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Lindsay A.R.,University of Nevada Cooperative Extension | Warren C.S.,University of Nevada, Las Vegas | Velasquez S.C.,University of Nevada Cooperative Extension | Lu M.,University of Nevada, Reno
Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment | Year: 2012

Given that women increasingly report using drugs to lose weight, substance abuse treatment programs must include body image, weight, eating pathology, and health knowledge as core intervention targets. This study tested the efficacy of a supplemental health and body image curriculum designed for women in substance abuse treatment who report weight concerns called Healthy Steps to Freedom (HSF). Data from 124 adult women recruited from substance abuse treatment facilities in southern Nevada completed measures of drug use, body dissatisfaction, eating pathology, thin-ideal internalization, and health knowledge/behaviors before and after participation in the 12-week HSF program. Results revealed that thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, and eating disorder symptoms significantly decreased after HSF program participation, whereas health-related behaviors (e.g., increased healthy food consumption) and knowledge (e.g., understanding of basic nutrition, exercise) increased. These results suggest that the inclusion of the HSF program in substance abuse treatment improves weight-related issues in substance-abusing women. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Kent McAdoo J.,University of Nevada Cooperative Extension | Boyd C.S.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Sheley R.L.,U.S. Department of Agriculture
Rangeland Ecology and Management | Year: 2013

Within the sagebrush steppe ecosystem, sagebrush plants influence a number of ecosystem properties, including nutrient distribution, plant species diversity, soil moisture, and temperature, and provide habitat for a wide variety of wildlife species. Recent increases in frequency and size of wildfires and associated annual grass expansion within the Wyoming big sagebrush alliance have increased the need for effective sagebrush restoration tools and protocols. Our objectives were to quantify the success of Wyoming big sagebrush transplants relative to transplant stock (nursery seedlings vs. wildlings) across different ecological sites and vegetation types and to test the hypothesis that reduction of herbaceous vegetation would increase survival of transplanted sagebrush. We used a randomized block (reps=5) design at each of three sites-1) cheatgrass dominated, 2) native plant dominated, and 3) crested wheatgrass dominated-near Elko, Nevada. Treatments included plant stock (nursery stock or locally harvested wildlings) and herbicide (glyphosate) to reduce competition from herbaceous vegetation. Transplants were planted in the spring of 2009 and 2010 and monitored for survival. Data were analyzed for site and treatment effects using mixed-model ANOVA. Surviving plant density at and 2 yr postplanting was generally highest (up to 3-fold) on the native site (P<0.05). Density of surviving transplants was almost 3-fold higher for nursery stock on most sites for the 2009 planting, but differences in survival by planting stock were minimal for the 2010 planting. Glyphosate application increased surviving plant density up to 300% (depending on site) for both years of planting. High labor and plant material investments (relative to traditional drilling or broadcasting) may limit the size of projects for which sagebrush transplants are practical, but these costs may be partially offset by high success relative to traditional methods. Our data indicate that sagebrush transplants can be effective for establishing sagebrush on depleted sites. © 2013 The Society for Range Management.

Clements C.D.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Young J.A.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Harmon D.N.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | McCuin G.,University of Nevada Cooperative Extension
Rangelands | Year: 2010

Restoration or re-vegetation of winterfat communities is critical to support the sustainability of grazing lands in the US for free-roaming horses, wildlife, and the range livestock industry. In central and eastern Nevada many winterfat communities are dying and are being replaced by the exotic, invasive weed halogeton. Spring Valley North, Site number one was the most challenging site, where the exclosure was surrounded by halogeton-dominated rangeland in poor ecological condition. Spring Valley South, Site number 2 was largely surrounded by winterfat communities in good to excellent ecological condition. A lack of summer precipitation likely caused these seedlings to die off. Without favorably timed precipitation, rangeland seedings are doomed to fail in harsh environments, even with good seedling emergence. The presence of cheatgrass at this site resulted in greater competition. To control broadleaf annuals such as Russian thistle and halogeton, 2-4D was applied in the same manner as at the Strawberry site.

McGwire K.C.,Desert Research Institute | Minor T.B.,Desert Research Institute | Schultz B.W.,University of Nevada Cooperative Extension
IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing | Year: 2011

This paper demonstrates a new method called progressive discrimination (PD) for mapping an individual spectral class within an image. Given training data for a target, PD iteratively samples nontarget image pixels using a collapsing distance threshold within the space of an evolving discriminant function. This has the effect of progressively isolating the target class from similar spectra in the image. PD was compared to Bayesian maximum likelihood classification, mixture-tuned matched filtering, spectral angle mapping, and support vector machine methods for mapping three different invasive species in two types of high-spatial-resolution airborne hyperspectral imagery, AVIRIS and AISA. When tested with 20 different randomly selected groups of training fields, PD classification accuracies for the two spectrally distinct plant species in these images had an average of 98% and a standard deviation of 1%. These randomized trials were capable of providing higher classification accuracies than the best results obtained by two expert analysts using existing methods. For the third species that was less distinct, PD results were comparable to the results obtained by experienced analysts with existing methods. Despite requiring less input from the user than many techniques, PD provided more consistent high mapping accuracy, making it an ideal tool for scientists and land use managers who are not trained in image processing. © 2011 IEEE.

Porensky L.M.,University of Nevada, Reno | Davison J.,University of Nevada Cooperative Extension | Leger E.A.,University of Nevada, Reno | Miller W.W.,University of Nevada, Reno | And 3 more authors.
Biomass and Bioenergy | Year: 2014

In arid regions, reductions in the amount of available agricultural water are fueling interest in alternative, low water-use crops. Perennial grasses have potential as low water-use biofuel crops. However, little is known about which perennial grasses can produce high quantity, high quality yields with low irrigation on formerly high-input agricultural fields in arid regions. We monitored biomass production, weed resistance, rooting depth, and root architecture of nine perennial grasses under multiple irrigation treatments in western Nevada. Under a low irrigation treatment (71±9cm irrigation water annually), cool-season grasses produced more biomass and were more weed-resistant than warm-season grasses. With additional irrigation (120±12cm water annually), warm- and cool-season grasses had similar biomass production, but cool-season species remained more weed-resistant. Among species within each grass type, we observed high variability in performance. Two cool-season species (Elytrigia elongata and Leymus cinereus) and one warm-season species (Bothriochloa ischaemum) performed better than the other tested species. Root depth was not correlated with biomass production, but species with deeper roots had fewer weeds. Abundance of fine roots (but not large roots) was correlated with increased biomass and fewer weeds. Both L. cinereus and E. elongata had deep root systems dominated by fine roots, while B. ischaemum had many fine roots in shallow soil but few roots in deeper soil. Cool-season grasses (particularly E. elongata, L. cinereus, and other species with abundant fine roots) may be worthy of further attention as potential biofuel crops for cold desert agriculture. © 2014.

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