Bodo, Norway
Bodo, Norway

The University of Nordland, previously Bodø University College, is a public university located in Bodø, Norway. The university is located 10 km outside the city centre. The university has around 6,000 undergraduate and graduate students and offers Ph.D degrees in the fields of Business, Sociology, Aquatic Bioscience and Practical knowledge.The university is one of the leading academic environments among aquaculture in Norway. Wikipedia.

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Bizuayehu T.T.,University of Nordland | Babiak I.,University of Nordland
Genome Biology and Evolution | Year: 2014

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulators involved in nearly all known biological processes in distant eukaryotic clades. Their discovery and functional characterization have broadened our understanding of biological regulatorymechanisms in animals and plants. They show both evolutionary conserved and unique features across Metazoa. Here, we present the current status of the knowledge about the role ofmiRNA in development, growth, and physiology of teleost fishes, in comparison to other vertebrates. Infraclass Teleostei is the most abundant group among vertebrate lineage. Fish are an important component of aquatic ecosystems and human life, being the prolific source of animal proteins worldwide and a vertebrate model for biomedical research.We reviewmiRNAbiogenesis, regulation, modifications, andmechanismsof action. Specific sections aredevoted to the role ofmiRNA in teleost development, organogenesis, tissue differentiation, growth, regeneration, reproduction, endocrine system, and responses to environmental stimuli. Each section discusses gaps in the current knowledge and pinpoints the future directions of research on miRNA in teleosts. © The Author(s) 2014.

Kiron V.,University of Nordland
Animal Feed Science and Technology | Year: 2012

Aquaculture contributes significantly to world food supplies and the rapid growth of this sector has brought forth the need to ensure that development is based on environmentally responsible practices, including those concerning feeds. The major players in the aquafeed industry are greatly aware of this and they attach importance to sustainability issues during feed development. There is consensus among the feed manufacturers and the farmers that quality feeds should not only ensure superior growth, but also return prime health. Therefore, the potential health promoting quality of each component is to be taken into account while formulating feeds.The role of dietary nutrients or additives on the functions of the immune system in fish has been investigated since the 1980s. Not all nutrients have received attention; most of the studies have been directed towards vitamins C, E and fatty acids (oils). Popular additives comprise yeast-derived products such as glucans and mannan oligosaccharides, besides probiotics. Several of these components have been examined for their ability to protect fish from stressors or diseases. The physiological outcomes attributed to these nutrients or additives are presumed to be translated to good health. More convincing evidences should be gathered before they are classified as 'functional ingredients'. Aquafeeds of the future are expected to impart dual benefits of good growth and health to the farmed organism, and preventive health care through nutritional means is certainly a strategy to ensure sustainability in aquaculture. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Lazado C.C.,University of Nordland | Caipang C.M.A.,Norwegian Institute of Marine Research
Fish and Shellfish Immunology | Year: 2014

Teleost mucosal immunity has become the subject of unprecedented research studies in recent years because of its diversity and defining characteristics. Its immune repertoire is governed by the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues (MALT) which are divided into gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT), skin-associated lymphoid tissues (SALT), and gill-associated lymphoid tissues (GIALT). The direct contact with its immediate environment makes the mucosal surfaces of fish susceptible to a wide variety of pathogens. The inherent immunocompetent cells and factors in the mucosal surfaces together with the commensal microbiota have pivotal role against pathogens. Immunomodulation is a popular prophylactic strategy in teleost and probiotics possess this beneficial feature. Most of the studies on the immunomodulatory properties of probiotics in fish mainly discussed their impacts on systemic immunity. In contrast, few of these studies discussed the immunomodulatory features of probiotics in mucosal surfaces and are concentrated on the influences in the gut. Significant attention should be devoted in understanding the relationship of mucosal immunity and probiotics as the present knowledge is limited and are mostly based on extrapolations of studies in humans and terrestrial vertebrates. In the course of the advancement of mucosal immunity and probiotics, new perspectives in probiotics research, e.g., probiogenomics have emerged. This review affirms the relevance of probiotics in the mucosal immunity of fish by revisiting and bridging the current knowledge on teleost mucosal immunity, mucosal microbiota and immunomodulation of mucosal surfaces by probiotics. Expanding the knowledge of immunomodulatory properties of probiotics especially on mucosal immunity is essential in advancing the use of probiotics as a sustainable and viable strategy for successful fish husbandry. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

BACKGROUND: Commercial Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus) farming is restricted by variable oocyte quality, slow growth, and early maturation of male fish. Maternally transferred components regulate early developmental processes; therefore, they have an effect on the future viability of the embryo. Using a newly developed Agilent 10 k custom-made oligonucleotide array, we profiled components of the transcriptome involved in immune defence as well as germline and muscle development during early developmental stages: 8-cell embryos (8CS), germ ring stage (GR), 10-somite stage (10SS), and hatched embryos (HT). In addition, we identified differentially expressed transcripts in low (≤9 ± 3% hatching) and high (≥86 ± 3°% hatching) quality eggs at 8CS to identify potential maternal markers for embryo quality.RESULTS: Out of 2066 differentially expressed transcripts, 160 were identified as maternal transcripts being specifically expressed at 8CS only. Twenty transcripts were differentially expressed in 8-cell embryos between low and high quality egg groups. Several immune-related transcripts were identified as promising molecular markers of hatching success including interferon regulatory factor 7 and mhc class 2A chain. Differential expression was positively validated with quantitative real-time PCR.CONCLUSIONS: We have demonstrated maternal transfer of innate and adaptive immune system transcripts into Atlantic halibut embryos and their relation with future embryo developmental potential. We identified several transcripts as potential molecular markers of embryo quality. The developed microarray represents a useful resource for improving the commercial production of Atlantic halibut.

Mathisen E.,University of Nordland
IEEE International Conference on Digital Ecosystems and Technologies | Year: 2011

This paper provides a brief introduction to the cloud computing platform and the services it provides. In particular, we intend to discuss some of the key security issues that cloud computing are bound to be confronted with, as well as current implementations that provides a solution to these vulnerabilities. In this paper we have discussed policy, software- and hardware security. © 2011 IEEE.

Kymre I.G.,University of Nordland
International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being | Year: 2014

This article illuminates the essence of Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) nurses' attitudes in skin-to-skin care (SSC) practice for preterm infants and their parents. Health care providers are in a unique position to influence the dynamic between infants and parents, and SSC affects both partners in the dyad. The design is descriptively phenomenological in terms of reflective lifeworld approach. Eighteen Swedish, Danish, and Norwegian nurses from NICUs offering varied possibilities and extents of SSC participated. NICU nurses' attitudes in SSC practice are ambivalent. The nurses consider the sensory, wellness, and mutuality experiences to be primary and vital and enact SSC as much as possible. But "as much as possible" is a broad and varied concept, and their attitudes are ambivalent in terms of not always facilitating what they consider to be the optimal caring conditions. The source of NICU nurses' ambivalent attitudes in SSC practice is a complex interplay of beliefs, norms, and evidence, which have a multidisciplinary basis. The ambivalent attitudes are, to a great extent, the result of the need to balance these multidisciplinary concerns. This needs to be acknowledged in considering SSC practice, as well as acknowledging that clinical judgments concerning optimal SSC depend on parents and infants unlimited access to each other, which NICU nurses can influence. © 2014 I. G. Kymre.

Hagen N.T.,University of Nordland
Journal of Informetrics | Year: 2013

In this paper the accuracy of five current approaches to quantifying the byline hierarchy of a scientific paper is assessed by measuring the ability of each to explain the variation in a composite empirical dataset. Harmonic credit explained 97% of the variation by including information about the number of coauthors and their position in the byline. In contrast, fractional credit, which ignored the byline hierarchy by allocating equal credit to all coauthors, explained less than 40% of the variation in the empirical dataset. The nearly 60% discrepancy in explanatory power between fractional and harmonic credit was accounted for by equalizing bias associated with the omission of relevant information about differential coauthor contribution. Including an additional parameter to describe a continuum of intermediate formulas between fractional and harmonic provided a negligible or negative gain in predictive accuracy. By comparison, two parametric models from the bibliometric literature both had an explanatory capacity of approximately 80%. In conclusion, the results indicate that the harmonic formula provides a parsimonious solution to the problem of quantifying the byline hierarchy. Harmonic credit allocation also accommodates specific indications of departures from the basic byline hierarchy, such as footnoted information stating that some or all coauthors have contributed equally or indicating the presence of a senior author. © 2013 The Author.

University of Nordland | Date: 2013-03-11

The present invention provides a method of inhibiting maturation of the gonads of a juvenile animal which comprises administering to said juvenile animal an immunologically active molecule (IAM) or a vector comprising nucleic acid encoding an immunologically active molecule, said IAM being specific for a target protein within the gonads and binding thereto or causing an immune response against that target protein, and thereby inhibiting maturation of the gonads, as well as molecules of use in such methods.

Hagen N.T.,University of Nordland
Journal of Informetrics | Year: 2014

This paper examines the effects of inflationary and equalizing bias on publication output rankings. Any identifiable amount of bias in authorship accreditation was detrimental to accuracy when ranking a select group of leading Canadian aquaculture researchers. Bias arose when publication scores were calculated without taking into account information about multiple authorship and differential coauthor contributions. The ensuing biased equal credit scores, whether fractional or inflated, produced rankings that were fundamentally different from the ranking of harmonic estimates of actual credit calculated by using all relevant byline information in the source data. In conclusion, the results indicate that both fractional and inflated rankings are misleading, and suggest that accurate accreditation of coauthors is the key to reliable publication performance rankings. © 2014 The Author.

Equalizing bias (EqB) is a systematic inaccuracy which arises when authorship credit is divided equally among coauthors who have not contributed equally. As the number of coauthors increases, the diminishing amount of credit allocated to each additional coauthor is increasingly composed of equalizing bias such that when the total number of coauthors exceeds 12, the credit score of most coauthors is composed mostly of EqB. In general, EqB reverses the byline hierarchy and skews bibliometric assessments by underestimating the contribution of primary authors, i.e. those adversely affected by negative EqB, and overestimating the contribution of secondary authors, those benefitting from positive EqB. The positive and negative effects of EqB are balanced and sum to zero, but are not symmetrical. The lack of symmetry exacerbates the relative effects of EqB, and explains why primary authors are increasingly outnumbered by secondary authors as the number of coauthors increases. Specifically, for a paper with 50 coauthors, the benefit of positive EqB goes to 39 secondary authors while the burden of negative EqB befalls 11 primary authors. Relative to harmonic estimates of their actual contribution, the EqB of the 50 coauthors ranged from <-90% to >350%. Senior authorship, when it occurs, is conventionally indicated by a corresponding last author and recognized as being on a par with a first author. If senior authorship is not recognized, then the credit lost by an unrecognized senior author is distributed among the other coauthors as part of their EqB. The powerful distortional effect of EqB is compounded in bibliometric indices and performance rankings derived from biased equal credit. Equalizing bias must therefore be corrected at the source by ensuring accurate accreditation of all coauthors prior to the calculation of aggregate publication metrics. © 2014 The Authors.

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