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Notre Dame, IN, United States

The University of Notre Dame du Lac is a Catholic research university located near South Bend, Indiana, in the United States. In French, Notre Dame du Lac means "Our Lady of the Lake" and refers to the university's patron saint, the Virgin Mary.The school was founded by Father Edward Sorin, CSC, who was also its first president. Today, many Holy Cross priests continue to work for the university, including as its president. It was established as an all-male institution on November 26, 1842, on land donated by the Bishop of Vincennes. The university first enrolled women undergraduates in 1972. As of 2013 about 48 percent of the student body was female. Notre Dame's Catholic character is reflected in its explicit commitment to the Catholic faith, numerous ministries funded by the school, and the architecture around campus.The university today is organized into five colleges and one professional school, and its graduate program has 15 master's and 26 doctoral degree programs. Over 80% of the university's 8,000 undergraduates live on campus in one of 29 single-sex residence halls, each of which fields teams for more than a dozen intramural sports, and the university counts approximately 120,000 alumni.The university is globally recognized for its Notre Dame School of Architecture, a faculty that teaches traditional and classical architecture and urban planning . It also awards the renowned annual Driehaus Architecture Prize.The university's athletic teams are members of the NCAA Division I and are known collectively as the Fighting Irish. The football team, an Independent, has accumulated eleven consensus national championships, seven Heisman Trophy winners, and 62 members in the College Football Hall of Fame. Other ND teams, chiefly in the Atlantic Coast Conference, have accumulated 16 national championships. Wikipedia.

Kamat P.V.,University of Notre Dame
Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters | Year: 2011

Graphene-based assemblies are gaining attention as a viable alternate to boost the efficiency of various catalytic and storage reactions in energy conversion applications. The use of reduced graphene oxide has already proved useful in collecting and transporting charge in photoelectrochemical solar cells, photocatalysis, and electrocatalysis. In many of these applications, the flat carbon serves as a scaffold to anchor metal and semiconductor nanoparticles and assists in promoting selectivity and efficiency of the catalytic process. Covalent and noncovalent interaction with organic molecules is another area that is expected to provide new frontiers in graphene research. Recent advances in manipulating graphene-based two-dimensional carbon architecture for energy conversion are described. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

Hartland G.V.,University of Notre Dame
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2011

The fundamental optical properties of metal nanoparticles, the dynamics that occur following absorption of photons, are studied. The spectra of metal nanoparticles are dominated by the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) and the position of the LSPR depends on the size and shape of the particles, their composition, and the properties of the environment. Link and co-workers examined nanorods with aspect ratios between 2 and 3, and widths between 30 and 120 nm and observed a significant broadening and red-shifting of the dipolar longitudinal LSPR with increasing width. Transient absorption data for different sized Ag particles taken over a slightly longer time range show that decay in the signal arises from energy loss from the electron distribution because of electron-phonon coupling. The vibrational periods measured in the transient absorption experiments are found to depend on the intensity of the pump laser.

Kamat P.V.,University of Notre Dame
Accounts of Chemical Research | Year: 2012

The demand for clean energy will require the design of nanostructure-based light-harvesting assemblies for the conversion of solar energy into chemical energy (solar fuels) and electrical energy (solar cells). Semiconductor nanocrystals serve as the building blocks for designing next generation solar cells, and metal chalcogenides (e.g., CdS, CdSe, PbS, and PbSe) are particularly useful for harnessing size-dependent optical and electronic properties in these nanostructures.This Account focuses on photoinduced electron transfer processes in quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSCs) and discusses strategies to overcome the limitations of various interfacial electron transfer processes. The heterojunction of two semiconductor nanocrystals with matched band energies (e.g., TiO 2 and CdSe) facilitates charge separation. The rate at which these separated charge carriers are driven toward opposing electrodes is a major factor that dictates the overall photocurrent generation efficiency. The hole transfer at the semiconductor remains a major bottleneck in QDSCs. For example, the rate constant for hole transfer is 2-3 orders of magnitude lower than the electron injection from excited CdSe into oxide (e.g., TiO 2) semiconductor. Disparity between the electron and hole scavenging rate leads to further accumulation of holes within the CdSe QD and increases the rate of electron-hole recombination. To overcome the losses due to charge recombination processes at the interface, researchers need to accelerate electron and hole transport.The power conversion efficiency for liquid junction and solid state quantum dot solar cells, which is in the range of 5-6%, represents a significant advance toward effective utilization of nanomaterials for solar cells. The design of new semiconductor architectures could address many of the issues related to modulation of various charge transfer steps. With the resolution of those problems, the efficiencies of QDSCs could approach those of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC) and organic photovoltaics. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Morris S.C.,University of Notre Dame
Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics | Year: 2011

The use of particle image velocimetry (PIV) to study the spatial and temporal features of unsteady fluid flow has increased dramatically in the past five to ten years. One particular application of PIV is to examine how shear-layer instabilities and turbulence lead to radiated sound. In this review, the basic operation of a PIV system is provided along with an introduction to the equations that relate unsteady fluid motion to sound. The references then illustrate how PIV is currently used in a number of canonical flow problems of interest in which the phenomena are dominated by shear-layer instabilities that lead to radiated noise. Specifically, cavity flows, flow over airfoils and cylinders, and finally jet flows are considered. © 2011 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

Fraser Jr. M.J.,University of Notre Dame
Annual Review of Entomology | Year: 2012

The ability to manipulate the genomes of many insects has become a practical reality over the past 15 years. This has been led by the identification of several useful transposon vector systems that have allowed the identification and development of generalized, species-specific, and tissue-specific promoter systems for controlled expression of gene products upon introduction into insect genomes. Armed with these capabilities, researchers have made significant strides in both fundamental and applied transgenics in key model systems such as Bombyx mori, Tribolium casteneum, Aedes aegypti, and Anopheles stephensi. Limitations of transposon systems were identified, and alternative tools were developed, thus significantly increasing the potential for applied transgenics for control of both agricultural and medical insect pests. The next 10 years promise to be an exciting time of transitioning from the laboratory to the field, from basic research to applied control, during which the full potential of gene manipulation in insect systems will ultimately be realized. © 2012 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

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