The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill is a coeducational public research university located in Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States. North Carolina has been consistently listed among the highest and best ranked universities in the United States and is one of the original eight Public Ivy schools that provide an Ivy League experience for a public schooling price. After being chartered in 1789, the university first began enrolling students in 1795, which allows it to be one of three schools to claim the title of the oldest public university in the United States.The first public institution of higher education in North Carolina, the school opened its doors to students on February 12, 1795. The university offers degrees in over 70 courses of study through fourteen colleges and the College of Arts and science. All undergraduates receive a liberal arts education and have the option to pursue a major within the professional schools of the university or within the College of Arts and science from the time they obtain junior status. Under the leadership of President Kemp Plummer Battle, in 1877 North Carolina became coeducational and began the process of desegregation in 1951 when African-American graduate students were admitted under Chancellor Robert Burton House. In 1952, North Carolina opened its own hospital, UNC Health Care, for research and treatment, and has since specialized in cancer care. The school's students, alumni, and sports teams are known as "Tar Heels".The campus of North Carolina is located in Chapel Hill, North Carolina, a university town. The campus covers a rather small 729 acres over Chapel Hill's downtown area, encompassing places like the Morehead Planetarium and the many stores and shops located on Franklin Street. Students can participate in over 550 officially recognized student organizations. The student-run newspaper The Daily Tar Heel has won national awards for collegiate media, while the student radio station WXYC provided the world's first internet radio broadcast. North Carolina is one of the charter members of the Atlantic Coast Conference, which was founded on June 14, 1953. Competing athletically as the Tar Heels, North Carolina has achieved great success in sports, most notably in men's basketball, women's soccer, and women's field hockey. Wikipedia.
Wan Y.Y.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Trends in Immunology | Year: 2014
GATA3 has conventionally been regarded as a transcription factor that drives the differentiation of T helper (Th) 2 cells. Increasing evidence points to a function for GATA3 beyond controlling Th2 differentiation. GATA3 regulates T cell development, proliferation, and maintenance. Furthermore, recent studies have demonstrated important roles for GATA3 in innate lymphoid cells. Thus, GATA3 emerges as a factor with diverse functions in immune regulation, which are in some cases cell-type specific and in others shared by multiple cell types. Here, I discuss recent discoveries and the current understanding of the functions of GATA3 in immune regulation. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.
Bloom K.S.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Annual Review of Genetics | Year: 2014
Centromeres are specialized domains of heterochromatin that provide the foundation for the kinetochore. Centromeric heterochromatin is characterized by specific histone modifications, a centromere-specific histone H3 variant (CENP-A), and the enrichment of cohesin, condensin, and topoisomerase II. Centromere DNA varies orders of magnitude in size from 125 bp (budding yeast) to several megabases (human). In metaphase, sister kinetochores on the surface of replicated chromosomes face away from each other, where they establish microtubule attachment and bi-orientation. Despite the disparity in centromere size, the distance between separated sister kinetochores is remarkably conserved (approximately 1 μm) throughout phylogeny. The centromere functions as a molecular spring that resists microtubule-based extensional forces in mitosis. This review explores the physical properties of DNA in order to understand how the molecular spring is built and how it contributes to the fidelity of chromosome segregation. © 2014 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.
Arnosti C.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Annual Review of Marine Science | Year: 2011
Extracellular enzymes initiate microbial remineralization of organic matter by hydrolyzing substrates to sizes sufficiently small to be transported across cell membranes. As much of marine primary productivity is processed by heterotrophic microbes, the substrate specificities of extracellular enzymes, the rates at which they function in seawater and sediments, and factors controlling their production, distribution, and active lifetimes, are central to carbon cycling in marine systems. In this review, these topics are considered from biochemical, microbial/molecular biological, and geochemical perspectives. Our understanding of the capabilities and limitations of heterotrophic microbial communities has been greatly advanced in recent years, in part through genetic and genomic approaches. New methods to measure enzyme activities in the field are needed to keep pace with these advances and to pursue intriguing evidence that patterns of enzyme activities in different environments are linked to differences in microbial community composition that may profoundly affect the marine carbon cycle. Copyright © 2011 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.
Furey T.S.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Nature Reviews Genetics | Year: 2012
Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments followed by sequencing (ChIP-seq) detect protein-DNA binding events and chemical modifications of histone proteins. Challenges in the standard ChIP-seq protocol have motivated recent enhancements in this approach, such as reducing the number of cells that are required and increasing the resolution. Complementary experimental approaches-for example, DNaseI hypersensitive site mapping and analysis of chromatin interactions that are mediated by particular proteins-provide additional information about DNA-binding proteins and their function. These data are now being used to identify variability in the functions of DNA-binding proteins across genomes and individuals. In this Review, I describe the latest advances in methods to detect and functionally characterize DNA-bound proteins. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.
Sternson S.M.,Howard Hughes Medical Institute |
Roth B.L.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Annual Review of Neuroscience | Year: 2014
Elucidating the roles of neuronal cell types for physiology and behavior is essential for understanding brain functions. Perturbation of neuron electrical activity can be used to probe the causal relationship between neuronal cell types and behavior. New genetically encoded neuron perturbation tools have been developed for remotely controlling neuron function using small molecules that activate engineered receptors that can be targeted to cell types using genetic methods. Here we describe recent progress for approaches using genetically engineered receptors that selectively interact with small molecules. Called "chemogenetics," receptors with diverse cellular functions have been developed that facilitate the selective pharmacological control over a diverse range of cell-signaling processes, including electrical activity, for molecularly defined cell types. These tools have revealed remarkably specific behavioral physiological influences for molecularly defined cell types that are often intermingled with populations having different or even opposite functions. © Copyright ©2014 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.