Time filter

Source Type

Sydney, Australia

The University of New South Wales is an Australian public research university located in the Sydney suburbs of Kensington and Paddington. Established in 1949, it is ranked among the top 50 universities in the world, according to the 2014 QS World University Rankings, and among the top 5 in Australia. It is also the first university in the world to be awarded the QS 5 Star Plus badge for excellence. UNSW currently has more than 50,000 students from over 120 countries.The main UNSW campus is located on a modern 38-hectare site at Kensington, seven kilometres from the centre of Sydney and close to local beaches including Coogee and Bondi. Other campuses are UNSW Art & Design in Paddington, UNSW Canberra at the Australian Defence Force Academy, and sub-campuses at Randwick and Coogee in Sydney, as well as research stations around New South Wales.UNSW is a founding member of the prestigious Group of Eight, a coalition of Australian research-intensive universities, and of Universitas 21, a leading global network of research universities. It has international exchange and research partnerships with over 200 universities around the world.UNSW graduates hold more chief executive positions of ASX 200 listed companies than those of any other university in Australia. Wikipedia.

Bryant R.A.,University of New South Wales
Journal of Clinical Psychiatry | Year: 2011

Objective: The utility of the acute stress disorder diagnosis to describe acute stress reactions and predict subsequent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was evaluated. Data Sources: A systematic search was conducted in the PsycINFO, MEDLINE, and PubMed databases for English-language articles published between 1994 and 2009 using keywords that combined acute stress disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder. Study Selection: Studies were selected that assessed for acute stress disorder within 1 month of trauma exposure and assessed at a later time for PTSD, using established measures of acute stress disorder and PTSD. Data Extraction: For each study, capacity of the acute stress disorder diagnosis to predict PTSD was calculated in terms of sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive power. For studies that reported subsyndromal acute stress disorder, the same analyses were calculated for cases that initially satisfied subsyndromal acute stress disorder criteria. Data Synthesis: Twenty-two studies were identified as suitable for analysis (19 with adults and 3 with children). Diagnosis of acute stress disorder resulted in half the rate of distressed people in the acute phase being identified relative to including cases with subsyndromal acute stress disorder. In terms of prediction, the acute stress disorder diagnosis had reasonable positive predictive power (proportion of people with acute stress disorder who later developed PTSD). In contrast, the sensitivity (proportion of people who developed PTSD who initially met criteria for acute stress disorder) was poor. Conclusions: The acute stress disorder diagnosis does not adequately identify the majority of people who will eventually develop PTSD. There is a need to formally describe acute stress reactions, but this goal may be achieved more usefully by describing the broad range of initial reactions rather than by attempting to predict subsequent PTSD. © Copyright 2010 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

Cook K.M.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Cook K.M.,University of New South Wales | Figg W.D.,U.S. National Institutes of Health
CA Cancer Journal for Clinicians | Year: 2010

Angiogenesis has become an attractive target for drug therapy because of its key role in tumor growth. An extensive array of compounds is currently in preclinical development, with many now entering the clinic and/or achieving approval from the US Food and Drug Administration. Several regulatory and signaling molecules governing angiogenesis are of interest, including growth factors (eg, vascular endothelial growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, fibroblast growth factor, and epidermal growth factor), receptor tyrosine kinases, and transcription factors such as hypoxia inducible factor, as well as molecules involved in mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling. Pharmacologic agents have been identified that target these path- ways, yet for some agents (notably thalidomide), an understanding of the specific mechanisms of antitumor action has proved elusive. The following review describes key molecular mechanisms and novel therapies that are on the horizon for antiangiogenic tumor therapy. © 2010 American Cancer Society, Inc.

Ord T.J.,University of New South Wales | Garcia-Porta J.,Institute of Evolutionary Biology CSIC UPF
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2012

Complex social communication is expected to evolve whenever animals engage in many and varied social interactions; that is, sociality should promote communicative complexity. Yet, informal comparisons among phylogenetically independent taxonomic groups seem to cast doubt on the putative role of social factors in the evolution of complex communication. Here, we provide a formal test of the sociality hypothesis alongside alternative explanations for the evolution of communicative complexity. We compiled data documenting variations in signal complexity among closely related species for several case study groups-ants, frogs, lizards and birds-and used new phylogenetic methods to investigate the factors underlying communication evolution. Social factors were only implicated in the evolution of complex visual signals in lizards. Ecology, and to some degree allometry, were most likely explanations for complexity in the vocal signals of frogs (ecology) and birds (ecology and allometry). There was some evidence for adaptive evolution in the pheromone complexity of ants, although no compelling selection pressure was identified. For most taxa, phylogenetic null models were consistently ranked above adaptive models and, for some taxa, signal complexity seems to have accumulated in species via incremental or random changes over long periods of evolutionary time. Becoming social presumably leads to the origin of social communication in animals, but its subsequent influence on the trajectory of signal evolution has been neither clear-cut nor general among taxonomic groups. © 2012 The Royal Society.

McMonnies C.W.,University of New South Wales
Optometry and Vision Science | Year: 2015

Post-LASIK (laser in situ keratomileusis) symptoms and signs of dry eye have multiple causes. For example, tear osmolarity and the concentration of inflammatory mediators can increase because of reduced aqueous production and increased evaporative loss as a result of lower blink rates and increased interblink intervals. The tear concentration of inflammatory mediators can also increase because of surgical trauma, wound healing, comorbid systemic and ocular diseases, and the use of punctal plugs. Studies that examine only mechanical sensitivity of the cornea cannot detect changes in chemical sensitivity, which can persist longer. Symptoms may be partly attributed to sensitization of the traumatized corneal or lid wiper sensory nerves by inflammatory mediators. Increased lid wiper sensitivity could increase awareness of blinks, especially if ocular surface lubricity is reduced. Incomplete blinks have been found to represent 10 to 22% of the total number of blinks. Loss of neural stimuli and lower blink rates increase the significance of incomplete blinks that approximately double related interblink intervals and tear evaporation. The most common location of post-LASIK epitheliopathy is the inferior area of the cornea, which is overexposed by incomplete blinks. The relevance of incomplete blinking to post-LASIK epitheliopathy is supported by the relative absence of this complication in the similarly neurotrophically disadvantaged upper corneal areas for which blink rates and other tear functions usually appear to be adequate to prevent epitheliopathy, which stains. Occupational or leisure-time activities such as computer use and reading, which have been found to reduce blink rates and blink completeness, appear to be significant risk factors for symptoms and signs of dry eye. Apart from reducing symptoms and signs of dry eye, prophylactic and post-LASIK blink exercises to reduce incomplete blink rates and associated overexposure of the ocular surface may also contribute to more accurate refractive outcomes through faster wound healing. © 2015 American Academy of Optometry.

Storey M.V.,Sydney Water | van der Gaag B.,KWR Groningenhaven 7 | Burns B.P.,University of New South Wales
Water Research | Year: 2011

Significant advances have been made in recent years in technologies to monitor drinking water quality for source water protection, treatment operations, and distribution system management, in the event of accidental (or deliberate) contamination. Reports prepared through the Global Water Research Coalition (GWRC) and United States Environment Protection Agency (USEPA) agree that while many emerging technologies show promise, they are still some years from being deployed on a large scale. Further underpinning their viability is a need to interpret data in real time and implement a management strategy in response. This review presents the findings of an international study into the state of the art in this field. These results are based on visits to leading water utilities, research organisations and technology providers throughout Europe, the United States and Singapore involved in the development and deployment of on-line monitoring technology for the detection of contaminants in water. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Dain S.J.,University of New South Wales
Clinical and Experimental Optometry | Year: 2012

The selection of lens materials for non-prescription personal protective equipment has been a relatively simple process and has its origins in many studies around the 1970s. The viable materials available at that time were tempered glass, hard resin (n = 1.50) and polycarbonate. The modern spectacle non-prescription eye protector of choice is inevitably hard coated polycarbonate, which has exemplary impact resistant properties. In the prescription lens area, there is a bewildering array of materials of various refractive indices with a variety of coatings. The selection of an ophthalmic lens has optical and cosmetic considerations ahead of impact resistance. In complying with the Australian/New Zealand standard on prescription eye protection, adequate impact resistance must rate as the foremost requirement, with optical and cosmetic considerations as important but lesser considerations. In this review, the evidence on impact resistance of the available materials is presented, the standards set for testing impact resistance are detailed and some guidance is provided for the selection of prescription eye protection materials. © 2012 The Author. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2012 Optometrists Association Australia.

Schmitz-Peiffer C.,Garvan Institute of Medical Research | Schmitz-Peiffer C.,University of New South Wales
FEBS Journal | Year: 2013

Upon their discovery almost 40 years ago, isoforms of the lipid-activated protein kinase C (PKC) family were initially regarded only as downstream effectors of the second messengers calcium and diacylglycerol, undergoing activation upon phospholipid hydrolysis in response to acute stimuli. Subsequently, several isoforms were found to be associated with the inhibitory effects of lipid over-supply on glucose homeostasis, especially the negative cross-talk with insulin signal transduction, observed upon accumulation of diacylglycerol in insulin target tissues. The PKC family has therefore attracted much attention in diabetes and obesity research, because intracellular lipid accumulation is strongly correlated with defective insulin action and the development of type 2 diabetes. Causal roles for various isoforms in the generation of insulin resistance have more recently been confirmed using PKC-deficient mice. However, during characterization of these animals, it became increasingly evident that the enzymes play key roles in the modulation of lipid metabolism itself, and may control the supply of lipids between tissues such as adipose and liver. Molecular studies have also demonstrated roles for PKC isoforms in several aspects of lipid metabolism, such as adipocyte differentiation and hepatic lipogenesis. While the precise mechanisms involved, especially the identities of protein substrates, are still unclear, the emerging picture suggests that the currently held view of the contribution of PKC isoforms to metabolism is an over-simplification. Although PKCs may inhibit insulin signal transduction, these enzymes are not merely downstream effectors of lipid accumulation, but in fact control the fate of fatty acids, thus the tail wags the dog. PKC isoforms are associated with the inhibitory effects of lipids on insulin action. It is now evident that these enzymes also play key roles in the modulation of lipid metabolism, regulating the supply of lipids between tissues such as adipose and liver. These kinases are not merely effectors of lipid accumulation, but in fact control the fate of fatty acids. © 2013 Commonwealth of Australia.

Palmer D.,University of New South Wales
Geophysical Prospecting | Year: 2010

Non-uniqueness occurs with the 1D parametrization of refraction traveltime graphs in the vertical dimension and with the 2D lateral resolution of individual layers in the horizontal dimension. The most common source of non-uniqueness is the inversion algorithm used to generate the starting model. This study applies 1D, 1.5D and 2D inversion algorithms to traveltime data for a syncline (2D) model, in order to generate starting models for wave path eikonal traveltime tomography.The 1D tau-p algorithm produced a tomogram with an anticline rather than a syncline and an artefact with a high seismic velocity. The 2D generalized reciprocal method generated tomograms that accurately reproduced the syncline, together with narrow regions at the thalweg with seismic velocities that are less than and greater than the true seismic velocities as well as the true values.It is concluded that 2D inversion algorithms, which explicitly identify forward and reverse traveltime data, are required to generate useful starting models in the near-surface where irregular refractors are common. The most likely tomogram can be selected as either the simplest model or with a priori information, such as head wave amplitudes.The determination of vertical velocity functions within individual layers is also subject to non-uniqueness. Depths computed with vertical velocity gradients, which are the default with many tomography programs, are generally 50% greater than those computed with constant velocities for the same traveltime data. The average vertical velocity provides a more accurate measure of depth estimates, where it can be derived.Non-uniqueness is a fundamental reality with the inversion of all near-surface seismic refraction data. Unless specific measures are taken to explicitly address non-uniqueness, then the production of a single refraction tomogram, which fits the traveltime data to sufficient accuracy, does not necessarily demonstrate that the result is either 'correct' or the most probable. © 2009 European Association of Geoscientists and Engineers.

Masselink G.,University of Plymouth | Turner I.L.,University of New South Wales
Coastal Engineering | Year: 2012

It is generally accepted that the effect on beach morphology of the interactions between swash motion and the beach groundwater table depends on the elevation of the latter relative to that of the sea. Specifically, a low beach groundwater table is considered to enhance onshore sediment transport and beach accretion, while the reverse is thought to hold for a high beach groundwater table. Here, we use the results of a carefully designed series of tests conducted in the Delta Flume, the Netherlands, as part of the Barrier Dynamics Experiment (BARDEX), to unequivocally demonstrate the validity of this assertion. During the experiment, a 4-m high and 50-m long gravel barrier (D 50=11mm) was constructed within the central region of the 250-m long and 7-m deep wave flume, enabling a back-barrier 'lagoon' to be located at its landward side. The groundwater table in the beach was manipulated by lowering and raising the lagoon level, and the gravel beach was subjected to variable wave conditions and sea/lagoon levels. Using as the initial beach profile the morphology resulting from 90min of wave forcing with the sea and lagoon at the same level, the identical wave forcing with a low lagoon level consistently resulted in onshore sediment transport in the swash zone and beach accretion, whereas the identical wave forcing with a high lagoon level consistently caused offshore sediment transport in the swash zone and beach erosion. The divergent beach morphological responses for the low and high lagoon levels could not be attributed to changes in the 'bulk' swash hydrodynamics (i.e., based on single-point velocity measurements) arising from a difference in the amount of swash infiltration into the unsaturated beach. Instead, application of a sediment transport model that accounts for the effects of in/exfiltration suggested that the onshore sediment transport and beach accretion for the low lagoon tests mainly resulted from enhanced bed shear stresses during the wave uprush due to infiltration into the saturated part of the beachface. Due to the large hydraulic conductivity of gravel (K=O(0.1ms -1)), the effect of altered shear stresses due to in/exfiltration may be an important factor in sediment transport in the swash zone of gravel beaches. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Ord T.J.,University of New South Wales
Journal of Evolutionary Biology | Year: 2012

The extent that evolution - including adaptation - is historically contingent (dependent on past events) has often been hotly debated, but is still poorly understood. In particular, there are little data on the degree that behaviour, an aspect of the phenotype that is strongly linked to contemporary environments (social or physical), retains the imprint of evolutionary history. In this study, I examined whether differences in the design of the territorial displays among species of Caribbean Anolis lizards reflect island-specific selection regimes, or historically contingent predispositions associated with different clade histories. Adult males advertise territory ownership using a series of headbobs and dewlap extensions, bouts of which vary in duration among species. When display durations were mapped onto the Anolis phylogeny, prominent differences between species belonging to the Western and Eastern Caribbean radiations were apparent. Statistical analyses confirmed that species differences in the duration of headbob displays, and to some extent the duration of dewlap extensions, were historically contingent. The unique evolutionary histories of each clade have seemingly had a profound effect on the subsequent direction of display evolution among descendent taxa. These results combined with those from previous studies on these lizards show that past history can have an important impact on the type of behaviour exhibited by species today, to the point that adaptive evolution can proceed quite differently in lineages originating from different evolutionary starting points. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2012 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

Maloney R.T.,University of New South Wales
Journal of Neurophysiology | Year: 2015

Orientation signals in human primary visual cortex (V1) can be reliably decoded from the multivariate pattern of activity as measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The precise underlying source of these decoded signals (whether by orientation biases at a fine or coarse scale in cortex) remains a matter of some controversy, however. Freeman and colleagues (J Neurosci 33: 19695-19703, 2013) recently showed that the accuracy of decoding of spiral patterns in V1 can be predicted by a voxel’s preferred spatial position (the population receptive field) and its coarse orientation preference, suggesting that coarse-scale biases are sufficient for orientation decoding. Whether they are also necessary for decoding remains an open question, and one with implications for the broader interpretation of multivariate decoding results in fMRI studies. © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

Robertson R.,University of New South Wales
Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans | Year: 2013

Tidal effects on the circulation under the ice shelves and ice shelf melting in the Amundsen Sea were investigated using a numerical model, through comparison of simulations with and without tides. In the Amundsen Sea, tidal impacts were dependant on the location of the ice shelf front with respect to the M2 effective critical latitude. The critical latitude is the latitude where the tidal frequency equals the inertial frequency. The effective critical latitude is where the tidal frequency equals the inertial frequency adjusted by relative vorticity, such as that associated with a wind-driven gyre. For ice shelves located equatorward of the M2 effective critical latitude, tides increased both mixing in front of and under the ice shelf and flow into the ice shelf cavities by as much as 50%, despite weak tides compared with the mean flows. Tides also increased melting for these ice shelves by 1-3.5 m yr-1, a 50% increase for Dotson Ice Shelf and 25% for Pine Island Ice Shelf. These enhancements were not a result of tidal residual flows, but instead originated from resonant effects, increases in the baroclinity of the velocities, and higher mixing, all of which are associated with critical latitude effects on internal tides. For ice shelves located poleward of the effective critical latitude, tides very slightly retarded flow into the cavity and slightly reduced melting. Key Points Tides can increase ice shelf melting by 1-3.5 m/yr, depending on latitude. Tides can increase mixing and flow under ice shelves, depending on latitude. Critical latitude shifts by wind influence tidal impacts on ice shelves. ©2013. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

Lowe A.B.,University of New South Wales
Polymer Chemistry | Year: 2010

This review highlights examples of recent applications of both the radical-mediated and base/nucleophile-initiated thiol-ene reactions in polymer and materials synthesis. Initial discussion focuses on mechanistic aspects of these reactions and also notes some of the structural considerations, with respect to reactants, that should be considered when practising such chemistries. The review is not intended to be exhaustive but rather to serve as an illustration of the impressive versatility and clear potential of these thiol-based "click" reactions and to highlight examples demonstrating its broad utility. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Sun W.,University of New South Wales
Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics | Year: 2014

Due to the breakdown of Derjaguin approximation at the nanoscale level apart from the neglect of the atomic discrete structure, the underestimated number density of atoms, and surface effects, the continuum Hamaker model does not hold to describe interactions between a spherical nanoparticle and a flat surface. In this work, the interaction forces including van der Waals (vdW) attraction, Born repulsion and mechanical contact forces between a spherical nanoparticle and a flat substrate have been studied using molecular dynamic (MD) simulations. The MD simulated results are compared with the Hamaker approach and it is found that the force ratios for one nanosphere interacting with a flat surface are different from those for two interacting nanospheres, both qualitatively and quantitatively. Thus two separate formulas have been proposed to estimate the vdW attraction and Born repulsion forces between a nanosphere and a flat surface. Besides, it is revealed that the mechanical contact forces between a spherical nanoparticle and a flat surface still can be described by the continuum Hertz model. © 2014 the Owner Societies.

Biro P.A.,University of New South Wales | Stamps J.A.,University of California at Davis
Trends in Ecology and Evolution | Year: 2010

Consistent individual differences (CIDs) in behavior are a widespread phenomenon in animals, but the proximate reasons for them are unresolved. We discuss evidence for the hypothesis that CIDs in energy metabolism, as reflected by resting metabolic rate (RMR), promote CIDs in behavior patterns that either provide net energy (e.g. foraging activity), and/or consume energy (e.g. courtship activity). In doing so, we provide a framework for linking together RMR, behavior, and life-history productivity. Empirical studies suggest that RMR is (a) related to the capacity to generate energy, (b) repeatable, and (c) correlated with behavioral output (e.g. aggressiveness) and productivity (e.g. growth). We conclude by discussing future research directions to clarify linkages between behavior and energy metabolism in this emerging research area. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Stening R.J.,University of New South Wales | Winch D.E.,University of Sydney
Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics | Year: 2013

An earlier comprehensive analysis of geomagnetic tides by Winch is revisited to display changes in the current systems with season and longitude. The data used come from the quiet Sun years 1964-1965. We choose to present some total equivalent current systems, being the sum of the external and internal parts derived in the spherical harmonic analysis. The latitudes and local times of the current system foci are generally in agreement with other workers. The amplitudes of the current system vortices follow an annual variation with maximum in summer. The longitude variations of the vortex amplitudes vary as the inverse of the magnetic field strength at both equinoxes but have different variations at the solstices. Other longitude maxima which have been reported in the equatorial electrojet intensity were not found. We examine in detail the "invasions" of the summer current systems across the equator, identifying these as signatures of field-aligned currents (FACs). The tilting of current contours with respect to the equator is interpreted as being due to midday FACs. As others have found, the identification of afternoon FACs is more difficult. The seasonal swap-over of FAC directions occurs not in September but in October-November. Key Points Spherical harmonic analysis of global geomagnetic data is revisited for details Cross equator Annual variation of Sq vortex strength is found in both hemispheres ©2013. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

O'Rourke M.F.,University of New South Wales | Adji A.,Macquarie University
Current Hypertension Reports | Year: 2012

Our purpose is to review noninvasive methods for measuring central arterial pressure. Indices of central arterial pressure measured from central aortic and peripheral arterial waveforms have shown value in predicting cardiovascular events and death, as well as in guiding therapeutic management. This article reviews noninvasive techniques of measuring central arterial pressure that have been validated against intra-arterial pressure. This paper explains methods to derive central (aortic and carotid) pressure from radial and brachial sites. It focuses on specific issues of brachial calibration applied to carotid pressure waveforms, which were regarded as a surrogate of aortic pressures used in three major studies (Framingham, Asklepios, and Australian National Blood Pressure 2 studies). We explain why radial-based methods are superior to carotid-based methods for estimating central pressure. Physiological principles of pressure measurement need be satisfied to ensure accurate recording. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Hoyle C.E.,University of Southern Mississippi | Lowe A.B.,University of New South Wales | Bowman C.N.,University of Colorado at Boulder
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2010

The merits of thiol-click chemistry and its potential for making new forays into chemical synthesis and materials applications are described. Since thiols react to high yields under benign conditions with a vast range of chemical species, their utility extends to a large number of applications in the chemical, biological, physical, materials and engineering fields. This critical review provides insight into emerging venues for application as well as new mechanistic understanding of this exceptional chemistry in its many forms (81 references). © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Dance I.,University of New South Wales
Dalton Transactions | Year: 2010

In seeking to mimic the hydrogenation of N2 to NH3 as effected under mild conditions by the enzyme nitrogenase, three classes of known metal sulfide clusters that resemble the NFe7MoS9 core of FeMo-co, the active site of nitrogenase, have been assessed theoretically. The assessment has been made in the context of the previously proposed mechanism for nitrogenase, in which protons are relayed to FeMo-co, where, as hydrogen atoms accumulated on Fe and S atoms, they transfer to bound N2 and subsequent intermediates in a critical sequence of intramolecular hydrogenations, probably accelerated by H atom tunneling. The three model systems possess the XcFe4S4 face which is the key active site of FeMo-co (X is most probably N in FeMo-co, and is S in the models). The most promising functional models are based on clusters M1, {(tpb)Mo(μ3-S)3Fe2(Fe-L)S c(μ-S)2(Fe-L)Fe2(μ3-S) 3Mo(tpb)} [tpb = tris(1-pyrazolyl)hydroborate], for which syntheses are well developed. The assessment is based on the ability of the models to mimic the intermediates in the FeMo-co mechanism, as determined by density functional simulations. The elaborations of M1 required to mimic the FeMo-co behaviour are described. These include modification of the tpb ligands to control the coordination at the Fe atoms, to provide for the proton relay functionality, and to prevent unwanted reactivity at other Fe and S atoms. Literature references with prescriptions for synthesis of the predicted homogeneous catalysts are provided. Further, in view of the similarities between the model systems and the P-cluster of nitrogenase, it is speculated that the P-cluster could be a relic catalytic site for N2 reduction. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Adler M.,University of New South Wales
Behavioral Ecology | Year: 2010

Forced copulation is a male reproductive strategy in a variety of animals but rare among avian species, with the notable exceptions of waterfowl (family Anatidae) and at least 1 passerine species, the New Zealand stitchbird or hihi Notiomystis cincta. The presence of forced extrapair copulation in these species challenges the perception that females control extrapair copulations (EPC) across avian species. A noteworthy behavioral discrepancy is believed to exist between waterfowl and passerines in that female waterfowl are widely assumed to always resist EPC, whereas female passerines often pursue EPC. This difference in female behavior between avian groups is perplexing in light of the fact that unconditional resistance to EPC exposes female waterfowl to risk of serious injury. I consider 5 hypotheses to explain the female unconditional resistance strategy in waterfowl and focus on the controversial idea that resistance could represent a female mate choice strategy in a system dominated by male force. This resistance as mate choice hypothesis relies on indirect benefits to females through biasing paternity in favor of manipulative or genetically high-quality males and predicts that unconditional resistance versus conditional acceptance of EPC reflects the presence or absence of forced copulation in the mating system. Although indirect selection is widely regarded as unimportant in the evolution of female defensive traits when direct costs are large, I argue that indirect selection could nonetheless play an important role in the evolution of female strategies under sexual conflict.

Tau dysfunction characterizes neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Here, we performed an unbiased SAGE (serial analysis of gene expression) of differentially expressed mRNAs in the amygdala of transgenic pR5 mice that express human tau carrying the P301L mutation previously identified in familial cases of FTLD. SAGE identified 29 deregulated transcripts including Sfpq that encodes a nuclear factor implicated in the splicing and regulation of gene expression. To assess the relevance for human disease we analyzed brains from AD, Pick's disease (PiD, a form of FTLD), and control cases. Strikingly, in AD and PiD, both dementias with a tau pathology, affected brain areas showed a virtually complete nuclear depletion of SFPQ in both neurons and astrocytes, along with cytoplasmic accumulation. Accordingly, neurons harboring either AD tangles or Pick bodies were also depleted of SFPQ. Immunoblot analysis of human entorhinal cortex samples revealed reduced SFPQ levels with advanced Braak stages suggesting that the SFPQ pathology may progress together with the tau pathology in AD. To determine a causal role for tau, we stably expressed both wild-type and P301L human tau in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, an established cell culture model of tau pathology. The cells were differentiated by two independent methods, mitomycin C-mediated cell cycle arrest or neuronal differentiation with retinoic acid. Confocal microscopy revealed that SFPQ was confined to nuclei in non-transfected wild-type cells, whereas in wild-type and P301L tau over-expressing cells, irrespective of the differentiation method, it formed aggregates in the cytoplasm, suggesting that pathogenic tau drives SFPQ pathology in post-mitotic cells. Our findings add SFPQ to a growing list of transcription factors with an altered nucleo-cytoplasmic distribution under neurodegenerative conditions.

Cheleski D.J.,University of New South Wales
Proceedings. Biological sciences / The Royal Society | Year: 2013

Gaze is an important social cue in regulating human and non-human interactions. In this study, we employed an adaptation paradigm to examine the mechanisms underlying the perception of another's gaze. Previous research has shown that the interleaved presentation of leftwards and rightwards gazing adaptor stimuli results in observers judging a wider range of gaze deviations as being direct. We applied a similar paradigm to examine how human observers encode oblique (e.g. upwards and to the left) directions of gaze. We presented observers with interleaved gaze adaptors and examined whether adaptation differed between congruent (adaptor and test along same axis) and incongruent conditions. We find greater adaptation in congruent conditions along cardinal (horizontal and vertical) and non-cardinal (oblique) directions suggesting gaze is not coded alone by cardinal mechanisms. Our results suggest that the functional aspects of gaze processing might parallel that of basic visual features such as orientation.

Russell A.R.,University of New South Wales
Geotechnique | Year: 2014

Water retention in soils as a function of suction is important in many disciplines, including engineering when assessing soil strength in infrastructure, and land management, agriculture and ecohydrology. Water retention is described mathematically using a soil-water characteristic curve (SWCC), and many equations have been proposed which link degree of saturation, suction and voids ratio. They are empirical and phenomenological in origin, rarely incorporate both the particle size distribution and a description of pore geometry, and may not be valid for a soil in which pore surface area must remain constant and equal to particle surface area. Here, focusing on fractal soils, by setting particle and pore surface areas equal and constant, analytical derivations are presented linking all parameters defining SWCCs to particle and pore geometry information, size distributions, shapes, volumes and surface areas. Descriptions of how pore shapes and volumes depend on voids ratio are incorporated. The derivations show two key parameters, the air entry value and air expulsion value, are linked to the voids ratio in power laws, giving theoretical justification to what is observed in experiments. The power exponent is the fractal dimension of the particle size distribution. The voids ratio dependent SWCCs provide very good fits to data for six soils. This discovery means that a SWCC for a single voids ratio can be made applicable to any other voids ratio using just the particle size distribution. It is anticipated that extending these ideas to non-fractal soils may involve replacing the fractal size distributions with size distributions of other mathematical forms to capture size, shape, volume and surface area dependencies. © 2014, (publisher). All rights reserved.

Lum E.,University of New South Wales
Investigative ophthalmology & visual science | Year: 2012

This study was designed to map the sub-basal nerve plexus (SBNP) in the cornea of orthokeratology (OK) lens wearers. Laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) was performed in vivo on three subjects: a non-lens wearer and two OK lens wearers. Scans were performed on the right eye while the left eye fixated a moving target. A total of 575, 430, and 676 contiguous images of the SBNP were taken from the non-lens wearing and the OK lens wearing subjects, respectively, and used to construct maps of the central to mid-peripheral SBNP. In the non-lens wearing eye, nerves radiated towards a whorl-like complex centered nasally and inferiorly in an overall pattern consistent with previously reported studies. In the OK lens wearing eyes, this whorl pattern was absent, replaced by a tortuous network of nerve fibers centrally, and thicker curvilinear fibers mid-peripherally, particularly in the nasal, inferior, and temporal regions. This study maps the corneal SBNP in OK lens wearers and provides compelling evidence that OK lens wear alters the normal SBNP distribution observed in healthy, non-lens wearing eyes.

Lord M.S.,University of New South Wales | Foss M.,University of Aarhus | Besenbacher F.,University of Aarhus
Nano Today | Year: 2010

The nanoscale surface topography of artificial materials is known to play a significant role in interactions with biological systems such as proteins and cells. A detailed understanding, and ultimately control, of these interactions is therefore of utmost importance in areas such as cell culture technology, biosensing and medical device development. We briefly review different methods to synthesise and fabricate surfaces with well-defined nanoscale topography, and discuss how such nanostructured surfaces can be used as model systems in protein and cellular assays. Finally, an outlook of possible future in vitro and in vivo developments is provided. © 2010.

Morris J.C.,University of New South Wales | Phillips A.J.,Yale University
Natural Product Reports | Year: 2010

An overview of marine natural products synthesis during 2008 is provided. As with earlier installments in this series, the emphasis is on total syntheses of molecules of contemporary interest, new total syntheses, and syntheses that have resulted in structure confirmation or stereochemical assignments. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

van Holst Pellekaan S.,University of New South Wales
Quaternary International | Year: 2013

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), Y-chromosome and, more recently, genome studies from living people have produced powerful evidence for the dispersal of modern human populations. The prevailing model of global dispersion assumes an African origin in which Australia and the American continents represent some of the extreme regions of human migration, though the relative timing of dispersal events remains debatable. Here, a focus on Australia and New Guinea discusses currently available genetic evidence from the two regions, compared with that from Asia. Mt haplotypes indicate ancient ancestry for both Australia and New Guinea peoples, with evidence of some shared genetic connection and other unshared haplogroups apparently specific to both places. Migration into Sahul from south-east Asia may have been by more complex routes than only along a 'southern coastal route', raising the question of possible common ancestry in central or northern Asia for some Australian and American peoples for which current genetic evidence is tenuous. Although current dating methods for genetic diversity rely heavily on several assumptions, best estimates provide support for archaeological dates, indicating that, relative to the colonization of America, Australia was inhabited very early. Genetic diversity of living descendants of Australia's founding populations is informative for dispersal within Australia and for understanding complex population histories of Asia. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.

Edmond G.,University of New South Wales
Australian Journal of Forensic Sciences | Year: 2011

Drawing on legal principle, this essay considers how adversarial criminal justice systems have responded to forensic science evidence. Through reference to recent developments in Australia and foreign jurisdictions (e.g. the US and UK), empirical studies of forensic sciences and trial practice, and reviews by peak scientific and legal institutions (e.g. the National Academy of Sciences), it illustrates how lawyers and judges have fallen consistently short of their own espoused values and aspirations. The essay then turns to consider some of the implications of this legal 'failure' for forensic scientists, their managers and leaders. Legal limitations, in conjunction with serious and endemic problems with many forensic sciences, mean that forensic scientists and their institutions must develop socio-epistemic legitimacy through greater autonomy from investigators and the courts and a substantial research-orientation. © 2011 Australian Academy of Forensic Sciences.

Harris M.F.,University of New South Wales
Australian family physician | Year: 2013

The metabolic syndrome (MetSy) is increasingly common in Australia. It is associated with the rise in obesity and lifestyle risk behaviours. It is also controversial - its value in predicting cardiovascular disease and diabetes risk and in guiding therapy has been challenged. This article aims to provide advice on the diagnosis of the MetSy and the principles for its prevention and management in the context of primary care, taking into consideration aetiological factors and the complexity of managing its constituent risk factors. Diagnosis of the MetSy is useful in focusing attention on central adiposity and insulin resistance as risk factors both for the syndrome, and cardiovascular and diabetes morbidity and mortality. Its assessment requires measurement of waist circumference - a simple but seldom performed procedure in general practice. The most essential components for the prevention and management of the MetSy are measures to change diet and physical activity in order to achieve and sustain weight loss.

Willcox M.D.P.,University of New South Wales
Experimental Eye Research | Year: 2013

The ocular surface is continually exposed to the environment and as a consequence to different types of microbes, but whether there is a normal microbiota of the ocular surface remains unresolved. Using traditional microbial culture techniques has shown that <80% of swabs of the conjunctiva yield cultivable microbes. These usually belong to the bacterial types of the coagulase-negative staphylococci, Propionibacterium sp., with low frequency of isolation of bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus sp., Gram-negative bacteria or fungi. Even when these are grown, the numbers of colony forming units (cfu) per swab of the conjunctiva is usually much less than 100cfu. Swabs of the lid more commonly result in microbial growth, of the same species as from the conjunctiva and slightly higher cfu. Contact lenses have also been cultured, and they yield similar microbial types. Microbes can be isolated from the ocular surface almost immediately after birth. The advent of molecular techniques for microbial identification based on 16S rRNA sequencing has opened up the possibility of determining whether there are non-cultivable microbes that can colonise the ocular surface. Additionally, use of these techniques with cross-sectional and longitudinal studies may help to understand whether the ocular surface harbours its own unique microbiota, or whether the microbiota are only transiently present. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Cheong S.K.,University of New South Wales
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience | Year: 2013

Most neurons in primary visual cortex (V1) exhibit high selectivity for the orientation of visual stimuli. In contrast, neurons in the main thalamic input to V1, the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), are considered to be only weakly orientation selective. Here we characterize a sparse population of cells in marmoset LGN that show orientation and spatial frequency selectivity as great as that of cells in V1. The recording position in LGN and histological reconstruction of these cells shows that they are part of the koniocellular (K) pathways. Accordingly we have named them K-o ("koniocellular-orientation") cells. Most K-o cells prefer vertically oriented gratings; their contrast sensitivity and TF tuning are similar to those of parvocellular cells, and they receive negligible functional input from short wavelength-sensitive ("blue") cone photoreceptors. Four K-o cells tested displayed binocular responses. Our results provide further evidence that in primates as in nonprimate mammals the cortical input streams include a diversity of visual representations. The presence of K-o cells increases functional homologies between K pathways in primates and "sluggish/W" pathways in nonprimate visual systems.

Perkins S.E.,University of New South Wales | Fischer E.M.,ETH Zurich
Geophysical Research Letters | Year: 2013

The evaluation of a climate model's capability to simulate trends in extreme events is not straightforward. This is due to the role of internal climate variability, the simulated phases of which are unique to each individual model realization. We undertake an assessment of the 21-member Community Earth System Model (CESM) on the basis of its ability to simulate heat wave days frequency over Australia. We employ the extreme heat factor definition to measure heat waves and study events for all summers (November-March) between 1950 and 2005. The spatial pattern, magnitude, and significance of trends in CESM were found to be reasonable since the corresponding observed trends were within the CESM ensemble range. There is a suggestion that the model produces higher interannual variability than what is observed. The trends between realizations of the same model differ strongly, which suggest that internal climate variability can strongly amplify or mask local trends in extreme events. Key Points The CESM model has a sound capability in simulating trends in heat wave days A small model ensemble may not be represent models' ability to simulate extremes The forced signal in CESM is toward increasing heat wave days over Australia ©2013. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

Van Sebille E.,University of New South Wales
Physics Today | Year: 2015

A piece of plastic discarded into the sea travels far and wide, carried by complex currents. Eventually, the material settles into one of five distinct garbage patches in the subtropical oceans.

Green M.A.,University of New South Wales | Emery K.,National Renewable Energy Laboratory | Hishikawa Y.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology | Warta W.,Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems | Dunlop E.D.,European Commission - Joint Research Center Ispra
Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications | Year: 2014

Consolidated tables showing an extensive listing of the highest independently confirmed efficiencies for solar cells and modules are presented. Guidelines for inclusion of results into these tables are outlined, and new entries since July 2013 are reviewed. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Martin A.C.,University of New South Wales
Nature reviews. Nephrology | Year: 2010

Interest has been renewed over the role of uric acid in the pathogenesis of hypertension, endothelial dysfunction and renal dysfunction, which are all features of pre-eclampsia. Uric acid is not a consistent predictive factor for the development of pre-eclampsia but its levels generally increase once the disease manifests, and plasma levels of uric acid approximately correlate with disease severity. Hyperuricemia in pre-eclampsia was once thought to result solely from reduced renal clearance, but levels of uric acid are now also thought to increase through increased uric acid production caused by trophoblast breakdown, cytokine release and ischemia. Uric acid can promote endothelial dysfunction, damage and inflammation, which leads to oxidation. Pre-eclampsia, which is characterized by widespread endothelial dysfunction and inflammation, might be propagated by uric acid through these known in vitro activities. Of note, however, uric acid can also act as a scavenger of oxygen free radicals. Plasma urate measurements are currently used to support the diagnosis of pre-eclampsia during pregnancy. As further studies define the role of uric acid in the development of pre-eclampsia, monitoring levels of this factor may again become essential to the future treatment of pre-eclampsia.

Barres R.,University of New South Wales | Zierath J.R.,Karolinska University Hospital
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2011

DNA methylation is a major epigeneticmodification that controls gene expression in physiologic and pathologic states. Metabolic diseases such as diabetes and obesity are associated with profound alterations in gene expression that are caused by genetic and environmental factors. Recent reports have provided evidence that environmental factors at all ages could modify DNA methylation in somatic tissues, which suggests that DNA methylation is a more dynamic process than previously appreciated. Because of the importance of lifestyle factors in metabolic disorders, DNA methylation provides a mechanism by which environmental factors, including diet and exercise, can modify genetic predisposition to disease. This article considers the current evidence that defines a role for DNA methylation in metabolic disorders. © 2011 American Society for Nutrition.

Vucic S.,University of Sydney | Kiernan M.C.,University of New South Wales
Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry | Year: 2010

Background: Upregulation of persistent Na+ conductances has been linked to axonal degeneration in sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and has also been reported in the transgenic superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD-1) mouse model. The mechanisms of ectopic activity (fasciculations and cramp) and axonal degeneration still require clarification in familial ALS (FALS) in humans, and specifically whether there are any differences to the processes identified in sporadic patients. Consequently, novel threshold tracking techniques were used to assess whether upregulation of persistent Na+ conductances was a feature linked to axonal degeneration in FALS. Methods: Axonal excitability studies were undertaken in six FALS patients, 13 asymptomatic SOD-1 mutation carriers and 45 sporadic ALS (SALS) patients. Results: Compound muscle action potential amplitude was significantly reduced in FALS (6.3±1.3 mV) and SALS (6.060.4 mV) compared with controls (10.0±0.4 mV, p<0.05). The mean strength duration time constant (sSD) was significantly increased in FALS (0.55±0.10 ms, p<0.05) and SALS (0.52±0.02 ms, p<0.01) compared with controls (0.41±0.02). There were no differences in sSD between asymptomatic SOD-1 mutation carriers and controls. The increase in τSD correlated with the CMAP amplitude (r=-0.4) and neurophysiological index (r=-0.4). In separate studies that assessed cortical processes, short interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) was significantly reduced (FALS, -2.7±1.3%; controls 13.7±1.3%, p<0.0001) and intracortical facilitation increased (FALS, -5.0±2.2%; controls -0.461.1%, p<0.05) in FALS. The reduction in SICI correlated with τSD (r=-0.8). Conclusions: Taken together, these studies suggest that persistent Na+ conductances are upregulated in FALS and that this upregulation is intrinsically associated with axonal degeneration.

McLaws M.-L.,University of New South Wales | McLaws M.-L.,Intensive Care Coordination and Monitoring Unit | Burrell A.R.,Intensive Care Coordination and Monitoring Unit
Critical Care Medicine | Year: 2012

Objective: Identify the longest period a central line remains free from central line-associated bloodstream infection during an 18-month insertion-bundle project. Design: Prospective cohort. Setting: New South Wales adult intensive care units at university teaching hospitals between July 2007 and December 2008. Patients: Intensive care unit adult patients whose central line was inserted in the intensive care unit. Intervention: Compliance with the insertion bundle for central lines during the first 12-month roll-out period and the last 6 months. Main Outcomes: The cumulative line days that remained close to infection-free before the lowest probability of central line-associated bloodstream infection, 1 in 100 chances, was identified using conditional probability modeling. An adjusted central line-associated bloodstream infection rate was calculated for these cumulated line days and thereafter where the probability for infection increased with additional dwell time. Results: The lowest probability identified for central line-associated bloodstream infection was 1 in 100 chances regardless of the phase of the project or central line type. During the first 12 months of the project, the close to infection-free period finished by the end of day 7 giving an adjusted central line-associated bloodstream infection rate of 1.8 (95% confidence interval 0.9-3.3)/1000 line days. By the last 6 months of the project the close to infection-free period was extended by 2 additional line days to the end of day 9, giving an adjusted central line-associated bloodstream infection rate of 0.9 (95% confidence interval 0.5-1.5)/1,000 line days. For dialysis and unspecified central line types, the close to infection-free period was extended by 5 additional line days, from day 2 with a rate of 4.3 (95% confidence interval 0.9-12.5)/1,000 line days to day 7, giving a rate of 0.6 (95% confidence interval 0.2-2.4)/1,000 line days. Conclusion: The success of the insertion bundle was identified by improved analysis that identified that the safest dwell time was extended to the first 9 days for centrally inserted lines and up to day 7 for dialysis, peripherally inserted central catheters, and unspecified central line types. Given that three quarters of intensive care unit patients have their central line removed by day 7, zero risk for central line-associated bloodstream infection should be achievable in the majority of patients where clinicians comply with the clinician and patient insertion bundles. Copyright © 2012 by the Society of Critical Care Medicine and Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Brennan M.,University of New South Wales
Australian Family Physician | Year: 2011

Background: Lactational mastitis is common, affecting one in 5 breastfeeding women. As well as causing significant discomfort, it is a frequent reason for women to stop breastfeeding. Objective: This article outlines an evidence based approach to the diagnosis and management of lactational breast infections in general practice. Discussion: Lactational mastitis is usually bacterial in aetiology and can generally be effectively managed with oral antibiotics. Infections that do not improve rapidly require further investigation for breast abscess and nonlactational causes of inflammation, including the rare cause of inflammatory breast cancer. In addition to antibiotics, management of lactational breast infections include symptomatic treatment, assessment of the infant's attachment to the breast, and reassurance, emotional support, education and support for ongoing breastfeeding.

Objective: Semantic dementia, a subtype of frontotemporal lobar degeneration, is characterised by cross-modal loss of conceptual knowledge attributable to progressive degeneration of the left anterior temporal lobe. Much less is known regarding the clinical presentation of SD patients with predominantly right-lateralised atrophy. Recent reports emphasise marked socioemotional and behavioural disturbances in such cases. Given the importance of the right anterior temporal lobes in social cognition, we hypothesised that socioemotional functioning would be disproportionately affected in right versus left-lateralised SD cases. Methods: We assessed well-characterised cases of predominantly right (n=10) and left (n=12) SD and 20 matched healthy controls on tests of emotion processing and interpersonal functioning. Results: Right SD cases showed disproportionate difficulties in the recognition of positive and negative facial emotions, specifically happiness and anger, compared with left SD cases. Deficits in anger recognition persisted in right SD despite covarying for facial and semantic processing. On a contextually rich task of emotion recognition using multimodal videos, no subgroup differences were evident. Finally, empathic concern was rated as significantly lower by caregivers of right versus left SD cases. Overall, the extent of socioemotional disturbance was associated with the degree of behavioural changes in SD. Conclusion: Our results reveal considerable overlap in the extent to which socioemotional processes are disrupted in left and right-lateralised cases of SD. Notably, however, right SD cases show disproportionate deficits for recognition of facial emotions and the capacity for empathic concern, supporting a specialised role for the right anterior temporal lobes in mediating these cognitive functions.

Lovibond P.F.,University of New South Wales | Colagiuri B.,University of Sydney
Psychological Science | Year: 2013

Reward-associated cues are known to influence motivation to approach both natural and man-made rewards, such as food and drugs. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects are not well understood. To model these processes in the laboratory with humans, we developed an appetitive Pavlovian-instrumental transfer procedure with a chocolate reward. We used a single unconstrained response that led to an actual rather than symbolic reward to assess the strength of reward motivation. Presentation of a chocolate-paired cue, but not an unpaired cue, markedly enhanced instrumental responding over a 30-s period. The same pattern was observed with 10-s and 30-s cues, showing that close cue-reward contiguity is not necessary for facilitation of reward-directed action. The results confirm that reward-related cues can instigate voluntary action to obtain that reward. The effectiveness of long-duration cues suggests that in clinical settings, attention should be directed to both proximal and distal cues for reward. © The Author(s) 2013.

Green M.A.,University of New South Wales | Emery K.,National Renewable Energy Laboratory | Hishikawa Y.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology | Warta W.,Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems | Dunlop E.D.,European Commission - Joint Research Center Ispra
Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications | Year: 2014

Consolidated tables showing an extensive listing of the highest independently confirmed efficiencies for solar cells and modules are presented. Guidelines for inclusion of results into these tables are outlined and new entries since January 2014 are reviewed. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Trainer T.,University of New South Wales
Energy Policy | Year: 2013

The possibility of 100% renewable supply of European energy is analysed in terms of the amount of redundant plant required to cope with the intermittency of wind and solar energy, and the limited biomass potential. It is concluded that the capital cost would be unaffordable, and that biomass resources are insufficient. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Venturi V.,University of New South Wales
Current opinion in immunology | Year: 2013

The immune system is comprised of various immune cell populations that utilize a spectrum of immunoreceptors characterized by different levels of specificity, diversity, and prevalence within a host and across a population. These range from the universal receptors employed by both innate cells and innate-like cells, such as NKT and MAIT cells, through to receptors expressed on T cells with sporadic incidence. Here we review recent advances in understanding the molecular mechanisms that drive the observed spectra of T cell receptors in vivo. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Rubinov M.,University of New South Wales | Rubinov M.,Queensland Institute of Medical Research | Rubinov M.,CSIRO | Sporns O.,Indiana University Bloomington
NeuroImage | Year: 2010

Brain connectivity datasets comprise networks of brain regions connected by anatomical tracts or by functional associations. Complex network analysis-a new multidisciplinary approach to the study of complex systems-aims to characterize these brain networks with a small number of neurobiologically meaningful and easily computable measures. In this article, we discuss construction of brain networks from connectivity data and describe the most commonly used network measures of structural and functional connectivity. We describe measures that variously detect functional integration and segregation, quantify centrality of individual brain regions or pathways, characterize patterns of local anatomical circuitry, and test resilience of networks to insult. We discuss the issues surrounding comparison of structural and functional network connectivity, as well as comparison of networks across subjects. Finally, we describe a Matlab toolbox (http://www.brain-connectivity-toolbox.net) accompanying this article and containing a collection of complex network measures and large-scale neuroanatomical connectivity datasets. © 2009 Elsevier Inc.

There is growing enthusiasm for increasing coverage of antiretroviral treatment among HIV-infected people for the purposes of preventing ongoing transmission. Treatment as prevention will face a number of barriers when implemented in real world populations, which will likely lead to the effectiveness of this strategy being lower than proposed by optimistic modelling scenarios or ideal clinical trial settings. Some settings, as part of their prevention and treatment strategies, have already attained rates of HIV testing and use of antiretroviral therapy-with high levels of viral suppression-that many countries would aspire to as targets for a treatment-as-prevention strategy. This review examines a number of these "natural experiments", namely, British Columbia, San Francisco, France, and Australia, to provide commentary on whether treatment as prevention has worked in real world populations. This review suggests that the population-level impact of this strategy is likely to be considerably less than as inferred from ideal conditions. © 2012 David P. Wilson.

McMonnies C.W.,University of New South Wales
Eye and Contact Lens | Year: 2014

The etiology of keratoconus (KC) seems to involve genetic and/ or environmental factors such as rubbing and/or contact lens trauma and/or exposure to ultraviolet radiation. An examination of the possibility that epigenetic mechanisms could contribute to the tissue changes in KC has been considered in this review. The tissue changes in KC result in thinning and/or other forms of mechanical weakening of the cornea, which cause it to become more susceptible to the distending forces of intraocular pressure with associated development of a cone. Rather than being caused by a single gene mutation, a complex or multifactorial disease such as KC involves multiple genes plus lifestyle and environmental factors. The epigenome of a cell is highly dynamic, being governed by a complex interplay of genetic and environmental factors. The full range of epigenetic marks is currently unknown but is potentially enormous. Although further elucidation of the genetic determinants of KC is important, there is now increasing interest in exploring how non-genetic variants, such as epigenetic factors, could influence complex disease etiology. Studies of epigenetic processes in KC may help explain the relationship between the genome and the environment and provide new clues for modifying these processes with the possibility of preventing the development of KC or stabilizing its progress. Epigenetic linking may be relevant to other complex ocular diseases that involve environmental factors including those that involve exposure to ultraviolet radiation. Copyright © 2014 Contact Lens Association of Opthalmologists, Inc.

Nelson B.,University of Melbourne | Whitford T.J.,University of New South Wales | Lavoie S.,University of Melbourne | Sass L.A.,Rutgers University
Schizophrenia Research | Year: 2014

Phenomenological research indicates that disturbance of the basic sense of self may be a core phenotypic marker of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Basic self-disturbance refers to disruption of the sense of ownership of experience and agency of action and is associated with a variety of anomalous subjective experiences. Little is known about the neurocognitive underpinnings of basic self-disturbance. In these two theoretical papers (of which this is Part 1), we review some recent phenomenological and neurocognitive research and point to a convergence of these approaches around the concept of self-disturbance. Specifically, we propose that subjective anomalies associated with basic self-disturbance may be associated with: 1. source monitoring deficits, which may contribute particularly to disturbances of "ownership" and "mineness" (the phenomenological notion of presence or self-affection) and 2. aberrant salience, and associated disturbances of memory, prediction and attention processes, which may contribute to hyper-reflexivity, disturbed "grip" or "hold" on the perceptual and conceptual field, and disturbances of intuitive social understanding ("common sense"). In this paper (Part 1) we focus on source monitoring deficits. Part 2 (this issue) addresses aberrant salience. Empirical studies are required in a variety of populations in order to test these proposed associations between phenomenological and neurocognitive aspects of self-disturbance in schizophrenia. An integration of findings across the phenomenological and neurocognitive "levels" would represent a significant advance in the understanding of schizophrenia and possibly enhance early identification and intervention strategies. © 2013.

Yu K.,University of New South Wales | Dutkiewicz E.,Macquarie University
IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing | Year: 2012

This paper presents positioning algorithms for cellular network-based vehicle tracking in severe non-line-of-sight (NLOS) propagation scenarios. The aim of the algorithms is to enhance positional accuracy of network-based positioning systems when the GPS receiver does not perform well due to the complex propagation environment. A one-step position estimation method and another two-step method are proposed and developed. Constrained optimization is utilized to minimize the cost function which takes account of the NLOS error so that the NLOS effect is significantly reduced. Vehicle velocity and heading direction measurements are exploited in the algorithm development, which may be obtained using a speedometer and a heading sensor, respectively. The developed algorithms are practical so that they are suitable for implementation in practice for vehicle applications. It is observed through simulation that in severe NLOS propagation scenarios, the proposed positioning methods outperform the existing cellular network-based positioning algorithms significantly. Further, when the distance measurement error is modeled as the sum of an exponential bias variable and a Gaussian noise variable, the exact expressions of the CRLB are derived to benchmark the performance of the positioning algorithms. © 2012 IEEE.

Arguments are discussed on how ion energy measurements from ultra-thin diamond irradiation with 45 fs laser pulses of 26 terawatt power may be related to the ultra-high acceleration of plasma blocks where the significance of the highly efficient direct conversion of laser radiation into mechanical motion of ions or plasma blocks is dominated by nonlinear (ponderomotive) forces in fundamental contrast to thermo-kinetic dominated interaction with ns laser pulses. © 2012 Cambridge University Press.

Abbasi A.,University of New South Wales
Scientometrics | Year: 2013

In this study, new centrality (collaborative) measures are proposed for a node in weighted networks in three different categories. The bibliometric indicators' concepts (e.g., h-index and g-index) are applied to the network analysis measures in order to introduce the new centrality measures. First category of measures (i.e., l-index, al-index and gl-index) only considers a node's neighbors' degree. Second category of measures (i.e., h-Degree, a-Degree and g-Degree) takes into account the links' weights of a node in a weighted network. Third category of measures (i.e., Hw-Degree, Aw-Degree and Gw-Degree) combines both neighbors' degree and their links' weight. Using a co-authorship network, the association between these new measures and the existing measures with scholars' performance is examined to show the applicability of the new centrality measures. The analysis shows that the scholars' citation-based performances measures are significantly associated with all the proposed centrality measures but the correlation coefficient for the ones based on average indicators (i.e., a-Degree and Aw-Degree) is the highest. © 2013 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary.

Milner A.,University of Melbourne | Morrell S.,University of New South Wales | LaMontagne A.D.,Deakin University
International Journal of Epidemiology | Year: 2014

Background: Suicide is higher among economically inactive and unemployed persons than employed persons. This paper investigates differences in this relationship by sex and age over the period 2001 to 2010 in Australia. It also examines changes in suicide among employed, unemployed and economically inactive persons during the recession of 2007-09. Method: Suicide data from the National Coroners Information System were utilised for this retrospective study. Negative binomial and Poisson regression was used to estimate the association between suicide and employment status and to investigate differences in suicide rates over the period of the recession (2007-09) compared with the year before the recession (2006). Results: Results suggest that during 2001-10 economically inactive/unemployed males had a suicide rate ratio (RR) of 4.62 [95% confidence interval (CI) 4.10, 5.19; P<0.001] compared with employed males (RR=1.00), whereas economically inactive/unemployed females had a suicide RR of 8.44 compared with employed females (95% CI 7.38, 9.67; P<0.001). There was an increase in suicide among both employed (7% rise in 2007, P=0.003) and economically inactive/unemployed males during the GFC (22% in 2008, P<0.001). Suicide also increased among economically inactive/unemployed females (12% in 2007, P=0.03; 19% in 2008, P=0.001) but not among employed females. Conclusions: These results suggest the need for adequate policy and social welfare responses to ameliorate the effects of the economic recession on the working age population. Particularly, these should target unemployed and economically inactive men and women in Australia, who may be at higher risk of suicide than previously thought. © The Author 2014; all rights reserved.

Johns F.,University of New South Wales
Environment and Planning D: Society and Space | Year: 2016

The work of global governance increasingly entails some pairing of list and algorithm. Across sectors as diverse as environmental conservation, migration, nuclear nonproliferation, humanitarian aid, counterterrorism, and more, the list-plus-algorithm is, it seems, displacing rival juridical forms on the global scale. This paper probes some implications of the proliferation of this conjunctive form of’law’. Beginning with a typology of some types of governance work that the list-plus-algorithm is called to do on the global plane, this paper tracks movements of knowledge from the arcane form of the list into an algorithmic mode, and back again. It considers, too, some difficulties with which these configurations of lawful authority may be associated and the repertoire of techniques that international lawyers typically use to address these. Among these, the endless championing of transparency will be the focus of particular critique. Precisely as the prospect of seeing definitively through these decision-making devices seems, for a range of reasons, almost impossible to achieve, preoccupations with transparency have intensified. But what else might be entailed in making ‘public’ the governance work of these list-plus-algorithms? This paper takes up this question by focusing attention on how lists-plus-algorithms bring peoples, places, and things into lawful relation. © 2015, © The Author(s) 2015.

Warton D.,University of New South Wales | Aarts G.,Wageningen University
Journal of Animal Ecology | Year: 2013

The problems of analysing used-available data and presence-only data are equivalent, and this paper uses this equivalence as a platform for exploring opportunities for advancing analysis methodology. 2. We suggest some potential methodological advances in used-available analysis, made possible via lessons learnt in the presence-only literature, for example, using modern methods to improve predictive performance. We also consider the converse potential advances in presence-only analysis inspired by used-available methodology. 3. Notwithstanding these potential advances in methodology, perhaps a greater opportunity is in advancing our thinking about how to apply a given method to a particular data set. 4. It is shown by example that strikingly different results can be achieved for a single data set by applying a given method of analysis in different ways hence having chosen a method of analysis, the next step of working out how to apply it is critical to performance. 5. We review some key issues to consider in deciding how to apply an analysis method: apply the method in a manner that reflects the study design; consider data properties; and use diagnostic tools to assess how reasonable a given analysis is for the data at hand. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2013 British Ecological Society.

Wilson D.P.,University of New South Wales
Clinical Trials | Year: 2010

Background Exposures to sexually transmitted infections are discrete identifiable events. Interventions to prevent sexually transmitted infections have a certain probability of effectiveness in reducing risk in any given event. Purpose Randomized control trials for sexually transmitted infections interventions are designed to estimate the effectiveness in preventing acquisition of infection. Typically, randomized control trials are run over a specific period of time and incidence in the control arm is compared with incidence in an intervention arm. However, it is possible that the effectiveness of an intervention over the duration of a clinical trial may be different to the actual effectiveness of the intervention in every single exposure event or the overall effectiveness over different periods than the duration of the trial. Methods In this study a simple mathematical framework is used, similar to methods in conception research, to describe the expected effectiveness that would be observed in a clinical trial of an intervention per-exposure and for clinically relevant shorter and longer durations than the trial, where each subject has multiple risk exposures. Results It is theoretically demonstrated that the actual effectiveness of the intervention per risk event is not equal to the overall preventative effectiveness of the intervention in preventing transmission over many exposures. Examples are given for sexually transmitted infections with diverse transmission probabilities (HIV and HPV) and for interventions with different levels of effectiveness (condoms and circumcision). The observed effectiveness of an intervention is likely to be maintained over many exposures for infections with low transmission risk (like HIV) but the observed effectiveness decreases substantially with number of exposures for moderate or high risk infections (like HPV). An equation is provided for interpreting randomized control trials' estimates of effectiveness with respect to various degrees of risk exposure. Limitations The difficulty in adjusting the interpretation of randomized control trials results in this manner is that collection of accurate data on the number of discrete exposure events is not always possible and that there is substantial heterogeneity in degree of risk exposure between participants in trials. Conclusions The implications of this analysis are that common interpretations of clinical trial interventions are insufficient for understanding the true efficacy of an intervention in some circumstances. Estimates of effectiveness in trials may misrepresent effectiveness per exposure event and effectiveness over a lifetime of risk. Care should be taken when designing protocols for analysis of trial results when the expected incidence is high. No change to the current practice of designing randomized control trials is suggested but analysis of trial data could be extended to calculate other statistics of effectiveness. A type of extrapolation and interpolation method for estimating levels of effectiveness is proposed.

Draper B.M.,University of New South Wales
International Psychogeriatrics | Year: 2015

Background: Concerns about suicide risk in people with dementia have been increasing in recent years along with a discourse about rational suicide and assisted suicide. Methods: A systematic narrative literature review of suicidal behavior and assisted suicide in persons with dementia. Results: Most studies that have examined the spectrum of suicidal ideation, attempted suicide and suicide in dementia have methodological limitations but the overall suicide risk does not appear to be increased. When suicidal behavior does occur, common themes include the presence of psychiatric comorbidity, mainly depression; occurrence early in the dementia course with preserved insight and capacity; and an increased risk in younger people. The emerging discourse on rational and assisted suicide has been spurred by early and pre-symptomatic diagnosis and poses a number of ethical challenges for clinicians including the role of proxy decision-makers. Conclusions: Although dementia might not confer a significant overall risk for suicidal behavior, clinicians still need to consider the potential for suicide in vulnerable individuals particularly early in the dementia course. © International Psychogeriatric Association 2015.

Snowdon W.,Deakin University | Snowdon W.,Fiji National University | Thow A.M.,University of New South Wales
Obesity Reviews | Year: 2013

Summary: The Pacific Island countries experience some of the highest rates of obesity in the world in part due to substantial dietary changes that mirror changes in the food supply in the region. Economic and political ties, donor aid, and trade links are key drivers of the changing availability and accessibility of processed and imported foods. Pacific Island countries have been innovative in developing trade-related policy approaches to create a less obesogenic food environment. Taxation-based approaches that affect pricing in the region include increased import and excise tariffs on sugared beverages and other high-sugar products, monosodium glutamate, and palm oil and lowered tariffs on fruits and vegetables. Other approaches highlight some higher-fat products through labeling and controlling the supply of high-fat meats. The bans on high-fat turkey tails and mutton flaps highlight the politics, trade agreements and donor influences that can be significant barriers to the pursuit of policy options. Countries that are not signatories to trade agreements may have more policy space for innovative action. However, potential effectiveness and practicality require consideration. The health sector's active engagement in the negotiation of trade agreements is a key way to support healthier trade in the region. © 2013 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the International Association for the Study of Obesity.

Bradshaw D.,Kirby Institute | Matthews G.,Kirby Institute | Danta M.,University of New South Wales
Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases | Year: 2013

Purpose of Review: Increasing evidence has emerged for permucosal transmission of hepatitis C amongst HIV-infected MSM. Recent Findings: A rising incidence of acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) in HIV-infected MSM has been observed since 2000 in Europe, Australia, USA and Asia. Transmission appears to occur through the permucosal rather than the more usual parenteral route. Although often multifactorial, permucosal risk factors can be classified as behavioural (sexual practices and mucosally administered drugs) and biological (HIV and sexually transmitted infections). This review will describe the epidemiology of HCV infection in this cohort. Current and future treatment strategies will also be outlined in the context of novel, orally bioavailable, directly acting antiviral therapies. Summary: An improved understanding of HCV epidemiology will allow implementation of more effective public health interventions to limit onward transmission of HCV. © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Chague-Goff C.,University of New South Wales
Marine Geology | Year: 2010

A range of diagnostic criteria are required to help identify palaeotsunami deposits. Although chemical signatures have long been used as indicators of palaeosalinity in sedimentary sequences, their use in the studies of palaeotsunami deposits is rarely applied and is yet to be widely recognised. The chemical composition of interstitial water in coastal ponds and sedimentary sequences in coastal marshes and lagoons has been used successfully as an indicator of tsunami inundation. Chemical signatures can also provide clues about the landward limit of runup of a tsunami, beyond the area of sediment deposition. Like most palaeotsunami proxies however, the preservation of chemical signatures varies with environmental conditions. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Evans J.P.,University of New South Wales
Theoretical and Applied Climatology | Year: 2010

In this study, the ability of a regional climate model, based on MM5, to simulate the climate of the Middle East at the beginning of the twenty-first century is assessed. The model is then used to simulate the changes due to global warming over the twenty-first century. The regional climate model displays a negative bias in temperature throughout the year and over most of the domain. It does a good job of simulating the precipitation for most of the domain, though it performs relatively poorly over the southeast Black Sea and southwest Caspian Sea. Using boundary conditions obtained from CCSM3, the model was run for the first and last 5 years of the twenty-first century. The results show widespread warming, with a maximum of ~10 K in interior Iran during summer. It also found some cooling in the southeast Black Sea region during spring and summer that is related to increases in snowfall in the region, a longer snowmelt season, and generally higher soil moisture and latent heating through the summer. The results also show widespread decreases in precipitation over the eastern Mediterranean and Turkey. Precipitation increases were found over the southeast Black Sea, southwest Caspian Sea, and Zagros mountain regions during all seasons except summer, while the Saudi desert region receives increases during summer and autumn. Changes in the dominant precipitation-triggering mechanisms were also investigated. The general trend in the dominant mechanism reflects a change away from the direct dependence on storm tracks and towards greater precipitation triggering by upslope flow of moist air masses. The increase in precipitation in the Saudi desert region is triggered by changes in atmospheric stability brought about by the intrusion of the intertropical convergence zone into the southernmost portion of the domain. © 2009 Springer-Verlag.

Nanson R.A.,University of New South Wales
Earth Surface Processes and Landforms | Year: 2010

Upland swamp channels with low width/depth ratios (w/d), armoured beds, minimal sediment loads, tightly curving bends and an absence of point bars provide a striking contrast to the flow characteristics of larger channels with higher w/d ratios. Two subsets of these bends were examined in relation to their patterns of cross-stream flow relative to the channel boundary. The first, with mean w/d = 2·0 and gentle barforms, exhibited even velocity distributions at bend entrances but developed vertically stacked pairs of maximum velocity filaments (MVFs). Cross-stream circulation increased with decreasing curvature before essentially ceasing in the tightest bend due to the conservation of angular momentum and reduced vertical velocity differentials; bed friction has more limited influence in narrow deep channels relative to bank friction. In the second subset of bends, with larger w/d (mean 4·8) and much steeper barforms, the MVFs were laterally paired and strongly helical flow was partly driven by the vertical confinement of flow due to large, stable barforms at the bend entrances. In one bend, the velocity profile became inverted immediately past the apex and caused helical flow to abruptly reverse. Point bars in relatively wide bedload channels appear to greatly distort secondary flow patterns. In narrow, deep, sediment-starved channels, separation zones against the convex and/or the concave bank deliver the flow confinement that would otherwise be provided by point bars or concave-bank benches. In these channels, separation zones are important for protecting both the channel bed and banks from scour. Three-dimensional near bankfull flow fields are presented for one bend with a meander pool; inward shifting of the MVF and limited sediment supply are proposed as mechanisms for the development and maintenance of these features. These flow data in narrow and deep peatland channels demonstrate very different flow patterns and morphological characteristics relative to the more commonly studied wide, shallow channels with more abundant sediment. © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Holt M.,University of New South Wales
Culture, Health and Sexuality | Year: 2015

HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a prevention technology that involves prescribing antiretroviral drugs to HIV-negative people to protect them from infection. This paper considers how the development of the technology has necessitated the parallel configuration of its users, and how this process has affected the perception and uptake of the technology. In designing a technology, potential users are typically defined, enabled and constrained, partly to create a target population (or market) for the technology, but also to reassure people that it can be used safely and effectively. This process may or may not be helpful for the uptake and use of the technology. Published research on PrEP indicates that while the technology was under trial, the primary focus was on the ‘at-risk’ subject in need of PrEP, with little or no consideration of the other qualities necessary for successful use. Post-trial accounts of PrEP have begun to outline desirable qualities of successful PrEP use, such as caution, compliance and being organised. It appears that the PrEP user was only partially configured during the technology’s development, and the initial focus on risk has done little to counter fears of the technology, which may partially account for its slow uptake. © 2014, © 2014 Taylor & Francis.

Zetterlund P.B.,University of New South Wales | Perrier S.,University of Sydney
Macromolecules | Year: 2011

The mechanism for the rate enhancement in reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization of styrene under microwave irradiation has been investigated by means of modeling and simulations. Quantitative analysis of previously published data [Chem. Commun. 2007, 2145 -2147] has revealed that the high propagating radical concentration that can be inferred from the polymerization rate would (based on classical kinetics of radical polymerization) lead to a bimolecular termination rate inconsistent with the radical generation rate and the control/livingness observed experimentally. The data were modeled based on (i) an increase in temperature caused by microwave irradiation, (ii) microwave-enhanced propagation (kp) and addition to RAFT moiety (kadd), and (iii) microwave-induced radical generation from monomer. It was found that only model ii can be invoked to explain the experimental data, which are consistent with the microwave irradiation resulting in an increase in kp and kadd by ∼1 order of magnitude in this particular case. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

Ngapakaldia bonythoni has been recognized in several Oligo-Miocene deposits at Riversleigh, thus extending the known temporal and geographic range of the species. The excellent state of preservation of the Riversleigh material has enabled a description of diagnostic features of the palate, dentary and dentition previously not possible from the badly fractured holotype. In light of this new material, a reanalysis of the single known dentary of Bematherium angulum from Riversleigh's Site C (Tedford 1967), suggests B. angulum is a junior synonym of N. bonythoni, a relationship first proposed tentatively by Archer (1984). Few morphological differences (apart from size) distinguish N. bonythoni from its smaller congeneric N. tedfordi. Despite this similarity in form, the abundance of N. bonythoni, and the absence of any smaller forms such as N. tedfordi at Riversleigh, supports the recognition of two distinct species in Ngapakaldia. The shared presence of Ngapakaldia bonythoni in several Faunal Zone A local faunas at Riversleigh, and the Ngapakaldi Local Fauna (Zone C) of the Etadunna Formation, lends further support to a late Oligocene age for these deposits. © 2010 Association of Australasian Palaeontologists.

Allen R.J.,University of California at Irvine | Sherwood S.C.,University of New South Wales
Geophysical Research Letters | Year: 2010

Simulations with the CAM3 climate model show that prescribed heating by anthropogenic aerosols significantly affects cloud cover. Globally the dominant effect is a decrease in mid-level clouds, which contributes to a semi-direct effect (SDE) that warms the surface by 0.5 W m-2. The SDE negates some of the impact of absorbing aerosol on surface fluxes, up to 50% over the Northern Hemisphere extratropical (NHE) land during JJA. The SDE-not direct effects-drives NHE JJA warming and a land-sea contrast in surface temperature that may help explain recent trends. This behavior is mainly due to 1. the trapping of near-surface moisture associated with aerosol induced enhanced lower tropospheric stability, which preferentially increases low cloud over the sea; and 2. a burn-off of cloud, especially over land, due to reduced relative humidity in the low and middle troposphere. These effects are due to vertical redistribution of energy rather than to the horizontal heterogeneity of aerosol forcing. Copyright © 2010 by the American Geophysical Union.

McDuie-Ra D.,University of New South Wales
Urban Studies | Year: 2013

Scholars have noted the ways in which Delhi's transformation into a global city has enclosed urban spaces excluding the urban poor, labourers and migrants. One of the neglected aspects of this focus is the way in which Delhi's transformation has created new opportunities for migrants from north-east India. This article is an ethnographic account of migrants from the north-east in Delhi. It is argued that employment opportunities in the neo-liberal spaces of the global city are fuelling a rapid increase in migration from the north-east, the very limit of India's geographical and cultural imaginary. Outside these spaces of economic inclusion, north-east migrants continue to live as exceptional citizens and experience racism, discrimination and violence. The experiences of north-east migrants in Delhi suggest that the exclusionary city narrative is an incomplete view of urban change in India, and reveal how neo-liberal transformation is connecting heartland cities to frontier regions in ways previously unimagined. © 2012 Urban Studies Journal Limited.

Abramowitz G.,University of New South Wales
Australian Meteorological and Oceanographic Journal | Year: 2010

This paper outlines the emerging research area of model independence in multimodel ensemble prediction, explains why it is important, and contextualises several published attempts to characterise it. In particular, we highlight model independence and model performance as two unrelated properties of model prediction, and by doing so address the common misconception that striving for independent model ensemble members promotes divergence from observed behaviour.

Lau A.Y.,University of New South Wales
Yearbook of medical informatics | Year: 2011

: To provide an overview on social media for consumers and patients in areas of health behaviours and outcomes. A directed review of recent literature. : We discuss the limitations and challenges of social media, ranging from social network sites (SNSs), computer games, mobile applications, to online videos. An overview of current users of social media (Generation Y), and potential users (such as low socioeconomic status and the chronically ill populations) is also presented. Future directions in social media research are also discussed. : We encourage the health informatics community to consider the socioeconomic class, age, culture, and literacy level of their populations, and select an appropriate medium and platform when designing social networked interventions for health. Little is known about the impact of second-hand experiences faciliated by social media, nor the quality and safety of social networks on health. Methodologies and theories from human computer interaction, human factors engineering and psychology may help guide the challenges in designing and evaluating social networked interventions for health. Further, by analysing how people search and navigate social media for health purposes, infodemiology and infoveillance are promising areas of research that should provide valuable insights on present and emergening health behaviours on a population scale.

Morrison G.S.,University of New South Wales
Science and Justice | Year: 2011

There has been a great deal of concern recently about validity and reliability in forensic science. This paper reviews for a broad target audience metrics of validity and reliability (accuracy and precision) which have been applied in forensic voice comparison and which are potentially applicable in other branches of forensic science. The metric of validity is the log likelihood-ratio cost (Cllr), and the metric of reliability is an empirical estimate of credible intervals. A revised procedure for the calculation of credible intervals is introduced. © 2011 Forensic Science Society.

Schmidt T.W.,University of New South Wales | Castellano F.N.,North Carolina State University
Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters | Year: 2014

Incoherent photochemical upconversion is a process by which low-energy light can be converted into a higher-energy form with promising applications in solar energy conversion and storage, photocatalysis, biological imaging, and photochemical drug activation. Despite intensive research in recent years, there remains an underappreciation of the chemical kinetics that controls the efficiency of the upconversion process. Here, we provide a brief overview of research into photochemical upconversion and provide a tutorial to guide the design of efficient upconversion compositions. We further provide our perspective on where this area of research is heading and how very efficient systems will be developed. (Graph Presented). © 2014 American Chemical Society.

Lowe A.B.,University of New South Wales
Polymer Chemistry | Year: 2014

This contribution serves as an update to a previous review (Polym. Chem. 2010, 1, 17-36) and highlights recent applications of thiol-ene 'click' chemistry as an efficient tool for both polymer/materials synthesis as well as modification. This current contribution covers examples from the literature published up to ca. mid 2013. It is not intended to be exhaustive but rather serves to highlight many of the new and exciting applications where researchers have applied thiol-ene chemistry in advanced macromolecular engineering and materials chemistry. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.

Owen D.M.,University of New South Wales
Biophysical journal | Year: 2010

We report the first imaging of membrane lipid order in a whole, living vertebrate organism. This was achieved with the phase-sensitive, membrane-partitioning probe Laurdan in conjunction with multiphoton microscopy to image cell membranes in various tissues of live zebrafish embryos in three dimensions, including hindbrain, retina, muscle, gut, and kidney. The data also allowed quantitative analysis of membrane order, which showed high lipid order in the apical surfaces of polarized epithelial cells. The transition of membrane order imaging from cultured cell lines to living organisms is an important step forward in understanding the physiological relevance of membrane microdomains including lipid rafts. Copyright 2010 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Hawes D.J.,University of Sydney | Price M.J.,University of Sydney | Dadds M.R.,University of New South Wales
Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review | Year: 2014

The treatment of conduct problems among children and adolescents with callous-unemotional (CU) traits has been subject to much speculation; however, treatment outcome research has been surprisingly limited and findings have been mixed. This review examines the research to date in this field as it pertains to two key questions. First, are CU traits associated with clinical outcomes and processes in the family based treatment of child and adolescent conduct problems? Second, can family based intervention produce change in CU traits? Using a systematic search strategy, we identified 16 treatment outcomes studies that can be brought to bear on these questions. These studies provide strong evidence of unique associations between CU traits and risk for poor treatment outcomes, while at the same time indicating that social-learning-based parent training is capable of producing lasting improvement in CU traits, particularly when delivered early in childhood. We discuss the potential for this emerging evidence base to inform the planning and delivery of treatments for clinic-referred children with CU traits, and detail an ongoing program of translational research into the development of novel interventions for this high-risk subgroup. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Stening R.J.,University of New South Wales
Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics | Year: 2011

The relationship between sudden stratospheric warmings (SSWs) and large-amplitude lunar tides in the equatorial electrojet (EEJ) is studied. Analysis of ground magnetometer data shows that the lunar tide in the EEJ is maximum during the northern winter season except in the Pacific Ocean region. Since SSWs are also a northern winter phenomenon, it is suggested that the relation between the large lunar tide in the EEJ and the SSW may possibly be coincidental. The lunar tide in the geomagnetic variations at Huancayo is anomalously large compared with other EEJ stations. An examination of geomagnetic variations at EEJ stations during SSW events shows that afternoon counter-electrojets are frequently present at new moon and full moon, though the relationship is sometimes broken. The observation of large lunar EEJs when no SSW is present and of various different delay times suggests that other atmospheric processes are likely to be in play. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

Chong B.H.,University of New South Wales | Chong J.J.-H.,University of Sydney
Blood | Year: 2013

In this issue of Blood, Jaax and colleagues show that heparin-PF4 antibodies cross-reacted with nucleic acid (NA)-PF4 complexes and induced platelet activation, suggesting that NA-PF4 can potentially cause a heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT)-like prothrombotic disorder. © 2013 by The American Society of Hematology.

Wakefield D.,University of New South Wales
Ocular Immunology and Inflammation | Year: 2014

Cyclophosphamide is a highly effective immunosuppressive drug that has proven efficacy in the treatment of patients with severe inflammatory eye disease. It has the advantage of being able to be used either orally or intravenously, has a potent steroid-sparing effect, and is effective in inducing disease remission. The major limitations to the use of this alkylating agent are its frequent side effects. With the increasing availability of alternate forms of therapy it is time to review the therapeutic regimen for cyclophosphamide use in patients with inflammatory eye disease. © 2014 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.

Berengut J.C.,University of New South Wales
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2011

We use the combination of configuration interaction and the many-body perturbation theory method (CI + MBPT) to perform ab initio calculations of the low-energy spectra of Cr ii with high accuracy. It is found that second-order MBPT diagrams should be included in a consistent and complete way for the MBPT to improve the accuracy of calculations in this five-valence-electron system. This contrasts with previous ions with fewer valence electrons, where it was found that single-valence-electron diagrams dominate the corrections. Isotope shifts and relativistic shifts (q values) are calculated for use in astronomical determination of the fine-structure constant in quasar absorption spectra. © 2011 American Physical Society.

Maleknia S.D.,University of New South Wales | Downard K.M.,University of Sydney
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2014

Radical Probe Mass Spectrometry (RP-MS), first introduced in 1999, utilizes hydroxyl radicals generated directly within aqueous solutions using synchrotron radiolysis, electrical discharge, and photochemical laser sources to probe protein structures and their interactions. It achieves this on millisecond and submillisecond timescales that can be used to capture protein dynamics and folding events. Hydroxyl radicals are ideal probes of solvent accessibility as their size approximates a water molecule. Their high reactivity results in oxidation at a multitude of amino acid side chains providing greater structural information than a chemical cross-linker that reacts with only one or few residues. The oxidation of amino acid side chains occurs at rates in accord with the solvent accessibility of the residue so that the extent of oxidation can be quantified to reveal a three-dimensional map or footprint of the protein's surface. Mass spectrometry is central to this analysis of chemical oxidative labelling. This tutorial review, some 15 years on from the first reports, highlights the development and significant growth of the application of RP-MS including its validation and utility with ion-mobility mass spectrometry (IM-MS), the use of RP-MS data to help model protein complexes, studies of the onset of oxidative damage, and more recent advances that enable high throughput applications through simultaneous protein oxidation and on-plate deposition. The accessibility of the RP-MS technology, by means of a modified electrospray ionization source, enables the approach to be implemented in many laboratories to address a wide range of applications in chemical biology. © 2014 the Partner Organisations.

Howard R.W.,University of New South Wales
Acta Psychologica | Year: 2014

The power law of practice holds that a power function best interrelates skill performance and amount of practice. However, the law's validity and generality are moot. Some researchers argue that it is an artifact of averaging individual exponential curves while others question whether the law generalizes to complex skills and to performance measures other than response time. The present study tested the power law's generality to development over many years of a very complex cognitive skill, chess playing, with 387 skilled participants, most of whom were grandmasters. A power or logarithmic function best fit grouped data but individuals showed much variability. An exponential function usually was the worst fit to individual data. Groups differing in chess talent were compared and a power function best fit the group curve for the more talented players while a quadratic function best fit that for the less talented. After extreme amounts of practice, a logarithmic function best fit grouped data but a quadratic function best fit most individual curves. Individual variability is great and the power law or an exponential law are not the best descriptions of individual chess skill development. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Howard R.W.,University of New South Wales
Journal of Biosocial Science | Year: 2014

Summary Males predominate at the top in chess, and chess is a useful domain to investigate possible causes of gender differences in high achievement. Opportunity, interest and extent of practice can be controlled for. Organized chess has objective performance measures, extensive longitudinal population-level data and little gatekeeper influence. Previous studies of gender differences in chess performance have not controlled adequately for females on average playing fewer rated games and dropping out at higher rates. The present study did so by examining performance of international chess players at asymptote and over equal numbers of rated games. Males still were very disproportionately represented at the top. Top female players showed signs of having less natural talent for chess than top males, such as taking more rated games to gain the grandmaster title. The hypothesis that males predominate because many more males play chess was tested by comparing gender performance differences in nations with varying percentages of female players. In well-practised participants, gender performance differences stayed constant even when the average national percentage of female international players increased from 4.2% to 32.3%. In Georgia, where women are encouraged strongly to play chess and females constitute nearly 32% of international players, gender performance differences are still sizeable. Males on average may have some innate advantages in developing and exercising chess skill. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2013.

Del Monte G.,Victor Chang Cardiac Research Institute | Harvey R.P.,Victor Chang Cardiac Research Institute | Harvey R.P.,University of New South Wales
Cell | Year: 2012

Despite the profound impact of coronary artery disease on human health, the origins of the coronary blood vessels are poorly understood. Wu et al. use imaging and genetic techniques to show that the endocardium contributes to the coronary vessels and that the coronary arteries and veins have multilineage origins. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Wang Y.,University of New South Wales
IEEE Transactions on Image Processing | Year: 2010

This paper proposes a joint random field (JRF) model for moving vehicle detection in video sequences. The JRF model extends the conditional random field (CRF) by introducing auxiliary latent variables to characterize the structure and evolution of visual scene. Hence, detection labels (e.g., vehicle/roadway) and hidden variables (e.g., pixel intensity under shadow) are jointly estimated to enhance vehicle segmentation in video sequences. Data-dependent contextual constraints among both detection labels and latent variables are integrated during the detection process. The proposed method handles both moving cast shadows/lights and various weather conditions. Computationally efficient algorithm has been developed for real-time vehicle detection in video streams. Experimental results show that the approach effectively deals with various illumination conditions and robustly detects moving vehicles even in grayscale video. © 2010 IEEE.

Nunn P.D.,University of New South Wales
Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography | Year: 2013

As in the past, most Pacific Island people live today along island coasts and subsist largely on foods available both onshore and offshore. On at least two occasions in the 3500 years that Pacific Islands have been settled, sea level changes affected coastal bioproductivity to the extent that island societies were transformed in consequence. Over the past 200 years, sea level has been rising along most Pacific Island coasts causing loss of productive land through direct inundation (flooding), shoreline erosion and groundwater salinization. Responses have been largely uninformed, many unsuccessful. By the year 2100, sea level may be 1.2m higher than today. Together with other climate-linked changes and unsustainable human pressures on coastal zones, this will pose huge challenges for livelihoods. There is an urgent need for effective and sustainable adaptation of livelihoods to prepare for future sea level rise in the Pacific Islands region. There are also lessons to be learned from past failures, including the need for adaptive solutions that are environmentally and culturally appropriate, and those which appropriate decision makers are empowered to design and implement. Around the middle of the twenty-first century, traditional coastal livelihoods are likely to be difficult to sustain, so people in the region will need alternative food production systems. Within the next 20-30 years, it is likely that many coastal settlements will need to be relocated, partly or wholly. There are advantages in anticipating these needs and planning for them sooner rather than later. In many ways, the historical and modern Pacific will end within the next few decades. There will be fundamental irreversible changes in island geography, settlement patterns, subsistence systems, societies and economic development, forced by sea level rise and other factors. © 2013 The Author Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography © 2013 Department of Geography, National University of Singapore and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

Zhang L.,University of New South Wales
World Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2015

In recent years, a number of studies detected a significantly higher prevalence of Campylobacter species such as Campylobacter concisus (C. concisus ) in intestinal biopsies and fecal samples collected from patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) compared to controls. Most of these Campylobacter species are not of zoonotic origin but are human oral Campylobacter species. Bacterial species usually cause diseases in the location where they colonize. However, C. concisus and other oral Campylobacter species are associated with IBD occurring at the lower parts of the gastrointestinal tract, suggesting that these Campylobacter species may have unique virulence factors that are expressed in the lower parts of the gastrointestinal tract. © The Author(s) 2015.

Green M.A.,University of New South Wales
Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications | Year: 2011

A new light-trapping scheme is described based on tunnelling evanescent waves. The scheme is particularly suitable for low index materials such as organic solar cells and polar inorganic semiconductors such as CdTe, or dielectric layers containing, for example, upconverters. The 4n2 macroscopic limit on light trapping, where n is refractive index, can be exceeded by a large margin using the new scheme. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Pickering J.W.,University of Otago | Endre Z.H.,University of New South Wales
Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology | Year: 2012

New tests should improve the diagnostic performance of available tests. The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve has been the "metric of choice" to quantify new biomarker performance. Two new metrics, the integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) and net reclassification improvement (NRI), have been rapidly adopted to quantify the added value of a biomarker to an existing test. These metrics require the development of risk prediction models that calculate the probability of an event for each individual. This study demonstrates the application of these metrics in 528 critically ill patients with risk models of AKI, sepsis, and 30-day mortality to which the biomarker urinary cystatin C was added. Analogous to the receiver operator characteristic curve, we present a new risk assessment plot for visualizing these metrics. The results showed that the NRI was sensitive to the choice of risk threshold. The risk assessment plot identified that the addition of urinary cystatin C to themodel decreased the calculated risk for some who did not have sepsis but increased it for others. The category-free NRI for each outcome indicated that most of those without the event had reduced calculated risk. This was driven by very small changes in calculated risk in the AKI and death models. The IDI reflected those small changes. Of the new metrics, the IDI, reported separately for those with and without the events, best represents the value of a new test. The risk assessment plot identified differences in the models not apparent in any of the metrics. © 2012 by the American Society of Nephrology.

Coiera E.,University of New South Wales | Aarts J.,Erasmus University Rotterdam | Kulikowski C.,Rutgers University
Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association | Year: 2012

Over the next 10 years, more information and communication technology (ICT) will be deployed in the health system than in its entire previous history. Systems will be larger in scope, more complex, and move from regional to national and supranational scale. Yet we are at roughly the same place the aviation industry was in the 1950s with respect to system safety. Even if ICT harm rates do not increase, increased ICT use will increase the absolute number of ICT related harms. Factors that could diminish ICT harm include adoption of common standards, technology maturity, better system development, testing, implementation and end user training. Factors that will increase harm rates include complexity and heterogeneity of systems and their interfaces, rapid implementation and poor training of users. Mitigating these harms will not be easy, as organizational inertia is likely to generate a hysteresis-like lag, where the paths to increase and decrease harm are not identical.

Mahmoudifar N.,University of New South Wales | Doran P.M.,Monash University
Trends in Biotechnology | Year: 2012

Joint injury and disease are painful and debilitating conditions affecting a substantial proportion of the population. The idea that damaged cartilage in articulating joints might be replaced seamlessly with tissue-engineered cartilage is of obvious commercial interest because the market for such treatments is large. Recently, a wealth of new information about the complex biology of chondrogenesis and cartilage has emerged from stem cell research, including increasing evidence of the role of physical stimuli in directing differentiation. The challenge for the next generation of tissue engineers is to identify the key elements in this new body of knowledge that can be applied to overcome current limitations affecting cartilage synthesis in vitro. Here we review the status of cartilage tissue engineering and examine the contribution of stem cell research to technology development for cartilage production. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Hernandez-Guerrero M.,Metropolitan Autonomous University | Stenzel M.H.,University of New South Wales
Polymer Chemistry | Year: 2012

Among various structuring techniques, a water-driven 'templating' method for the fabrication of highly ordered porous membranes has been widely exploited for the past 17 years due to its versatility and robustness. This simple method relies on the formation of "breath figures" and the assembly of a polymer around them, resulting in the production of membranes with hexagonally arranged pores known as honeycomb structured porous polymer films/membranes. Herein, we present a review of relevant literature to stress on the advantages of this simple templating method compared with the wide range of conventional templating and lithographic techniques that have been previously used in the field. Furthermore, we present a comprehensive review on the progress in the field including the study of relevant variables, the materials that have been used, the combination of the method with other techniques, some current and potential applications for the membranes as well as characterization techniques. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Westra S.,University of Adelaide | Alexander L.V.,Climate Change Research Center | Alexander L.V.,University of New South Wales | Zwiers F.W.,University of Victoria
Journal of Climate | Year: 2013

This study investigates the presence of trends in annual maximum daily precipitation time series obtained from a global dataset of 8326 high-quality land-based observing stations with more than 30 years of record over the period from 1900 to 2009. Two complementary statistical techniques were adopted to evaluate the possible nonstationary behavior of these precipitation data. The first was a Mann-Kendall nonparametric trend test, and it was used to evaluate the existence of monotonic trends. The second was a nonstationary generalized extreme value analysis, and it was used to determine the strength of association between the precipitation extremes and globally averaged near-surface temperature. The outcomes are that statistically significant increasing trends can be detected at the global scale, with close to two-thirds of stations showing increases. Furthermore, there is a statistically significant association with globally averaged near-surface temperature, with the median intensity of extreme precipitation changing in proportion with changes in global mean temperature at a rate of between 5.9% and 7.7%K-1, depending on the method of analysis. This ratio was robust irrespective of record length or time period considered and was not strongly biased by the uneven global coverage of precipitation data. Finally, there is a distinct meridional variation, with the greatest sensitivity occurring in the tropics and higher latitudes and the minima around 13°S and 11°N. The greatest uncertainty was near the equator because of the limited number of sufficiently long precipitation records, and there remains an urgent need to improve data collection in this region to better constrain future changes in tropical precipitation. © 2013 American Meteorological Society.

The aim of the study was to determine the accuracy of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in determining species, gender, age, and the presence of the common endosymbiont Wolbachia in laboratory-reared Drosophila. NIRS measures the absorption of light by organic molecules. Initially, a calibration model was developed for each study. An independent set with flies not involved in initial cross-validation was then used to validate the accuracy of each calibration model. Flies from the independent sets were correctly classified into Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila simulans with 94% and 82% accuracy, respectively, whereas flies were successfully classified by gender with accuracy greater than 90%. In the age grading test, correlation plots of the actual and predicted age for males and females of D. melanogaster and D. simulans were shown to be overlapping between the adjacent age groups. It is, however, possible to predict the age of flies as less than 9 days of age with 62-88% accuracy and flies that are equal to or older than 9 days of age with 91-98% accuracy. Finally, we used NIRS to detect the presence of Wolbachia in flies. Flies from the independent sets were successfully identified as infected or not infected with Wolbachia with approximately 90% accuracy. These results suggest that NIRS has the potential to quantify the species, gender, and presence of Wolbachia in fly populations. However, additional optimization of the protocol may be necessary before the technique can reliably estimate fly age.

Liu J.,Qingdao University | Tang J.,Qingdao University | Gooding J.J.,University of New South Wales
Journal of Materials Chemistry | Year: 2012

Graphene's unique thermal, electric and mechanical properties originate from its structure, including being single-atom thick, two-dimensional and extensively conjugated. These structural elements endow graphene with advantageous thermal, electric and mechanical properties. However, the application of graphene is challenged by issues of production, storage and processing. Therefore, the stabilization and modification of graphene have attracted extensive interest. In this review we summarize the strategies for chemical modification of graphene, the influence of modification and the applications in various areas. Generally speaking, chemical modification can be achieved via either covalent or non-covalent interactions. Covalent modifications often destroy some of the graphene conjugation system, resulting in compromising some of its properties. Therefore, in this review we focus mainly on the non-covalent modification methodologies, e.g. π-π stacking interactions and van der Waals force, because the non-covalent modifications are believed to preserve the natural structure and properties. We also discuss the challenges associated with the production, processing and performance enhancement. Future perspectives for production of graphene in large size with fewer defects and under milder conditions are discussed along with the manipulation of graphene's electric, mechanical and other properties. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Lambert G.A.,University of New South Wales
Headache | Year: 2010

This article reviews the baffling problem of the pathophysiology behind a peripheral genesis of migraine pain - or more particularly the baffling problem of its absence. I examine a number of pathophysiological states and the effector mechanisms for these states and find most of them very plausible and that they are all supported by abundant evidence. However, this evidence is mostly indirect; to date the occurrence of any of the presumed pathological states has not been convincingly demonstrated. Furthermore, there is little evidence of increased trigeminal sensory traffic into the central nervous system during a migraine attack. The article also examines a number of observations and experimental programs used to bolster a theory of peripheral pathology and suggests reasons why they may in fact not bolster it. I suggest that a pathology, if one exists, may be in the brain and even that it may not be a pathology at all. Migraine headache might just happen because of random noise in an exquisitely sensitive and complex network. The article suggests an experimental program to resolve these issues. © 2010 the Author. Journal compilation.

Green M.A.,University of New South Wales
Applied Physics Letters | Year: 2011

Photoluminescence imaging is now a widely used characterization tool for silicon bricks, wafers sliced from these bricks and for completed silicon devices, particularly solar cells. Analytical solutions for the spectral distribution of photoluminescence are reported showing the dependence on wavelengths of both exciting and emitted light and on test specimen doping levels, surface recombination velocities, carrier diffusion lengths, and front and rear reflection. © 2011 American Institute of Physics.

Chan B.,University of Sydney | Ball G.E.,University of New South Wales
Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation | Year: 2013

Ab initio molecular orbital theory and density functional theory (DFT) procedures have been used to study the binding of methane in CpRe(CO) 2(CH4), the simplest σ-alkane complex in the experimentally widely studied CpRe(CO)2(alkane) family. We find the optimal Re···C, Re···H and C···H distances to be 2.60, 1.92, and 1.15 Å, respectively, on the composite-CCSD(T)/def2-QZVPP (CCSD(T)/def2-TZVP with supplement for the larger def2-QZVPP basis set at the second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory level) potential energy surface which has been mapped out at this level of theory. The enthalpy of binding at 298 K was determined to be 62.0 kJ mol-1 at the composite-CCSD(T)/CBS//B3- PW91/aug-cc-pVTZ-PP level. Benchmarks on the various DFT procedures show that some functionals give good geometries but underestimate binding energies, while others yield poor geometries but give closer agreements with the composite-CCSD(T) binding energy. On the other hand, the ωB97X-D functional gives fair agreements with composite-CCSD(T) for both geometry optimization as well as binding energy. Thus, it appears to be a reliable, easily implemented, and cost-effective means for studying Re-alkane complexes. Good binding energies are also obtained with several common functionals when D3 dispersion corrections are applied. Selected dispersion-corrected DFT methods (B3PW91-D3, TPSSh-D3, and B98-D3) were found to be quite accurate for the calculation of binding energies of several other model metal-CH4 complexes containing a range of metal centers (Rh, Pd, W, Ir, Pt). We also note that, for single-point energy calculation of the Re-CH4 binding, the PWP-B95-D3 double-hybrid DFT procedure provides an excellent agreement with the benchmark energy at only a slightly higher computational requirement. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

Persson A.,University of New South Wales
Global Public Health | Year: 2013

Serodiscordant primary relationships, in which one partner is HIV-positive and the other is HIV-negative, are increasingly recognised as a key context for the transmission of HIV globally. Yet insights into the dynamics of serodiscordance remain relatively limited. I argue that to understand what makes serodiscordant couples engage in sexual practices that increase the chance of transmission, we need to examine what HIV 'risk' actually means in different cultures and contexts. A 'socially situated' approach to HIV risk moves beyond its scientific conceptualisation as an objective 'fact', revealing a diversity of perceptions and competing risks. It also reveals that couples do not necessarily perceive their mixed HIV status in terms of 'difference', a common assumption that predetermines serodiscordance and thereby obscures its many and complex enactments. I draw on examples from the social research literature to illustrate how serodiscordance is shaped in different ways by local practices, priorities, and meanings. I argue that it is within these lived contexts that perceptions and negotiations of 'risk' arise and, thus, where couples' sexual practices need to be situated and understood. Such insights are timely as HIV research and prevention grapple with emerging scientific data that challenge traditional understandings about HIV transmission risk. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Effects of diffusion control in a compartmentalized atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) system have been investigated by modeling and simulations employing modified Smith - Ewart equations in connection with conversion-dependent rate coefficients for the system styrene/polystyrene-Cl/ CuCl/4,4′-di(5-nonyl)-2,2′-bipyridine (dNbpy) at 75 °C. The effects of conversion-dependent rate coefficients for deactivation (K deact) and termination (kt) were investigated in detail for the particle diameter 30 nm, i.e., a strongly compartmentalized system. The decrease in kdeact at high conversion results in an increase in the number of monomer units added per activation - deactivation cycle, thereby causing slight loss of control relative to when kdeact remains constant. The conversion dependence of kt results in a minor increase in livingness at high conversion relative to when kt remains constant. The individual compartmentalized rates of deactivation and termination have been analyzed in detail based on the particle distributions N i j;, where Ni j is the number of particles containing i propagating radicals and j deactivator species. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

Alvarez-Gaitan J.P.,University of New South Wales
Integrated environmental assessment and management | Year: 2014

Chemicals are an important component of advanced water treatment operations not only in terms of economics but also from an environmental standpoint. Tools such as life cycle assessment (LCA) are useful for estimating the environmental impacts of water treatment operations. At the same time, LCA analysts must manage several fundamental and as yet unresolved methodological challenges, one of which is the question of how best to "allocate" environmental burdens in multifunctional processes. Using water treatment chemicals as a case study example, this article aims to quantify the variability in greenhouse gas emissions estimates stemming from methodological choices made in respect of allocation during LCA. The chemicals investigated and reported here are those most important to coagulation and disinfection processes, and the outcomes are illustrated on the basis of treating 1000 ML of noncoagulated and nondisinfected water. Recent process and economic data for the production of these chemicals is used and methodological alternatives for solving the multifunctionality problem, including system expansion and mass, exergy, and economic allocation, are applied to data from chlor-alkali plants. In addition, Monte Carlo simulation is included to provide a comprehensive picture of the robustness of economic allocation results to changes in the market price of these industrial commodities. For disinfection, results demonstrate that chlorine gas has a lower global warming potential (GWP) than sodium hypochlorite regardless of the technique used to solve allocation issues. For coagulation, when mass or economic allocation is used to solve the multifunctionality problem in the chlor-alkali facility, ferric chloride was found to have a higher GWP than aluminum sulfate and a slightly lower burden where system expansion or exergy allocation are applied instead. Monte Carlo results demonstrate that when economic allocation is used, GWP results were relatively robust and resilient to the changes in commodity prices encountered during the study period, with standard deviations less than 6% for all chlor-alkali-produced chemicals reported here. Overall outcomes from the study demonstrate the potential variability in LCA results according to the allocation approach taken and emphasize the need for a consensus approach to water sector LCAs. © 2013 SETAC.

Nitrogenase contains a well defined and conserved chain of water molecules leading to the FeMo cofactor (FeMo-co, an [Fe7MoCS9] cluster with bidentate chelation of Mo by homocitrate) that is the active site where N2 and other substrates are sequentially hydrogenated using multiple protons and electrons. The function of this chain is proposed to be a proton wire, serially translocating protons to triply-bridging S3B of FeMo-co, where, concomitant with electron transfer to FeMo-co, an H atom is generated on S3B. Density functional simulations of this proton translocation mechanism are reported here, using a large 269-atom model that includes all residues hydrogen bonded to and surrounding the water chain, and likely to influence proton transfer: three carboxylate O atoms of obligatory homocitrate are essential. The mechanism involves the standard two components of the Grotthuss mechanism, namely H atom slides that shift H3O+ from one water site to the next, and HOH molecular rotations that convert backward (posterior) OH bonds in the water chain to forward (anterior) OH bonds. The topography of the potential energy surface for each of these steps has been mapped. H atom slides pass through very short (ca. 2.5 Å) O-H-O hydrogen bonds, while HOH rotations involve the breaking of O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, and the occurrence of long (up to 3.6 Å) separations between contiguous water molecules. Both steps involve low potential energy barriers, <7 kcal mol-1. During operation of the Grotthuss mechanism in nitrogenase there are substantial displacements of water molecules along the chain, occurring as ripples. These characteristics of the 'Grotthuss two-step', coupled with a buffering ability of two carboxylate O atoms of homocitrate, and combined with density functional characterisation of the final proton slide from the ultimate water molecule to S3B (including electron addition), have been choreographed into a complete mechanism for serial hydrogenation of FeMo-co. The largest potential barrier is estimated to be 14 kcal mol-1. These results are discussed in the context of reactivity data for nitrogenase, and the occurrence of a comparable water chain in cytochrome-c oxidase. Further investigation of the low-frequency conformational dynamics of the nitrogenase proteins, coupling proton transfer with other events in the nitrogenase cycle, is briefly canvassed. © 2015 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Goldblatt F.,Repatriation General Hospital | Goldblatt F.,Flinders Medical Center | O'Neill S.G.,University of New South Wales
The Lancet | Year: 2013

Multisystem autoimmune rheumatic diseases are heterogeneous rare disorders associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Efforts to create international consensus within the past decade have resulted in the publication of new classification or nomenclature criteria for several autoimmune rheumatic diseases, specifically for systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjögren's syndrome, and the systemic vasculitides. Substantial progress has been made in the formulation of new criteria in systemic sclerosis and idiopathic infl ammatory myositis. Although the autoimmune rheumatic diseases share many common features and clinical presentations, diff erentiation between the diseases is crucial because of important distinctions in clinical course, appropriate drugs, and prognoses. We review some of the dilemmas in the diagnosis of these autoimmune rheumatic diseases, and focus on the importance of new classification criteria, clinical assessment, and interpretation of autoimmune serology. In this era of improvement of mortality rates for patients with autoimmune rheumatic diseases, we pay particular attention to the effect of leading complications, specifi cally cardiovascular manifestations and cancer, and we update epidemiology and prognosis.

Attiwill P.M.,University of Melbourne | Adams M.A.,University of New South Wales
Forest Ecology and Management | Year: 2013

Three mega-fires in Victoria over the period 2002-2009 burnt some 3. million hectares, or 40% of the state's public land. In the worst of these bushfires-Black Saturday, 7 February 2009-173 people lost their lives in Australia's worst civilian tragedy. Each of these three fires was followed by intensive inquiries and investigations, the most prolonged and intensive being a Royal Commission inquiry (the most rigorous form of legal inquiry in Australia) into the Black Saturday fires. Continuous changes in the organization of public land management agencies and in policies of public land management over the past 30. years have disrupted forest and fire management, and resulted in large increases in fuel loads in most forest types. The scientific evidence is that burning to reduce fuels must be increased for effective forest management, effective ecological management and for the protection of life and property. The greatest number of submissions to the Royal Commission concerned fuel-reduction burning. Despite specific recommendations coming from the Royal Commission (as well as from an earlier government inquiry) for a 3-fold increase in the fuel-reduction target, the State remains divided on the effectiveness, propriety and implementation of fuel-reduction burning-divided among ecologists, divided among the community, divided among and within the key land-management agencies. The recent fire history of the eucalypt forests of Victoria demonstrates that leaving fire-adapted forests unattended has long-term social, economic and environmental consequences. However, even that is not enough to counter those who argue the case that 'nature knows best'. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Ryan M.,University of New South Wales
Proceedings - IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation | Year: 2010

Planning collision-free paths for multiple robots traversing a shared space is a problem that grows combinatorially with the number of robots. The naive centralised approach soon becomes intractable for even a moderate number of robots. Decentralised approaches, such as prioritised planning, are much faster but lack completeness. Previous work has demonstrated that the search can be significantly reduced by adding a level of abstraction [1]. We first partition the map into subgraphs of particular known structure, such as cliques and halls, and then build abstract plans which describe the transitions of robots between the subgraphs. These plans are constrained by the structural properties of the subgraphs used. When an abstract plan is found, it can easily be resolved into a complete concrete plan without further search. In this paper, we show how this method of planning can be implemented as a constraint satisfaction problem (CSP). Constraint propagation and intelligent search ordering further reduce the size of the search problem, allowing us to solve large problems significantly more quickly. Empirical evaluation on a realistic planning problem shows the clear superiority of the constraint-based approach, but the value of abstraction is mixed: it allows us to solve more problems at the cost of a time-overhead on simple problems. This implementation also opens up opportunities for the application of a number of other search reduction and optimisation techniques, as we will discuss. ©2010 IEEE.

Mcmonnies C.W.,University of New South Wales
Clinical and Experimental Optometry | Year: 2014

An examination of how intraocular pressure distending forces on the posterior sclera are an important mechanism in the development and progression of axial myopia has been made. Papers were selected from the results of PubMed (143) and Science Direct (1,398) searches using the key word combinations of 'axial myopia' and 'intraocular pressure'. The main points include that the sclera is exposed to distending forces at all levels of physiological and pathological intraocular pressure. Reversible axial elongation is a common physiological response to elevated intraocular pressure in healthy eyes but more so in myopic eyes. Key variables, which appear to determine pathological (non-reversible) axial elongation include the thickness, rigidity and viscoelasticity of the posterior sclera and the associated increased susceptibility of it to distending forces. Intraocular pressure appears likely to have a greater role when it is above normal. Intraocular pressure elevations, which are not detected by clinical or experimental tonometry, may be significant contributors to axial elongation. Axial elongation can be pathological in myopic or myopically predisposed eyes, when elongation is not reversible. Axial elongation has also been associated with retinal defocus in both animals and humans, when thinning due to loss of scleral collagen and/or ground substance, which is driven by the retina, appears likely to be associated with increased scleral susceptibility to intraocular pressure. As myopia progresses, signs of retinal and choroidal stretching are an increasingly apparent consequence of the balloon-like expansion of the posterior sclera in response to intraocular pressure. Avoidance or moderation of activities which are known to elevate intraocular pressure may improve the prognosis for patients with genetic and/or environmental predisposition to myopic progression and may be an important consideration, even when other myopic control measures are being used. © 2013 Optometrists Association Australia.

Harris I.A.,University of New South Wales
Journal of Arthroplasty | Year: 2013

Total knee arthroplasty is a painful operation. Peri-articular local anesthetic injections reduce post-operative pain and assist recovery. It is inconclusive whether intra-operative injections of peri-articular corticosteroids are of benefit. Therefore our clinical question was: in patients with osteoarthritis who are undergoing TKA, does the addition of high or low dose corticosteroid to peri-articular injections of local anesthetic and adrenaline improve post-operative pain and range of motion? We performed a prospective, double-blinded, randomized controlled trial of two different doses of triamcinolone acetate (N = 42 in each group) added to local anesthetic in TKA for osteoarthritis. There were no significant differences in pain scores or ROM between the control and corticosteroid groups. Differences in secondary outcomes were also non-significant. Peri-articular corticosteroids do not appear to be of benefit in TKA. © 2013 Elsevier Inc..

Aboutanios E.,University of New South Wales
IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Magazine | Year: 2011

Picture a low earth orbit satellite hurtling around the earth in an 800 km orbit. At this altitude, the satellite travels about 7.5 km every second, and any signals between it and an earth terminal experience significant Doppler shifts. These frequency offsets must be estimated and removed at the earth terminal to enable successful communications with the satellite. As in this example, the estimation of the parameters of a sinusoid plays a fundamental role in a variety of applications ranging from seismology to radar and biological signals. Therefore, this problem has received, and continues to receive, significant attention in the literature. In power delivery systems, the estimation of the supply frequency is required for the monitoring of the system quality and the detection of faults [1], [2]. In nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMRS), on the other hand, the signal is modelled as a sum of decaying complex exponentials whose frequencies and decay factors must be estimated [3]. © 2011 IEEE.

Lane D.J.,University of New South Wales
Biochimica et biophysica acta | Year: 2013

Although ascorbate has long been known to stimulate dietary iron (Fe) absorption and non-transferrin Fe uptake, the role of ascorbate in transferrin Fe uptake is unknown. Transferrin is a serum Fe transport protein supplying almost all cellular Fe under physiological conditions. We sought to examine ascorbate's role in this process, particularly as cultured cells are typically ascorbate-deficient. At typical plasma concentrations, ascorbate significantly increased (59)Fe uptake from transferrin by 1.5-2-fold in a range of cells. Moreover, ascorbate enhanced ferritin expression and increased (59)Fe accumulation in ferritin. The lack of effect of cycloheximide or the cytosolic aconitase inhibitor, oxalomalate, on ascorbate-mediated (59)Fe uptake from transferrin indicate increased ferritin synthesis or cytosolic aconitase activity was not responsible for ascorbate's activity. Experiments with membrane-permeant and -impermeant ascorbate-oxidizing reagents indicate that while extracellular ascorbate is required for stimulation of (59)Fe uptake from (59)Fe-citrate, only intracellular ascorbate is needed for transferrin (59)Fe uptake. Additionally, experiments with l-ascorbate analogs indicate ascorbate's reducing ene-diol moiety is necessary for its stimulatory activity. Importantly, neither N-acetylcysteine nor buthionine sulfoximine, which increase or decrease intracellular glutathione, respectively, affected transferrin-dependent (59)Fe uptake. Thus, ascorbate's stimulatory effect is not due to a general increase in cellular reducing capacity. Ascorbate also did not affect expression of transferrin receptor 1 or (125)I-transferrin cellular flux. However, transferrin receptors, endocytosis, vacuolar-type ATPase activity and endosomal acidification were required for ascorbate's stimulatory activity. Therefore, ascorbate is a novel modulator of the classical transferrin Fe uptake pathway, acting via an intracellular reductive mechanism. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Bryant R.A.,University of New South Wales
British Journal of Psychiatry | Year: 2012

The revisions DSM-5 and ICD-11 are attempting to describe psychopathological reactions to bereavement. The delineation between depressive disorder and normal bereavement-related depressed state lacks sufficient data to guide diagnostic development. In contrast, there is strong evidence for a diagnosis of prolonged grief that is distinguished from depression and involves marked impairment.

Hart-Smith G.,University of New South Wales
Analytica Chimica Acta | Year: 2014

Mass spectrometry (MS)-based studies of synthetic polymers often characterise detected polymer components using mass data alone. However when mass-based characterisations are ambiguous, tandem MS (MS/MS) offers a means by which additional analytical information may be collected. This review provides a synopsis of two particularly promising methods of dissociating polymer ions during MS/MS: electron-capture and electron-transfer dissociation (ECD and ETD, respectively). The article opens with a summary of the basic characteristics and operating principles of ECD and ETD, and relates these techniques to other methods of dissociating gas-phase ions, such as collision-induced dissociation (CID). Insights into ECD- and ETD-based MS/MS, gained from studies into proteins and peptides, are then discussed in relation to polymer chemistry. Finally, ECD- and ETD-based studies into various classes of polymer are summarised; for each polymer class, ECD- and ETD-derived data are compared to CID-derived data. These discussions identify ECD and ETD as powerful means by which unique and diagnostically useful polymer ion fragmentation data may be generated, and techniques worthy of increased utilisation by the polymer chemistry community. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Tangye S.G.,University of New South Wales
Blood | Year: 2015

In this issue of Blood, Mei and colleagues characterize the population of CD19-plasma cells in human bone marrow and provide evidence that this plasma-cell subset substantially contributes to long-lived protection against infections and vaccination.1 © 2015 by The American Society of Hematology.

Tian F.-B.,University of New South Wales
Computational Mechanics | Year: 2015

Flow over two fish (modeled by two flexible plates) in tandem arrangement is investigated by solving the incompressible Navier–Stokes equations numerically with the DSD/SST method to understand the differences between the geometrically linear and nonlinear models. In the simulation, the motions of the plates are reconstructed from a vertically flowing soap film tunnel experiment with linear and nonlinear kinematic models. Based on the simulations, the drag, lift, power consumption, vorticity and pressure fields are discussed in detail. It is found that the linear and nonlinear models are able to reasonably predict the forces and power consumption of a single plate in flow. Moreover, if multiple plates are considered, these two models yield totally different results, which implies that the nonlinear model should be used. The results presented in this work provide a guideline for future studies in fish swimming. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Modeling and simulations of nitroxide-mediated radical polymerization (NMP) in dispersed systems have been performed to elucidate what factors dictate the magnitude of the segregation effect on bimolecular termination between propagating radicals generated from alkoxyamine activation. The reduction in termination rate due to segregation cannot be predicted merely based on the average number of propagating radicals per particle (n̄p). This is because the magnitude of the segregation effect is also governed by the distribution of propagating radicals between particles, which is influenced by both the termination (kt) and the deactivation (kdeact) rate coefficients. The results have implications with regards to improvement of livingness (end-functionality) in NMP by exploitation of particle size, and are expected to apply (qualitatively) to other controlled/living systems based on the persistent radical effect (e.g. atom transfer radical polymerization). © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Li G.,University of New South Wales | Mordukhovich B.S.,Wayne State University
SIAM Journal on Optimization | Year: 2012

This paper is mainly devoted to the study and applications of Hölder metric subregularity (or metric q-subregularity of order q ε (0, 1]) for general set-valued mappings between infinite-dimensional spaces. Employing advanced techniques of variational analysis and generalized differentiation, we derive neighborhood and point-based sufficient conditions as well as necessary conditions for q-metric subregularity with evaluating the exact subregularity bound, which are new even for the conventional (first-order) metric subregularity in both finite and infinite dimensions. In this way we also obtain new fractional error bound results for composite polynomial systems with explicit calculating fractional exponents. Finally, metric q-subregularity is applied to conduct a quantitative convergence analysis of the classical proximal point method (PPM) for finding zeros of maximal monotone operators on Hilbert spaces. © 2012 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

Objectives To review systematically the evidence on opioid substitution treatment (OST) in prisons in reducing injecting-related human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk behaviours. Methods Systematic review in accordance with guidelines of the Cochrane Collaboration. Electronic databases were searched to identify studies of prison-based opioid substitution treatment programmes that included assessment of effects of prison OST on injecting drug use, sharing of needles and syringes and HIV incidence. Published data were used to calculate risk ratios for outcomes of interest. Risk ratios were not pooled due to the low number of studies and differences in study designs. Results Five studies were included in the review. Poor follow-up rates were reported in two studies, and representativeness of the sample was uncertain in the remaining three studies. Compared to inmates in control conditions, for treated inmates the risk of injecting drug use was reduced by 55-75% and risk of needle and syringe sharing was reduced by 47-73%. No study reported a direct effect of prison OST on HIV incidence. Conclusions There may be a role for OST in preventing HIV transmission in prisons, but methodologically rigorous research addressing this question specifically is required. OST should be implemented in prisons as part of comprehensive HIV prevention programmes that also provide condoms and sterile injecting and tattooing equipment. © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.

Huppert H.E.,University of Cambridge | Huppert H.E.,University of New South Wales | Huppert H.E.,University of Bristol | Neufeld J.A.,University of Cambridge
Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics | Year: 2014

Humans are faced with a potentially disastrous global problem owing to the current emission of 32 gigatonnes of carbon dioxide (CO2) annually into the atmosphere. A possible way to mitigate the effects is to store CO2 in large porous reservoirs within the Earth. Fluid mechanics plays a key role in determining both the feasibility and risks involved in this geological sequestration. We review current research efforts looking at the propagation of CO2 within the subsurface, the possible rates of leakage, the mechanisms that act to stably trap CO2, and the geomechanical response of the crust to large-scale CO2 injection. We conclude with an outline for future research. Copyright © 2014 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

Myburgh J.,University of New South Wales | Finfer S.,University of Sydney
BMC Medicine | Year: 2013

The Fluid Expansion as Supportive Therapy (FEAST study) was an extremely well conducted study that gave unexpected results. The investigators had reported that febrile children with impaired perfusion treated in low-income countries without access to intensive care are more likely to die if they receive bolus resuscitation with albumin or saline compared with no bolus resuscitation at all. In a secondary analysis of the trial, published in BMC Medicine, the authors found that increased mortality was evident in patients who presented with clinical features of severe shock in isolation or in conjunction with features of respiratory or neurological failure. The cause of excess deaths was primarily refractory shock and not fluid overload. These features are consistent with a potential cardiotoxic or ischemia-reperfusion injury following resuscitation with boluses of intravenous fluid. Although these effects may have been amplified by the absence of invasive monitoring, mechanical ventilation or vasopressors, the results provide compelling insights into the effects of intravenous fluid resuscitation and potential adverse effects that extend beyond the initial resuscitation period. These data add to the increasing body of literature about the safety and efficacy of intravenous resuscitation fluids, which may be applicable to management of other populations of critically ill patients. © 2013 Myburgh and Finfer; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Kwok J.B.,Neuroscience Research Australia | Kwok J.B.,University of New South Wales
Epigenomics | Year: 2010

Alzheimers disease (AD) and Parkinsons disease (PD) are two common neurodegenerative diseases that result in the progressive damage or death of neurons. Environmental agents have the potential to damage the developing and mature nervous system, resulting in neurodegenerative diseases. Heritable changes in gene expression that do not involve coding sequence modifications are referred to as 'epigenetic. These modifications include DNA methylation and downstream modification of histones. Environmental factors, including heavy metals and dietary folate intake, perturb neurodegenerative genes by epigenetic means, leading to altered gene expression and late-onset neurodegenerative diseases. Research into the genetic control of DNA methylation indicates an allelic skewing in a significant proportion of genes. This phenomenon may determine how an individuals genetic makeup can alter the effect an environmental factor has on their risk of developing neurodegeneration. Finally, preliminary evidence using cell culture and transgenic animal models suggests that whole classes of pan-epigenetic modifiers will have significant protective effects against common neurodegenerative diseases. © 2010 Future Medicine Ltd.

Pasquier E.,University of New South Wales
Current cancer drug targets | Year: 2010

The capacity to induce new blood vessel formation or to repair damaged vessels is an attractive idea that has, for a long time, captured the attention and imagination of researchers. Beside the identification of the pro-angiogenic growth factors and their counterpart inhibitors, the discovery of endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) in adults and their putative vascular-promoting and/or vascular-healing properties, has generated some of the biggest fascination and debate in the broad field of vascular biology. The simple concept of a population of undifferentiated cells being able to generate new endothelial cells and the corresponding blood vessels in adults is both intriguing and, as seen in the last 10 years, controversial. Academic rivalry or pure scientific dispute has accompanied the research on EPC for some time. The major issues put forward by opposing groups of scientists regarding the identity and the role of EPCs as well as the optimal isolation and detection techniques are discussed in this review. The clinical relevance of EPCs and their potential applications in cancer treatments are also highlighted.

Bobryshev Y.V.,University of New South Wales
Laboratory Investigation | Year: 2010

Dendritic cells (DCs) are the most potent professional antigen-presenting cells with the unique ability of primary immune response initiation. DCs originate from bone marrow progenitors, which circulate in the peripheral blood and subsequently penetrate peripheral tissues, where they give rise to immature DCs. In peripheral tissues, DCs continuously monitor the microenvironment and, when the cells encounter danger signals, DCs undergo differentiation and maturation. Maturing DCs usually migrate to lymphatic tissues, where they form contacts with T cells to initiate a primary immune response. DCs were identified in arteries in 1995 and since then, further knowledge has been gained about the peculiarities of vascular-associated DCs and their role in atherosclerosis. Immune reactions toward modified lipoproteins and other factors ignited by resident vascular DCs as well as by newly arrived DCs, which originate from blood monocytes, are believed to destabilize arterial homeostasis from very earlier stages of atherogenesis. There is a remarkable heterogeneity of DCs in atherosclerotic lesions. Some DCs mature and become capable of forming clusters with T cells directly within the arterial wall. The predictive value of the numbers of circulating DC precursors in coronary artery disease and in atherosclerosis has been assessed, and it has been shown that DCs have a role in plaque destabilization. Over recent decades, DCs have proven to be a valuable instrument in immunotherapy approaches against cancer and various autoimmune diseases, and this explains the demand that the accumulated knowledge be applied to the field of atherosclerosis immunotherapy. © 2010 USCAP, Inc All rights reserved.

Eden J.A.,University of New South Wales
Maturitas | Year: 2012

Objective: To review the evidence that isoflavones are effective treatments for menopausal symptoms and to present the safety data. Methods: The databases Scopus, ScienceDirect and Primo Central Index were searched and preference was given to systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Results: The available evidence suggests that isoflavones do not relieve menopausal vasomotor symptoms any better than placebo. Long-term safety studies suggest that women who consume a diet high in isoflavones may have a lower risk of endometrial and ovarian cancer. Conclusions: Isoflavones cannot be recommended for the relief of hot flushes.

Le Pelley M.E.,University of Cardiff | Le Pelley M.E.,University of New South Wales
Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning Memory and Cognition | Year: 2012

Monkeys will selectively and adaptively learn to avoid the most difficult trials of a perceptual discrimination learning task. Couchman, Coutinho, Beran, and Smith (2010) have recently demonstrated that this pattern of responding does not depend on animals receiving trial-by-trial feedback for their responses; it also obtains if experience of the most difficult trials occurs only under conditions of deferred feedback. Couchman et al. argued that this ruled out accounts based on low-level processes of associative learning and instead required explanation in terms of metacognitive processes of decision monitoring. Contrary to this argument, a simple associative model of reinforcement learning is shown to account for the key findings of Couchman et al.'s empirical study, along with several other findings that have previously been claimed to challenge associative models. © 2012 American Psychological Association.

O'Brien C.C.,University of New South Wales
Annals of biomedical engineering | Year: 2012

The mechanisms of delivery of anti-proliferative drug from a drug-eluting stent are defined by transport forces in the coating, the lumen, and the arterial wall. Dynamic asymmetries in the localized flow about stent struts have previously been shown to contribute to significant heterogeneity in the spatial distribution of drug in in silico three-compartmental models of stent based drug delivery. A novel bench-top experiment has been created to confirm this phenomena. The experiment simulates drug release from a single stent strut, and then allows visualization of drug uptake into both lumen and tissue domains using optical techniques. Results confirm the existence of inhomogeneous and asymmetric arterial drug distributions, with this distribution shown to be sensitive to the flow field surrounding the strut.

Dore G.J.,University of New South Wales
Medical Journal of Australia | Year: 2012

The next decade will be a crucial period in the public health response to hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. The rapid development of direct-acting antiviral therapy for HCV infection has brought considerable optimism to the HCV sector, with the realistic hope that therapeutic intervention will soon be more effective and offer shorter treatment duration. The initial phase of combination pegylated interferon, ribavirin and a protease inhibitor will be associated with increased toxicity and complexity of therapeutic management but, over the course of the decade, strategies including interferon-free combination directacting antiviral regimens with enhanced tolerability and simplified dosing schedules and monitoring protocols will emerge.

Previous studies on schizophrenia have detected elevated cytokines in both brain and blood, suggesting neuroinflammation may contribute to the pathophysiology in some cases. We aimed to determine the extent to which elevated peripheral cytokine messenger RNA (mRNA) expression: (1) characterizes a subgroup of people with schizophrenia and (2) shows a relationship to cognition, brain volume and/or symptoms. Forty-three outpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and matched healthy controls were assessed for peripheral cytokine mRNAs (interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-18), intelligence quotient, memory and verbal fluency, symptom severity and cortical brain volumes integral to language (that is, Broca’s and Wernicke’s areas). IL-1β mRNA levels were 28% increased in schizophrenia compared with controls (t(82)=2.64, P<0.01). Using a two-step clustering procedure, we identified a subgroup of people displaying relatively elevated cytokine mRNA levels (17/43 people with schizophrenia and 9/42 controls). Individuals with schizophrenia in the elevated cytokine subgroup performed significantly worse than the low-cytokine subgroup on verbal fluency (F(1,40)=15.7, P<0.001). There was a 17% volume reduction of the left pars opercularis (POp) (Broca’s area) in patients with elevated cytokines compared with patients with lower cytokines (F(1,29)=9.41, P=0.005). Negative linear relationships between IL-1β mRNA levels and both verbal fluency and left POp volume were found in schizophrenia. This study is among the first to link blood biomarkers of inflammation with both cognitive deficits and brain volume reductions in people with schizophrenia, supporting that those with elevated cytokines represent a neurobiologically meaningful subgroup. These findings raise the possibility that targeted anti-inflammatory treatments may ameliorate cognitive and brain morphological abnormalities in some people with schizophrenia.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 21 July 2015; doi:10.1038/mp.2015.90. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited

Raftery M.J.,University of New South Wales
Redox Report | Year: 2014

Numerous oxidative modifications to proteins and amino acids have been identified with most susceptible, to varying degrees, of some form of oxidative modification. The consequence of oxidation on protein structure and function reveals that some of these modifications are functionally important. The discovery and accurate characterization/description of existing and new modifications requires modern instrumentation, great care, and attention to detail, especially if the modifications are present in low stoichiometric quantities or they only exist transiently. The focus of this brief review is on the use of mass spectrometry, protein chemistry, and proteomics methods and tools to identify oxidatively modified proteins and peptides along with the characterization of specific sites. Many of the specialized mass spectrometry technologies and techniques are becoming more widely available in research laboratories with mass spectrometry or proteomics facilities allowing even non-expert researchers in the field to accurately determine modifications. Illustrative examples of some approaches are provided from the author's work, collaborative research projects, and elsewhere. © W. S. Maney & Son Ltd 2014.

Parker G.,University of New South Wales
British Journal of Psychiatry | Year: 2014

Borderline personality disorder is by its very naming positioned as an Axis II personality disorder and thus seemingly distinct from an Axis I mood state. Clinical differentiation of those with a borderline condition and those with a bipolar disorder is commonly held to be difficult, so raising the question as to whether they may be independent or interdependent conditions, and allowing several possible answers.

Bonduriansky R.,University of New South Wales | Day T.,Queens University
Journal of Evolutionary Biology | Year: 2013

In species where males provide neither direct benefits nor paternal care, it is typically assumed that female preferences are maintained by indirect selection reflecting genetic benefits to offspring of preferred males. However, it remains unclear whether populations harbour sufficient genetic variation in fitness to support costly female preferences - a problem called the 'lek paradox'. Here, we ask whether indirect selection on female preferences can be maintained by nongenetic inheritance. We construct a general model that can be used to represent either genetic or nongenetic inheritance, depending on the choice of parameter values. Interestingly, we find that costly preference is most likely to evolve and persist when fitness depends on an environmentally induced factor that can be transmitted over a single generation only, such as an environment-dependent paternal effect. Costly preference can also be supported when fitness depends on a highly mutable factor that can persist over multiple generations, such as an epigenetic mark, but the necessary conditions are more restrictive. Our findings show that nongenetic inheritance provides a plausible hypothesis for the maintenance of costly female preferences in species where males provide no direct benefits to females. Nongenetic paternal inheritance of fitness can occur in species lacking conventional forms of paternal care. Indeed, transmission of paternal condition via sperm-borne nongenetic factors may be more likely to evolve than conventional forms of paternal investment because sperm-borne effects are protected from cuckoldry. Our results furnish a novel example of an interaction between genetic and nongenetic inheritance that can lead to otherwise unexpected evolutionary outcomes. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2012 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

Fletcher K.,University of New South Wales
Psychiatry research | Year: 2013

Clearer understanding of psychological processes and mechanisms such as cognitive style inform more targeted psychological treatments for mood disorders. Studies to date have focused on bipolar I disorder or combined bipolar sub-types, precluding identification of any distinctive cognitive style profiles. We examined cognitive style separately in the bipolar sub-types, contrasted with unipolar and non-clinical controls. A total of 417 participants (94 bipolar I, 114 bipolar II, 109 unipolar, 100 healthy controls) completed cognitive style measures including the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale, Inferential Styles Questionnaire, Stress Appraisal Measure and the Behavioural Inhibition System/Behavioural Activation System Scale. Overall, cognitive styles were similar in unipolar and bipolar participants, but with styles relevant to the Behavioral Activation System differentiating bipolar I disorder in particular. State anxiety influenced negative inferential style in unipolar participants and appraisal of stress in bipolar II participants. Analyses restricted to bipolar I vs. II comparisons revealed subtle differences in terms of dispositional stress appraisal, with higher scores on two stress appraisal sub-scales in the bipolar I group. Further exploration of cognitive style in bipolar sub-types is indicated in order to determine whether there are specific psychological vulnerabilities that would benefit from more targeted psychological interventions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Bryant R.A.,University of New South Wales
Current Opinion in Psychiatry | Year: 2014

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although there is much evidence for the construct of prolonged grief, there was much controversy over the proposal to introduce a prolonged grief diagnosis into Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5), and it was finally rejected as a diagnosis in DSM-5. This review outlines the evidence for and against the diagnosis, and highlights the implications of the DSM-5 decision. RECENT FINDINGS: Convergent evidence indicates that prolonged grief characterized by persistently severe yearning for the deceased is a distinct construct from bereavement-related depression and anxiety, is associated with marked functional impairment, is responsive to targeted treatments for prolonged grief, and has been validated across different cultures, age groups, and types of bereavement. Although DSM-5 has rejected the construct as a formal diagnosis, evidence continues to emerge on related mechanisms, including maladaptive appraisals, memory and attentional processes, immunological and arousal responses, and neural circuitry. SUMMARY: It is most likely that the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) will introduce a diagnosis to recognize prolonged grief, even though DSM-5 has decided against this option. It is probable that the DSM-5 decision may result in more prolonged grief patients being incorrectly diagnosed with depression after bereavement and possibly incorrectly treated. The DSM-5 decision is unlikely to impact on future research agendas. © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Maher M.J.,University of New South Wales
Theory and Practice of Logic Programming | Year: 2012

Abstract We address the relative expressiveness of defeasible logics in the framework DL. Relative expressiveness is formulated as the ability to simulate the reasoning of one logic within another logic. We show that such simulations must be modular, in the sense that they also work if applied only to part of a theory, in order to achieve a useful notion of relative expressiveness. We present simulations showing that logics in DL with and without the capability of team defeat are equally expressive. We also show that logics that handle ambiguity differently - ambiguity blocking versus ambiguity propagating - have distinct expressiveness, with neither able to simulate the other under a different formulation of expressiveness. © Cambridge University Press 2012.

Rye K.-A.,University of New South Wales
Clinical and Experimental Nephrology | Year: 2014

High-density lipoproteins (HDL) originate as discoidal particles that are rapidly converted by lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) into the spherical particles that predominate in normal human plasma. Spherical HDL consist of multiple populations of particles that vary widely in size, composition and function. Human population studies have established that high plasma HDL cholesterol levels are associated with a reduced incidence of cardiovascular disease. The mechanistic basis of this relationship is not well understood, but most likely involves a number of the cardioprotective functions of HDL. These include the ability of apolipoprotein (apo) A-I, the main apolipoprotein constituent of HDL, to remove cholesterol from macrophages in the artery wall. HDL also have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties that are potentially cardioprotective. Evidence that some of these beneficial properties are compromised in people with diabetes and renal disease is emerging. Persistently elevated plasma glucose levels in people with diabetes and poor glycemic control can lead to irreversible, non-enzymatic glycation of plasma proteins, including apoA-I. Non-enzymatically glycated proteins are also prevalent in people with diabetes and end-stage renal disease who are at high cardiovascular risk. Evidence that non-enzymatically glycated apoA-I inhibits the LCAT reaction and impairs some of the cardioprotective properties of HDL is also emerging. This review is concerned with how non-enzymatic glycation of apoA-I affects the ability of LCAT to convert discoidal HDL into spherical HDL, how it affects cholesterol efflux from macrophages and how it affects the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of HDL. © 2013 Japanese Society of Nephrology.

Draper B.M.,University of New South Wales
Maturitas | Year: 2014

Despite a general decline in late life suicide rates over the last 30 years, older people have the highest rates of suicide in most countries. In contrast, non-fatal suicidal behaviour declines with age and more closely resembles suicide than in younger age groups. There are difficulties in the detection and determination of pathological suicidal ideation in older people. Multiple factors increase suicide risk ranging from distal early and mid-life issues such as child abuse, parental death, substance misuse and traumatic life experiences to proximal precipitants in late life such as social isolation and health-related concerns. Clinical depression is the most frequently identified proximal mental health concern and in many cases is a first episode of major depression. Recent studies have identified changes on neuroimaging and neurocognitive factors that might distinguish suicidal from non-suicidal depression in older people. Strategies for suicide prevention need to be 'whole of life' and, as no single prevention strategy is likely to be successful alone, a multi-faceted, multi-layered approach is required. This should include optimal detection and management of depression and of high risk individuals as available evidence indicates that this can reduce suicidal behaviour. How best to improve the quality of depression management in primary and secondary care requires further research. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Newell B.R.,University of New South Wales | Shanks D.R.,University College London
Behavioral and Brain Sciences | Year: 2014

To what extent do we know our own minds when making decisions? Variants of this question have preoccupied researchers in a wide range of domains, from mainstream experimental psychology (cognition, perception, social behavior) to cognitive neuroscience and behavioral economics. A pervasive view places a heavy explanatory burden on an intelligent cognitive unconscious, with many theories assigning causally effective roles to unconscious influences. This article presents a novel framework for evaluating these claims and reviews evidence from three major bodies of research in which unconscious factors have been studied: multiple-cue judgment, deliberation without attention, and decisions under uncertainty. Studies of priming (subliminal and primes-to-behavior) and the role of awareness in movement and perception (e.g., timing of willed actions, blindsight) are also given brief consideration. The review highlights that inadequate procedures for assessing awareness, failures to consider artifactual explanations of landmark results, and a tendency to uncritically accept conclusions that fit with our intuitions have all contributed to unconscious influences being ascribed inflated and erroneous explanatory power in theories of decision making. The review concludes by recommending that future research should focus on tasks in which participants' attention is diverted away from the experimenter's hypothesis, rather than the highly reflective tasks that are currently often employed. Copyright © 2014 Cambridge University Press.

Green M.A.,University of New South Wales
Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications | Year: 2011

In 2010, about 2000 t of Ag were used in the contact metallization of silicon wafer-based photovoltaics, consuming approximately 7% of the total annual world Ag supply. With the growth of the photovoltaic industry by 10 times/decade over coming decades not out of the question, Ag supply is clearly an impending material resource issue. Minimum requirements for screen-printed cells are analyzed with the conclusion that design changes will likely be required over the coming decade to reduce use. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. In 2010, about 2000 t of Ag were used in the contact metallization of silicon wafer-based photovoltaics, consuming approximately 7% of the total annual world Ag supply. With the growth of the photovoltaic industry by 10 times/decade over coming decades not out of the question, Ag supply is clearly an impending material resource issue. Minimum requirements for screen-printed cells are analyzed with the conclusion that design changes will likely be required over the coming decade to reduce use. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Lowe A.B.,University of New South Wales
Polymer (United Kingdom) | Year: 2014

This review highlights recent applications of the thiol-yne reaction in polymer synthesis and modification and also gives some representative examples of its application in small molecule (bio)organic chemistry. A brief introduction to the history of the thiol-yne reaction is given followed by a description of the mechanism for the common radical-mediated manifestation of the reaction. This is followed by a review of its use in network/gel syntheses and modification, as a tool for polymer synthesis and copolymer modification; its applicability in the preparation of dendrimers and hyperbranched polymers and finally how it has been employed as a tool for surface modification and functionalisation. This review is not intended to be exhaustive but rather to serve as an overview of research areas within which this important reaction is currently attracting interest. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Martinac B.,Victor Chang Cardiac Research Institute | Martinac B.,University of New South Wales
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Biomembranes | Year: 2014

As biological force-sensing systems mechanosensitive (MS) ion channels present the best example of coupling molecular dynamics of membrane proteins to the mechanics of the surrounding cell membrane. In animal cells MS channels have over the past two decades been very much in focus of mechanotransduction research. In recent years this helped to raise awareness of basic and medical researchers about the role that abnormal MS channels may play in the pathophysiology of diseases, such as cardiac hypertrophy, atrial fibrillation, muscular dystrophy or polycystic kidney disease. To date a large number of MS channels from organisms of diverse phylogenetic origins have been identified at the molecular level; however, the structure of only few of them has been determined. Although their function has extensively been studied in a great variety of cells and tissues by different experimental approaches it is, with exception of bacterial MS channels, very little known about how these channels sense mechanical force and which cellular components may contribute to their function. By focusing on MS channels found in animal cells this article discusses the ways in which the connections between cytoskeleton and ion channels may contribute to mechanosensory transduction in these cells. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Reciprocal influences between cell cytoskeleton and membrane channels, receptors and transporters. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Reciprocal influences between cell cytoskeleton and membrane channels, receptors and transporters. Guest Editor: Jean Claude Hervé. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

In this paper it is argued that one should not attempt to directly assess whether a forensic analysis technique is scientifically acceptable. Rather one should first specify what one considers to be appropriate principles governing acceptable practice, then consider any particular approach in light of those principles. This paper focuses on one principle: the validity and reliability of an approach should be empirically tested under conditions reflecting those of the case under investigation using test data drawn from the relevant population. Versions of this principle have been key elements in several reports on forensic science, including forensic voice comparison, published over the last four-and-a-half decades. The aural-spectrographic approach to forensic voice comparison (also known as "voiceprint" or "voicegram" examination) and the currently widely practiced auditory-acoustic-phonetic approach are considered in light of this principle (these two approaches do not appear to be mutually exclusive). Approaches based on data, quantitative measurements, and statistical models are also considered in light of this principle. © 2013 Forensic Science Society.

Hacker N.F.,University of New South Wales
Annals of Oncology | Year: 2011

This study is a literature review of papers in the English language dealing with quality control for ovarian cancer surgery. Quality control in surgery has long been a neglected area of medicine. Initial attempts were limited to cardiac surgery, but only very recently has there been any attempt to look at quality control in ovarian cancer surgery. Investigators from Hesse, Germany were the first to document the surgical quality of patients with ovarian cancer. Subsequently, investigators in the United States and other European countries have demonstrated that patients treated by gynaecological oncologists in large-volume tertiary institutions had the best outcomes. The Gynaecological Cancer Group of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer has developed a series of process quality indicators for ovarian cancer surgery that could be used by surgeons or units to audit and improve their practice. These and or other initiatives are important, because pressure is coming from consumers, government, health care insurers and medical risk insurers for surgeons and hospitals to provide transparent patient outcome data. If the profession does not institute adequate internal regulation of the quality of ovarian cancer surgery, regulation is likely to be imposed by government. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved.

Parker G.,University of New South Wales
British Journal of Psychiatry | Year: 2016

The archetypal professor of the 20th century is a dying breed, and now 'the Prof' truly occupies emeritus status. This article seeks to remember the Profs with fondness and consider some of the processes that led to their extinction. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016.

Wedemeyer H.,Hanover Center for Internal Medicine | Dore G.J.,University of New South Wales | Ward J.W.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Journal of Viral Hepatitis | Year: 2015

Hepatitis C is caused by infection with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) and represents a major global health burden. Persistent HCV infection can lead to progressive liver disease with the development of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, possibly accounting for up to 0.5 million deaths every year. Treatment of HCV infection is undergoing a profound and radical change. As new treatments are extremely safe and effective, there are virtually no medical reasons to withhold therapy. Yet, the new therapies are expensive. As resources are limited, solid data to estimate the disease burden caused by HCV are urgently needed. Epidemiology data and disease burden analyses for 16 countries are presented. For almost all countries, the peak of HCV-related cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma and liver-related death is a decade or more away. However, a surprising heterogeneity in country-specific HCV-associated disease burden exists. Also, HCV diagnosis and treatment uptake varied markedly between countries. A consistent finding was that a reduction of HCV liver-related mortality is dependent on access to therapy. Increasing efficacy of therapy alone with a constant numbers of treatments will not have a major impact on the HCV-related disease burden. The data presented here should inform public health policy and help drive advocacy for enhanced strategic investment and action. HCV kills patients, and the disease burden will continue to rise in most countries unless action is taken soon. Chronic HCV is a curable infection and a reversible liver disease. Fortunately, the tools to eliminate HCV are now available. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Apte M.,University of New South Wales | Apte M.,Ingham Institute for Applied Medical Research | Banks P.A.,Harvard University
The Lancet | Year: 2015

Acute pancreatitis, an inflammatory disorder of the pancreas, is the leading cause of admission to hospital for gastrointestinal disorders in the USA and many other countries. Gallstones and alcohol misuse are long-established risk factors, but several new causes have emerged that, together with new aspects of pathophysiology, improve understanding of the disorder. As incidence (and admission rates) of acute pancreatitis increase, so does the demand for effective management. We review how to manage patients with acute pancreatitis, paying attention to diagnosis, differential diagnosis, complications, prognostic factors, treatment, and prevention of second attacks, and the possible transition from acute to chronic pancreatitis. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Salleh A.,University of New South Wales
Organization and Environment | Year: 2010

On the assumption that good theory is informed by praxis and vice versa, the essay brings sociological theory together with the alternative globalization movement. The responses of this emerging global civil society to contemporary environmental crises indicate that understandings of labor and value that evolved with industrial capital need to be broadened. The essay opens up this process with an outline of how capitalist production undermines its own social metabolism, a "metabolic rift," that is maintained by the ideological separation of ecology and economics. However, from a grassroots perspective, it is clear that a conceptual vacuum exists between these two disciplines-a space in which a third discourse waits to be articulated. This subliminal "other" sphere of labor and value centers on reproduction of the humanity-nature metabolism by those whose labor is marginalized by capital-unpaid caregivers, peasants, and indigenous gatherers. The terms meta-industrial labor and metabolic value spell out the material, rift-healing, contribution of this unnamed international class. The essay seeks recognition for a vernacular science, an integrated movement strategy, and more inclusive social theory. © 2010 SAGE Publications.

Gundara J.S.,University of New South Wales
Endocrine-related cancer | Year: 2012

Autophagy is an increasingly well-characterised process of cell component auto-digestion and recycling thought necessary for cellular subsistence. As we gain a more thorough understanding of the mechanisms underlying autophagy, its relevance to human disease and therapeutic potential are being clarified. This review summarises the evidence implicating autophagy in the pathogenesis and potential treatment of malignant disease. In addition, we explore the molecular role of microRNAs as key regulators in what we propose should now become known as 'oncophagy'.

Gable P.A.,University of Alabama | Harmon-Jones E.,University of New South Wales
Psychophysiology | Year: 2013

Past research suggests that high approach-motivated positive affects narrow attentional scope and cause greater late positive potential (LPP) amplitudes. However, because arousal is related to motivational intensity, arousal may be responsible for these past findings. The present research investigated whether arousal, manipulated independently of affect using physical exercise, would influence attentional and LPP responses to stimuli. Results revealed that appetitive (vs. neutral) pictures evoked larger LPPs over central and left frontal regions, and caused more attentional narrowing. Individual differences in approach motivation predicted more attentional narrowing following appetitive stimuli. However, manipulated arousal did not influence attentional scope or LPPs to neutral or appetitive stimuli. Results suggest that attentional narrowing and LPPs to appetitive stimuli are related to approach motivation rather than enhanced general arousal. © 2013 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

Tilly J.L.,Massachusetts General Hospital | Tilly J.L.,Harvard University | Sinclair D.A.,Harvard University | Sinclair D.A.,University of New South Wales
Cell Metabolism | Year: 2013

The role of metabolism in ovarian aging is poorly described, despite the fact that ovaries fail earlier than most other organs. Growing interest in ovarian function is being driven by recent evidence that mammalian females routinely generate new oocytes during adult life through the activity of germline stem cells. In this perspective, we overview the female reproductive system as a powerful and clinically relevant model to understand links between aging and metabolism, and we discuss new concepts for how oocytes and their precursor cells might be altered metabolically to sustain or increase ovarian function and fertility in women. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Petersen I.R.,University of New South Wales | Tempo R.,CNR Institute of Electronics, Computer and Telecommunication Engineering
Automatica | Year: 2014

This paper presents a survey of the most significant results on robust control theory. In particular, we study the modeling of uncertain systems, robust stability analysis for systems with unstructured uncertainty, robustness analysis for systems with structured uncertainty, and robust control system design including H∞ control methods. The paper also presents some more recent results on deterministic and probabilistic methods for systems with uncertainty. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Frew J.W.,University of New South Wales
American Journal of Dermatopathology | Year: 2015

Introduction: Multinucleate cell angiohistiocytoma (MCAH) is a peculiar dermatopathological entity described as asymptomatic grouped red-to-violaceous papules, developing over weeks to months without spontaneous regression. The histopathological findings comprise bizarre basophilic multinucleated cells (MC), small vessel inflammation, mild dermal fibrosis, and a sparse lymphohistiocytic infiltrate. Aims and Methods: This study aimed to collate and analyze the clinical, histological, and immunohistochemical characteristics of all reported cases of MCAH from the international literature, and the presence or absence of concurrent chronic inflammatory or neoplastic phenomena to investigate any potential clinicopathological correlations, which may hint at the underlying pathophysiology of this condition. A systematic review of the literature was undertaken with information collected by a predeveloped pro forma. New case reports were also sourced from patient records at the Skin and Cancer Foundation Australia Database. Results: A total of 142 cases of MCAH were collated, including 8 new case reports. The average age of onset was 50.1 years, with 79% of all individuals being female. The most commonly affected areas were the hands (30%) and face (29%). Univariate analysis revealed a positive association between lesion size and MC staining for CD68 (R = 0.488; P = 0.004), and an inverse relationship between size and endothelial staining for CD34 (R = 20.530; P = 0.012). Multiple lesions were significantly associated with an inverse relationship to MC staining of CD68 (R = 20.519; P = 0.002). Moderate correlations were seen between specific sites of vascularity and sites in which MCs were identified (R = 0.734-0.741; P , 0.001), and dermal fibrosis was associated with an increased number of MCs (R = 0.522; P = 0.002) and decreased multinucleate cell immunohistochemical staining (R = 20.655; P = 0.003). An association was found between patients with chronic inflammatory conditions and endothelial staining for CD68 (R = 0.671; P = 0.012), and an inverse relationship with MC staining for factor XIIIa (20.481; P , 0.001). No statistically significant relationships between neoplasia and MCAH were found. Discussion and Conclusions: From the data examined, we hypothesize that although this condition may be inflammatory and vascular in initial origin, fibrosis and atrophy play a vital role in the pathogenesis, particularly regarding the progression to multiple lesions. A detailed hypothesis is described that may be amenable to more detailed investigations. Limitations in this study include the heterogeneity of results analyzed across case reports; however, our conclusions match those developed through the analysis of our case series. These hypotheses and proposals provide an experimental basis for further research into the pathogenesis and mechanisms underlying MCAH. © 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc.

Holt M.,University of New South Wales
Culture, Health and Sexuality | Year: 2011

The concept of 'gay community', and gay men's attachment to and involvement in gay community activities, has held both a symbolic and practical role in understanding and guiding responses to HIV in developed world contexts. In the West, the HIV epidemic has disproportionately affected gay men. Being involved in and connected to gay community activities (what, in Australia, is described as 'gay community attachment') predicted the adoption of safe sex practices. However, the meaning of gay community is changing. This presents a challenge to those working in HIV prevention. With reference to previous research, the meaning of gay community is analysed in qualitative interviews conducted with Australian gay men. The interview data indicate that gay men are often ambivalent about gay communities, suggesting a need for subtlety in the ways we think about and address gay men in HIV education and health promotion. The concept of 'personal communities' may better reflect the ways in which gay men engage with each other and their social networks. Recognising and responding to the changing nature of gay life will ensure that the flexibility and pragmatism of HIV programmes aimed at gay men are maintained. © 2011 Taylor & Francis.

Klineberg I.,University of New South Wales
The International journal of oral & maxillofacial implants | Year: 2013

An international Delphi study was undertaken to determine by consensus an agreed approach to the management of children with dental manifestations of ectodermal dysplasia, including the use of dental implants. This was done using a questionnaire developed by an interdisciplinary team. The Delphi study questionnaire was built around 19 areas of clinical relevance and included 90 items. Topic areas included dental disability; initial diagnosis; global disability; oral health aspects of dental treatment (orthodontics, hypodontia, anodontia, implants); and case studies of selected treatment options. Eleven teams from six countries contributed to three iterations of the questionnaire. An algorithm was designed to standardize analysis of the questionnaire answers, all of which were blinded to ensure anonymity. The second and third rounds of the questionnaire excluded previously agreed-upon items but included the responses to the questions from the earlier rounds. The nonconsensus items inquired about the use of radiographs at initial diagnosis; sedation of an uncooperative child; use of a pretreatment questionnaire; the age range for specific treatments (eg, dentures, orthodontics, implants); specific uses of implants (eg, partial prostheses, overdentures, cantilevered prostheses); and case study 2. The residual nonconsensus questions were subsequently discussed at a 2-day meeting. Among the 90 questions and partial questions, there was progressive consensus, with agreements in rounds 1, 2, and 3 of 61%, 21%, and 8%, respectively. At the conclusion of round 3, there was 90% agreement and it was considered that the nonconsensus items required in-depth face-to-face discussion at a consensus meeting, which is described in part 2 of the study. The Delphi study provided an opportunity to engage specialist teams in recognized centers to integrate their clinical knowledge and draw on published data to develop a consensus of evidence-based responses.

Sha M.,University of New South Wales
Finite Fields and their Applications | Year: 2015

In this paper, we continue the recent work of Fukshansky and Maharaj on lattices from elliptic curves over finite fields. We show that there exist bases formed by minimal vectors for these lattices except only one case. We also compute their determinants, and obtain sharp bounds for the covering radius. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Green M.A.,University of New South Wales
Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications | Year: 2012

Maximum possible photovoltaic performance is reached when solar cells are 100% radiatively efficient, with different photovoltaic technologies at different stages in their evolution towards this ideal. An external radiative efficiency is defined, which can be unambiguously determined from standard cell efficiency measurements. Comparisons between state-of-the-art devices from the representative cell technologies produce some interesting conclusions. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Soliveres S.,Rey Juan Carlos University | Eldridge D.J.,University of New South Wales
Functional Ecology | Year: 2014

Shrub canopies in semi-arid environments often produce positive effects on soil fertility, and on the richness and biomass of understorey plant communities. However, both positive and negative effects of shrub encroachment on plant and soil attributes have been reported at the landscape level. The contrasting results between patch- and landscape-level effects in shrublands could be caused by differences in the degree of shrub encroachment or grazing pressure, both of which are likely to reduce the ability of individual shrubs to ameliorate their understorey environment. We examined how grazing and shrub encroachment (measured as landscape-level shrub cover) influence patch-level effects of shrubs on plant density, biomass and similarity in species composition between shrub understories and open areas, and on soil stability, nutrient cycling, and infiltration in two semi-arid Australian woodlands. Individual shrubs had consistently positive effects on all plant and soil variables (average increase of 23% for all variables). These positive patch-level effects persisted with increasing shrub cover up to our maximum of 50% cover. Heavy grazing negatively affected most of the variables studied (average decline of 11%). It also altered, for some variables, how individual shrubs affected their subcanopy environment with increasing shrub cover. Thus, for species density, biomass and soil infiltration, the positive effect of individual shrubs with increasing shrub cover diminished under heavy grazing. Synthesis: Our study refines predictions of the effects of woody encroachment on ecosystem structure and functioning by showing that heavy grazing, rather than differences in shrub cover, explains the contrasting effects on ecosystem structure and function between individual shrubs and those in dense aggregations. We also discuss how species-specific traits of the encroaching species, such as their height or its ability to fix N, might influence the relationship between their patch-level effects and their cover within the landscape. © 2013 The Authors. Functional Ecology © 2013 British Ecological Society.

Halliday G.,University of New South Wales | Lees A.,University College London | Stern M.,University of Pennsylvania
Movement Disorders | Year: 2011

The identification of the widespread deposition of fibrillized α-synuclein in Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites in the brains of patients with Parkinson's disease in 1997 has had a profound impact on how the disease is now conceptualized. The previous focus on the loss of the dopaminergic nigrostriatal system, the concept of subcortical dementia, and the idea that Parkinson's disease was dominated by motor impairment have all given way to research assessing more diverse brain regions, clinical symptoms, and phenotypes. It is now recognized that Parkinson's disease is more than just a loss of midbrain dopaminergic neurons in association with Lewy bodies. There are now several theories on how the disease develops and progresses currently being validated in a variety of studies, although many of these theories have yet to incorporate the phenotypic clinical and pathological changes associated with age. A particularly exciting new area of research involves the cell-to-cell transmission of pathogenic proteins. The recent consensus definition of Parkinson's disease dementia will allow its pathologic substrates to be determined. These advances have progressed to a stage where the preclinical stages of Parkinson's disease and its specific signs and symptoms are being predicted and tested clinically. Such strategies herald a future wave of preventive strategies for Parkinson's disease and its clinical symptoms. © 2011 Movement Disorder Society.

Worth L.J.,Peter MacCallum Cancer Center | McLaws M.-L.,University of New South Wales
Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases | Year: 2012

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Central venous catheter (CVC)-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) result in poorer patient outcomes and increased healthcare costs. Reduced reimbursement for CLABSI events is now provided for hospitalized patients in the United States. Although a zero target is proposed, the feasibility has not been evaluated. The objective of this review is to identify factors contributing to CLABSI and determine whether current evidence supports attainment of a zero infection rate. RECENT FINDINGS: Limitations of current surveillance methods and reporting of aggregate data impact on achieving target CLABSI rates. Standard prevention practices, including physician and patient preparation (e.g. hand hygiene), are frequently incorporated into bundles of care. CVC dwell time has been identified as means of risk stratification. Additional strategies (e.g. chlorhexidine-impregnated dressings, antimicrobial-coated devices) may be better used in patients with expected long dwell times. Non-ICU populations are increasingly targeted with prevention strategies, but expected rates of infection have not been proposed. SUMMARY: A zero CLABSI rate should be the target only for ICU populations having CVCs with a dwell time of 1-9 days following aseptic insertion. Additional measures should be reserved for patients with expected longer dwell time. Refinement and validation of surveillance methodology is required before target CLABSI rates can be proposed for non-ICU populations. © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health|Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Cazorla C.,University of New South Wales | Errandonea D.,University of Valencia
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2014

We present a combined experimental and computational first-principles study of the superionic and structural properties of CaF2 at high P-T conditions. We observe an anomalous superionic behavior in the low-P fluorite phase that consists of a decrease of the normal → superionic critical temperature with compression. This unexpected effect can be explained in terms of a P-induced softening of a zone-boundary X phonon that involves exclusively fluorine displacements. Also we find that superionic conductivity is absent in the high-P cotunnite phase. Instead, superionicity develops in a new low-symmetry high-T phase that we identify as monoclinic (space group P21/c). We discuss the possibility of observing these intriguing phenomena in related isomorphic materials. © 2014 American Physical Society.

Berney C.R.,University of New South Wales
American Journal of Surgery | Year: 2012

Risk for a lawsuit for medical malpractice has unfortunately become part of physicians' daily professional activities, with a blowout in indemnity insurance premiums, especially in high-risk medical specialties. Common bile duct injury following laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a well-recognized and feared complication for surgeons because of its associated morbidity, and it also ranks among the leading sources of medical malpractice claims against surgeons in the world. The purpose of this article is to raise awareness within the medical community and in particular among specialist surgeons on the important threat they could be facing in terms of litigation in the event of an adverse surgical outcome following such a commonly performed procedure. There is a real need for open debate on this concerning topic, as the fear of lawsuits and exorbitant malpractice premiums are pushing a substantial number of medical professionals to practice defensive medicine, reflected by the avoidance of performing certain procedures or treating high-risk patients perceived to have higher litigation rates, or simply walking away from their current practices, creating a chronic shortage of specialized doctors in certain surgical areas. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

McMonnies C.W.,University of New South Wales
Optometry and Vision Science | Year: 2015

Keratoconus (KC) has been traditionally classified as a noninflammatory disease. Barring loss of function, the other classic signs of inflammation (heat, redness, swelling, pain) are not usually obvious or even apparent in KC. This clinical perspective examines the evidence and implications of numerous inflammatory processes that have been recognized in the tears of KC patients as well as some inflammation relevant differences found in the KC cornea. The roles of inflammation in corneal trauma attributed to eye rubbing and/or contact lens wear are examined as is the significance of atopy, allergic disease, dry eye disease, degradative enzyme activity, wound healing, reduced anti-inflammatory capacity, and ultraviolet irradiation. It is possible that any comorbidity that is inflammatory in nature may add synergistically to other forms of KC-related inflammation and exacerbate its pathogenetic processes. For example, some features of inflammation in ocular rosacea and associated corneal thinning and distortion could have some possible relevance to KC. An analogy is drawn with osteoarthritis, which also involves significant inflammatory processes but, like KC, does not meet all the classic criteria for an inflammatory disease. Classifying KC as quasi-inflammatory (inflammatory-related) rather than a noninflammatory disease appears to be more appropriate and may help focus attention on the possibility of developing effective anti-inflammatory therapies for its management. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Optometry.

Persson A.,University of New South Wales
Medical Anthropology: Cross Cultural Studies in Health and Illness | Year: 2011

Three decades into the HIV epidemic, one affected group remains largely invisible: HIV-negative people in intimate relationships with HIV-positive people. Their lives are entwined with the everyday realities of HIV, whether emotional, sexual, social, or medical, yet their experiences, meanings, and practices of being HIV-negative in that context are little considered and understood. When they do appear in the HIV literature, they tend to be assigned an identity that is preconceived as inherently different from and in tension with HIV-positivity. Using anthropological theory, research literature, and qualitative interviews with HIV-negative partners in Australia, I challenge this idea by exploring the social absence, enactments, and liminality of HIV-negative identity in serodiscordant relationships. © 2011 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Green M.A.,University of New South Wales
Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications | Year: 2012

Solutions for the Trivich-Flinn and Shockley-Queisser formulations of the limiting efficiency of photovoltaic conversion are derived in terms of polylogarithms. Earlier Trivich-Flinn limits are shown to be zero temperature limits of the Shockley-Queisser approach. The limiting efficiency of an infinite stack of tandem cells was also investigated with an analytically based solution derived, the limit on photovoltaic conversion for a time-symmetric system, which is compared to the time-asymmetric limit. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Green M.A.,University of New South Wales
Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications | Year: 2012

Efficiency limits upon photovoltaic energy conversion are re-evaluated under the new ASTM International G173-based reference spectra. Peak terrestrial efficiency for a single-junction device increases to 33.8% under the new air mass 1.5G spectrum, whereas overall and time-symmetric limits increase to 74.0% and 68.0%, respectively. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Abbasi A.,University of New South Wales | Jaafari A.,Asia Pacific College
Journal of Informetrics | Year: 2013

In recent years there has been a sharp increase in collaborations among scholars and there are studies on the effects of scientific collaboration on scholars' performance. This study examines the hypothesis that geographically diverse scientific collaboration is associated with research impact. Here, the approach is differentiated from other studies by: (a) focusing on publications rather than researchers or institutes; (b) considering the geographical diversity of authors of each publication; (c) considering the average number of citations a publication receives per year (time-based normalization of citations) as a surrogate for its impact; and (d) not focusing on a specific country (developed or developing) or region. Analysis of the collected bibliometric data shows that a publication impact is significantly and positively associated with all related geographical collaboration indicators. But publication impact has a stronger association with the numbers of external collaborations at department and institution levels (inter-departmental and inter-institutional collaborations) compared to internal collaborations. Conversely, national collaboration correlates better with impact than international collaboration. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Amiot C.E.,University of Quebec at Montreal | Bastian B.,University of New South Wales
Psychological Bulletin | Year: 2015

Nonhuman animals are ubiquitous to human life, and permeate a diversity of social contexts by providing humans with food and clothing, serving as participants in research, improving healing, and offering entertainment, leisure, and companionship. Despite the impact that animals have on human lives and vice versa, the field of psychology has barely touched upon the topic of human-animal relations as an important domain of human activity. We review the current state of research on human-animal relations, showing how this body of work has implications for a diverse range of psychological themes including evolutionary processes, development, normative factors, gender and individual differences, health and therapy, and intergroup relations. Our aim is to highlight human-animal relations as a domain of human life that merits theoretical and empirical attention from psychology as a discipline. © 2014 American Psychological Association.

We numerically investigate orbital evolution of star clusters (SCs) under the influence of dynamical friction by field stars of their host disc galaxies embedded in dark matter haloes. We find that SCs with masses larger than ∼2 × 10 5 M ⊙ can show significant orbital decay within less than 1 Gyr due to dynamical friction by disc field stars in galaxies with disc masses (M d) less than 10 9 M ⊙. We also find that orbital decay of SCs due to dynamical friction is more remarkable in disc galaxies with smaller M d and higher mass ratios of discs to dark matter haloes. The half-number radii (R h,sc) and mean masses within R h,sc of the SC systems (SCSs) in low-mass disc galaxies with M d ≤ 10 9 M ⊙ are found to evolve significantly with time owing to dynamical friction of SCs. More massive SCs that can spiral-in to the central regions of discs can form multiple SCSs with smaller velocity dispersions so that they can merge with one another to form single stellar nuclei with their masses comparable to ∼0.4 per cent of their host disc masses. Based on these results, we suggest that luminosity functions for more massive globular clusters (GCs) with masses larger than 2 × 10 5 M ⊙ can steepen owing to transformation of the more massive GCs into single stellar nuclei through GC merging in less luminous galaxies. We also suggest that the half-number radii of GC systems can evolve owing to dynamical friction only for galaxies with their total masses smaller than ∼10 10 M ⊙. © 2009 RAS.

A number of naturally occurring isoforms of the tumour suppressor protein p53 have been discovered, which appear to have differing roles in tumour prevention or promotion. We are investigating the tumour-promoting activities of the Δ133p53 isoform using our mouse model of Δ133p53 (Δ122p53). Here, we report that tumours from Δ122p53 homozygous mice show evidence of invasion and metastasis and that Δ122p53 promotes migration though a 3-dimensional collagen matrix. We also show that Δ122p53 and Δ133p53 promote cell migration in scratch wound and Transwell assays, similar to the ‘gain-of-function’ phenotypes seen with mutant p53. Using the well-defined B16 mouse melanoma metastatic model, we show that Δ122p53 leads to faster generation of lung metastases. The increased migratory phenotypes are dependent on secreted factors, including the cytokine interleukin-6 and the chemokine CCL2. We propose that Δ122p53 (and Δ133p53) acts in a similar manner to ‘gain-of-function’ mutant p53 proteins to promote migration, invasion and metastasis, which may contribute to poor survival in patients with Δ133p53-expressing tumours.Oncogene advance online publication, 21 March 2016; doi:10.1038/onc.2016.45. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited

Mills J.D.,University of New South Wales
Neurobiology of aging | Year: 2012

Alternative splicing (AS) is a post-transcriptional process that occurs in multiexon genes, and errors in this process have been implicated in many human diseases. Until recently, technological limitations prevented AS from being examined at the genome-wide scale. With the advent of new technologies, including exon arrays and next-generation sequencing (NGS) techniques (e.g., RNA-Seq), a higher resolution view of the human transcriptome is now available. This is particularly applicable in the study of neurodegenerative brain diseases (NBDs), such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, because the brain has the greatest amount of alternative splicing of all human tissues. Although many of the AS events associated with these disorders were initially identified using low-throughput methodologies, genome-wide analysis allows for more in-depth studies, marking a new chapter in transcript exploration. In this review, the latest technologies used to study the transcriptome and the AS genes that have been associated with a number of neurodegenerative brain diseases are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Hui A.,University of New South Wales
Optometry and Vision Science | Year: 2016

: This review highlights the current state of knowledge of in vivo testing of drug-delivering contact lenses. There has been a significant increase in interest in alternative means to deliver ocular pharmaceuticals, and within the past few decades, contact lenses have emerged as a vehicle of interest because of their biocompatibility and acceptance by both eye care professionals and the public. Using techniques such as molecular imprinting, vitamin E diffusion barriers, ionic reservoirs, and drug-impregnated films, significantly improved drug release kinetics have been observed in vitro. Extension of these results into in vivo studies has thus far been limited but has led to evidence of the viability of this drug delivery platform by demonstrating improved drug residence time, drug penetration, and clinical outcomes when compared with conventional therapy such as eye drops. The evidence supporting these improvements has occurred in both animal models and small human trials and is presented within this review. © 2016 American Academy of Optometry

Curran S.J.,University of New South Wales
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | Year: 2010

We investigate the effect of two important, but of neglected, factors which can affect the detectability of H i 21-cm absorption in Mg ii absorption systems. The effect of line-of-sight geometry on the coverage of the background radio flux and any possible correlation between the 21-cm line strength and the rest-frame equivalent width of the Mg ii 2796 Å line, as is seen in the case of damped Lyman α absorption systems (DLAs). Regarding the former, while the observed detection rate at small angular diameter distance ratios (DAabs/DAQSO > 0.8) is a near certainty (P > 0.9), for an unbiased sample, where either a detection or a non-detection is equally likely, at DAabs/DAQSO≥ 0.8 the observed detection rate has only a probability of P≲ 10-15 of occurring by chance. This ≳8σ significance suggests that the mix of DAabs/DAQSO values at zabs≲ 1 is correlated with the mix of detections and non-detections at low redshift, while the exclusively high values of the ratio (DAabs/DAQSO∼ 1) at zabs≳ 1 contribute to the low detection rates at high redshift.In DLAs, the correlation between the 21-cm line strength and the Mg ii equivalent width (Wλ2796r) is dominated by the velocity spread of the 21-cm line. This has recently been shown not to hold for Mg ii systems in general. However, we do find the significance of the correlation to increase when the Mg ii absorbers with Mg i 2852 Å equivalent widths of Wλ2852r > 0.5Å are added to the DLA sample. This turns out to be a subset of the parameter space where Mg ii absorbers and DLAs overlap and the fraction of Mg ii absorbers known to be DLAs rises to 50 per cent (Rao, Turnshek & Nestor 2006). We therefore suggest that the width of the 21-cm line is correlated with Wλ2796r for all systems likely to be DLAs and note a correlation between Wλ2852r (Mg i) and NH i, which is not apparent for the singly ionized lines. Furthermore, the 21-cm detection rate at DAabs/DAQSO < 0.8 rises to ≳90 per cent for absorbers with Wλ2852r > 0.5Å and large values of DAabs/DAQSO may explain why the absorbers which have similar values of Wλ2796r to the detections remain undetected. We do, however, also find the neutral hydrogen column densities of the non-detections to be significantly lower than those of the detections, which could also contribute to their weak absorption. Applying the correlation to yield column densities for the Mg ii absorbers in which this is unmeasured, we find no evidence of a cosmological evolution in the neutral hydrogen column density in the absorbers searched for in 21-cm. © 2010 The Author. Journal compilation © 2010 RAS.

Bertram C.D.,University of New South Wales
Journal of Biomechanical Engineering | Year: 2010

A finite-element numerical model was constructed of the spinal cord, pia mater, filum terminale, cerebrospinal fluid in the spinal subarachnoid space (SSS), and dura mater. The cord was hollowed out by a thoracic syrinx of length 140 mm, and the SSS included a stenosis of length 30 mm opposite this syrinx. The stenosis severity was varied from 0% to 90% by area. Pressure pulse excitation was applied to the model either at the cranial end of the SSS, simulating the effect of cranial arterial pulsation, or externally to the abdominal dura mater, simulating the effect of cough. A very short pulse was used to examine wave propagation; a pulse emulating cardiac systole was used to examine the effects of fluid displacement. Additionally, repetitive sinusoidal excitation was applied cranially. Bulk fluid flow past the stenosis gave rise to prominent longitudinal pressure dissociation ("suck") in the SSS adjacent to the syrinx. However, this did not proportionally increase the longitudinal motion of fluid in the syrinx. The inertia of the fluid in the SSS, together with the compliance of this space, gave a resonance capable of being excited constructively or destructively by cardiac or coughing impulses. The main effect of mild stenosis was to lower the frequency of this resonance; severe stenosis damped out to-and-fro motions after the end of the applied excitation. Syrinx fluid motion indicated the fluid momentum and thus the pressure developed when the fluid was stopped by the end of the syrinx; however, the tearing stress in the local cord material depended also on the instantaneous local SSS pressure and was therefore not well predicted by syrinx fluid motion. Stenosis was also shown to give rise to a one-way valve effect causing raised SSS pressure caudally and slight average cord displacement cranially. The investigation showed that previous qualitative predictions of the effects of suck neglected factors that reduced the extent of the resulting syrinx fluid motion and of the cord tearing stress, which ultimately determines whether the syrinx lengthens. Copyright © 2010 by ASME.

Ahmed N.A.,University of New South Wales
Renewable Energy | Year: 2013

A 'proof of concept' study of a novel wind turbine that overcomes some of the deficiencies and combines the advantages of the conventional horizontal and vertical axis wind turbines is presented in this paper. The study conducted using computational fluid dynamics and wind tunnel tests clearly demonstrate that such a proposition is feasible and a low cost, low noise, safe and easy to operate but enhanced performance wind turbine for small scale power generation in low wind speed is viable. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Mcmurtrie R.E.,University of New South Wales | Dewar R.C.,Australian National University
New Phytologist | Year: 2013

Allocation of carbon (C) between tree components (leaves, fine roots and woody structures) is an important determinant of terrestrial C sequestration. Yet, because the mechanisms underlying C allocation are poorly understood, it is a weak link in current earth-system models. We obtain new theoretical insights into C allocation from the hypothesis (MaxW) that annual wood production is maximized. MaxW is implemented using a model of tree C and nitrogen (N) balance with a vertically resolved canopy and root system for stands of Norway spruce (Picea abies). MaxW predicts optimal vertical profiles of leaf N and root biomass, optimal canopy leaf area index and rooting depth, and the associated optimal pattern of C allocation. Key insights include a predicted optimal C-N functional balance between leaves at the base of the canopy and the deepest roots, according to which the net C export from basal leaves is just sufficient to grow the basal roots required to meet their N requirement. MaxW links the traits of basal leaves and roots to whole-tree C and N uptake, and unifies two previous optimization hypotheses (maximum gross primary production, maximum N uptake) that have been applied independently to canopies and root systems. © 2013 The Authors © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

Chang L.-W.,Queens University of Belfast | Nagarajan V.,University of New South Wales | Scott J.F.,University of Cambridge | Gregg J.M.,Queens University of Belfast
Nano Letters | Year: 2013

In specific solid-state materials, under the right conditions, collections of magnetic dipoles are known to spontaneously form into a variety of rather complex geometrical patterns, exemplified by vortex and skyrmion structures. While theoretically, similar patterns should be expected to form from electrical dipoles, they have not been clearly observed to date: the need for continued experimental exploration is therefore clear. In this Letter we report the discovery of a rather complex domain arrangement that has spontaneously formed along the edges of a thin single crystal ferroelectric sheet, due to surface-related depolarizing fields. Polarization patterns are such that nanoscale "flux-closure" loops are nested within a larger mesoscale flux closure object. Despite the orders of magnitude differences in size, the geometric forms of the dual-scale flux closure entities are rather similar. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

Ly L.,University of Sydney | Wasinger V.C.,University of New South Wales
Proteomics | Year: 2011

The identification, quantitation and global characterisation of all proteins within a given proteome are extremely challenging. This is due to the absolute detection limits of technology as well as the dynamic range in expression of proteins; and the extreme diversity and heterogeneity of the proteome. To overcome such issues, the use of separation technologies has played a critical role in reducing sample complexity. To date, a plethora of chromatographic and electrophoretic fractionation tools have evolved over the years assisting in simplifying complex protein and peptide mixtures. Here, we review a range of these technologies highlighting the challenges of protein and peptide analysis in the context of proteome research and some of the advantages and disadvantages of present techniques. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Sidhu K.S.,University of New South Wales
Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy | Year: 2011

Introduction: The advent of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology has opened up new vistas to generate patient-specific pluripotent stem cells from somatic cells. During the last 5 years, the iPSCs produced from a variety of somatic cell sources are found to be very similar, if not identical to embryonic stem cells. Invariably these cells are produced by viral transduction of four transcriptional factors that renders these cells unfit for therapeutic purposes. Areas covered: This review discusses current developments emphasising on new and improved methods of generating iPSCs, including minimal or no genetic modifications via excisable lentiviral and transposon vectors or through repeated application of transient plasmid, episomal and adenovirus vectors. Recent use of small molecules, synthetic mRNA and microRNAs is also reviewed. Expert opinion: iPSC technology is emerging as an unprecedented opportunity in biomedical research, disease modeling, drug discovery and regenerative medicine. However, to harness the full potential of this technology, a number of issues that need to be resolved pertaining to iPSC safety, stability, culture variability, their comparison with ES cells, the reprogramming mechanisms and better ways to direct a specific reprogramming process including lineage specifications. © 2011 Informa UK, Ltd.

Davis A.,Australian National University | Tinker A.V.,Vancouver Center | Friedlander M.,University of New South Wales
Gynecologic Oncology | Year: 2014

"Platinum resistant" ovarian cancer was historically defined as disease recurrence within 6 months of completion of first-line platinum-based chemotherapy, although this is now more broadly applied to also include patients progressing within 6 months after multiple lines of chemotherapy. However, this definition ignores the heterogeneity and complexity of the spectrum of diseases that comprise "platinum resistant ovarian cancer" (PROC) and is innately flawed as it was initially derived using methods of detection of recurrence that would now be regarded as outdated. The outcome of patients with PROC is generally poor, with low response rates to further chemotherapy and a median survival of less than 12 months, but this is unpredictable and can be quite variable from study to study. This review outlines the complexity of PROC, examines how this impacts on the interpretation of the results of clinical trials, and explores how the definition may be improved. We also briefly describe the mechanisms of platinum resistance, the results of clinical trials to date as well as treatment options for patients with PROC and highlight the need for better methods of assessing clinical benefit in this poor prognostic sub group of patients. Crown Copyright © 2014 Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Green M.A.,University of New South Wales | Emery K.,National Renewable Energy Laboratory | Hishikawa Y.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology | Warta W.,Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems | Dunlop E.D.,European Commission - Joint Research Center Ispra
Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications | Year: 2012

Consolidated tables showing an extensive listing of the highest independently confirmed efficiencies for solar cells and modules are presented. Guidelines for inclusion of results into these tables are outlined, and new entries since July 2011 are reviewed. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Consolidated tables showing an extensive listing of the highest independently confirmed efficiencies for solar cells and modules are presented. Guidelines for inclusion of results into these tables are outlined, and new entries since July 2011 are reviewed. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Pearson J.,University of New South Wales
Current Biology | Year: 2012

Can Pavlovian conditioning occur outside of awareness? Yes, according to a new study showing that, under a particular set of circumstances, visual stimuli can become associated with aversive outcomes without participants ever seeing the stimuli. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.

Pham T.D.,University of New South Wales
Pattern Recognition | Year: 2010

Measuring the complexity of a pattern expressed either in time or space has been introduced to quantify the information content of the pattern, which can then be applied for classification. Such information measures are particularly useful for the understanding of systems complexity in many fields of sciences, business and engineering. The novel concept of geostatistical entropy (GeoEntropy) as a measure of pattern complexity and similarity is addressed in this paper. It has been experimentally shown that GeoEntropy is an effective algorithm for studying signal predictability and has superior capability of classifying complex bio-patterns. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Onur I.,University of New South Wales
Electronic Commerce Research and Applications | Year: 2010

We study the impact of dynamic environment of eBay auctions on bidding behavior. Due to high-speed Internet and practically costless search possibilities, bidding behavior is no longer a function of characteristics of a single auction but depends on auctions running simultaneously, completed auctions, available Buy-It-Now prices as well as various outside options. We study how this dynamic market affects a bidder's choice of participating in an auction or leaving eBay for an outside alternative. We analyze Texas Instruments (TI-83) Graphing Calculator auctions presented on eBay. We estimate a random-effects probit model to study bidders' probability of staying in eBay, while controlling for unobservable individual-specific heterogeneity. Our main result shows that Market Tightness - the ratio of bidders to sellers - has a negative and significant effect on bidders' decision to remain in eBay. Moreover, variables containing information from other eBay auctions significantly affect bidders' participation decision, thus emphasizing the importance of the dynamic, multi-auction environment in eBay marketplace for potential buyers. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Morrison G.S.,University of New South Wales
Australian Journal of Forensic Sciences | Year: 2013

Logistic-regression calibration and fusion are potential steps in the calculation of forensic likelihood ratios. The present paper provides a tutorial on logistic-regression calibration and fusion at a practical conceptual level with minimal mathematical complexity. A score is log-likelihood-ratio like in that it indicates the degree of similarity of a pair of samples while taking into consideration their typicality with respect to a model of the relevant population. A higher-valued score provides more support for the same-origin hypothesis over the different-origin hypothesis than does a lower-valued score; however, the absolute values of scores are not interpretable as log likelihood ratios. Logistic-regression calibration is a procedure for converting scores to log likelihood ratios, and logistic-regression fusion is a procedure for converting parallel sets of scores from multiple forensic-comparison systems to log likelihood ratios. Logistic-regression calibration and fusion were developed for automatic speaker recognition and are popular in forensic voice comparison. They can also be applied in other branches of forensic science, a fingerprint/finger-mark example is provided. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Adie S.,University of New South Wales
Annals of Surgery | Year: 2015

BACKGROUND:: Meta-analyses are useful tools for summarizing surgical evidence as they aim to encompass multiple sources of information on a particular research question, but they may be prone to methodological and reporting biases. We evaluated the conduct and reporting of meta-analyses of surgical interventions.METHODS AND FINDINGS:: We performed a systematic review of 150 meta-analyses of randomized trials of surgical interventions published between January 2010 and June 2011. A comprehensive search strategy was executed using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Data were independently extracted by 2 authors using the PRISMA statement (preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses, a standardized quality of reporting guideline) and AMSTAR (a tool for methodological quality). Descriptive statistics were used for individual items, and as a measure of overall compliance, PRISMA and AMSTAR scores were calculated as the sum of adequately reported domains. A median of 8 trials (interquartile range = 8) was included in each meta-analysis. One third of all meta-analyses had an author with a background in epidemiology and/or statistics. Forty-four percent were published in PRISMA-endorsing journals with a median impact factor of 3.5. There was moderate compliance with PRISMA, with an average of 71% of items reported, but poorer compliance with AMSTAR, with 48% of items adequately described, on average.CONCLUSIONS:: Substantial gaps in the conduct and reporting of meta-analyses within the surgical literature exist, mainly in the specification of aims and/or objectives, the use of preplanned protocols, and the evaluation of potential bias at the review (rather than trial) level. Editorial insistence on using reporting guidelines would improve this situation. © 2015 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Zaunders J.,Center for Applied Medical Research | Van Bockel D.,University of New South Wales
Frontiers in Immunology | Year: 2013

Long-term non-progressors (LTNP) were identified after 10-15 years of the epidemic, and have been the subject of intense investigation ever since. In a small minority of cases, infection with nef/3'LTR deleted attenuated viral strains allowed control over viral replication. A common feature of LTNP is the readily detected proliferation of CD4 T-cells in vitro, in response to p24. In some cases, the responding CD4 T-cells have cytotoxic effector function and may target conserved p24 epitopes, similar to the CD8 T-cells described below. LTNP may also carry much lower HIV DNA burden in key CD4 subsets, presumably resulting from lower viral replication during primary infection. Some studies, but not others, suggest that LTNP have CD4 T-cells that are relatively resistant to HIV infection in vitro. One possible mechanism may involve up-regulation of the cell cycle regulator p21/waf in CD4 T-cells from LTNP. Delayed progression in Caucasian LTNP is also partly associated with heterozygosity of the δ32 CCR5 allele, probably through decreased expression of CCR5 co-receptor on CD4 T-cells. However, in approximately half of Caucasian LTNP, two host genotypes, namely HLA-B57 and HLA-B27, are associated with viral control. Immunodominant CD8 T-cells from these individuals target epitopes in p24 that are highly conserved, and escape mutations have significant fitness costs to the virus. Furthermore, recent studies have suggested that these CD8 T-cells from LTNP, but not from HLA-B27 or HLA-B57 progressors, can cross-react with intermediate escape mutations, preventing full escape via compensatory mutations. Humoral immunity appears to play little part in LTNP subjects, since broadly neutralizing antibodies are rare, even amongst slow progressors. Recent genome-wide comparisons between LTNP and progressors have confirmed the HLA-B57, HLA-B27, and delta32 CCR5 allelic associations, plus indicated a role for HLA-C/KIR interactions, but have not revealed any new genotypes so far. Nevertheless, it is hoped that studying the mechanisms of intracellular restriction factors, such as the recently identified SAMHD1, will lead to a better understanding of non-progression. © 2013 Zaunders and van Bockel.

Kanhere S.S.,University of New South Wales
Proceedings - IEEE International Conference on Mobile Data Management | Year: 2011

The recent wave of sensor-rich, Internet-enabled, smart mobile devices such as the Apple iPhone has opened the door for a novel paradigm for monitoring the urban landscape known as participatory sensing. Using this paradigm, ordinary citizens can collect multi-modal data streams from the surrounding environment using their mobile devices and share the same using existing communication infrastructure (e.g., 3G service or WiFi access points). The data contributed from multiple participants can be combined to build a spatiotemporal view of the phenomenon of interest and also to extract important community statistics. Given the ubiquity of mobile phones and the high density of people in metropolitan areas, participatory sensing can achieve an unprecedented level of coverage in both space and time for observing events of interest in urban spaces. Several exciting participatory sensing applications have emerged in recent years. For example, GPS traces uploaded by drivers and passengers can be used to generate real time traffic statistics. Similarly, street-level audio samples collected by pedestrians can be aggregated to create a citywide noise map. In this advanced seminar, we will provide a comprehensive overview of this new and exciting paradigm and outline the major research challenges. © 2011 IEEE.

Buha J.,University of New South Wales
Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics | Year: 2012

This work examined the effect of different levels of C doping on the microstructure and optical properties of TiO 2 thin films consisting of mostly rutile and amorphous phases. The increase in the substitutional C doping from 0.32 to 8.57at% was found to reduce the long-range order through the refinement of the crystalline phase, and increases in the concentration of the extended defects and fraction of the disordered phase, where C gets segregated due to its low solubility in the crystalline phase. As expected, the main absorption threshold red-shifted with the increase in C doping (from 3.22 to 2.48eV) and additional thresholds existed in the visible and NIR ranges. However, at the same time only a small reduction in the separation between the extended states (by up to 0.27eV) was achieved. The significant increase in the visible absorption originated mostly from the C-induced spread of localized states within the band gap. Higher levels of C doping introduce localized states deeper into the band gap, which may increase the carrier recombination as well. Co-doping with hydrogen nearly fills the band gap with localized states and further increases the visible and NIR absorption. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.

Wiesel I.,University of New South Wales
Urban Studies | Year: 2014

Mobility is often overlooked in debates about spatial disadvantage, which tend to focus on place. In this paper, the focus is on residential mobility and the ways in which it derives from, and contributes to, processes of social disadvantage. Building on David Clapham's concept of 'housing pathways', mobility-based disadvantage is analysed with a focus on questions of housing quality, control over residential moves and accumulation of economic, social and cultural capital through such moves. These themes are considered in an empirical study of the housing pathways of sixty low-income households in Australia, through which four typical patterns are identified as 'mobilities of disadvantage': hectic private rental pathways; pathways of homelessness; pathways out of homeownership; and, repeat moves in and out of social housing. These pathways represent one neglected aspect of the 'unfair structure' of the Australian city, as a network of pathways rather than a mosaic of places. © 2013 Urban Studies Journal Limited.

Lee P.,University of New South Wales
Critical Care Medicine | Year: 2016

OBJECTIVES:: The origin of systemic inflammatory response syndrome and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome is poorly understood but remains a fundamental concern in the ICU. This paper provides a critical appraisal on whether bone failure may represent an unrecognized component of systemic inflammatory response syndrome/multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. DATA SOURCES, DATA SELECTION, AND DATA EXTRACTION:: Search of the PubMed database and manual review of selected articles investigating bone pathophysiology in critical illness. DATA SYNTHESIS:: Bone hyperresorption is highly prevalent among critically ill patients. Bone breakdown releases numerous systemically active cytokines and bone-sequestered toxins, with the capacity to fuel inflammatory hypercytokinaemia and metabolic toxaemia. Anti-resorptive medication inhibits bone break down and preadmission anti-resorptive use is associated with superior survival among critically ill patients. CONCLUSIONS:: We propose that hyperresorptive bone failure is an unrecognised component of systemic inflammatory response syndrome/multiple organ dysfunction syndrome that is causal to critical illness progression. If this hypothesis is valid, bone preservative strategies could reduce the risk of osteoporosis/fractures among ICU survivors, as well as decreasing critical illness mortality. Copyright © by 2016 by the Society of Critical Care Medicine and Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Trainer T.,University of New South Wales
Energy Policy | Year: 2014

There is a strong tendency for energy technologists and policy analysts to believe that energy demand can be met and associated problems including climate change can be solved, and to focus attention on finding the best technologies to achieve these goals. They tend not to be comfortable with any suggestion that there might be insurmountable limits and insoluble problems, or that the problems they are working on require social solutions rather than technical solutions. Various contributions to this Special Edition provide illustrations. This paper explores some challenges to the dominant Promethian world view. These include a consideration of the magnitude of the energy and other problems, the possibility that renewable energy cannot solve them, the significance of energy and of declining EROI for economic growth, and the possible effects of rising resource input costs and unstable capital markets for energy investment. Finally the ultimate heresy is considered, the possibility that access to abundant energy would not be good for us. In summary, it is suggested that coercive limits to growth are being encountered and that the resulting problems cannot be solved by action on the supply side but will require a radical rethinking of social goals, systems and values. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Mitchell R.,University of New South Wales
Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport | Year: 2013

Objectives: To describe the epidemiology of competition and training-based surf sport-related injury in Australia in the years 2003-2011. Design: A retrospective epidemiological review. Methods: Information on surf sport-related injuries was obtained from Surf Life Saving Australia's SurfGuard Incident Reporting Database during 1 January 2003 to 20 August 2011. Results: There were 2645 surf sport-related competition or training-related incidents. Males and females experienced similar proportions of injury by activity type, with older individuals experiencing a higher proportion of injuries during training than younger individuals. Minor first aid was required for 54.5% of the competition and 43.7% of the training-related incidents, with major first aid required in just over 10% of both incident types. Overall, inflatable rescue boats, beach flags, and surf boats were the most common activities performed at the time of the incident, with returning to shore and negotiating the break the most common possible contributing factors to surf boat incidents. Bruises/contusions, strains, inflammation/swelling, and sprains were the most common types of injuries that occurred during both competition and training. RICE - Rest-Ice-Compression-Elevation - was the most common form of initial treatment for the injury during both competition and training. Conclusions: Participation in surf sports is not without risk of injury. Information from this study will inform injury prevention efforts for surf sport and act as a guide for future research in this area, and towards improved injury surveillance for surf sport-related injuries. © 2012 Sports Medicine Australia.

Coiera E.,University of New South Wales
Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association | Year: 2014

Background and objective: Annotations to physical workspaces such as signs and notes are ubiquitous. When densely annotated, work areas become communication spaces. This study aims to characterize the types and purpose of such annotations. Methods: A qualitative observational study was undertaken in two wards and the radiology department of a 440-bed metropolitan teaching hospital. Images were purposefully sampled; 39 were analyzed after excluding inferior images. Results: Annotation functions included signaling identity, location, capability, status, availability, and operation. They encoded data, rules or procedural descriptions. Most aggregated into groups that either created a workflow by referencing each other, supported a common workflow without reference to each other, or were heterogeneous, referring to many workflows. Higher-level assemblies of such groupings were also observed. Discussion: Annotations make visible the gap between work done and the capability of a space to support work. Annotations are repairs of an environment, improving fitness for purpose, fixing inadequacy in design, or meeting emergent needs. Annotations thus record the missing information needed to undertake tasks, typically added post-implemented. Measuring annotation levels post-implementation could help assess the fit of technology to task. Physical and digital spaces could meet broader user needs by formally supporting user customization, 'programming through annotation'. Augmented reality systems could also directly support annotation, addressing existing information gaps, and enhancing work with context sensitive annotation. Conclusions: Communication spaces offer a model of how work unfolds. Annotations make visible local adaptation that makes technology fit for purpose post-implementation and suggest an important role for annotatable information systems and digital augmentation of the physical environment.

Campbell G.,University of New South Wales
BMC pharmacology & toxicology | Year: 2014

Internationally, there is concern about the increased prescribing of pharmaceutical opioids for chronic non-cancer pain (CNCP). In part, this is related to limited knowledge about the long-term benefits and outcomes of opioid use for CNCP. There has also been increased injection of some pharmaceutical opioids by people who inject drugs, and for some patients, the development of problematic and/or dependent use. To date, much of the research on the use of pharmaceutical opioids among people with CNCP, have been clinical trials that have excluded patients with complex needs, and have been of limited duration (i.e. fewer than 12 weeks). The Pain and Opioids In Treatment (POINT) study is unique study that aims to: 1) examine patterns of opioid use in a cohort of patients prescribed opioids for CNCP; 2) examine demographic and clinical predictors of adverse events, including opioid abuse or dependence, medication diversion, other drug use, and overdose; and 3) identify factors predicting poor pain relief and other outcomes. The POINT cohort comprises around 1,500 people across Australia prescribed pharmaceutical opioids for CNCP. Participants will be followed-up at four time points over a two year period. POINT will collect information on demographics, physical and medication use history, pain, mental health, drug and alcohol use, non-adherence, medication diversion, sleep, and quality of life. Data linkage will provide information on medications and services from Medicare (Australia's national health care scheme). Data on those who receive opioid substitution therapy, and on mortality, will be linked. This study will rigorously examine prescription opioid use among CNCP patients, and examine its relationship to important health outcomes. The extent to which opioids for chronic pain is associated with pain reduction, quality of life, mental and physical health, aberrant medication behavior and substance use disorders will be extensively examined. Improved understanding of the longer-term outcomes of chronic opioid therapy will direct community-based interventions and health policy in Australia and internationally. The results of this study will assist clinicians to better identify those patients who are at risk of adverse outcomes and who therefore require alternative treatment strategies.

Proteins with excessive deuteration give access to proton detected solid-state NMR spectra of extraordinary resolution and sensitivity. The high spectral quality achieved after partial proton back-exchange has been shown to start a new era for backbone assignment, protein structure elucidation, characterization of protein dynamics, and access to protein parts undergoing motion. The large absence of protons at non-exchangeable sites, however, poses a serious hurdle for characterization of side chains, which play an important role especially for structural understanding of the protein core and the investigation of protein-protein and protein-ligand interactions, e.g. This has caused the perdeuteration approach to almost exclusively be amenable to backbone characterization only. In this work it is shown that a combination of isotropic 13C mixing with long-range 1H/ 13C magnetization transfers can be used effectively to also access complete sets of side-chain chemical shifts in perdeuterated proteins and correlate these with the protein backbone with high unambiguity and resolution. COmbined POlarization from long-Range transfers And Direct Excitation (COPORADE) allows this strategy to yield complete sets of aliphatic amino acid resonances with reasonable sensitivity. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Dance I.,University of New South Wales
Chemical Communications | Year: 2013

Nitrogenase naturally converts N2 to NH3, but it also hydrogenates a variety of small molecules, in many cases requiring multiple electrons plus protons for each catalytic cycle. A general mechanism, arising from many density functional calculations and simulations, is proposed to account for all of these reactions. Protons, supplied serially in conjunction with electrons to the active site FeMo-co (a CFe7MoS9 (homocitrate) cluster), generate H atoms that migrate over and populate two S and two Fe atoms in the reaction domain. The mechanistic paradigm is conceptually straightforward: substrate (on Fe) and H atoms (on S and Fe) are bound contiguously in the reaction zone, and H atoms transfer (probably with some quantum tunneling) to the substrate to form product. Details and justifications of the mechanisms for N2 and other key substrates are summarised, and the unusual structure of FeMo-co as a general hydrogenation catalyst is rationalised. Testing experiments are suggested. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2013.

McMonnies C.W.,University of New South Wales
Optometry and Vision Science | Year: 2014

This review examines problems associated with in vivo assessment of corneal endothelium with special reference to keratoconus (KC) corneas. The main difficulty appears to be that a single assessment of less than 1/400 of the total number of endothelial cells in any eye may not detect any abnormal levels of heterogeneity. A diagnosis of polymegethism, pleomorphism, corneal guttae, or incipient Fuchs dystrophy may be missed if the sample observed is not representative. Evaluation of the endothelium may be more important in KC when the endothelium may be more susceptible to ultraviolet radiation due to stromal thinning and/or be more susceptible to damage from wearing thicker contact lenses that place hypoxic demands on endothelial deturgescing function. Also, assessment appears to be a greater problem for KC corneas for which central observations are likely to miss any changes in the region of an eccentric cone or in noncentral areas that may be affected by ruptures of the posterior limiting lamina. Apart from genetic influences and ethnic and/or racial considerations, factors such as exposure to ultraviolet and other geographic or vocational variables, atopy, or specific ocular allergies, which may be related to chronic habits of abnormal rubbing and any associated damage due to elevated intraocular pressure, may all contribute to variable presentations of the endothelium. Because of the phenotypic diversity of KC, the status of the endothelium may vary according to many other criteria including age of onset, rate of progression, degree of asymmetry, the type and number of biomicroscopic signs, degree of thinning, and the location, type, and area of the cone, for example. For in vivo assessments, observation of multiple sites is required, but for KC, it should include the cone area to increase the chance of detecting any significant differences from normal. © 2014 American Academy of Optometry.

Harris M.F.,University of New South Wales
The Medical journal of Australia | Year: 2011

Shortages in, and maldistribution of, the primary health care workforce will continue to limit access to health care. The current health reform proposals and policies recognise workforce development as a priority, but only partially address the barriers to improvement. In particular, there will need to be more systematic development of interdisciplinary education within primary health care services, and funding to support this.

Perali A.,University of Camerino | Neilson D.,University of Camerino | Neilson D.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience | Hamilton A.R.,University of New South Wales
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2013

Exciton bound states in solids between electrons and holes are predicted to form a superfluid at high temperatures. We show that by employing atomically thin crystals such as a pair of adjacent bilayer graphene sheets, equilibrium superfluidity of electron-hole pairs should be achievable for the first time. The transition temperatures are well above liquid helium temperatures. Because the sample parameters needed for the device have already been attained in similar graphene devices, our work suggests a new route toward realizing high-temperature superfluidity in existing quality graphene samples. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Halliday G.M.,University of New South Wales | Holton J.L.,University College London | Revesz T.,University College London | Dickson D.W.,Mayo Medical School
Acta Neuropathologica | Year: 2011

Abnormal aggregates of the synaptic protein, α-synuclein, are the dominant pathology in syndromes known as the synucleinopathies. The cellular aggregation of the protein occurs in three distinct types of inclusions in three main clinical syndromes. α-Synuclein deposits in neuronal Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites in idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), as well as incidentally in a number of other conditions. In contrast, α-synuclein deposits largely in oligodendroglial cytoplasmic inclusions in multiple system atrophy (MSA). Lastly, α-synuclein also deposits in large axonal spheroids in a number of rarer neuroaxonal dystrophies. Disorders are usually defined by their most dominant pathology, but for the synucleinopathies, clinical heterogeneity within the main syndromes is well documented. MSA was originally viewed as three different clinical phenotypes due to different anatomical localization of the lesions. In PD, recent meta-analyses have identified four main clinical phenotypes, and clinicopathological correlations suggest that more severe and more rapid progression of pathology with chronological age, as well as the involvement of additional neuropathologies, differentiates these phenotypes. In DLB, recent large studies show that clinical diagnosis is too insensitive to identify the syndrome itself, although clinicopathological studies suggest variable clinical features occur in the different pathological forms of this syndrome (pure DLB, DLB with Alzheimer's disease (AD), and AD with amygdala predominant Lewy pathology). The recognition of considerable heterogeneity within the synucleinopathy syndromes is important for the identification of factors involved in changing their pathological phenotype. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Alexova R.,University of New South Wales
Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP | Year: 2011

Toxin production in algal blooms presents a significant problem for the water industry. Of particular concern is microcystin, a potent hepatotoxin produced by the unicellular freshwater species Microcystis aeruginosa. In this study, the proteomes of six toxic and nontoxic strains of M. aeruginosa were analyzed to gain further knowledge in elucidating the role of microcystin production in this microorganism. This represents the first comparative proteomic study in a cyanobacterial species. A large diversity in the protein expression profiles of each strain was observed, with a significant proportion of the identified proteins appearing to be strain-specific. In total, 475 proteins were identified reproducibly and of these, 82 comprised the core proteome of M. aeruginosa. The expression of several hypothetical and unknown proteins, including four possible operons was confirmed. Surprisingly, no proteins were found to be produced only by toxic or nontoxic strains. Quantitative proteome analysis using the label-free normalized spectrum abundance factor approach revealed nine proteins that were differentially expressed between toxic and nontoxic strains. These proteins participate in carbon-nitrogen metabolism and redox balance maintenance and point to an involvement of the global nitrogen regulator NtcA in toxicity. In addition, the switching of a previously inactive toxin-producing strain to microcystin synthesis is reported.

Sushkov O.P.,University of New South Wales | Castro Neto A.H.,National University of Singapore
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2013

We propose that ordinary semiconductors with large spin-orbit coupling, such as GaAs, can host stable, robust, and tunable topological states in the presence of quantum confinement and superimposed potentials with hexagonal symmetry. We show that the electronic gaps which support chiral spin edge states can be as large as the electronic bandwidth in the heterostructure miniband. The existing lithographic technology can produce a topological insulator operating at a temperature of 10-100 K. Improvement of lithographic techniques will open the way to a tunable room temperature topological insulator. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Hogg P.J.,University of New South Wales
Nature Reviews Cancer | Year: 2013

Protein action in nature is generally controlled by the amount of protein produced and by chemical modification of the protein, and both are often perturbed in cancer. The amino acid side chains and the peptide and disulphide bonds that bind the polypeptide backbone can be post-translationally modified. Post-translational cleavage or the formation of disulphide bonds are now being identified in cancer-related proteins and it is timely to consider how these allosteric bonds could be targeted for new therapies. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Introduction Seroma is a frequent complication of endoscopic totally extraperitoneal (TEP) mesh repair of direct inguinal hernia that may cause discomfort and anxiety. Its volume is proportional to the size of the preperitoneal dead space created after the reduction of the hernia. Attempts to reduce its incidence have included tacking the transversalis fascia (TF) to the pubic ramus or closed suction drainage of the preperitoneal space. Both of these techniques are not without problems. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of a new alternate technique that must be safe and easily reproducible, using a widely available and inexpensive pre-tied suture loop (Endoloop® Ligature) for plication of the weakened TF. Methods This is a prospective study of consecutive patients diagnosed with inguinal hernia during a 33-month period and eligible for endoscopic TEP repair. A single surgeon performed all operations. Each of the M2 or M3 direct defects, according to the European Hernia Society (EHS), were systematically closed prior to the introduction of the prosthetic mesh and as follows: grasping and inversion of the attenuated TF at its apex, using a laparoscopic forceps and plication of the TF by placing a tight Endoloop of Polydioxanone (PDS) at its base. All meshes were secured with fibrin sealant only. Patients were reviewed in the clinic 2 and 6 weeks after the operation. Further follow-up was scheduled if it was deemed necessary. The primary post-operative outcome parameter was seroma formation; secondary outcome parameters included groin pain, surgical complications, and recurrence. Results Two hundred and fifty hernia repairs were prospectively recorded during this period. All procedures were carried out endoscopically. Seventy-nine patients with 94 direct inguinal hernias were selected in a sequential manner. There were 75 males and four females, with a median age of 57 years. Of those, 55 were combined with an indirect inguinal defect. In total, Endoloops of PDS were used to close the weakened TF in 76 cases (30 M3, 44 M2, and two M1). Only one patient (1.3%) complained of a residual seroma formation, which was still clinically present at 3 months post-operatively, but was not symptomatic. There were only two minor post-operative complications, which occurred in the same patient and were not related to the Endoloop technique. Finally, no patient complained of chronic groin pain and there was no hernia recurrence after a median follow-up of 18 months. Conclusions The primary closure of direct inguinal hernia defects with a pre-tied suture loop during endoscopic TEP repair is safe, efficient, and very reliable for the prevention of post-operative seroma formation, without increasing the risk of developing chronic groin pain or hernia recurrence. This technique should be the preferred method over stapling of the TF or the insertion of a closed suction drainage device in such a situation. © Springer-Verlag 2011.

Lenroot R.K.,University of New South Wales | Giedd J.N.,National Institute of Mental Health
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines | Year: 2011

Biological development is driven by a complex dance between nurture and nature, determined not only by the specific features of the interacting genetic and environmental influences but also by the timing of their rendezvous. The initiation of large-scale longitudinal studies, ever-expanding knowledge of genetics, and increasing availability of neuroimaging data to provide endophenotypic bridges between molecules and behavior are beginning to provide some insight into interactions of developmental stage, genes, and the environment, although daunting challenges remain. Prominent amongst these challenges are difficulties in identifying and quantifying relevant environmental factors, discerning the relative contributions to multiply determined outcomes, and the likelihood that brain development is a non-linear dynamic process in which small initial differences may yield large later effects. Age-sensitive mechanisms include developmental changes in gene expression, epigenetic modifications, synaptic arborization/pruning, and maturational improvements in our capacity to seek out environments of our choosing. Greater understanding of how genetic and environmental factors interact differently across ages is an important step toward elucidating the mechanisms by which phenotypes are created - and how they may differ in health and disease. This knowledge may also provide clues to guide the type and timing of interventions to maximize outcomes. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2011 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health. Published by Blackwell Publishing.

Li G.,University of New South Wales
Mathematical Programming | Year: 2013

In this paper, by examining the recession properties of convex polynomials, we provide a necessary and sufficient condition for a piecewise convex polynomial to have a Hölder-type global error bound with an explicit Hölder exponent. Our result extends the corresponding results of Li (SIAM J Control Optim 33(5):1510-1529, 1995) from piecewise convex quadratic functions to piecewise convex polynomials. © 2011 Springer and Mathematical Optimization Society.

Canine hip dysplasia (CHD) is a serious and common musculoskeletal disease of pedigree dogs and therefore represents both an important welfare concern and an imperative breeding priority. The typical heritability estimates for radiographic CHD traits suggest that the accuracy of breeding dog selection could be substantially improved by the use of estimated breeding values (EBVs) in place of selection based on phenotypes of individuals. The British Veterinary Association/Kennel Club scoring method is a complex measure composed of nine bilateral ordinal traits, intended to evaluate both early and late dysplastic changes. However, the ordinal nature of the traits may represent a technical challenge for calculation of EBVs using linear methods. The purpose of the current study was to calculate EBVs of British Veterinary Association/Kennel Club traits in the Australian population of German Shepherd Dogs, using linear (both as individual traits and a summed phenotype), binary and ordinal methods to determine the optimal method for EBV calculation. Ordinal EBVs correlated well with linear EBVs (r = 0.90-0.99) and somewhat well with EBVs for the sum of the individual traits (r = 0.58-0.92). Correlation of ordinal and binary EBVs varied widely (r = 0.24-0.99) depending on the trait and cut-point considered. The ordinal EBVs have increased accuracy (0.48-0.69) of selection compared with accuracies from individual phenotype-based selection (0.40-0.52). Despite the high correlations between linear and ordinal EBVs, the underlying relationship between EBVs calculated by the two methods was not always linear, leading us to suggest that ordinal models should be used wherever possible. As the population of German Shepherd Dogs which was studied was purportedly under selection for the traits studied, we examined the EBVs for evidence of a genetic trend in these traits and found substantial genetic improvement over time. This study suggests the use of ordinal EBVs could increase the rate of genetic improvement in this population.

Britz T.,University of New South Wales
IEEE Transactions on Information Theory | Year: 2010

It is proved that the set of higher weight enumerators of a linear code over a finite field is equivalent to the Tutte polynomial associated to the code. An explicit expression for the Tutte polynomial is given in terms of the subcode weights. Generalizations of these results are proved and are applied to codeword m-tuples. These general results are used to prove a very general MacWilliams-type identity for linear codes that generalizes most previous extensions of the MacWilliams identity. In addition, a general and very useful matrix framework for manipulating weight and support enumerators of linear codes is presented. © 2010 IEEE.

Thielscher M.,University of New South Wales
Artificial Intelligence | Year: 2010

McCarthy's Situation Calculus is arguably the oldest special-purpose knowledge representation formalism, designed to axiomatize knowledge of actions and their effects. Four decades of research in this area have led to a variety of alternative formalisms: While some approaches can be considered instances or extensions of the classical Situation Calculus, like Reiter's successor state axioms or the Fluent Calculus, there are also special planning languages like ADL and approaches based on a linear (rather than branching) time structure like the Event Calculus. The co-existence of many different calculi has two main disadvantages: The formal relations among them is a largely open issue, and a lot of today's research concerns the transfer of specific results from one approach to another. In this paper, we present a unifying action calculus, which encompasses (well-defined classes of) all of the aforementioned formalisms. Our calculus not only facilitates comparisons and translations between specific approaches, it also allows to solve interesting problems for various calculi at once. We exemplify this by providing a general, calculus-independent solution to a problem of practical relevance, which is intimately related to McCarthy's quest for elaboration tolerant formalisms: the modularity of domain axiomatizations. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

van Sebille E.,University of New South Wales
Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology | Year: 2014

Almost all organisms in the ocean are impacted by ocean currents. Hence, there is growing interest by marine ecologists in using objective methods to assess current drift and its implications for marine connectivity. Here, an online tool - hosted at adrift.org.au - is introduced that allows for a simple, quantitative assessment of drift patterns and transit time scales on the global scale. The tool is based on a statistical transition matrix representation of the observed trajectories of more than 15 thousand surface drifters. Users can select any point in the ocean and obtain the evolution of the probability density distribution for a tracer released at that point, both forward and backward in time, for a maximum interval of 10. years. It is envisioned that this tool will be used in research and teaching, especially where estimates of drift patterns and transit times are required quickly. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Kuchiev M.Y.,University of New South Wales
Nuclear Physics B | Year: 2010

A new universal model to implement the Seiberg-Witten approach to low-energy properties of the supersymmetric N=2 gauge theory with an arbitrary compact simple gauge group, classical or exceptional, is suggested. It is based on the hyperelliptic curve, whose genus equals the rank of the gauge group. The weak and strong coupling limits are reproduced. The magnetic and electric charges of light dyons, which are present in the proposed model comply with recent predictions derived from the general properties of the theory. The discrete chiral symmetry is implemented, the duality condition is reproduced, and connections between monodromies at weak and strong coupling are established. It is found that the spectra of monopoles and dyons are greatly simplified when vectors representing the scalar and dual fields in the Cartan algebra are aligned along the Weyl vector. This general feature of the theory is used for an additional verification of the model. The model predicts the identical analytic structures of the coupling constants for the theories based on the SU(r+1) and Sp(2r) gauge groups. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Handley T.E.,University of New South Wales
Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease | Year: 2016

ABSTRACT: Disengagement from services is common before suicide, hence identifying factors at treatment presentation that predict future suicidality is important. This article explores risk profiles for suicidal ideation among treatment seekers with depression and substance misuse. Participants completed assessments at baseline and 6 months. Baseline demographics, psychiatric history, and current symptoms were entered into a decision tree to predict suicidal ideation at follow-up. Sixty-three percent of participants at baseline and 43.5% at follow-up reported suicidal ideation. Baseline ideation most salient when psychiatric illness began before adulthood, increasing the rate of follow-up ideation by 16%. Among those without baseline ideation, dysfunctional attitudes were the most important risk factor, increasing rates of suicidal ideation by 35%. These findings provide evidence of factors beyond initial diagnoses that increase the likelihood of suicidal ideation and are worthy of clinical attention. In particular, providing suicide prevention resources to those with high dysfunctional attitudes may be beneficial. Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

Green M.A.,University of New South Wales | Emery K.,National Renewable Energy Laboratory | Hishikawa Y.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology | Warta W.,Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems | Dunlop E.D.,European Commission - Joint Research Center Ispra
Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications | Year: 2012

Consolidated tables showing an extensive listing of the highest independently confirmed efficiencies for solar cells and modules are presented. Guidelines for inclusion of results into these tables are outlined and new entries since January 2012 are reviewed. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Easthope H.,University of New South Wales
Housing Studies | Year: 2014

English-language literature on the relationship between home and dwelling has largely focused on the benefits of homeownership and (to a lesser extent) social rental in facilitating ontological security. Less consideration has been given to the experiences of private tenants. This paper draws on findings of a study on security of occupancy to discuss the ability of private renters to exercise control over their dwellings in Australia. The paper discusses the limitations of Australian legislation, within its policy, market and cultural context, in enabling private tenants to exercise control over their dwellings, and compares the Australian situation with Germany to demonstrate that alternative approaches that afford more control to private tenants are possible in rental systems dominated by private rental. The paper concludes with a call for a wider debate about the importance of home and the impact of social norms regarding the purpose of different types of tenure on housing policy and thus on the rights and well-being of tenants. © 2014 © 2014 Taylor & Francis.

Hora H.,University of New South Wales
Laser and Particle Beams | Year: 2011

A special Fest-Conference was organized at the University of Illinois, Urbana, US, to celebrate the completion of fifty years of distinguished research work conducted by Professor Georg H. Miley. The special Fest-Conference was organized at the university from April 14-15, 2011 where large number of collaborators, associates, and former students gathered to celebrate the occasion. The conference provided an opportunity to congratulate the professor with great thanks from all colleagues involved with the publication of the Laser and Particle Beams journal. His work was characterized as addressing an important application or societal need, including his work on the plasma physics of neutron sources using inertial electrostatic confinement fusion. This research effort had significant implication for neutron activation analysis used in Homeland Security detection systems.

Mobbs R.J.,University of New South Wales | Raley D.A.,Prince of Wales Hospital
Journal of Spinal Disorders and Techniques | Year: 2014

Study design: Retrospective study.Objective: To determine the risk profile and complications associated with anterior vertebral body breach by Kirschner (K)-wire during percutaneous pedicle screw insertion.Summary of Background Data: Percutaneous techniques and indications are rapidly expanding with numerous studies now supporting the use of percutaneous pedicle screw stabilization as an adjunct for multiple pathologies such as degenerative, tumor, and trauma. With regards to complication rates, little has been documented.Materials and Methods: A total of 525 consecutive percutaneous pedicle screws were retrospectively reviewed and the rate of anterior vertebral body breach was recorded, including any potential adverse clinical outcomes.Results: Of 525 percutaneous pedicle screw insertions, there were 7 anterior breaches recorded. We rated the breaches as a minor breach (< 5mm; n = 3), moderate breach (5-25mm; n = 2), and major breach (> 25mm; n = 2). Two patients had a postoperative ileus with a retroperitoneal hematoma on postoperative computed tomography scan. No patient required reoperation or blood transfusion.Conclusions: The indications for minimally invasive spinal fusion have expanded to include conditions such as degenerative, trauma, deformity, infection, and neoplasia. Although the rate of anterior K-wire breach is low, the technique requires the acquisition of a new set of skills including the safe passage of a K-wire, and knowledge of potential complications that may ensue. Copyright © 2012 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Shrestha S.,University of New South Wales
Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications | Year: 2011

In order to help keep readers up-to-date in the field each issue of Progress in Photovoltaics will contain a list of recently published journal articles most relevant to its aims and scope. This list is drawn from an extremely wide range of journals, including IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, Journal of Applied Physics, Applied Physics Letters, Progress in Photovoltaics and Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories, but please note that these classifications are by no means strict. Also note that inclusion in the list is not an endorsement of a paper's quality. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Bulmus V.,Izmir Institute of Technology | Bulmus V.,University of New South Wales
Polymer Chemistry | Year: 2011

This review aims to highlight the use of RAFT polymerization in the synthesis of polymer bioconjugates. It covers two main bioconjugation strategies using the RAFT process: (i) post-polymerization bioconjugations using pre-synthesized reactive polymers, and (ii) bioconjugations via in situ polymerization using biomolecule-modified monomers or chain transfer agents. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Caresta M.,University of New South Wales
Journal of Sound and Vibration | Year: 2011

This paper theoretically investigates the use of inertial actuators to reduce the sound radiated by a submarine hull in bending vibration under harmonic excitation from the propeller. The radial forces from the propeller are tonal at the blade passing frequency and are transmitted to the hull through the stern end cone. The hull is modelled as a fluid loaded cylindrical shell with ring stiffeners and two equally spaced bulkheads. The cylinder is closed by end-plates and conical end caps. The actuators are arranged in circumferential arrays and attached to the prow end cone. Both Active Vibration Control and Active Structural Acoustic Control are analysed. The inertial actuators can provide control forces with a magnitude large enough to reduce the sound radiated by the vibrations of the hull in some frequency ranges. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Zhang W.,Aston University | Webb D.,Aston University | Peng G.,University of New South Wales
Optics Letters | Year: 2012

We demonstrate an intrinsic biochemical concentration sensor based on a polymer optical fiber Bragg grating. The water content absorbed by the polymer fiber from a surrounding solution depends on the concentration of the solution because of the osmotic effect. The variation of water content in the fiber causes a change in the fiber dimensions and a variation in refractive index and, therefore, a shift in the Bragg wavelength. Saline solutions with concentration from 0% to 22% were used to demonstrate the sensing principle, resulting in a total wavelength shift of 0.9 nm, allowing high-resolution concentration measurements to be realized. © 2012 Optical Society of America.

Green M.A.,University of New South Wales
Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications | Year: 2011

New solar photovoltaic technologies face significant barriers to market entry. First Solar, Inc. is the first thin-film company to succeed in meeting these challenges, with substantial information about the company's evolution available through its public listing. Learning experience in relation to prices, manufacturing costs, module efficiency and material costs are assessed over the 2003-early 2010 period. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Boonstra T.W.,University of New South Wales
International journal of psychophysiology : official journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology | Year: 2013

The mechanisms generating task-locked changes in cortical potentials remain poorly understood, despite a wealth of research. It has recently been proposed that ongoing brain oscillations are not symmetric, so that task-related amplitude modulations generate a baseline shift that does not average out, leading to slow event-related potentials. We test this hypothesis using multivariate methods to formally assess the co-variation between task-related evoked potentials and spectral changes in scalp EEG during a visual working memory task, which is known to elicit both evoked and sustained cortical activities across broadly distributed cortical regions. 64-channel EEG data were acquired from eight healthy human subjects who completed a visuo-spatial associative working memory task as memory load was parametrically increased from easy to hard. As anticipated, evoked activity showed a complex but robust spatio-temporal waveform maximally expressed bilaterally in the parieto-occipital and anterior midline regions, showing robust effects of memory load that were specific to the stage of the working memory trial. Similarly, memory load was associated with robust spectral changes in the theta and alpha range, throughout encoding in posterior regions and through maintenance and retrieval in anterior regions, consistent with the additional resources required for decision making in prefrontal cortex. Analysis of the relationship between event-related changes in slow potentials and cortical rhythms, using partial least squares, is indeed consistent with the notion that the former make a causal contribution to the latter. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Micolich A.P.,University of New South Wales
Journal of Physics Condensed Matter | Year: 2011

The integer quantised conductance of one-dimensional electron systems is a well-understood effect of quantum confinement. A number of fractionally quantised plateaus are also commonly observed. They are attributed to many-body effects, but their precise origin is still a matter of debate, having attracted considerable interest over the past 15 years. This review reports on experimental studies of fractionally quantised plateaus in semiconductor quantum point contacts and quantum wires, focusing on the 0.7×2e2/h conductance anomaly, its analogues at higher conductances and the zero-bias peak observed in the dc sourcedrain bias for conductances less than 2e 2/h. © 2011 IOP Publishing Ltd.

Greenfield J.R.,University of New South Wales
Journal of Neuroendocrinology | Year: 2011

Obesity has reached epidemic proportions worldwide. Sympathetic nervous system activation has been shown to play a major role linking obesity to the development of associated metabolic complications, such as hypertension. Recent evidence has implicated central melanocortin signalling in the regulation of blood pressure in rodents and humans. The importance of sympathetic neural activity in mediating this association has been highlighted. Humans with loss-of-function mutations in the melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) are an ideal group of subjects in whom the importance of melanocortin signalling in linking obesity to hypertension can be studied. Consistent with rodent studies, it was recently demonstrated that humans with MC4R deficiency have lower blood pressure, less hypertension, lower 24-h urinary catecholamine excretion, lower resting heart rate and attenuated insulin-mediated sympathetic activation compared to equally-obese humans. In overweight and obese humans without MC4R mutations, the infusion of a highly-selective MC4R agonist led to dose-dependent increases in blood pressure and heart rate. All effects were independent of insulin. This evidence supports the notion that the melanocortin system regulates blood pressure and sympathetic neural function. The results obtained in rodent and human studies, in relation to blood pressure and sympathetic function, may limit the use of MC4R agonists for the treatment of obesity. Future studies will determine whether MC4R deficiency is associated with protection from development of the detrimental cardiovascular consequences that accompany obesity. © 2011 The Author. Journal of Neuroendocrinology © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Thordarson P.,University of New South Wales
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2011

The most common approach for quantifying interactions in supramolecular chemistry is a titration of the guest to solution of the host, noting the changes in some physical property through NMR, UV-Vis, fluorescence or other techniques. Despite the apparent simplicity of this approach, there are several issues that need to be carefully addressed to ensure that the final results are reliable. This includes the use of non-linear rather than linear regression methods, careful choice of stoichiometric binding model, the choice of method (e.g., NMR vs. UV-Vis) and concentration of host, the application of advanced data analysis methods such as global analysis and finally the estimation of uncertainties and confidence intervals for the results obtained. This tutorial review will give a systematic overview of all these issues - highlighting some of the key messages herein with simulated data analysis examples. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Danta M.,University of New South Wales | Rodger A.J.,University College London
Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS | Year: 2011

Purpose of review: The epidemiology of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in HIV has changed significantly over the past decade. This review will outline the current epidemiology of HCV in HIV infection, focusing on the recent changes and factors which have been related to the increase in HCV transmission in HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM). Recent findings: Since 2000 there has been recognition in the postindustrialized world that there has been a dramatic rise in the incidence of HCV in HIV-infected MSM. Whereas sexual transmission of HCV remains controversial in the general population, there is increasing evidence that permucosal (sexual and mucosally administered drugs) rather than parenteral risks have become key factors in HCV transmission in HIV-infected MSM. At the most basic level, transmission depends on disruption of a barrier and exposure to infected fluids, usually blood. Whereas transmission factors are often closely entwined, they can be characterized as behavioural and biological factors. Summary: With an improved understanding of the epidemiology of HCV in this population, interventions by relevant health authorities could be better focused. © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Connolly M.P.,University of Groningen | Hoorens S.,RAND Europe | Chambers G.M.,University of New South Wales
Human Reproduction Update | Year: 2010

Background: Despite the growing use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) worldwide, there is only a limited understanding of the economics of ART to inform policy about effective, safe and equitable financing of ART treatment. Methods: A review was undertaken of key studies regarding the costs and consequences of ART treatment, specifically examining the direct and indirect costs of treatment, economic drivers of utilization and clinical practice and broader economic consequences of ART-conceived children. Results: The direct costs of ART treatment vary substantially between countries, with the USA standing out as the most expensive. The direct costs generally reflect the costliness of the underlying healthcare system. If unsubsidized, direct costs represent a significant economic burden to patients. The level of affordability of ART treatment is an important driver of utilization, treatment choices, embryo transfer practices and ultimately multiple birth rates. The costs associated with caring for multiple-birth ART infants and their mothers are substantial, reflecting the underlying morbidity associated with such pregnancies. Investment analysis of ART treatment and ART-conceived children indicates that appropriate funding of ART services appears to represent sound fiscal policy. Conclusions: The complex interaction between the cost of ART treatment and how treatments are subsidized in different healthcare settings and for different patient groups has far-reaching consequences for ART utilization, clinical practice and infant outcomes. A greater understanding of the economics of ART is needed to inform policy decisions and to ensure the best possible outcomes from ART treatment. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved.

Vartanian L.R.,University of New South Wales | Novak S.A.,Hofstra University
Obesity | Year: 2011

Experiences with weight stigma negatively impact both psychological outcomes (e.g., body dissatisfaction, depression) and behavioral outcomes (e.g., dieting, exercise). However, not everyone is equally affected by experiences with weight stigma. This study examined whether internalized societal attitudes about weight moderated the impact of weight stigma. Adult participants (n = 111) completed measures of experiences with weight stigma, as well as two indexes of internalized societal attitudes (the moderators): Internalized anti-fat attitudes and internalization of societal standards of attractiveness. Psychological outcomes included self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, and bulimic symptoms; behavioral outcomes included avoidance of exercise and self-reported exercise behavior. Weight stigma was positively correlated with body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, and bulimic symptoms, and was negatively correlated with state and trait self-esteem. Both indexes of internalized attitudes moderated the association between weight stigma and avoidance of exercise: Individuals high in anti-fat attitudes and high in internalization of societal standards of attractiveness were more motivated to avoid exercise if they also experienced a high degree of weight stigma; individuals low in anti-fat attitudes and low in internalization were relatively unaffected. Avoidance of exercise was negatively correlated with self-reported strenuous exercise. These findings suggest that weight stigma can negatively influence motivation to exercise, particularly among individuals who have internalized societal attitudes about weight. Reducing internalization might be a means of minimizing the negative impact of weight stigma and of facilitating healthy weight management efforts. © 2010 The Obesity Society.

Lussier P.,Laval University | Cale J.,University of New South Wales
Aggression and Violent Behavior | Year: 2013

The current study claims that measures of sexual recidivism provide a distorted view of the criminal activity of adult sex offenders. To address this important limitation, the criminal career perspective is presented and key concepts are defined and described. The study also provides an up-to-date review of the scientific literature on various criminal career parameters of the sexual criminal activity of adult sex offenders. Hence, current empirical knowledge on the prevalence, age of onset, frequency, continuity, versatility, and desistance from sex offending is presented. The findings highlight the complexities of the sexual criminal career of adult sex offenders, and most importantly, its dynamic aspect, both of which are not captured by traditional measures of sexual recidivism. The review also underscores the importance of recognizing that sexual offending develops according to a series of stages, that, if not recognized, may lead to the underestimation of risk for some and over-estimation of risk for others. The review provides a framework to stimulate new areas of research as well as policy-development that is not limited to the identification of the "high-risk" convicted sex offenders. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Andre N.,Service dHematologie and Oncologie Pediatrique | Carre M.,Aix - Marseille University | Pasquier E.,University of New South Wales
Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology | Year: 2014

Since its inception in 2000, metronomic chemotherapy has undergone major advances as an antiangiogenic therapy. The discovery of the pro-immune properties of chemotherapy and its direct effects on cancer cells has established the intrinsic multitargeted nature of this therapeutic approach. The past 10 years have seen a marked rise in clinical trials of metronomic chemotherapy, and it is increasingly combined in the clinic with conventional treatments, such as maximum-tolerated dose chemotherapy and radiotherapy, as well as with novel therapeutic strategies, such as drug repositioning, targeted agents and immunotherapy. We review the latest advances in understanding the complex mechanisms of action of metronomic chemotherapy, and the recently identified factors associated with disease resistance. We comprehensively discuss the latest clinical data obtained from studies performed in both adult and paediatric populations, and highlight ongoing clinical trials. In this Review, we foresee the future developments of metronomic chemotherapy and specifically its potential role in the era of personalized medicine. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

White P.A.,University of New South Wales
Clinical Microbiology and Infection | Year: 2014

Norovirus (NoV) is now the dominant aetiological agent of acute gastroenteritis, and, with the recent introduction of rotavirus vaccines in many countries, this is likely to remain the case. NoV has a significant impact on human wellbeing in terms of morbidity, economic costs and mortality in developing countries. NoVs are divided into six genogroups (GI-GVI), but only GI, GII and GIV are known to infect humans, with GII being the most prevalent, causing >95% of human infections. The immune system is thought to drive selection of emerging pandemic NoVs through both antigenic drift and shift. This phenomenon results in the replacement of dominant circulating viruses approximately every 3 years, with new variants able to re-infect hosts previously infected with earlier viruses. This review explores the evolutionary aspects of contemporary NoVs. © 2014 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

Zetterlund P.B.,University of New South Wales
Macromolecular Theory and Simulations | Year: 2010

Compartmentalization and nitroxide partitioning in NMP in dispersed systems have been investigated by modeling and simulations. Compartmentalization comprises the segregation effect on termination and the confined space effect on deactivation. Under certain conditions, it is possible to obtain an improvement in both control and livingness. The particle size threshold for compartmentalization, decreases with any system change that leads to a decrease in the number of propagating radicals and/or nitroxides per particle, and vice versa. There is direct competition between the confined space effect on deactivation and nitroxide exit-the more water-soluble the nitroxide, the weaker the confined space effect. Nitroxide partitioning leads to an increase in polymerization rate and loss in control/livingness. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Vartanian L.R.,University of New South Wales
International Journal of Obesity | Year: 2010

Background:Efforts to explain negative attitudes toward obese people have centered on beliefs about the controllability of body weight, whereas other processes (such as the emotion of disgust) have been largely ignored. This study examined the role of disgust in evaluations of obese people, as well as other social groups (for example smokers, drug addicts, women, homosexuals, politicians).Method:In three studies, participants (total N524) made ratings of how much they believe that obesity is a matter of personal control, indicated how disgusted they are with obese people, and reported their attitudes toward obese people. In Study 1, participants also made similar ratings (perceptions of control over group membership, disgust, and attitudes) for 15 additional social groups.Results:Disgust was the strongest predictor of negative attitudes toward obese people, and disgust fully mediated the association between perceptions of control and attitudes toward obese people. In addition, obese people were rated less favorably, and as more disgusting, than almost all social groups. Across all social groups, perceived control over group membership was positively correlated with disgust ratings, and disgust mediated the link between perceived control and favorability ratings.Conclusion:These findings indicate that disgust is an important, yet understudied, component of weight bias. Furthermore, these findings situate representations of obesity in a broader context by establishing similarities with other social groups. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.

Di Girolamo N.,University of New South Wales
Progress in Retinal and Eye Research | Year: 2015

Lineage tracing allows the destiny of a stem cell (SC) and its progeny to be followed through time. In order to track their long-term fate, SC must be permanently marked to discern their distribution, division, displacement and differentiation. This information is essential for unravelling the mysteries that govern their replenishing activity while they remain anchored within their niche microenvironment. Modern-day lineage tracing uses inducible genetic recombination to illuminate cells within embryonic, newborn and adult tissues, and the advent of powerful high-resolution microscopy has enabled the behaviour of labelled cells to be monitored in real-time in a living organism. The simple structural organization of the mammalian cornea, including its accessibility and transparency, renders it the ideal tissue to study SC fate using lineage tracing assisted by non-invasive intravital microscopy. Despite more than a century of research devoted to understanding how this tissue is maintained and repaired, many limitations and controversies continue to plague the field, including uncertainties about the specificity of current SC markers, the number of SC within the cornea, their mode of division, their location, and importantly the signals that dictate cell migration. This communication will highlight historical discoveries as well as recent developments in the corneal SC field; more specifically how the progeny of these cells are mobilised to replenish this dynamic tissue during steady-state, disease and transplantation. Also discussed is how insights gleaned from animal studies can be used to advance our knowledge of the fundamental mechanisms that govern modelling and remodelling of the human cornea in health and disease. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Walton J.R.,University of New South Wales
Journal of Alzheimer's Disease | Year: 2013

The neuroanatomic specificity with which Alzheimer's disease (AD) progresses could provide clues to AD etiopathology. Magnetic resonance imaging studies of AD clinical progression have confirmed general conclusions from earlier studies of AD neuropathological progression wherein neurofibrillary tangle pathology was observed to spread along a well-defined sequence of corticocortical and corticosubcortical connections, preferentially affecting certain cell types, while sparing others. Identical and non-identical twin studies have consistently shown AD has mixed (environmental and genetic) etiopathogenesis. The decades-long prodromal phase over which AD develops suggests slow but progressive accumulation of a toxic or infective agent over time. Major environmental candidates are reviewed to assess which best fits the profile of an agent that slowly accrues in susceptible cell types of AD-vulnerable brain regions to toxic levels by old age, giving rise to AD neuropathology without rapid neuronal lysis. Chronic aluminum neurotoxicity best matches this profile. Many humans routinely ingest aluminum salts as additives contained in processed foods and alum-treated drinking water. The physical properties of aluminum and ferric iron ions are similar, allowing aluminum to use mechanisms evolved for iron to enter vulnerable neurons involved in AD progression, accumulate in those neurons, and cause neurofibrillary damage. The genetic component of AD etiopathogenesis apparently involves a susceptibility gene, yet to be identified, that increases aluminum absorption because AD and Down syndrome patients have higher than normal plasma, and brain, aluminum levels. This review describes evidence for aluminum involvement in AD neuropathology and the clinical progression of sporadic AD. © 2013 IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved.

Donaldson A.,Monash University | Poulos R.G.,University of New South Wales
British Journal of Sports Medicine | Year: 2014

Background: This paper describes the development of a theory-informed and evidence-informed, contextspecific diffusion plan for the Mayday Safety Procedure (MSP) among community rugby coaches in regional New South Wales, Australia. Methods: Step 5 of Intervention Mapping was used to plan strategies to enhance MSP adoption and implementation. Results: Coaches were identified as the primary MSP adopters and implementers within a system including administrators, players and referees. A local advisory group was established to ensure context relevance. Performance objectives (eg, attend MSP training for coaches) and determinants of adoption and implementation behaviour (eg, knowledge, beliefs, skills and environment) were identified, informed by Social Cognitive Theory. Adoption and implementation matrices were developed and change-objectives for coaches were identified (eg, skills to deliver MSP training to players). Finally, intervention methods and specific strategies (eg, coach education, social marketing and policy and by-law development) were identified based on advisory group member experience, evidence of effective coach safety behaviour-change interventions and Diffusion of Innovations theory. Conclusions: This is the first published example of a systematic approach to plan injury prevention programme diffusion in community sports. The key strengths of this approach were an effective researcher-practitioner partnership; actively engaging local sports administrators; targeting specific behaviour determinants, informed by theory and evidence; and taking context-related practical strengths and constraints into consideration. The major challenges were the time involved in using a systematic diffusion planning approach for the first time; and finding a planning language that was acceptable and meaningful to researchers and practitioners.

Jin F.,University of New South Wales
Vaccine | Year: 2011

Most anal squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) are caused by high risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV) and are potentially preventable by HPV vaccination. In order to understand the burden of potentially preventable anal cancer in Australia, we examine the incidence and survival from invasive anal SCC 1982-2005. We reviewed data on invasive anal cancer cases notified to the National Cancer Statistics Clearing House. Age specific incidence rates of SCC were calculated by year of cancer diagnosis and by birth cohort, and rates of anal adenocarcinoma were included for comparison. Incidence rates were age standardised to the Australian 2001 standard population. Trends in relative survival of SCC were examined. During the study period, a total of 4615 invasive anal cancer cases were diagnosed and most (69.7%) were SCC. Annual incidence of SCC increased almost 50%, from 0.65 to 1.00/100,000. Incidence increased at all ages. The annual rate of increase was almost two-folder higher in men (3.42%, 95% CI 2.49-4.35) than in women (1.88%, 95% CI 1.18-2.58). Five-year relative survival increased by nearly 10% from 58.9% to 68.3% over the last 20 years. Younger patients and women had better survival. For anal adenocarcinoma, increases of borderline significance were seen in men and women. There is an increasing burden of anal SCC in Australia. The group with the highest incidence - homosexual men - are not likely to be protected under the current vaccination policy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Speakman J.R.,CAS Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology | Speakman J.R.,University of Aberdeen | Garratt M.,University of New South Wales
BioEssays | Year: 2014

The idea that oxidative stress may underpin life history trade-offs has become extremely popular. However, experimental support for the concept has proved equivocal. It has recently been suggested that this might be because of flaws in the design of existing studies. Here, we explore the background to the oxidative stress hypothesis and highlight some of the complexities in testing it. We conclude that the approach recently suggested to be least useful in this context (comparing reproducing to non-reproducing animals) may in fact be the most powerful. Moreover, suggested alternative approaches of limiting food supply or manipulating litter sizes have many complexities and problems. We suggest some useful alternative approaches that have not been previously advocated, particularly the study of individuals reproducing at greater parity later in life. Finally, the measures of oxidative stress and tissues that are analysed influence the experimental outcome. This suggests our conceptual model of the trade-off is currently too simplistic, and that studies based on single or limited numbers of assays, or restricted to single tissues, whether they support or refute the theory, should be interpreted with great caution. © 2014 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

Du X.-M.,University of New South Wales
Circulation Research | Year: 2015

RATIONALE:: High-density lipoprotein (HDL) is a heterogeneous population of particles. Differences in the capacities of HDL subfractions to remove cellular cholesterol may explain variable correlations between HDL-cholesterol and cardiovascular risk and inform future targets for HDL-related therapies. The ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) facilitates cholesterol efflux to lipid-free apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), but the majority of apoA-I in the circulation is transported in a lipidated state and ABCA1-dependent efflux to individual HDL subfractions has not been systematically studied.OBJECTIVE:: Our aims were to determine which HDL particle subfractions are most efficient in mediating cellular cholesterol efflux from foam cell macrophages, and to identify the cellular cholesterol transporters involved in this process.METHODS AND RESULTS:: We used reconstituted HDL particles of defined size and composition, isolated subfractions of human plasma HDL, cell lines stably expressing ABCA1 or ABCG1 and both mouse and human macrophages in which ABCA1 or ABCG1 expression was deleted. We show that ABCA1 is the major mediator of macrophage cholesterol efflux to HDL, demonstrating most marked efficiency with small, dense HDL subfractions (HDL3b and HDL3c). ABCG1 has a lesser role in cholesterol efflux and a negligible role in efflux to HDL3b and HDL3c subfractions.CONCLUSIONS:: Small, dense HDL subfractions are the most efficient mediators of cholesterol efflux and ABCA1 mediates cholesterol efflux to small dense HDL as well as to lipid-free apoA-I. HDL-directed therapies should target increasing the concentrations or the cholesterol efflux capacity of small dense HDL species in vivo. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

Jalbert I.,University of New South Wales
Experimental Eye Research | Year: 2013

Nutrition disorders and their correlates such as obesity are increasingly prevalent worldwide. A number of studies to date have suggested numerous potential associations between diet and tear film health; this paper will provide a summary of the available literature. The tear film is characterized through its protein and lipid content and through clinical measurements of characteristics such as osmolarity, volume and stability. Malnutrition, protein and vitamin-A deficiencies are extremely deleterious to tear film health and supplementation with oral vitamin A in this setting is of clear benefit. The relative impact of diet on tear film within what would be considered normal ranges of consumption is less clear. A number of population studies have suggested that hyperlipidemia and a diet low in omega-3 fatty acids are risks factor for dry eye disease. Numerous studies have investigated the effectiveness of oral supplementation with antioxidants, omega-3 (e.g. fish oil and linseed oil) and omega-6 (e.g. evening primrose oil) fatty acids in the last 10 years. Taken together, these suggest a small benefit of oral supplementation on tear film volume, stability and decreased ocular symptoms in patients previously diagnosed with diseases involving the ocular surface (e.g. Sjögren's syndrome, meibomian gland dysfunction, dry eye disease) and contact lens wearers suffering from dry eye. More research is required to determine the exact composition, dosage and indications for their use and to fully characterize how these nutraceuticals modulate the tear film. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

This review focuses on six key papers published in the mid 2000 s based on work conducted in Cambridge. The first two relate to clinico-pathological studies which established that Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a relatively common cause of focal cortical syndromes, notably progressive aphasia (largely nonfluent), progressive apraxia, and posterior cortical atrophy with complex visual symptoms. Building on these findings, criteria for the progressive aphasias have been developed which define the variant associated with AD (progressive logopenic aphasia). Memory in the dementias has been a major area of interest and one paper discussed here explored the neural basis for episodic and semantic memory failure in AD and semantic dementia. Despite very different memory profiles, the two disorders both cause severe hippocampal hypometabolism and atrophy but differ in the degree of involvement of other memory related structures. This work drew attention to the role of pathology in non-hippocampal structures early in AD. The next two articles deal with the behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) which we have shown is associated with breakdown in theory of mind, social reasoning, empathy, and emotion processing and contributed to work on the neural basis of social cognition. We also identified a subgroup of bvFTD who fail to progress over many years, termed phenocopy cases, who are differentiated by their lack of atrophy on MRI. The final paper described the application of the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised, which has proven a useful brief assessment tool for the early detection of a range of neurodegenerative disorders including AD and FTD. It also appears to be helpful in predicting those with mild cognitive impairment who will progress to frank dementia. © 2013 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved.

Boutcher S.H.,University of New South Wales
Journal of Obesity | Year: 2011

The effect of regular aerobic exercise on body fat is negligible; however, other forms of exercise may have a greater impact on body composition. For example, emerging research examining high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) indicates that it may be more effective at reducing subcutaneous and abdominal body fat than other types of exercise. The mechanisms underlying the fat reduction induced by HIIE, however, are undetermined. Regular HIIE has been shown to significantly increase both aerobic and anaerobic fitness. HIIE also significantly lowers insulin resistance and results in a number of skeletal muscle adaptations that result in enhanced skeletal muscle fat oxidation and improved glucose tolerance. This review summarizes the results of HIIE studies on fat loss, fitness, insulin resistance, and skeletal muscle. Possible mechanisms underlying HIIE-induced fat loss and implications for the use of HIIE in the treatment and prevention of obesity are also discussed. © 2011 Stephen H. Boutcher.

Dance I.,University of New South Wales
Scientific Reports | Year: 2013

Nitrogenase converts N 2 to NH 3, at one face of an Fe-Mo-S cluster (FeMo-co) buried in the protein. Through exploration of cavities in the structures of nitrogenase proteins, a pathway for the egress of ammonia from its generation site to the external medium is proposed. This pathway is conserved in the three species Azotobacter vinelandii, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Clostridium pasteurianum. A molecular mechanism for the translocation of NH 3 by skipping through a sequence of hydrogen bonds involving eleven water molecules and surrounding aminoacids has been developed. The putative mechanism requires movement aside of some water molecules by up to ∼ 1Å. Consistent with this, the surrounding protein is comprised of different chains and has little secondary structure: protein fluctuations are part of the mechanism. This NH 3 pathway is well separated from the water chain and embedded proton wire that have been proposed for serial supply of protons to FeMo-co. Verification procedures are suggested.

Dzuba V.A.,University of New South Wales
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2013

A technique based on summation of dominating classes of correlation diagrams to all orders in Coulomb interaction is used to calculate the energies of the lowest s,p, and d states of Ba ii, Ra ii, Fr i, E119 i, and E120 ii. Breit and quantum electrodynamic corrections are also included. Comparison with experiment for Ba ii, Ra ii, and Fr i demonstrates that the accuracy of the calculations is on the level of 0.1%. The technique has been applied to predict the spectra of superheavy elements E119 and E120+. The role of the ladder diagrams, which is the most recent addition to the method, has been emphasized. Their inclusion significantly improves the accuracy of the calculations and expands the applicability of the method. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Trainer T.,University of New South Wales
Energy Policy | Year: 2014

The potential and limits of solar thermal power systems depend primarily on their capacity to meet electricity demand in mid-winter, and the associated cost, storage and other implications. Evidence on output and costs is analysed. Most attention is given to central receivers. Problems of low radiation levels, embodied energy costs, variability and storage are discussed and are found to set significant difficulties for large scale solar thermal supply in less than ideal latitudes and seasons. It is concluded that for solar thermal systems to meet a large fraction of anticipated global electricity demand in winter would involve prohibitive capital costs. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Ng W.,University of New South Wales
Computers and Education | Year: 2012

In recent years, there has been much debate about the concept of digital natives, in particular the differences between the digital natives' knowledge and adoption of digital technologies in informal versus formal educational contexts. This paper investigates the knowledge about educational technologies of a group of undergraduate students studying the course Introduction to eLearning at a university in Australia and how they adopt unfamiliar technologies into their learning. The study explores the 'digital nativeness' of these students by investigating their degree of digital literacy and the ease with which they learn to make use of unfamiliar technologies. The findings show that the undergraduates were generally able to use unfamiliar technologies easily in their learning to create useful artefacts. They need, however to be m