mm Hg at baseline (median 26 h [16-37] after stroke onset), and was significantly reduced on day 1 in 2000 patients allocated to glyceryl trinitrate compared with 2011 controls (difference -7·0 [95% CI -8·5 to -5·6] mm Hg/-3·5 [-4·4 to -2·6] mm Hg; both p<0·0001), and on day 7 in 1053 patients allocated to continue antihypertensive drugs compared with 1044 patients randomised to stop them (difference -9·5 [95% CI -11·8 to -7·2] mm Hg/-5·0 [-6·4 to -3·7] mm Hg; both p<0·0001). Functional outcome at day 90 did not differ in either treatment comparison - the adjusted common odds ratio (OR) for worse outcome with glyceryl trinitrate versus no glyceryl trinitrate was 1·01 (95% CI 0·91-1·13; p=0·83), and with continue versus stop antihypertensive drugs OR was 1·05 (0·90-1·22; p=0·55). Interpretation In patients with acute stroke and high blood pressure, transdermal glyceryl trinitrate lowered blood pressure and had acceptable safety but did not improve functional outcome. We show no evidence to support continuing prestroke antihypertensive drugs in patients in the first few days after acute stroke. Funding UK Medical Research Council. © 2015 Bath et al. Open Access article distributed under the terms of CC BY. Source

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