Prince George, Canada

The University of Northern British Columbia is a small, primarily undergraduate university, the main campus of which is located in Prince George, British Columbia. UNBC also has regional campuses in the northern British Columbia cities of Prince Rupert, Terrace, Quesnel, and Fort St. John. The enabling legislation is the University of Northern British Columbia Act 1996. In the 2007–2008 academic year, 4,177 students were enrolled at UNBC.In 2007, the university obtained the trademark for "Canada's Green University". Because of its northern latitude, UNBC is a member of the University of the Arctic. Wikipedia.


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Lee C.H.,University of Northern British Columbia
Antioxidants and Redox Signaling | Year: 2014

The ability to repair damaged DNA and to maintain genome stability is the utmost importance for the survival of any species. Hence, it is not surprising to find that DNA repair mechanisms are evolutionarily conserved and are expected to evolve to maintain the existence of species. In the last few years, there has been an exponential increase in the evidence linking RNA processing with DNA repair programs. For instance, the well-studied DNA base excision repair (BER) enzyme apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 can cleave RNA molecules, regulate mRNA levels, and associate physically with proteins involved in RNA processing. It is now clear that not only the expression of noncoding RNAs are changed upon DNA damage, they can modulate the expression of genes involved in the genome stability programs. The five reviews in this Forum provide the up-to-date knowledge on DNA repair, with a focus on BER, and a perspective on how the two ancient biochemical pathways are linked. The contributions demonstrate the complexity of such interactions, but also pointed out the opportunities for new therapeutic interventions. Future in vivo studies on the link between DNA repair processes and RNA metabolism should contribute to our basic understanding of physiology, disease, and treatment strategies. © 2014 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.


Margulis M.E.,University of Northern British Columbia
Global Governance | Year: 2013

Recurrent food price crises, coupled with the steady deterioration of world food security over the past two decades, have prompted efforts to reform the global governance of food security. This article argues that diverging rules and norms across the elemental regimes of agriculture and food, international trade, and human rights over the appropriate role of states and markets in addressing food insecurity are a major source of transnational political conflict. It analyzes (1) the role of norms in the construction of the international food security regime; (2) the transition from an international food security regime to a regime complex for food security; and (3) rule and norm conflicts within this regime complex. It concludes with a discussion of the impacts of diverging norms on the politics of regime complexity and its policy implications for current efforts to reform the global governance of food security. © 2013 Lynne Rienner Publishers, Inc.


Haeussler S.,University of Northern British Columbia
Environmental Reviews | Year: 2011

Biogeoclimatic ecosystem classification (BEC) has underpinned terrestrial ecosystem management and conservation planning in British Columbia, Canada since the early 1970s, serving the province well for over 40 years as expectations for the use and management of the public land base have evolved. The system is now critically challenged because (1) BEC champions in government, academia, and the private sector are disappearing through retirement and layoffs; (2) BEC is based on outdated notions of climax ecosystems in equilibrium with climate; and (3) the contemporary relevance and intellectual richness of this approach to ecosystem science is not comprehended by a generation of scientists and resource managers grappling with accelerating rates of change in climate and other environmental drivers. This review addresses ways to ensure that BEC remains robust and useful in an uncertain future. The Author proposes that BEC embrace complex systems science. Through a dialectical analysis of alternative paradigms in ecology, it is argued that BEC's holistic, developmental view of terrestrial ecosystems is fundamentally compatible with complexity theory and provides the information content missing from contemporary ecosystem ecology. Two examples of nonlinear modelling (adaptive landscapes and agent-based) to illustrate how the classification system can adapt from a largely linear and equilibrium, to a nonlinear, nonequilibrium perspective of ecosystem dynamics. The BEC program itself must function as a complex adaptive system to survive government downsizing and guide ecosystem management during difficult times, and to challenge and enlighten a new generation of scientists and citizens. © 2011 Published by NRC Research Press.


Johnson C.J.,University of Northern British Columbia
Biological Conservation | Year: 2013

Increasingly, conservation professionals and regulatory agencies are attempting to identify ecological thresholds that define a point at which populations or communities demonstrate a marked response to human disturbance. Such thresholds may serve as the foundation for recognizing and then imposing limits on the levels of disturbance or types of land use. Although an intuitive concept, I argue that there are numerous scientific and practical limitations to applying ecological thresholds to conservation decision making. First, the concept is limited by the lack of a clear and universally accepted definition. Often, a threshold is defined as the point at which a population demonstrates a nonlinear ecological or biological response to some critical level of disturbance. Alternative definitions are premised on different trajectories of response or a direct recognition of conservation risks when prioritising socioeconomic values. Second, there is no clear or consistent method for identifying ecological thresholds including the appropriate response variables. Third, there is little evidence to suggest that ecological thresholds generalize to other species or populations; this limits the efficiency of thresholds as a decision making tool. Fourth, even where ecological thresholds are identified for the purpose of regulation or conservation planning, there are few examples of effective implementation. In comparison, regulatory limits are premised on the ecological response of populations to disturbance, but also consider the socioeconomic realities of conservation decision making including the risk associated with greater levels of development. Limits can be identified through participatory decision making processes that allow a consideration of potential future conditions within the context of current ecological and economic circumstances. When followed with long-term monitoring, regulatory limits can improve existing or provide new avenues for conservation planning and regulation. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Lee C.H.,University of Northern British Columbia
Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) | Year: 2010

The multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotype exhibited by cancer cells is believed to be the major barriers to successful chemotherapy in cancer patients. The major form of MDR phenotype is contributed by a group of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) drug transporters which include P-glycoprotein, multidrug resistance-associated protein 1, and breast cancer resistance protein. There has been intense search for compounds which can act to reverse MDR phenotype in cultured cells, in animal models, and ultimately in patients. The ongoing search for MDR modulators, compounds that act directly on the ABC transporter proteins to block their activity, has led to three generations of drugs. Some of the third-generation MDR modulators have demonstrated encouraging results compared to earlier generation MDR modulators in clinical trials. These modulators are less toxic and they do not affect the pharmacokinetics of anti-cancer drugs. Significant numbers of natural products have also been identified for their effectiveness in reversing MDR in a manner similar to the MDR modulators. Other MDR reversing strategies that have been studied quite extensively are also reviewed and discussed in this chapter. These include strategies aimed at destroying mRNAs for ABC drug transporters, approaches in inhibiting transcription of ABC transporter genes, and blocking of ABC transporter activity using antibodies. This review summarizes the development of reversing agents for ABC drug transporters up to the end of 2008, and provides an optimistic view of what we have achieved and where we could go from here.


Gingerich A.,University of Northern British Columbia
Academic medicine : journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges | Year: 2011

Measurement errors are a limitation of using rater-based assessments that are commonly attributed to rater errors. Solutions targeting rater subjectivity have been largely unsuccessful. This critical review examines investigations of rater idiosyncrasy from impression formation literatures to ask new questions for the parallel problem in rater-based assessments. Raters may form categorical judgments about ratees as part of impression formation. Although categorization can be idiosyncratic, raters tend to consistently construct one of a few possible interpretations of each ratee. If raters naturally form categorical judgments, an assessment system requiring ordinal or interval ratings may inadvertently introduce conversion errors due to translation techniques unique to each rater. Potential implications of raters forming differing categorizations of ratees combined with the use of rating scales to collect categorical judgments on measurement outcomes in rater-based assessments are explored.


Dale M.R.T.,University of Northern British Columbia | Fortin M.-J.,University of Toronto
Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics | Year: 2010

Graph theory is a powerful body of mathematical knowledge, based on simple concepts, in which structural units are depicted as nodes with relationships between them depicted as lines. The nodes may have qualitative and quantitative characteristics, and the edges may have properties such as weights and directions. Graph theory provides a flexible conceptual model that can clarify the relationship between structures and processes, including the mechanisms of configuration effects and compositional differences. Graph concepts apply to many ecological and evolutionary phenomena, including interspecific associations, spatial structure, dispersal in landscapes, and relationships within metapopulations and metacommunities. We review applications of graph theory in biology, emphasizing graphs with spatial contexts. We show how spatial graph properties can be used for description and comparison as well as to test specific hypotheses. We suggest that future applications should include explicit spatial elements for landscape studies of ecological, genetic and epidemiological phenomena. Copyright © 2010 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.


Debela F.,University of Northern British Columbia
Chemosphere | Year: 2010

The long-term stability of pyromorphite [Pb(5)(PO(4))(3)Cl] (PY) in root-soil interface (or rhizosphere) where production of organic acids from biological activities takes place is not fully understood. We conducted a 1-year long laboratory batch dissolution experiment to elucidate the release of Pb (and P) from PY by four commonly occurring low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOA) in rhizosphere: acetic, citric, malic and oxalic acid. Mean maximum amount of Pb in milliQ (mQ) water (1.8microM) was lower than in solutions from LMWOA alone or in combination with each other (i.e., mixed acid). However, there was no significant difference in the amount of Pb (and P) in solution in all treatments including mQ water after 6months. Among the 100microM LMWOA, mean of five highest soluble Pb (muM Pb in solution) followed the order: oxalic acid (17.6)>citric (6.2)>malic (5.6)>acetic acid (3.0microM Pb). Mixed acid solution had a maximum amount of 14.0microM Pb. We calculated a range of solubility product constant (K(sp)) of PY in this study from 8.6x10(-54) (mQ) to 7.0x10(-45)(oxalic acid); these values are within the range of PY K(sp) reported elsewhere. Despite the low K(sp) values, LMWOA-induced released Pb from PY are in concentrations higher than both Canadian and international drinking water and agricultural water use quality standards. This suggests that soil organic acids such as in rhizosphere can potentially liberate Pb from PY in contaminated soils.


Garcia O.,University of Northern British Columbia
Canadian Journal of Forest Research | Year: 2013

A biologically inspired whole-stand growth and yield model was developed for even-aged thinned or unthinned stands dominated by trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.). The estimation used permanent sample plot data from British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba, supplemented by published site index and young stand information. An ingrowth imputation procedure was devised to facilitate the use of plot measurements where small trees are not measured. Two published site index models were closely approximated by a simple age-base invariant equation. Good parameter estimates for mortality and basal area growth were obtained without using age observations, which were unreliable or missing. Four differential equations describe the dynamics of top height, trees per hectare, basal area, and a site occupancy factor. Current values of these variables are used to estimate total and merchantable volumes up to any diameter limit and diameter distribution parameters. When an independent source of site quality estimates is available, the final model does not require stand age knowledge for making growth and yield predictions.


Garcia O.,University of Northern British Columbia
European Journal of Forest Research | Year: 2011

Issues in the development and formulation of forest site-index models are examined, linking the forestry terminology and methods to standard mathematical concepts. Variability complicates interpretation. Three sources of variation are distinguished: between sites, within sites, and observation error, with the article focusing mainly on the second one. Two site-index definitions arising from different views about the variability are contrasted. Modelling based on algebraic difference equations (ADE's) is analyzed in detail, relating it to concepts of state space flows used in modern dynamical systems theory. It is shown that, given a stand current state, ADE's predict growth rates that are independent of site quality. © 2010 The Author(s).

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