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Prince George, Canada

The University of Northern British Columbia is a small, primarily undergraduate university, the main campus of which is located in Prince George, British Columbia. UNBC also has regional campuses in the northern British Columbia cities of Prince Rupert, Terrace, Quesnel, and Fort St. John. The enabling legislation is the University of Northern British Columbia Act 1996. In the 2007–2008 academic year, 4,177 students were enrolled at UNBC.In 2007, the university obtained the trademark for "Canada's Green University". Because of its northern latitude, UNBC is a member of the University of the Arctic. Wikipedia.

Haeussler S.,University of Northern British Columbia
Environmental Reviews | Year: 2011

Biogeoclimatic ecosystem classification (BEC) has underpinned terrestrial ecosystem management and conservation planning in British Columbia, Canada since the early 1970s, serving the province well for over 40 years as expectations for the use and management of the public land base have evolved. The system is now critically challenged because (1) BEC champions in government, academia, and the private sector are disappearing through retirement and layoffs; (2) BEC is based on outdated notions of climax ecosystems in equilibrium with climate; and (3) the contemporary relevance and intellectual richness of this approach to ecosystem science is not comprehended by a generation of scientists and resource managers grappling with accelerating rates of change in climate and other environmental drivers. This review addresses ways to ensure that BEC remains robust and useful in an uncertain future. The Author proposes that BEC embrace complex systems science. Through a dialectical analysis of alternative paradigms in ecology, it is argued that BEC's holistic, developmental view of terrestrial ecosystems is fundamentally compatible with complexity theory and provides the information content missing from contemporary ecosystem ecology. Two examples of nonlinear modelling (adaptive landscapes and agent-based) to illustrate how the classification system can adapt from a largely linear and equilibrium, to a nonlinear, nonequilibrium perspective of ecosystem dynamics. The BEC program itself must function as a complex adaptive system to survive government downsizing and guide ecosystem management during difficult times, and to challenge and enlighten a new generation of scientists and citizens. © 2011 Published by NRC Research Press. Source

Margulis M.E.,University of Northern British Columbia
Global Governance | Year: 2013

Recurrent food price crises, coupled with the steady deterioration of world food security over the past two decades, have prompted efforts to reform the global governance of food security. This article argues that diverging rules and norms across the elemental regimes of agriculture and food, international trade, and human rights over the appropriate role of states and markets in addressing food insecurity are a major source of transnational political conflict. It analyzes (1) the role of norms in the construction of the international food security regime; (2) the transition from an international food security regime to a regime complex for food security; and (3) rule and norm conflicts within this regime complex. It concludes with a discussion of the impacts of diverging norms on the politics of regime complexity and its policy implications for current efforts to reform the global governance of food security. © 2013 Lynne Rienner Publishers, Inc. Source

Johnson C.J.,University of Northern British Columbia
Biological Conservation | Year: 2013

Increasingly, conservation professionals and regulatory agencies are attempting to identify ecological thresholds that define a point at which populations or communities demonstrate a marked response to human disturbance. Such thresholds may serve as the foundation for recognizing and then imposing limits on the levels of disturbance or types of land use. Although an intuitive concept, I argue that there are numerous scientific and practical limitations to applying ecological thresholds to conservation decision making. First, the concept is limited by the lack of a clear and universally accepted definition. Often, a threshold is defined as the point at which a population demonstrates a nonlinear ecological or biological response to some critical level of disturbance. Alternative definitions are premised on different trajectories of response or a direct recognition of conservation risks when prioritising socioeconomic values. Second, there is no clear or consistent method for identifying ecological thresholds including the appropriate response variables. Third, there is little evidence to suggest that ecological thresholds generalize to other species or populations; this limits the efficiency of thresholds as a decision making tool. Fourth, even where ecological thresholds are identified for the purpose of regulation or conservation planning, there are few examples of effective implementation. In comparison, regulatory limits are premised on the ecological response of populations to disturbance, but also consider the socioeconomic realities of conservation decision making including the risk associated with greater levels of development. Limits can be identified through participatory decision making processes that allow a consideration of potential future conditions within the context of current ecological and economic circumstances. When followed with long-term monitoring, regulatory limits can improve existing or provide new avenues for conservation planning and regulation. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Lee C.H.,University of Northern British Columbia
Antioxidants and Redox Signaling | Year: 2014

The ability to repair damaged DNA and to maintain genome stability is the utmost importance for the survival of any species. Hence, it is not surprising to find that DNA repair mechanisms are evolutionarily conserved and are expected to evolve to maintain the existence of species. In the last few years, there has been an exponential increase in the evidence linking RNA processing with DNA repair programs. For instance, the well-studied DNA base excision repair (BER) enzyme apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 can cleave RNA molecules, regulate mRNA levels, and associate physically with proteins involved in RNA processing. It is now clear that not only the expression of noncoding RNAs are changed upon DNA damage, they can modulate the expression of genes involved in the genome stability programs. The five reviews in this Forum provide the up-to-date knowledge on DNA repair, with a focus on BER, and a perspective on how the two ancient biochemical pathways are linked. The contributions demonstrate the complexity of such interactions, but also pointed out the opportunities for new therapeutic interventions. Future in vivo studies on the link between DNA repair processes and RNA metabolism should contribute to our basic understanding of physiology, disease, and treatment strategies. © 2014 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Source

Gingerich A.,University of Northern British Columbia
Academic medicine : journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges | Year: 2011

Measurement errors are a limitation of using rater-based assessments that are commonly attributed to rater errors. Solutions targeting rater subjectivity have been largely unsuccessful. This critical review examines investigations of rater idiosyncrasy from impression formation literatures to ask new questions for the parallel problem in rater-based assessments. Raters may form categorical judgments about ratees as part of impression formation. Although categorization can be idiosyncratic, raters tend to consistently construct one of a few possible interpretations of each ratee. If raters naturally form categorical judgments, an assessment system requiring ordinal or interval ratings may inadvertently introduce conversion errors due to translation techniques unique to each rater. Potential implications of raters forming differing categorizations of ratees combined with the use of rating scales to collect categorical judgments on measurement outcomes in rater-based assessments are explored. Source

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