Fredericton, Canada

University of New Brunswick
Fredericton, Canada

The University of New Brunswick is a public university with campuses located in Fredericton and Saint John, New Brunswick. It is the oldest English language university in Canada. It is one of four schools that claim the title of oldest public university in North America . UNB was founded by a group of seven Loyalists who left the United States after the American Revolution.UNB has two main campuses: the original campus, founded in 1785 in Fredericton, and a smaller campus which opened in Saint John in 1964. In addition, there are two small satellite health science campuses located in Moncton and Bathurst, New Brunswick, and two offices in the Caribbean and in Beijing. UNB offers over 75 degrees in fourteen faculties at the undergraduate and graduate levels with a total student enrollment of approximately 11,400 between the two principal campuses. In the fall of 2010, UNB partnered with Dalhousie University and the government of New Brunswick to open the first English-language medical school in the province at the Saint John campus. Wikipedia.

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News Article | April 19, 2017

Researchers find that behaviors such as community service and civic engagement might be effective in reducing substance abuse among student-athletes COLUMBIA, Mo. - More than 180,000 student-athletes from 450 colleges and universities compete in Division III sports, the largest NCAA division; nearly 44 percent are female. As substance abuse continues to be a health concern in colleges and universities across the U.S., a social scientist from the University of Missouri has found that female student-athletes who volunteer in their communities and engage in helping behaviors are less likely to partake in dangerous alcohol and marijuana use. "Past research has demonstrated that prosocial behaviors such as comforting or assisting others has long-term benefits for young people," said Gustavo Carlo, Millsap Professor of Diversity in MU's College of Human Environmental Sciences. "For this study, we were interested in understanding how female student-athletes might be impacted by community service because they make up a growing number of the college population." Carlo and Alexandra Davis, former doctoral candidate from MU and current assistant professor of family and child studies at the University of New Mexico, led a research team that investigated Division III women student-athletes' social and health behaviors over a five-year period. Participants in the study self-reported their helping behaviors such as willingness to volunteer as well as their individual alcohol and marijuana use. The researchers found that student athletes with a tendency to help others were less likely to abuse alcohol or use marijuana. "Female student-athletes experience increased demands while in college from coaches and professors to family and friends," Davis said. "Because student-athletes occupy multiple roles simultaneously, they could be at an increased risk substance abuse to cope with stress. Our findings suggest that community service might be a tool to reduce substance abuse among female student-athletes." Carlo and Davis believe these findings highlight the importance of community service and engagement and say that colleges, athletic departments and families should encourage all student-athletes to spend time providing a community service that they care about. "For student-athletes, helping others is a win-win situation," Davis said. "Community service not only reduces the risk of substance abuse, but also creates positive change in the community." "Bidirectional relations between different forms of prosocial behaviors and substance use among female college student athletes," was published in the Journal of Social Psychology. Sam Hardy, associate professor at Brigham Young University; Janine Othuis, assistant professor at the University of New Brunswick; and Byron L. Zamboanga, professor at Smith College, were co-authors of the study.

University of New Brunswick | Date: 2016-08-31

The present disclosure provides a process that employs glycerol and a catalyst for partial transformation of heavy petroleum oils to lighter hydrocarbon liquids under mild conditions without the need of external hydrogen gas. The process uses industrially produced glycerol to upgrade heavy crudes; hydrogenates aromatics to paraffin and/or olefins without the use of external hydrogen gas; operates at mild operating conditions; and employs inexpensive catalysts. This process is completely different from the hydroconversion process where high pressurized hydrogen gas is essential. The present process requires no pressurized hydrogen gas and can significantly reduce both operating and capital costs of the traditional hydrotreating process.

Clark D.A.,University of New Brunswick | Beck A.T.,University of Pennsylvania
Trends in Cognitive Sciences | Year: 2010

In this review paper a modified cognitive neurophysiological model of Aaron T. Beck's cognitive formulation of anxiety and depression is proposed that provides an elaborated account of the cognitive and neural mediational processes of cognitive therapy (CT). Empirical evidence consistent with this model is discussed that indicates the effectiveness of cognitive therapy could be associated with reduced activation of the amygdalohippocampal subcortical regions implicated in the generation of negative emotion and increased activation of higher-order frontal regions involved in cognitive control of negative emotion. Future cognitive neuroscience research is needed on the unique brain substrates affected by CT and their role in facilitating symptom change. This future research would have important implications for improving the efficiency and efficacy of this treatment approach. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Liuchen Chang Prof.,University of New Brunswick
IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid | Year: 2017

PowerShift-Atlantic (PSA) is a pilot project lead by Canadian Maritime utilities that demonstrates direct load control strategies for up to 20 MW of commercial and residential loads for the purpose of balancing the intermittency of renewable generation and supporting demand-side management programs. On the residential side, domestic electric water heaters (DEWHs) form a significant end use class. The ability to accurately estimate and predict the state of individual end use devices allows aggregated control systems to better ensure end-use performance and comfort levels. This paper presents a methodology for estimating and predicting the state of individual DEWHs from models of their thermodynamics and water consumption that are derived under two scenarios: 1) when measurements of both power consumption and water temperature are available; and 2) when only measurements of power consumption are available. The proposed methodology was implemented as part of the PSA pilot project for the DEWH load class to simulate the behavior of the load in presence of the controller and evaluate the performance of the controller. Experimental results show that the model and water usage profile mimic the actual behavior of DEWHs, and can predict the future power consumption when the thermostatic control of a DEWH is interrupted as part of a load control strategy. © 2015 IEEE.

Voyer D.,University of New Brunswick
Brain and Cognition | Year: 2011

The present study quantified the magnitude of sex differences in perceptual asymmetries as measured with dichotic listening. This was achieved by means of a meta-analysis of the literature dating back from the initial use of dichotic listening as a measure of laterality. The meta-analysis included 249 effect sizes pertaining to sex differences and 246 effect sizes for the main effect of laterality. The results showed small and homogeneous sex differences in laterality in favor of men (d = 0.054). The main effect of laterality was of medium magnitude (d = 0.609) but it was heterogeneous. Homogeneity for the main effect of laterality was achieved through partitioning as a function of task, demonstrating larger asymmetries for verbal (d = 0.65) than for non-verbal tasks (d = 0.45). The results are discussed with reference to top-down and bottom-up factors in dichotic listening. The possible influence of a publication bias is also discussed. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

Agency: GTR | Branch: NERC | Program: | Phase: Research Grant | Award Amount: 1.82M | Year: 2015

The impacts of climate change, and warming in particular, on natural ecosystems remain poorly understood, and research to date has focused on individual species (e.g. range shifts of polar bears). Multispecies systems (food webs, ecosystems), however, can possess emergent properties that can only be understood using a system-level perspective. Within a given food web, the microbial world is the engine that drives key ecosystem processes, biogeochemical cycles (e.g. the carbon-cycle) and network properties, but has been hidden from view due to difficulties with identifying which microbes are present and what they are doing. The recent revolution in Next Generation Sequencing has removed this bottleneck and we can now open the microbial black box to characterise the metagenome (who is there?) and metatranscriptome (what are they doing?) of the community for the first time. These advances will allow us to address a key overarching question: should we expect a global response to global warming? There are bodies of theory that suggest this might be the case, including the Metabolic Theory of Ecology and the Everything is Everywhere hypothesis of global microbial biogeography, yet these ideas have yet to be tested rigorously at appropriate scales and in appropriate experimental contexts that allow us to identify patterns and causal relationships in real multispecies systems. We will assess the impacts of warming across multiple levels of biological organisation, from genes to food webs and whole ecosystems, using geothermally warmed freshwaters in 5 high-latitude regions (Svalbard, Iceland, Greenland, Alaska, Kamchatka), where warming is predicted to be especially rapid,. Our study will be the first to characterise the impacts of climate change on multispecies systems at such an unprecedented scale. Surveys of these sentinel systems will be complemented with modelling and experiments conducted in these field sites, as well as in 100s of large-scale mesocosms (artificial streams and ponds) in the field and 1,000s of microcosms of robotically-assembled microbial communities in the laboratory. Our novel genes-to-ecosystems approach will allow us to integrate measures of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. For instance, we will quantify key functional genes as well as quantifying which genes are switched on (the metatranscriptome) in addition to measuring ecosystem functioning (e.g. processes related to the carbon cycle). We will also measure the impacts of climate change on the complex networks of interacting species we find in nature - what Darwin called the entangled bank - because food webs and other types of networks can produce counterintuitive responses that cannot be predicted from studying species in isolation. One general objective is to assess the scope for biodiversity insurance and resilience of natural systems in the face of climate change. We will combine our intercontinental surveys with natural experiments, bioassays, manipulations and mathematical models to do this. For instance, we will characterise how temperature-mediated losses to biodiversity can compromise key functional attributes of the gene pool and of the ecosystem as a whole. There is an assumption in the academic literature and in policy that freshwater ecosystems are relatively resilient because the apparently huge scope for functional redundancy could allow for compensation for species loss in the face of climate change. However, this has not been quantified empirically in natural systems, and errors in estimating the magnitude of functional redundancy could have substantial environmental and economic repercussions. The research will address a set of key specific questions and hypotheses within our 5 themed Workpackages, of broad significance to both pure and applied ecology, and which also combine to provide a more holistic perspective than has ever been attempted previously.

Feng Z.,University of New Brunswick
Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in biology | Year: 2010

In response to various stress signals, which introduce infidelity into the processes of cell growth and division, p53 initiates cell-cycle arrest, apoptosis, or senescence to maintain fidelity throughout the cell cycle. Although these functions are traditionally thought of as the major functions of the p53 protein for tumor suppression, recent studies have revealed some additional novel functions of the p53 pathway. These include the down-regulation of two central cell-growth pathways, the IGF/AKT-1 and mTOR pathways, and the up-regulation of the activities of the endosomal compartment. The IGF-1/AKT and mTOR pathways are two evolutionarily conserved pathways that play critical roles in regulation of cell proliferation, survival, and energy metabolism. In response to stress, p53 transcribes a group of critical negative regulators in these two pathways, including IGF-BP3, PTEN, TSC2, AMPK beta1, and Sestrin1/2, which leads to the reduction in the activities of these two pathways. Furthermore, p53 transcribes several critical genes regulating the endosomal compartment, including TSAP6, Chmp4C, Caveolin-1, and DRAM, and increases exosome secretion, the rate of endosomal removal of growth factor receptors (e.g., EGFR) from cell surface, and enhances autophagy. These activities all function to slow down cell growth and division, conserve and recycle cellular resources, communicate with adjacent cells and dendritic cells of the immune system, and inform other tissues of the stress signals. This coordinated regulation of IGF-1/AKT/mTOR pathways and the endosomal compartment by the p53 pathway integrates the molecular, cellular, and systemic levels of activities and prevents the accumulations of errors in response to stress and restores cellular homeostasis after stress.

Spray J.G.,University of New Brunswick
Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences | Year: 2010

Frictional melting is the result of the conversion of mechanical deformation to heat under adiabatic conditions of slip. Within planetary materials, which are mainly natural ceramics, frictional melting occurs at high strain rates (typically >10-2 s-1) and at slip velocities greater than 0.1 m s-1. The pathway to friction melting is controlled by the mechanical properties of a rock's constituent minerals, especially fracture toughness. Minerals with the lowest fracture toughnesses and breakdown temperatures are preferentially comminuted and fused to form the melt. The product is a polyphase suspension comprising mineral and rock fragments enclosed in a liquid matrix. This cools to form the rock type known as pseudotachylyte, and at even higher strain rates, it forms shock veins in meteorites and in impact craters, which may contain high-pressure mineral polymorphs. The generation of melt on sliding surfaces can lubricate earthquake faults, facilitate the post-shock modification of impact craters, and make landslides more hazardous. Copyright © 2010 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

Crabtree B.F.,University of New Brunswick
Annals of family medicine | Year: 2010

This article summarizes findings from the National Demonstration Project (NDP) and makes recommendations for policy makers and those implementing patient-centered medical homes (PCMHs) based on these findings and an understanding of diverse efforts to transform primary care. The NDP was launched in June 2006 as the first national test of a particular PCMH model in a diverse sample of 36 family practices, randomized to facilitated or self-directed groups. An independent evaluation team used a multimethod evaluation strategy, analyzing data from direct observation, depth interviews, e-mail streams, medical record audits, and patient and clinical staff surveys. Peer-reviewed manuscripts from the NDP provide answers to 4 key questions: (1) Can the NDP model be built? (2) What does it take to build the NDP model? (3) Does the NDP model make a difference in quality of care? and (4) Can the NDP model be widely disseminated? We find that although it is feasible to transform independent practices into the NDP conceptualization of a PCMH, this transformation requires tremendous effort and motivation, and benefits from external support. Most practices will need additional resources for this magnitude of transformation. Recommendations focus on the need for the PCMH model to continue to evolve, for delivery system reform, and for sufficient resources for implementing personal and practice development plans. In the meantime, we find that much can be done before larger health system reform.

Voyer D.,University of New Brunswick | Voyer Susan D. S.,University of New Brunswick
Psychological Bulletin | Year: 2014

A female advantage in school marks is a common finding in education research, and it extends to most course subjects (e.g., language, math, science), unlike what is found on achievement tests. However, questions remain concerning the quantification of these gender differences and the identification of relevant moderator variables. The present meta-analysis answered these questions by examining studies that included an evaluation of gender differences in teacher-assigned school marks in elementary, junior/middle, or high school or at the university level (both undergraduate and graduate). The final analysis was based on 502 effect sizes drawn from 369 samples. A multilevel approach to meta-analysis was used to handle the presence of nonindependent effect sizes in the overall sample. This method was complemented with an examination of results in separate subject matters with a mixed-effects metaanalytic model. A small but significant female advantage (mean d = 0.225, 95% CI [0.201, 0.249]) was demonstrated for the overall sample of effect sizes. Noteworthy findings were that the female advantage was largest for language courses (mean d = 0.374, 95% CI [0.316, 0.432]) and smallest for math courses (mean d = 0.069, 95% CI [0.014, 0.124]). Source of marks, nationality, racial composition of samples, and gender composition of samples were significant moderators of effect sizes. Finally, results showed that the magnitude of the female advantage was not affected by year of publication, thereby contradicting claims of a recent "boy crisis" in school achievement. The present meta-analysis demonstrated the presence of a stable female advantage in school marks while also identifying critical moderators. Implications for future educational and psychological research are discussed. © 2014 American Psychological Association.

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