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Las Vegas, NV, United States

University of Nevada-Las Vegas is a public research university located in the Las Vegas suburb of Paradise, Nevada, USA. The 358-acre campus is located approximately 1.5-mile east of the Las Vegas Strip. The university includes the Shadow Lane Campus, located just east of the University Medical Center of Southern Nevada, which houses the School of Dental Medicine— the only dental school in the state of Nevada. In addition, UNLV's law school, the William Boyd School of Law, is also the only law school in the state.Noted for its strong emphasis on science and technology, business management, and the law programs, the university is classified a "research-intensive university" by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. The William Harrah College of Hotel Administration is annually ranked among the top hospitality programs in the United States due to the university's proximity to the Las Vegas Strip. Its famed Thomas & Mack Center hosted the 2007 NBA All-Star Game, concerts, as well as lectures by Bill Clinton and Mikhail Gorbachev as part of various UNLV-affiliated lecture series. Wikipedia.

Zhang B.,University of Nevada, Las Vegas
Astrophysical Journal Letters

The physical nature of fast radio bursts (FRBs), a new type of cosmological transient discovered recently, is not known. It has been suggested that FRBs can be produced when a spinning supra-massive neutron star loses centrifugal support and collapses to a black hole. Here, we suggest that such implosions can happen in supra-massive neutron stars shortly (hundreds to thousands of seconds) after their births, and an observational signature of such implosions may have been observed in the X-ray afterglows of some long and short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Within this picture, a small fraction of FRBs would be physically connected to GRBs. We discuss possible multi-wavelength electromagnetic signals and gravitational wave signals that might be associated with FRBs, and propose an observational campaign to unveil the physical nature of FRBs. In particular, we strongly encourage a rapid radio follow-up observation of GRBs starting from 100 s after a GRB trigger. © 2014. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Source

Pelton L.H.,University of Nevada, Las Vegas
Child Abuse and Neglect

This article constitutes a 20-year update to a previous publication (. Pelton, 1994), which showed that there is overwhelming evidence that poverty and low income are strongly related to child abuse and neglect. Subsequent evidence shows that the relationship continues to be strong. In addition, there is further evidence since the 1994 publication that this relation is not substantially due to class bias. Yet it is suggested that class bias does exist within the system. There is also further evidence that decreases in child maltreatment follow increases in material supports, and that job loss bears a complex relationship to child maltreatment. Findings pertaining to racial bias within the child welfare system continue to be mixed, but leave no doubt that racial disproportionalities within the system are overwhelmingly related to racial disproportionalities in the poverty population. There is continuing evidence that children placed in foster care are predominantly from impoverished families, and that changes in the level of material supports are related to risk of placement. It is suggested that the fact that there are nearly one million children in out-of-home placement (foster care and child-welfare involved adoption, combined) is indicative of the continuing dysfunction of the child welfare system, and that the differential response paradigm has not altered this dysfunction. A proposal for a fundamental restructuring of the child welfare system is recommended and restated here. Prospects for such change are briefly discussed. Also, to reduce poverty, a previously proposed universal social dividend and taxation system is briefly discussed and recommended. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Lefevre C.T.,Aix - Marseille University | Bazylinskib D.A.,University of Nevada, Las Vegas
Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews

Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are widespread, motile, diverse prokaryotes that biomineralize a unique organelle called the magnetosome. Magnetosomes consist of a nano-sized crystal of a magnetic iron mineral that is enveloped by a lipid bilayer membrane. In cells of almost all MTB, magnetosomes are organized as a wellordered chain. The magnetosome chain causes the cell to behave like a motile, miniature compass needle where the cell aligns and swims parallel to magnetic field lines. MTB are found in almost all types of aquatic environments, where they can account for an important part of the bacterial biomass. The genes responsible for magnetosome biomineralization are organized as clusters in the genomes of MTB, in some as a magnetosome genomic island. The functions of a number of magnetosome genes and their associated proteins in magnetosome synthesis and construction of the mag- netosome chain have now been elucidated. The origin of magnetotaxis appears to be monophyletic; that is, it developed in a common ancestor to all MTB, although horizontal gene transfer of magnetosome genes also appears to play a role in their distribution. The purpose of this review, based on recent progress in this field, is focused on the diversity and the ecology of the MTB and also the evolution and transfer of the molecular determinants involved in magnetosome formation. Copyright © 2013, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Source

Shaffer D.K.,University of Nevada, Las Vegas
Justice Quarterly

There has been a rapid proliferation of drug courts over the past two decades. Empirical research examining the effectiveness of the model has generally demonstrated reduced rates of recidivism among program participants. However, relatively little is known about the structure and processes associated with effective drug courts. The current study seeks to address the issues by exploring the moderating influence of programmatic and non-programmatic characteristics on effectiveness. The methodology goes beyond previous meta-analyses by supplementing published (and unpublished) findings with a survey of drug court administrators. Consistent with previous research, the results revealed drug courts reduce recidivism by 9% on average. Further analyses indicated target population, program leverage and intensity, and staff characteristics explain the most variability in drug court effectiveness. These findings are discussed within the context of therapeutic jurisprudence and effective interventions. © 2011 Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences. Source

Kumar P.,University of Texas at Austin | Zhang B.,University of Nevada, Las Vegas
Physics Reports

We provide a comprehensive review of major developments in our understanding of gamma-ray bursts, with particular focus on the discoveries made within the last fifteen years when their true nature was uncovered. We describe the observational properties of photons from the radio to 100s GeV bands, both in the prompt emission and the afterglow phases. Mechanisms for the generation of these photons in GRBs are discussed and confronted with observations to shed light on the physical properties of these explosions, their progenitor stars and the surrounding medium. After presenting observational evidence that a powerful, collimated, jet moving at close to the speed of light is produced in these explosions, we describe our current understanding regarding the generation, acceleration, and dissipation of the jet. We discuss mounting observational evidence that long duration GRBs are produced when massive stars die, and that at least some short duration bursts are associated with old, roughly solar mass, compact stars. The question of whether a black-hole or a strongly magnetized, rapidly rotating neutron star is produced in these explosions is also discussed. We provide a brief summary of what we have learned about relativistic collisionless shocks and particle acceleration from GRB afterglow studies, and discuss the current understanding of radiation mechanism during the prompt emission phase. We discuss theoretical predictions of possible high-energy neutrino emission from GRBs and the current observational constraints. Finally, we discuss how these explosions may be used to study cosmology, e.g. star formation, metal enrichment, reionization history, as well as the formation of first stars and galaxies in the universe. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

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