Niamey, Niger
Niamey, Niger

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Isanaka S.,Epicentre | Guindo O.,Epicentre | Langendorf C.,Epicentre | Seck A.M.,Epicentre | And 8 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2017

BACKGROUND: Each year, rotavirus gastroenteritis is responsible for about 37% of deaths from diarrhea among children younger than 5 years of age worldwide, with a disproportionate effect in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled trial in Niger to evaluate the efficacy of a live, oral bovine rotavirus pentavalent vaccine (BRV-PV, Serum Institute of India) to prevent severe rotavirus gastroenteritis. Healthy infants received three doses of the vaccine or placebo at 6, 10, and 14 weeks of age. Episodes of gastroenteritis were assessed through active and passive surveillance and were graded on the basis of the score on the Vesikari scale (which ranges from 0 to 20, with higher scores indicating more severe disease). The primary end point was the efficacy of three doses of vaccine as compared with placebo against a first episode of laboratory-confirmed severe rotavirus gastroenteritis (Vesikari score, ≥11) beginning 28 days after dose 3. RESULTS: Among the 3508 infants who were included in the per-protocol efficacy analysis, there were 31 cases of severe rotavirus gastroenteritis in the vaccine group and 87 cases in the placebo group (2.14 and 6.44 cases per 100 person-years, respectively), for a vaccine efficacy of 66.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 49.9 to 77.9). Similar efficacy was seen in the intention-to-treat analyses, which showed a vaccine efficacy of 69.1% (95% CI, 55.0 to 78.7). There was no significant between-group difference in the risk of adverse events, which were reported in 68.7% of the infants in the vaccine group and in 67.2% of those in the placebo group, or in the risk of serious adverse events (in 8.3% in the vaccine group and in 9.1% in the placebo group); there were 27 deaths in the vaccine group and 22 in the placebo group. None of the infants had confirmed intussusception. CONCLUSIONS: Three doses of BRV-PV, an oral rotavirus vaccine, had an efficacy of 66.7% against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis among infants in Niger. © Copyright 2017 Massachusetts Medical Society. All rights reserved.


Boukary A.R.,Institute of Tropical Medicine | Boukary A.R.,University of Niamey | Boukary A.R.,University of Liège | Thys E.,Institute of Tropical Medicine | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Background: Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is a widespread zoonosis in developing countries but has received little attention in sub-Saharan Africa, especially in Niger. Recent investigations confirmed the high incidence of the disease in cattle slaughtered in an abattoir in Niamey. The fact that most of the animals in which M. bovis has been identified were from the rural area of Torodi implied the existence of a probable source of BTB in this region. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of BTB infection in cattle and to identify risk factors for infection in human and cattle populations in Torodi. Methods and Principal Findings: A survey was carried out at the level of households keeping livestock (n = 51). The questionnaire was related to the potential risk factors and the presence of clinical signs of TB both in animals and humans. Comparative Intradermal Tuberculin Test was conducted to determine the TB status in cattle (n = 393). The overall apparent individual animal prevalence of tuberculin reactors was 3.6% (CI: 95%, 1.9-5.9), whereas the individual true prevalence was estimated at 0.8% (CI: 95%, 0.0-5.0). Using a multivariate logistic regression analysis and a classification tree analysis, the only household level risk factor that significantly influenced the presence of BTB in cattle was the presence of animals coughing in the herd (OR = 4.7, 95% CI: 1.12-19.71, p-value = 0.034). The lack of the practice of quarantine was borderline significant (OR = 4.2, 95% CI: 0.96-18.40, p-value = 0.056). Conclusion/Significance: The study confirmed that BTB is endemic in cattle in Torodi and the risk of the transmission of the disease to humans is potentially high. For the control of the disease in livestock, slaughtering of infected animals and the compensation of the owners is needed. Collaboration between the veterinary and the medical sectors, in the diagnosis, monitoring, prevention and control of BTB is strongly encouraged. © 2011 Boukary et al.


Turner M.L.,University of Washington | Tsuji L.A.,Royal Ontario Museum | Ide O.,University Of Niamey | Sidor C.A.,University of Washington
Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology | Year: 2015

Pareiasaurs were a group of herbivorous reptiles that lived during the middle to late Permian (265-252 Ma) in what is modern-day Europe, Asia, South America, and Africa. Field work in the Moradi Formation of northern Niger has produced multiple elements of the appendicular skeleton of the pareiasaur Bunostegos akokanensis. The considerable size disparity and morphological variation among the elements suggest that they represent ontogenetic stages ranging from relatively juvenile to adult. Here we present the first description of the scapulocoracoid, humerus, radius, ulna, pelvis, and femur of Bunostegos as well as some of the first ontogenetic data for postcranial osteology in pareiasaurs. As with the skull, numerous postcranial autapomorphies characterize Bunostegos, including laterally originating acromion process of the scapula; radius and ulna with continuous articular surface on humerus; paired crests on the olecranon process; ulna longer than humerus; pinched posterior margin of the acetabular rim; robust pelvic symphysis extending the length of the puboischiatic plate; lack of a distinct postaxial flange of the femur; and an elaborated femoral lateral condyle wrapping over the medial condyle. We incorporated data from the appendicular skeleton of Bunostegos into a revised phylogenetic analysis of pareiasaur relationships. The results of this analysis corroborate previous cranial analyses that place Bunostegos between Guadalupian taxa and the Lopingian velosaur subclade. Interestingly, several aspects of its postcranial anatomy suggest that Bunostegos possessed relatively upright forelimb posture, which would be unique among pareiasaurs and possibly Permian amniotes as a whole. © 2015 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology.


Turner M.L.,Brown University | Tsuji L.A.,Royal Ontario Museum | Ide O.,University Of Niamey | Sidor C.A.,University of Washington
Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology | Year: 2015

Pareiasaurs were a group of herbivorous reptiles that lived during the middle to late Permian (˜265–252 Ma) in what is modern-day Europe, Asia, South America, and Africa. Field work in the Moradi Formation of northern Niger has produced multiple elements of the appendicular skeleton of the pareiasaur Bunostegos akokanensis. The considerable size disparity and morphological variation among the elements suggest that they represent ontogenetic stages ranging from relatively juvenile to adult. Here we present the first description of the scapulocoracoid, humerus, radius, ulna, pelvis, and femur of Bunostegos as well as some of the first ontogenetic data for postcranial osteology in pareiasaurs. As with the skull, numerous postcranial autapomorphies characterize Bunostegos, including laterally originating acromion process of the scapula; radius and ulna with continuous articular surface on humerus; paired crests on the olecranon process; ulna longer than humerus; pinched posterior margin of the acetabular rim; robust pelvic symphysis extending the length of the puboischiatic plate; lack of a distinct postaxial flange of the femur; and an elaborated femoral lateral condyle wrapping over the medial condyle. We incorporated data from the appendicular skeleton of Bunostegos into a revised phylogenetic analysis of pareiasaur relationships. The results of this analysis corroborate previous cranial analyses that place Bunostegos between Guadalupian taxa and the Lopingian velosaur subclade. Interestingly, several aspects of its postcranial anatomy suggest that Bunostegos possessed relatively upright forelimb posture, which would be unique among pareiasaurs and possibly Permian amniotes as a whole. SUPPLEMENTAL DATA—Supplemental materials are available for this article for free at www.tandfonline.com/UJVP © 2015 Taylor & Francis


PubMed | Direction of Animal Health, University of Niamey, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Veterinary and Agro chemical Research Center and 3 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2013

In Niamey, Niger, interactions within the interface between animals, humans and the environment induce a potential risk of brucellosis transmission between animals and from animals to humans. Currently, little is known about the transmission of Brucella in this context.5,192 animals from 681 herds were included in the study. Serum samples and hygroma fluids were collected. A household survey enabled to identify the risk factors for transmission of brucellosis. The true adjusted herd-level prevalence of brucellosis ranged between 11.2% and 17.2% and the true adjusted animal-population level prevalence was 1.3% (95% CI: 0.9-1.8%) based on indirect ELISA test for Brucella antibodies. Animals aged of 1-4 years were found to be more susceptible than animals less than 1 year old (Odds ratio [OR] of 2.7; 95% CI: 1.43-5.28). For cattle, the odds of brucellosis seropositivity were higher in rural compared to the periurban areas (OR of 2.8; 95% CI: 1.48-5.17) whereas for small ruminants the risk of seropositivity appeared to be higher in urban compared to periurban areas (OR of 5.5; 95% CI: 1.48-20.38). At herd level, the risk of transmission was increased by transhumance (OR of 5.4; 95% CI: 2.84-10.41), the occurrence of abortions (OR of 3.0; 95% CI: 1.40-6.41), and for herds having more than 50 animals (OR of 11.0; 95% CI: 3.75-32.46). Brucella abortus biovar 3 was isolated from the hygromas.brucellosis in Niger is a serious problem among cattle especially in the rural areas around Niamey and among sheep in the urban areas of Niamey. The seroprevalence varies across strata and animal species with important risk factors including herd size, abortion and transhumance at herd level and age at animal population level. For effective control of brucellosis, an integrated approach seems appropriate involving all stakeholders working in public and animal health.


Boukary A.R.,Management of Natural Resources | Boukary A.R.,Institute of Tropical Medicine | Boukary A.R.,University of Liège | Boukary A.R.,University of Niamey | And 8 more authors.
Transboundary and Emerging Diseases | Year: 2012

A retrospective and a longitudinal survey were carried out at the abattoir of Niamey. Results showed a highly significant difference in suspected tuberculosis (TB) gross lesions among different animal species (P<0.0001). The proportion of carcasses with TB-like lesions was 0.19% among cattle, 0.11% among camels, 0.001% among sheep and 0.0006% among goats. In cattle, cows are significantly more affected than the other categories (P<0.001). Also in cattle, TB-like lesions are mostly localized in the lungs (92.77%) followed by the lymph nodes (50.87%) and the liver (32.40%). The prevalence of gross lesions compatible with bovine TB (BTB) is strongly influenced by the season (P<0.0001), is closely correlated with the origin of the animals (P<0.001) and has a negative impact on the weight of affected animals (P<0.0001). Sixty-two samples of suspected TB gross lesions were subject to microbiological analysis and molecular typing of strains. Mycobacterium bovis was identified in 18 animals showing five different spoligotypes, belonging to type 'African 1' previously identified in Central and West Africa. In addition, a profile (SB1982) not previously reported distinguished by the absence of spacers 3, 4, 9, 16, 22, 30 and 39-43 has been characterized in this study. To assess risk factors for BTB transmission, a questionnaire on animal husbandry practices, food habits, and clinical signs of TB in animals and humans was submitted to the heads of 1131 randomly selected households. The main risk factors identified are consumption of unpasteurized milk (91%) and lack of hygiene within households (32-74%). Clinical signs that could be attributed to TB were also reported both in humans and in animals of the households. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.


Boukary A.R.,ONG Karkara | Boukary A.R.,University of Liège | Boukary A.R.,Institute of Tropical Medicine | Boukary A.R.,University of Niamey | And 8 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Introduction: In Niamey, Niger, interactions within the interface between animals, humans and the environment induce a potential risk of brucellosis transmission between animals and from animals to humans. Currently, little is known about the transmission of Brucella in this context. Results: 5,192 animals from 681 herds were included in the study. Serum samples and hygroma fluids were collected. A household survey enabled to identify the risk factors for transmission of brucellosis. The true adjusted herd-level prevalence of brucellosis ranged between 11.2% and 17.2% and the true adjusted animal-population level prevalence was 1.3% (95% CI: 0.9-1.8%) based on indirect ELISA test for Brucella antibodies. Animals aged of 1-4 years were found to be more susceptible than animals less than 1 year old (Odds ratio [OR] of 2.7; 95% CI: 1.43-5.28). For cattle, the odds of brucellosis seropositivity were higher in rural compared to the periurban areas (OR of 2.8; 95% CI: 1.48-5.17) whereas for small ruminants the risk of seropositivity appeared to be higher in urban compared to periurban areas (OR of 5.5; 95% CI: 1.48-20.38). At herd level, the risk of transmission was increased by transhumance (OR of 5.4; 95% CI: 2.84-10.41), the occurrence of abortions (OR of 3.0; 95% CI: 1.40-6.41), and for herds having more than 50 animals (OR of 11.0; 95% CI: 3.75-32.46). Brucella abortus biovar 3 was isolated from the hygromas. Conclusion: brucellosis in Niger is a serious problem among cattle especially in the rural areas around Niamey and among sheep in the urban areas of Niamey. The seroprevalence varies across strata and animal species with important risk factors including herd size, abortion and transhumance at herd level and age at animal population level. For effective control of brucellosis, an integrated approach seems appropriate involving all stakeholders working in public and animal health. © 2013 Boukary et al.


Tsuji L.A.,University of Washington | Sidor C.A.,University of Washington | Steyer J.-S.,CNRS Center for Research on Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments | Smith R.M.H.,Karoo Palaeontology | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology | Year: 2013

We describe newly recovered cranial material of Bunostegos akokanensis, a pareiasaurian reptile known from the Upper Permian Moradi Formation of northern Niger. Bunostegos is highly autapomorphic, with diagnostic cranial features including two or three hemispherical bosses located above and between the external nares; laterally projecting supraorbital horn formed by an enlarged postfrontal; large foramen present on ventral surface of postfrontal; and hemispherical supratemporal boss located at posterolateral corner of skull roof. We addressed the phylogenetic position of Bunostegos by incorporating it into a cladistic analysis of 29 parareptilian taxa (including all 21 currently valid pareiasaurs) and 127 cranial and postcranial characters. The results of this analysis place Bunostegos as more derived than middle Permian forms such as Bradysaurus and as the sister taxon to the clade including Deltavjatia plus Velosauria. Certain characters, such as the pattern of cranial ornamentation and the size and placement of the tabulars, appear to be more similar to more derived pareiasaurs such as Elginia from Scotland and Arganaceras from Morocco, but the most parsimonious tree topology indicates that these features were evolved independently in the Nigerien form. The lack of both dicynodont herbivores and Glossopteris, combined with the presence of a giant herbivorous captorhinid, indicates a markedly different community structure in the Permian of Niger compared with those for contemporaneous southern Pangean basins (i.e., Karoo, Luangwa, Ruhuhu). The endemic tetrapod fauna of Niger supports the theory that central Pangea was biogeographically isolated from the rest of the supercontinent by desert-like conditions during Late Permian times. © 2013 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Reenberg A.,Copenhagen University | Maman I.,University Of Niamey | Oksen P.,ESL Environment Sustainability Livelihood
Journal of Arid Environments | Year: 2013

This paper explores the evolution of land use and natural resource management strategies over the past twenty to fifty years in a remote Sahelian region. The empirical example is Karagou village in SE Niger. Building on an in-depth survey from 1992 and a targeted, follow-up analysis of contemporary land use strategies in 2011, the change process is scrutinized.The analysis uses the conceptual lenses of land systems science, human-environmental timelines, and the notion of multiple exposures. Enabling and constraining conditions for local livelihoods in terms of the resource base (landscape, water, and population) are described. Results characterize how land use strategies have developed and how local people opportunistically use different landscape elements such as dune landscapes, valley bottoms (bas-fonds) and oases (cuvettes). Major concerns are rainfall variability, saturation of cropland, and perceived dwindling groundwater resources. It is concluded that the land use and livelihood strategies have remained remarkably stable in the face of the changing socio-ecological fringe conditions, but that this situation may hamper a sustainable transformation. •We explore local changes in land use and livelihood over 20 years.•We investigate the triple exposure of population pressure, climate and globalization.•We find that local strategies are remarkably resilient to changes.•People know well how to try to cope with climate variability in their land use.•The stability and resilience in poor regions may hamper ability to transformation. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Mayaki F.,University of Niamey | Kouabenan D.R.,Pierre Mendès-France University
Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology | Year: 2014

Objective: The present study looks at how family-planning (FP) practices might be influenced by perceptions about children and procreation. We hypothesised that adding the perceived value of children and procreation to Ajzen's 1985 model would improve its predictive power. Method: Two hundred and seventy Nigerian women, 120 living in an urban area and 150 living in a rural area, answered a questionnaire about their use of FP. The questionnaire contained items assessing the variables found in Ajzen's model (attitude, perceived control, subjective norms, intention) as well as items assessing perceptions about children and procreation. Results: The results confirmed that child-related perceptions improved predictions for both rural and urban women (improvements of 2.4% and 2.8%, respectively). They also had an effect on FP practices. More specifically, the more positive a woman's perceptions of children, the less inclined she was to engage in FP. Conclusions: Recommendations are made in view of taking this variable into account in FP promotion programmes. © 2014 Society for Reproductive and Infant Psychology.

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