News Article | December 29, 2015
2015 has been very kind to science, with numerous advances made in fields such as space research, cancer treatment, environment and biodiversity, and engineering. But which developments this year prove to be real game-changers? Here are some scientific discoveries that shook the world – not just hardcore science lovers – in 2015. Bowhead whale genome – A UK-based study made in collaboration with scientists from the U.S., Ireland, Denmark, Spain, and South Korea mapped the genome of the longest-living mammal and identified genes linked to DNA damage repair, cancer resistance, and increased level of longevity. Could this be the key to a longer human life? Water on Mars – This year, Earth’s space mission discovered that nearly half of the planet’s northern hemisphere was once covered by a massive ocean holding 20 million cubic kilometers of water, or more than what the Arctic Ocean has. This strengthened the possibility of alien life and debunked previous beliefs about Mars. Paralyzed male walks again – A 26-year-old man who suffered a paralyzing spinal cord injury was given the chance to walk again, with scientists rerouting brain waves to electrodes on his knees. The scientists said he was the first patient of paraplegia from a spinal injury to walk without dependence on manually manipulated robotic limbs. “[E]ven after years of paralysis, the brain can still generate robust brain waves that can be harnessed to enable basic walking,” one of the lead doctors explained. Virtual reality enhances healthcare – Polish cardiologists employed virtual reality in restoring blood flow to a blocked artery, signaling revolutionary changes in surgery, training, and various aspects of healthcare. The attending doctor used wearable VR equipment akin to the Google Glass to perform the tough operation. Puppies born via IVF – Following several failed attempts, Cornell University experts successfully produced the first puppies born through IVF. This paved the way for probing conservation and protection of endangered and risk-prone ones. Brain control for mice – University of North Caroline and National Institute of Health researchers stumbled upon a way to manipulate mice behavior, turn neurons on and off, and control hunger and activity rate. It could usher in more information into how scientists can better target brain circuits for treating human illness. Science, however, is a work in progress. There are fields where major breakthroughs could yield massive rewards and transform the world and its ways. One area is space exploration, including the NASA New Horizons mission to Pluto, as well as a better understanding of dark matter and dark energy making up the majority of the universe. Quantum computing is another promising arena, with technologies that could “dwarf today’s supercomputers” and introduce new ways to measure phenomena such as electricity, time, and magnetism at unforeseen accuracy. Quantum computing started in the U.S., but Canada, China, and Switzerland also have research in the works. Infectious disease treatment is also deemed a critical area, given the Ebola epidemic and the threat of a highly contagious flu. Antibiotics are also fast losing their effectiveness, with a new gene making bacteria resistant to all antibiotics found in China back in November. Advances and futuristic approaches to defense technology, photonics, materials science, and robotics were also seen in 2015, with further headways expected to be developed in the coming years.
Qin J.,Syracuse University |
Ball A.,University of Bath |
Greenberg J.,University of North Caroline
Proceedings of the International Conference on Dublin Core and Metadata Applications | Year: 2012
The tremendous growth in digital data has led to an increase in metadata initiatives for different types of scientific data, as evident in Ball's survey (2009). Although individual communities have specific needs, there are shared goals that need to be recognized if systems are to effectively support data sharing within and across all domains. This paper considers this need, and explores systems requirements that are essential for metadata supporting the discovery and management of scientific data. The paper begins with an introduction and a review of selected research specific to metadata modeling in the sciences. Next, the paper's goals are stated, followed by the presentation of valuable systems requirements. The results include a base-model with three chief principles: principle of least effort, infrastructure service, and portability. The principles are intended to support "data user" tasks. Results also include a set of defined user tasks and functions, and applications scenarios.
Ozdemir S.,University of North Caroline |
Mohamed A.F.,Research Triangle Institute |
Johnson F.R.,Research Triangle Institute |
Hauber A.B.,Research Triangle Institute
Health Economics | Year: 2010
Responses of inattentive or inconsistent subjects in stated-choice (SC) surveys can lead to imprecise or biased estimates. Several SC studies have investigated inconsistency and most of these studies dropped subjects who were inconsistent. However, none of these studies reported who is more likely to fail consistency tests. We investigated the effect of the personal characteristics and task complexity on preference inconsistency in eight different SC surveys. We found that white, higher-income and better-educated female subjects were less likely to fail consistency tests. Understanding the characteristics of subjects who are inattentive to the choice task may help in designing and pre-testing instruments that work effectively for a wider range of subjects. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Rogers B.,University of North Caroline
AAOHN journal : official journal of the American Association of Occupational Health Nurses | Year: 2010
The Center of Disease Control and Prevention reports that professionals in clinic setting may not be adequately storing and handling vaccine, leading to insufficient immunity of vaccinated individuals. This article provides information about proper cold chain storage and handling of vaccine and offers resources to begin, or reinforce, proper procedures in the occupational health unit to secure an effective immunization program.
Perron B.E.,University of Michigan |
Mowbray O.,University of Michigan |
Bier S.,University of Michigan |
Vaughn M.G.,Saint Louis University |
And 2 more authors.
Journal of Psychoactive Drugs | Year: 2011
Inhalant use is a serious global problem with consequences equal to or surpassing those of other drugs. Regrettably, few prior studies have examined inhalant users' patterns of service and treatment utilization. The purpose of this study is to identify factors associated with service use and barriers to treatment among a nationally representative sample of inhalant users. Data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) reveal that among inhalant users problem severity and substance use disorder comorbidity were associated with substance abuse treatment barriers and service usage. These findings can help improve the service delivery system to provide effective treatments and reduce the risk of emergency department usage, which is among the most expensive and least effective ways to deal with substance abuse. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
Wu C.-H.,University of North Caroline |
Erickson S.R.,University of Michigan
Journal of Asthma | Year: 2012
Objective. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between asthma status and the occurrence and length of work absences among the US working adults. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted using the 2008 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS). Employed respondents between ages 18 and 55 years were included. The association between asthma status (whether respondents have asthma or not) and occurrence of absences and the length of time per absence was evaluated using a two-part model. A multivariate logistic regression as the first part of the model was to estimate the probability of being absent from work at least once during the observation period as a function of asthma status. A multivariate negative binomial regression as the second part of the model was used to assess whether the length of each absence from work was associated with asthma status among respondents who reported at least one absence from work. Sociodemographic, socioeconomic, employment-related, health status, and comorbidity variables were included in each model as covariates. Results. Of 12,161 respondents, 8.2 reported having asthma, which accounted for 10.4 million working adults in the United States in 2008. Employed adults with asthma were more likely to report having at least one absence from work compared to those without asthma in bivariate analyses (26.2 vs. 16.2, p < .01). After adjusting for the number of comorbid chronic conditions and other covariates, there was no significant difference between having asthma and absenteeism among respondents (odds ratio (OR) 1.31, 95 confidence interval (CI) 0.991.72, rate ratio (RR) 1.25, 95 CI 0.911.72). Conclusions. Overall burden of illness as measured by comorbidity indices and perceived health status, but not asthma alone, contributes to absenteeism as well as the number of days off during each occurrence among employed people. It is important for health services researchers to consider overall burden of illness when examining the association between a general outcome such as absence from work and specific conditions such as asthma. © 2012 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.
Oberoi L.,University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences |
Oberoi L.,Lloyd Institute of Management and Technology |
Akiyama T.,University of North Caroline |
Lee K.-H.,University of North Caroline |
Liu S.J.,University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences
Phytomedicine | Year: 2011
The bark of Terminalia arjuna (TA) has been used for centuries in ayurvedic medicine as cardiotonics for treatment of cardiac disorders. It became recently available as over-the-counter supplements marketed for maintaining a healthy heart. However, the cellular mechanism of its cardiotonic effect remains undefined. The present study was designed to investigate the physicochemical property and inotropic effect of the aqueous extract of TA bark (TA AqE) on adult rat ventricular myocytes in comparison with extracts prepared sequentially with organic solvents (organic extracts). The kinetics of myocyte contraction and caffeine-induced contraction were analyzed to assess the effect of TA AqE on sarcoplasmic reticular (SR) function. The inotropic effect of TA AqE was also compared with that of known cardiotonics, isoproterenol (ISO) and ouabain (Ouab). We found that TA AqE decoctions exerted positive inotropy, accelerated myocyte relaxation and increased caffeine-induced contraction concentration-dependently. In contrast, TA organic extracts caused interruption of excitability and arrhythmias without consistent inotropic action. In conclusion, TA AqE-induced cardiotonic action via enhancing SR function, a unique action minimizing the occurrence of arrhythmias, makes TA AqE a promising and relatively safe cardiotonic beneficial to the healthy heart and the treatment for chronic heart disease. The cardiotonic effect of TA AqE is consistent with the therapeutic property of TA bark used in ayurvedic medicine. The method of administration and/or selective omission of hydrophobic components from bark powder could be crucial to the efficacy and safety of TA bark in cardiac therapy and uses as over-the-counter supplements. © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Chino J.P.,Duke University |
Jones E.,University of North Caroline |
Berchuck A.,Duke University |
Secord A.A.,Duke University |
Havrilesky L.J.,Duke University
International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics | Year: 2012
Background: The appropriate uses of lymph node dissection (LND) and adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) for Stage I endometrial cancer are controversial. We explored the impact of specific RT modalities (whole pelvic RT [WPRT], vaginal brachytherapy [VB]) and LND status on survival. Materials and Methods: The Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results dataset was queried for all surgically treated International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) Stage I endometrial cancers; subjects were stratified into low, intermediate and high risk cohorts using modifications of Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG) protocol 99 and PORTEC (Postoperative Radiation Therapy in Endometrial Cancer) trial criteria. Five-year overall survival was estimated, and comparisons were performed via the log-rank test. Results: A total of 56,360 patients were identified: 70.4% low, 26.2% intermediate, and 3.4% high risk. A total of 41.6% underwent LND and 17.6% adjuvant RT. In low-risk disease, LND was associated with higher survival (93.7 LND vs. 92.7% no LND, p < 0.001), whereas RT was not (91.6% RT vs. 92.9% no RT, p = 0.23). In intermediate-risk disease, LND (82.1% LND vs. 76.5% no LND, p < 0.001) and RT (80.6% RT vs. 74.9% no RT, p < 0.001) were associated with higher survival without differences between RT modalities. In high-risk disease, LND (68.8% LND vs. 54.1% no LND, p < 0.001) and RT (66.9% RT vs. 57.2% no RT, p < 0.001) were associated with increased survival; if LND was not performed, VB alone was inferior to WPRT (p = 0.01). Conclusion: Both WPRT and VB alone are associated with increased survival in the intermediate-risk group. In the high-risk group, in the absence of LND, only WPRT is associated with increased survival. LND was also associated with increased survival. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.
Mahan J.D.,Ohio State University |
Ferris M.E.,University of North Caroline
Renal Failure | Year: 2010
The hallmark of the professional is continued development and expanded expertise based on acquisition of new knowledge and refinement of clinical skills. Medical knowledge acquisition is a key component of professional development for fellows in training as well as practicing physicians. New medical knowledge may be acquired via experienceinstruction in the clinical setting (clinic, hospital, etc), self-directed or teacher-directed reading, case-based discussions, lecture presentations, recorded enduring presentations (vodcasts, podcasts, etc.), online learning modules, review- and board-type questionsanswers, and small-roup discussions. All of these methods have value for continued expansion of medical knowledge, and for many learners, a combination of methods is far superior to reliance on one or two methods alone. The following four cases demonstrate the benefit of case-based discussions to further pediatri nephrology fellow education. © Informa UK, Ltd.
News Article | October 28, 2016
Carolina Woman in Business (CWIB) will host its 11th annual conference, titled “Imagine, Invest, Inspire: Make Your Mark on the Workplace,” on Nov. 18 at the University of North Caroline Kenan-Flagler Business School. UNC Chancellor Carol Folt will open the conference. Keynote addresses will be given by Janet Mountain, executive director of the Michael & Susan Dell Foundation, and Rebecca Gansert, director of worldwide operations for Amazon’s Prime Now. Attendees will have the opportunity to choose from six workshops and panels. Workshops will explore the power of language, creating a career plan, and fostering collaboration. Panels will include breaking stereotypes in the classroom, dealing with disruption in a career path and integrating “doing good” with “doing business.” Conference sponsors are Amazon, Eastman Chemical Company, Tata Consultancy Services, Wells Fargo Securities, Bank of America Merrill Lynch, and Deloitte Consulting LLP. CWIB is a student organization providing the women of UNC Kenan-Flagler with opportunities for career and community development and networking opportunities in preparation for their post-MBA journeys. The event is open to all UNC students, faculty, staff, alumni and members of the business community. For more information and to purchase tickets, go to http://cwibconference.sites.unc.edu/. About the University of North Carolina Kenan-Flagler Business School Consistently ranked one of the world's best business schools, UNC Kenan-Flagler is known for its collaborative culture that stems from its core values: excellence, leadership, integrity, community and teamwork. Professors excel at both teaching and research, and demonstrate unparalleled dedication to students. Graduates are effective, principled leaders who have the technical and managerial skills to deliver results in the global business environment. UNC Kenan-Flagler offers a rich portfolio of programs and extraordinary, real-life learning experiences: Undergraduate Business, full-time MBA, Executive MBA Programs (Evening, Weekend and global OneMBA®), online MBA@UNC, UNC-Tsinghua Dual-Degree EMBA, Master of Accounting, PhD, Executive Development, and UNC Business Essentials programs. It is home to the Frank Hawkins Kenan Institute of Private Enterprise.