Fredericton, Canada
Fredericton, Canada

The University of New Brunswick is a public university with campuses located in Fredericton and Saint John, New Brunswick. It is the oldest English language university in Canada. It is one of four schools that claim the title of oldest public university in North America . UNB was founded by a group of seven Loyalists who left the United States after the American Revolution.UNB has two main campuses: the original campus, founded in 1785 in Fredericton, and a smaller campus which opened in Saint John in 1964. In addition, there are two small satellite health science campuses located in Moncton and Bathurst, New Brunswick, and two offices in the Caribbean and in Beijing. UNB offers over 75 degrees in fourteen faculties at the undergraduate and graduate levels with a total student enrollment of approximately 11,400 between the two principal campuses. In the fall of 2010, UNB partnered with Dalhousie University and the government of New Brunswick to open the first English-language medical school in the province at the Saint John campus. Wikipedia.

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University of New Brunswick | Date: 2016-08-31

The present disclosure provides a process that employs glycerol and a catalyst for partial transformation of heavy petroleum oils to lighter hydrocarbon liquids under mild conditions without the need of external hydrogen gas. The process uses industrially produced glycerol to upgrade heavy crudes; hydrogenates aromatics to paraffin and/or olefins without the use of external hydrogen gas; operates at mild operating conditions; and employs inexpensive catalysts. This process is completely different from the hydroconversion process where high pressurized hydrogen gas is essential. The present process requires no pressurized hydrogen gas and can significantly reduce both operating and capital costs of the traditional hydrotreating process.

News Article | May 9, 2017

Entomologists call it the windshield phenomenon. "If you talk to people, they have a gut feeling. They remember how insects used to smash on your windscreen," says Wolfgang Wägele, director of the Leibniz Institute for Animal Biodiversity in Bonn, Germany. Today, drivers spend less time scraping and scrubbing. "I'm a very data-driven person," says Scott Black, executive director of the Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation in Portland, Oregon. "But it is a visceral reaction when you realize you don't see that mess anymore." Some people argue that cars today are more aerodynamic and therefore less deadly to insects. But Black says his pride and joy as a teenager in Nebraska was his 1969 Ford Mustang Mach 1—with some pretty sleek lines. "I used to have to wash my car all the time. It was always covered with insects." Lately, Martin Sorg, an entomologist here, has seen the opposite: "I drive a Land Rover, with the aerodynamics of a refrigerator, and these days it stays clean." Though observations about splattered bugs aren't scientific, few reliable data exist on the fate of important insect species. Scientists have tracked alarming declines in domesticated honey bees, monarch butterflies, and lightning bugs. But few have paid attention to the moths, hover flies, beetles, and countless other insects that buzz and flitter through the warm months. "We have a pretty good track record of ignoring most noncharismatic species," which most insects are, says Joe Nocera, an ecologist at the University of New Brunswick in Canada. Of the scant records that do exist, many come from amateur naturalists, whether butterfly collectors or bird watchers. Now, a new set of long-term data is coming to light, this time from a dedicated group of mostly amateur entomologists who have tracked insect abundance at more than 100 nature reserves in western Europe since the 1980s. Over that time the group, the Krefeld Entomological Society, has seen the yearly insect catches fluctuate, as expected. But in 2013 they spotted something alarming. When they returned to one of their earliest trapping sites from 1989, the total mass of their catch had fallen by nearly 80%. Perhaps it was a particularly bad year, they thought, so they set up the traps again in 2014. The numbers were just as low. Through more direct comparisons, the group—which had preserved thousands of samples over 3 decades—found dramatic declines across more than a dozen other sites. Such losses reverberate up the food chain. "If you're an insect-eating bird living in that area, four-fifths of your food is gone in the last quarter-century, which is staggering," says Dave Goulson, an ecologist at the University of Sussex in the United Kingdom, who is working with the Krefeld group to analyze and publish some of the data. "One almost hopes that it's not representative—that it's some strange artifact." No one knows how broadly representative the data are of trends elsewhere. But the specificity of the observations offers a unique window into the state of some of the planet's less appreciated species. Germany's "Red List" of endangered insects doesn't look alarming at first glance, says Sorg, who curates the Krefeld society's extensive collection of insect specimens. Few species are listed as extinct because they are still found in one or two sites. But that obscures the fact that many have disappeared from large areas where they were once common. Across Germany, only three bumble bee species have vanished, but the Krefeld region has lost more than half the two dozen bumble bee species that society members documented early in the 20th century. Members of the Krefeld society have been observing, recording, and collecting insects from the region—and around the world—since 1905. Some of the roughly 50 members—including teachers, telecommunication technicians, and a book publisher—have become world experts on their favorite insects. Siegfried Cymorek, for instance, who was active in the society from the 1950s through the 1980s, never completed high school. He was drafted into the army as a teenager, and after the war he worked in the wood-protection division at a local chemical plant. But because of his extensive knowledge of wood-boring beetles, the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich awarded him an honorary doctorate in 1979. Over the years, members have written more than 2000 publications on insect taxonomy, ecology, and behavior. The society's headquarters is a former school in the center of Krefeld, an industrial town on the banks of the Rhine that was once famous for producing silk. Disused classrooms store more than a million insect specimens individually pinned and named in display cases. Most were collected nearby, but some come from more exotic locales. Among them are those from the collection of a local priest, an active member in the 1940s and 1950s, who persuaded colleagues at mission stations around the world to send him specimens. (The society's collection and archive are under historical preservation protection.) Tens of millions more insects float in carefully labeled bottles of alcohol—the yield from the society's monitoring projects in nature reserves around the region. The reserves, set aside for their local ecological value, are not pristine wilderness but "seminatural" habitats, such as former hay meadows, full of wildflowers, birds, small mammals—and insects. Some even include parts of agricultural fields, which farmers are free to farm with conventional methods. Heinz Schwan, a retired chemist and longtime society member who has weighed thousands of trap samples, says the society began collecting long-term records of insect abundance partly by chance. In the late 1970s and early 1980s, local authorities asked the group for help evaluating how different strategies for managing the reserves affected insect populations and diversity. The members monitored each site only once every few years, but they set up identical insect traps in the same place each time to ensure clean comparisons. Because commercially available traps vary in ways that affect the catch, the group makes their own. Named for the Swedish entomologist René Malaise, who developed the basic design in the 1930s, each trap resembles a floating tent. Black mesh fabric forms the base, topped by a tent of white fabric and, at the summit, a collection container—a plastic jar with an opening into another jar of alcohol. Insects trapped in the fabric fly up to the jar, where the vapors gradually inebriate them and they fall into the alcohol. The traps collect mainly species that fly a meter or so above the ground. For people who worry that the traps themselves might deplete insect populations, Sorg notes that each trap catches just a few grams per day—equivalent to the daily diet of a shrew. Sorg says society members saved all the samples because even in the 1980s they recognized that each represented a snapshot of potentially intriguing insect populations. "We found it fascinating—despite the fact that in 1982 the term ‘biodiversity' barely existed," he says. Many samples have not yet been sorted and cataloged—a painstaking labor of love done with tweezers and a microscope. Nor have the group's full findings been published. But some of the data are emerging piecemeal in talks by society members and at a hearing at the German Bundestag, the national parliament, and they are unsettling. Beyond the striking drop in overall insect biomass, the data point to losses in overlooked groups for which almost no one has kept records. In the Krefeld data, hover flies—important pollinators often mistaken for bees—show a particularly steep decline. In 1989, the group's traps in one reserve collected 17,291 hover flies from 143 species. In 2014, at the same locations, they found only 2737 individuals from 104 species. Since their initial findings in 2013, the group has installed more traps each year. Working with researchers at several universities, society members are looking for correlations with weather, changes in vegetation, and other factors. No simple cause has yet emerged. Even in reserves where plant diversity and abundance have improved, Sorg says, "the insect numbers still plunged." Changes in land use surrounding the reserves are probably playing a role. "We've lost huge amounts of habitat, which has certainly contributed to all these declines," Goulson says. "If we turn all the seminatural habitats to wheat and cornfields, then there will be virtually no life in those fields." As fields expand and hedgerows disappear, the isolated islands of habitat left can support fewer species. Increased fertilizer on remaining grazing lands favors grasses over the diverse wildflowers that many insects prefer. And when development replaces countryside, streets and buildings generate light pollution that leads nocturnal insects astray and interrupts their mating. Neonicotinoid pesticides, already implicated in the widespread crash of bee populations, are another prime suspect. Introduced in the 1980s, they are now the world's most popular insecticides, initially viewed as relatively benign because they are often applied directly to seeds rather than sprayed. But because they are water soluble, they don't stay put in the fields where they are used. Goulson and his colleagues reported in 2015 that nectar and pollen from wildflowers next to treated fields can have higher concentrations of neonicotinoids than the crop plants. Although initial safety studies showed that allowable levels of the compounds didn't kill honey bees directly, they do affect the insects' abilities to navigate and communicate, according to later research. Researchers found similar effects in wild solitary bees and bumble bees. Less is known about how those chemicals affect other insects, but new studies of parasitoid wasps suggest those effects could be significant. Those solitary wasps play multiple roles in ecosystems—as pollinators, predators of other insects, and prey for larger animals. A team from the University of Regensburg in Germany reported in Scientific Reports in February that exposing the wasp Nasonia vitripennis to just 1 nanogram of one common neonicotinoid cut mating rates by more than half and decreased females' ability to find hosts. "It's as if the [exposed] insect is dead" from a population point of view because it can't produce offspring, says Lars Krogmann, an entomologist at the Stuttgart Natural History Museum in Germany. No one can prove that the pesticides are to blame for the decline, however. "There is no data on insecticide levels, especially in nature reserves," Sorg says. The group has tried to find out what kinds of pesticides are used in fields near the reserves, but that has proved difficult, he says. "We simply don't know what the drivers are" in the Krefeld data, Goulson says. "It's not an experiment. It's an observation of this massive decline. The data themselves are strong. Understanding it and knowing what to do about it is difficult." The factors causing trouble for the hover flies, moths, and bumble bees in Germany are probably at work elsewhere, if clean windshields are any indication. Since 1968, scientists at Rothamsted Research, an agricultural research center in Harpenden, U.K., have operated a system of suction traps—12-meter-long suction tubes pointing skyward. Set up in fields to monitor agricultural pests, the traps capture all manner of insects that happen to fly over them; they are "effectively upside-down Hoovers running 24/7, continually sampling the air for migrating insects," says James Bell, who heads the Rothamsted Insect Survey. Between 1970 and 2002, the biomass caught in the traps in southern England did not decline significantly. Catches in southern Scotland, however, declined by more than two-thirds during the same period. Bell notes that overall numbers in Scotland were much higher at the start of the study. "It might be that much of the [insect] abundance in southern England had already been lost" by 1970, he says, after the dramatic postwar changes in agriculture and land use. The stable catches in southern England are in part due to constant levels of pests such as aphids, which can thrive when their insect predators are removed. Such species can take advantage of a variety of environments, move large distances, and reproduce multiple times per year. Some can even benefit from pesticides because they reproduce quickly enough to develop resistance, whereas their predators decline. "So lots of insects will do great, but the insects that we love may not," Black says. Other, more visible creatures may be feeling the effects of the insect losses. Across North America and Europe, species of birds that eat flying insects, such as larks, swallows, and swifts, are in steep decline. Habitat loss certainly plays a role, Nocera says, "but the obvious factor that ties them all together is their diet." Some intriguing, although indirect, clues come from a rare ecological treasure: decades' worth of stratified bird droppings. Nocera and his colleagues have been probing disused chimneys across Canada in which chimney swifts have built their nests for generations. From the droppings, he and his colleagues can reconstruct the diets of the birds, which eat almost exclusively insects caught on the wing. The layers revealed a striking change in the birds' diets in the 1940s, around the time DDT was introduced. The proportion of beetle remains dropped off, suggesting the birds were eating smaller insects—and getting fewer calories per catch. The proportion of beetle parts increased slightly again after DDT was banned in the 1970s but never reached its earlier levels. The lack of direct data on insect populations is frustrating, Nocera says. "It's all correlative. We know that insect populations could have changed to create the population decline we have now. But we don't have the data, and we never will, because we can't go back in time." Sorg and Wägele agree. "We deeply regret that we did not set up more traps 20 or 30 years ago," Sorg says. He and other Krefeld society members are now working with Wägele's group to develop what they wish they had had earlier: a system of automated monitoring stations they hope will combine audio recordings, camera traps, pollen and spore filters, and automated insect traps into a "biodiversity weather station". Instead of tedious manual analysis, they hope to use automated sequencing and genetic barcoding to analyze the insect samples. Such data could help pinpoint what is causing the decline—and where efforts to reverse it might work best. Paying attention to what E. O. Wilson calls "the little things that run the world" is worthwhile, Sorg says. "We won't exterminate all insects. That's nonsense. Vertebrates would die out first. But we can cause massive damage to biodiversity—damage that harms us."

Joseph E. Cantini, founder of Cantini Law Group, has joined The Expert Network©, an invitation-only service for distinguished professionals. Mr. Cantini has been chosen as a Distinguished Lawyer™ based on peer reviews and ratings, dozens of recognitions, and accomplishments achieved throughout his career. Mr. Cantini outshines others in his field due to his extensive educational background, numerous awards and recognitions, and career longevity. An AV® Preeminent™ Rated lawyer by Martindale-Hubbell®, Mr. Cantini earned his Bachelor of Arts degree in industrial relations and economics from McGill University before going on to obtain his Juris Doctor from the University of New Brunswick in 1986. In 1987, he passed the New Brunswick Bar and that same year began his private practice, which has since grown to a team of twelve with office locations all across the Canadian Maritimes and is today considered by Canadian Lawyer Magazine to be a Top 10 Injury Law Boutique in Canada. With over 30 years dedicated to law, Mr. Cantini brings a wealth of knowledge to his industry and, in particular, to his areas of specialization, personal injury law and disability claims. When asked about his decision to pursue a career in his specialty, Mr. Cantini said: "My parents are immigrants from Italy and as true immigrants they wanted me to go into something that would make me successful in this country. I have always liked the social sciences so I made the decision to go to law school. I wasn’t actually sure that law was what I wanted to do until I was actually in law school, but I figured a law degree would open a lot of doors in either business or labor relations, which is what I studied in undergrad. I ended up really loving law—I can take sides and find common ground to find solutions that satisfy everyone." Today, Mr. Cantini has built a name for himself as someone clients can count on to look out for their best interests. An experienced trial lawyer, Mr. Cantini offers effective representation in all types of traffic accidents, including car, motorcycle, truck, and snowmobile accidents, pedestrian and bicycle accidents, and distracted and drunk driving hit and runs. His practice also encompasses serious injuries and fatalities, and he has represented thousands of victims of traumatic brain injury and severe spinal cord injury. In addition to his work in the courtroom, Mr. Cantini is an accomplished author within his specialty. He has written numerous articles on the topics of facial injuries and scarring from automobile accidents, new automobile technology and how it can prevent injuries and save lives, and dealing with disabilities, among others. He has also published e-books covering the subjects of long-term disability, traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury, and personal injury claims. As a thought-leader in his field, Mr. Cantini is dedicated to remaining on the cutting edge of developments in the industry. Regarding his continued professional development, he noted: "In the old days, it was very easy; it was a very simple system. But that system has gradually become obsolete, and now it is quite complex. You essentially have to be a specialist in the field to know what's going on. And, if anything, it seems to be getting even more controlled and more specialized, with more restrictions and limitations on what can be done." Outside of the legal realm, Mr. Cantini and his team are committed to making a positive impact within their communities. They are involved in numerous education and safety programs, at the Moncton Boys and Girls Club, Moncton High School, the Bernice MacNaughton High School and Bessborough Elementary School. In the fall of 2016, Cantini Law Group hosted a Car Seat Inspection and Installation Event as part of the National Child Passenger Safety Week. Mr. Cantini is also a proud member of the American Association of Justice (AAJD), the President of the Atlantic Aviation Park, and a Mentor with the New Brunswick Bar Association, among numerous other professional affiliations. For more information, visit Mr. Cantini's profile on The Expert Network© here: The Expert Network© has written this news release with approval and/or contributions from Joseph E. Cantini. The Expert Network© is an invitation-only reputation management service that is dedicated to helping professionals stand out, network, and gain a competitive edge. The Expert Network© selects a limited number of professionals based on their individual recognitions and history of personal excellence.

News Article | April 19, 2017

Researchers find that behaviors such as community service and civic engagement might be effective in reducing substance abuse among student-athletes COLUMBIA, Mo. - More than 180,000 student-athletes from 450 colleges and universities compete in Division III sports, the largest NCAA division; nearly 44 percent are female. As substance abuse continues to be a health concern in colleges and universities across the U.S., a social scientist from the University of Missouri has found that female student-athletes who volunteer in their communities and engage in helping behaviors are less likely to partake in dangerous alcohol and marijuana use. "Past research has demonstrated that prosocial behaviors such as comforting or assisting others has long-term benefits for young people," said Gustavo Carlo, Millsap Professor of Diversity in MU's College of Human Environmental Sciences. "For this study, we were interested in understanding how female student-athletes might be impacted by community service because they make up a growing number of the college population." Carlo and Alexandra Davis, former doctoral candidate from MU and current assistant professor of family and child studies at the University of New Mexico, led a research team that investigated Division III women student-athletes' social and health behaviors over a five-year period. Participants in the study self-reported their helping behaviors such as willingness to volunteer as well as their individual alcohol and marijuana use. The researchers found that student athletes with a tendency to help others were less likely to abuse alcohol or use marijuana. "Female student-athletes experience increased demands while in college from coaches and professors to family and friends," Davis said. "Because student-athletes occupy multiple roles simultaneously, they could be at an increased risk substance abuse to cope with stress. Our findings suggest that community service might be a tool to reduce substance abuse among female student-athletes." Carlo and Davis believe these findings highlight the importance of community service and engagement and say that colleges, athletic departments and families should encourage all student-athletes to spend time providing a community service that they care about. "For student-athletes, helping others is a win-win situation," Davis said. "Community service not only reduces the risk of substance abuse, but also creates positive change in the community." "Bidirectional relations between different forms of prosocial behaviors and substance use among female college student athletes," was published in the Journal of Social Psychology. Sam Hardy, associate professor at Brigham Young University; Janine Othuis, assistant professor at the University of New Brunswick; and Byron L. Zamboanga, professor at Smith College, were co-authors of the study.

Agency: GTR | Branch: NERC | Program: | Phase: Research Grant | Award Amount: 1.82M | Year: 2015

The impacts of climate change, and warming in particular, on natural ecosystems remain poorly understood, and research to date has focused on individual species (e.g. range shifts of polar bears). Multispecies systems (food webs, ecosystems), however, can possess emergent properties that can only be understood using a system-level perspective. Within a given food web, the microbial world is the engine that drives key ecosystem processes, biogeochemical cycles (e.g. the carbon-cycle) and network properties, but has been hidden from view due to difficulties with identifying which microbes are present and what they are doing. The recent revolution in Next Generation Sequencing has removed this bottleneck and we can now open the microbial black box to characterise the metagenome (who is there?) and metatranscriptome (what are they doing?) of the community for the first time. These advances will allow us to address a key overarching question: should we expect a global response to global warming? There are bodies of theory that suggest this might be the case, including the Metabolic Theory of Ecology and the Everything is Everywhere hypothesis of global microbial biogeography, yet these ideas have yet to be tested rigorously at appropriate scales and in appropriate experimental contexts that allow us to identify patterns and causal relationships in real multispecies systems. We will assess the impacts of warming across multiple levels of biological organisation, from genes to food webs and whole ecosystems, using geothermally warmed freshwaters in 5 high-latitude regions (Svalbard, Iceland, Greenland, Alaska, Kamchatka), where warming is predicted to be especially rapid,. Our study will be the first to characterise the impacts of climate change on multispecies systems at such an unprecedented scale. Surveys of these sentinel systems will be complemented with modelling and experiments conducted in these field sites, as well as in 100s of large-scale mesocosms (artificial streams and ponds) in the field and 1,000s of microcosms of robotically-assembled microbial communities in the laboratory. Our novel genes-to-ecosystems approach will allow us to integrate measures of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. For instance, we will quantify key functional genes as well as quantifying which genes are switched on (the metatranscriptome) in addition to measuring ecosystem functioning (e.g. processes related to the carbon cycle). We will also measure the impacts of climate change on the complex networks of interacting species we find in nature - what Darwin called the entangled bank - because food webs and other types of networks can produce counterintuitive responses that cannot be predicted from studying species in isolation. One general objective is to assess the scope for biodiversity insurance and resilience of natural systems in the face of climate change. We will combine our intercontinental surveys with natural experiments, bioassays, manipulations and mathematical models to do this. For instance, we will characterise how temperature-mediated losses to biodiversity can compromise key functional attributes of the gene pool and of the ecosystem as a whole. There is an assumption in the academic literature and in policy that freshwater ecosystems are relatively resilient because the apparently huge scope for functional redundancy could allow for compensation for species loss in the face of climate change. However, this has not been quantified empirically in natural systems, and errors in estimating the magnitude of functional redundancy could have substantial environmental and economic repercussions. The research will address a set of key specific questions and hypotheses within our 5 themed Workpackages, of broad significance to both pure and applied ecology, and which also combine to provide a more holistic perspective than has ever been attempted previously.

Feng Z.,University of New Brunswick
Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in biology | Year: 2010

In response to various stress signals, which introduce infidelity into the processes of cell growth and division, p53 initiates cell-cycle arrest, apoptosis, or senescence to maintain fidelity throughout the cell cycle. Although these functions are traditionally thought of as the major functions of the p53 protein for tumor suppression, recent studies have revealed some additional novel functions of the p53 pathway. These include the down-regulation of two central cell-growth pathways, the IGF/AKT-1 and mTOR pathways, and the up-regulation of the activities of the endosomal compartment. The IGF-1/AKT and mTOR pathways are two evolutionarily conserved pathways that play critical roles in regulation of cell proliferation, survival, and energy metabolism. In response to stress, p53 transcribes a group of critical negative regulators in these two pathways, including IGF-BP3, PTEN, TSC2, AMPK beta1, and Sestrin1/2, which leads to the reduction in the activities of these two pathways. Furthermore, p53 transcribes several critical genes regulating the endosomal compartment, including TSAP6, Chmp4C, Caveolin-1, and DRAM, and increases exosome secretion, the rate of endosomal removal of growth factor receptors (e.g., EGFR) from cell surface, and enhances autophagy. These activities all function to slow down cell growth and division, conserve and recycle cellular resources, communicate with adjacent cells and dendritic cells of the immune system, and inform other tissues of the stress signals. This coordinated regulation of IGF-1/AKT/mTOR pathways and the endosomal compartment by the p53 pathway integrates the molecular, cellular, and systemic levels of activities and prevents the accumulations of errors in response to stress and restores cellular homeostasis after stress.

Spray J.G.,University of New Brunswick
Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences | Year: 2010

Frictional melting is the result of the conversion of mechanical deformation to heat under adiabatic conditions of slip. Within planetary materials, which are mainly natural ceramics, frictional melting occurs at high strain rates (typically >10-2 s-1) and at slip velocities greater than 0.1 m s-1. The pathway to friction melting is controlled by the mechanical properties of a rock's constituent minerals, especially fracture toughness. Minerals with the lowest fracture toughnesses and breakdown temperatures are preferentially comminuted and fused to form the melt. The product is a polyphase suspension comprising mineral and rock fragments enclosed in a liquid matrix. This cools to form the rock type known as pseudotachylyte, and at even higher strain rates, it forms shock veins in meteorites and in impact craters, which may contain high-pressure mineral polymorphs. The generation of melt on sliding surfaces can lubricate earthquake faults, facilitate the post-shock modification of impact craters, and make landslides more hazardous. Copyright © 2010 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

Crabtree B.F.,University of New Brunswick
Annals of family medicine | Year: 2010

This article summarizes findings from the National Demonstration Project (NDP) and makes recommendations for policy makers and those implementing patient-centered medical homes (PCMHs) based on these findings and an understanding of diverse efforts to transform primary care. The NDP was launched in June 2006 as the first national test of a particular PCMH model in a diverse sample of 36 family practices, randomized to facilitated or self-directed groups. An independent evaluation team used a multimethod evaluation strategy, analyzing data from direct observation, depth interviews, e-mail streams, medical record audits, and patient and clinical staff surveys. Peer-reviewed manuscripts from the NDP provide answers to 4 key questions: (1) Can the NDP model be built? (2) What does it take to build the NDP model? (3) Does the NDP model make a difference in quality of care? and (4) Can the NDP model be widely disseminated? We find that although it is feasible to transform independent practices into the NDP conceptualization of a PCMH, this transformation requires tremendous effort and motivation, and benefits from external support. Most practices will need additional resources for this magnitude of transformation. Recommendations focus on the need for the PCMH model to continue to evolve, for delivery system reform, and for sufficient resources for implementing personal and practice development plans. In the meantime, we find that much can be done before larger health system reform.

Voyer D.,University of New Brunswick | Voyer Susan D. S.,University of New Brunswick
Psychological Bulletin | Year: 2014

A female advantage in school marks is a common finding in education research, and it extends to most course subjects (e.g., language, math, science), unlike what is found on achievement tests. However, questions remain concerning the quantification of these gender differences and the identification of relevant moderator variables. The present meta-analysis answered these questions by examining studies that included an evaluation of gender differences in teacher-assigned school marks in elementary, junior/middle, or high school or at the university level (both undergraduate and graduate). The final analysis was based on 502 effect sizes drawn from 369 samples. A multilevel approach to meta-analysis was used to handle the presence of nonindependent effect sizes in the overall sample. This method was complemented with an examination of results in separate subject matters with a mixed-effects metaanalytic model. A small but significant female advantage (mean d = 0.225, 95% CI [0.201, 0.249]) was demonstrated for the overall sample of effect sizes. Noteworthy findings were that the female advantage was largest for language courses (mean d = 0.374, 95% CI [0.316, 0.432]) and smallest for math courses (mean d = 0.069, 95% CI [0.014, 0.124]). Source of marks, nationality, racial composition of samples, and gender composition of samples were significant moderators of effect sizes. Finally, results showed that the magnitude of the female advantage was not affected by year of publication, thereby contradicting claims of a recent "boy crisis" in school achievement. The present meta-analysis demonstrated the presence of a stable female advantage in school marks while also identifying critical moderators. Implications for future educational and psychological research are discussed. © 2014 American Psychological Association.

University of New Brunswick | Date: 2015-11-23

Polysaccharide fibres, such as cellulose or starch, modified by grafting an amino-containing antimicrobial polymer (ACP) onto the fibres or starch using a co-polymerization reaction, exhibits high antimicrobial activity. For example, the presence of 1.0% by weight grafted polymer in the cellulose fibres or starch fibres results in excellent antimicrobial activity (over 99% inhibition). The application further discloses that including triclosan or butylparaben into a novel cationic -cyclodextrin polymer or nanocapsule yields a bacteriostat.

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