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of North Carolina, United States

Morgan J.Q.,University of North Carolina
Policy Studies Journal

This article examines the extent to which local governments in North Carolina embrace innovation in their economic development activities. The study makes a distinctive theoretical contribution by examining the relationship between innovation in how economic development policies are administered and implemented (using concepts associated with governance and NPM), and innovation in what is substantively done (policy innovation). An analysis of the results from a statewide survey of local governments in North Carolina finds that certain governance/management variables are significant determinants of economic development policy innovation. An implication of this finding is that new ways of doing economic development may go hand-in-hand with new ways of governing and managing. Many of the governance/management variables are also positively associated with the use of a greater number of traditional economic development strategies and tools. This suggests that local governments may find it helpful to be innovative in how they implement economic development irrespective of the substantive policy orientation of particular strategies and tools. © 2010 Policy Studies Organization. Source

The first stage of testing new pharmaceuticals in humans is referred to as a phase I clinical trial. The purpose of these studies is to test the safety of the drugs and to establish appropriate doses that can later be given to patients. Most of these studies are conducted under controlled, in-patient conditions using healthy volunteers who are paid for their participation. To explore healthy volunteers' experiences in clinical trials, an ethnographic study was conducted at six in-patient phase I clinics in the USA. In addition to the observation of clinic activities (from informed consent procedures to dosing to blood draws), 268 semi-structured interviews were conducted, 33 with clinic staff and 235 with healthy volunteers. Drawing on this dataset, this article explores healthy volunteers' exchange of contemporary legends about phase I clinical trials. In addition to potentially scaring the listener and communicating distrust in the medical community, these incredible stories help participants cope with perceived stigma and establish a gradient of risk of trial participation, creating potential boundaries to their participation in medical research. The article argues that contemporary legends play a productive role in society, shaping how people view themselves and others and influencing their decisions about risky activities. © 2015 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of conducting a randomized controlled trial of postpartum intrauterine device insertion and to demonstrate that the postpartum intrauterine device is acceptable to women. Women attending prenatal care at a maternity hospital in Lilongwe, Malawi were recruited into a trial comparing immediate (10 minutes to 48 hours) to 6 week postpartum insertion. Feasibility of recruiting and consenting 140 women and randomizing 70% of them was evaluated. Satisfaction with the intrauterine device was also assessed. One hundred fifteen women consented and 49 (61%) were randomized. Twenty-six women were assigned to immediate insertion, and 23 to insertion at 6 weeks postpartum. Thirty (24%) women received the device as part of the study protocol, and 28 (93%) had the device in place at 12 weeks postpartum. The intrauterine device is acceptable to some postpartum women in Malawi, but conducting a randomized clinical trial may not be feasible. Source

Spangler S.A.,University of North Carolina
Medical Anthropology Quarterly

Various theories exist for the ways in which social and material disparities are incorporated within human bodies and then expressed as health outcomes with uneven distributions. From a political economy perspective, one pathway involves processes of social exclusion that take place on articulating local and global fields of power. This study explores such situated processes as they produce and perpetuate embodied inequality at childbirth in the Kilombero Valley of South-Central Tanzania. Ethnographic narratives illustrate how these processes differentially affect the kind of care women seek and receive. Also described are women's complex yet pragmatic responses to potential exclusion in the attempt to secure a safe and otherwise positive outcome. In a culturally constructed world of childbirth, face-to-face claims on entitlement to biomedical services collide with enactments of discrimination at multiple levels, creating a space of contestation for social and material positioning as well as for physical well-being. © 2011 by the American Anthropological Association. Source

Majchrzak A.,University of Southern California | Malhotra A.,University of North Carolina
Journal of Strategic Information Systems

Recent years have seen an increasing emphasis on open innovation by firms to keep pace with the growing intricacy of products and services and the ever changing needs of the markets. Much has been written about open innovation and its manifestation in the form of crowdsourcing. Unfortunately, most management research has taken the information system (IS) as a given. In this essay we contend that IS is not just an enabler but rather can be a shaper that optimizes open innovation in general and crowdsourcing in particular. This essay is intended to frame crowdsourcing for innovation in a manner that makes more apparent the issues that require research from an IS perspective. In doing so, we delineate the contributions that the IS field can make to the field of crowdsourcing. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

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