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Borer M.,Museum of Natural History Neuchtel | Van Noort T.,University Of Neuchtel | Arrigo N.,University of Arizona | Buerki S.,Jodrell Laboratory | Alvarez N.,University of Lausanne
BMC Evolutionary Biology | Year: 2011

Background: Within the Coleoptera, the largest order in the animal kingdom, the exclusively herbivorous Chrysomelidae are recognized as one of the most species rich beetle families. The evolutionary processes that have fueled radiation into the more than thirty-five thousand currently recognized leaf beetle species remain partly unresolved. The prominent role of leaf beetles in the insect world, their omnipresence across all terrestrial biomes and their economic importance as common agricultural pest organisms make this family particularly interesting for studying the mechanisms that drive diversification. Here we specifically focus on two ecotypes of the alpine leaf beetle Oreina speciosissima (Scop.), which have been shown to exhibit morphological differences in male genitalia roughly corresponding to the subspecies Oreina speciosissima sensu stricto and Oreina speciosissima troglodytes. In general the two ecotypes segregate along an elevation gradient and by host plants: Oreina speciosissima sensu stricto colonizes high forb vegetation at low altitude and Oreina speciosissima troglodytes is found in stone run vegetation at higher elevations. Both host plants and leaf beetles have a patchy geographical distribution. Through use of gene sequencing and genome fingerprinting (AFLP) we analyzed the genetic structure and habitat use of Oreina speciosissima populations from the Swiss Alps to examine whether the two ecotypes have a genetic basis. By investigating a wide range of altitudes and focusing on the structuring effect of habitat types, we aim to provide answers regarding the factors that drive adaptive radiation in this phytophagous leaf beetle. Results: While little phylogenetic resolution was observed based on the sequencing of four DNA regions, the topology and clustering resulting from AFLP genotyping grouped specimens according to their habitat, mostly defined by plant associations. A few specimens with intermediate morphologies clustered with one of the two ecotypes or formed separate clusters consistent with habitat differences. These results were discussed in an ecological speciation framework. Conclusions: The question of whether this case of ecological differentiation occurred in sympatry or allopatry remains open. Still, the observed pattern points towards ongoing divergence between the two ecotypes which is likely driven by a recent shift in host plant use. © 2011Borer et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Bshary R.,University Of Neuchtel | Raihani N.,University College London
Behavioral and Brain Sciences | Year: 2013

Baumard et al. propose a functional explanation for the evolution of a sense of fairness in humans: Fairness preferences are advantageous in an environment where individuals are in strong competition to be chosen for social interactions. Such conditions also exist in nonhuman animals. Therefore, it remains unclear why fairness (equated with morality) appears to be properly present only in humans. © 2013 Cambridge University Press. Source


Reut M.S.,University Of Neuchtel | Jobson R.W.,University of Oxford
Australian Systematic Botany | Year: 2010

Phylogenetic relationships among 26 of the 37 recognised taxa of Utricularia subgenus Polypompholyx sensu Mller Borsch were assessed by cladistic analysis of DNA sequences from the plastid rps16 intron. We also examined the placement of the recently described U. simmonsii (sect. Minutae), which was reported to share some morphological characters with subgenus Polypompholyx. We found strong jackknife support for a monophyletic subgenus Polypompholyx lineage; however, our strict consensus tree shows an unresolved relationship between the sections Polypompholyx and Pleiochasia. Within the section Pleiochasia, we found two supported clades, generally differing in a more northern or southern distribution. Despite high levels of morphological heterogeneity and convergence, we found some clade-specific character homogeneity within these two clades, particularly that of growth and bladder-trap form, and floral structure. Bladder-trap form corresponds most strongly with terrestrial v. aquatic habits. The evolution of filiform corolla appendages corresponds with floral colour, and is possibly associated with sexual mimicry, with those of the upper corolla arising twice independently. Furthermore, we found that U. monanthos and U. novae-zelandiae remain synonyms of U. dichotoma, and that U. simmonsii is not included in the subgenus Polypompholyx, but instead is allied with sections Stomoisia and Enskide of subgenus Bivalvaria. © CSIRO. Source


Hunziker S.,University of Basel | Hunziker S.,Harvard University | Johansson A.C.,Harvard University | Tschan F.,University Of Neuchtel | And 4 more authors.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology | Year: 2011

Despite substantial efforts to make cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) algorithms known to healthcare workers, the outcome of CPR has remained poor during the past decades. Resuscitation teams often deviate from algorithms of CPR. Emerging evidence suggests that in addition to technical skills of individual rescuers, human factors such as teamwork and leadership affect adherence to algorithms and hence the outcome of CPR. This review describes the state of the science linking team interactions to the performance of CPR. Because logistical barriers make controlled measurement of team interaction in the earliest moments of real-life resuscitations challenging, our review focuses mainly on high-fidelity human simulator studies. This technique allows in-depth investigation of complex human interactions using precise and reproducible methods. It also removes variability in the clinical parameters of resuscitation, thus letting researchers study human factors and team interactions without confounding by clinical variability from resuscitation to resuscitation. Research has shown that a prolonged process of team building and poor leadership behavior are associated with significant shortcomings in CPR. Teamwork and leadership training have been shown to improve subsequent team performance during resuscitation and have recently been included in guidelines for advanced life support courses. We propose that further studies on the effects of team interactions on performance of complex medical emergency interventions such as resuscitation are needed. Future efforts to better understand the influence of team factors (e.g., team member status, team hierarchy, handling of human errors), individual factors (e.g., sex differences, perceived stress), and external factors (e.g., equipment, algorithms, institutional characteristics) on team performance in resuscitation situations are critical to improve CPR performance and medical outcomes of patients. © 2011 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Source


Morina N.,University of Zurich | Morina N.,Universitatsspital Zurich | Maier T.,Universitatsspital Zurich | Schmid Mast M.,University Of Neuchtel
PPmP Psychotherapie Psychosomatik Medizinische Psychologie | Year: 2010

Language is the most essential tool in psychotherapies. Treatment is not possible if there is no common language between therapist and patient. To enable communication between therapists and patients not speaking a common language, the use of professional trained interpreters is inevitable. With the presence of a third person the interpreter a triad is established, which bears difficulties, but also chances. In the present paper, these problems and chances are discussed. Recommendations to optimize the work of interpreters in the psychotherapeutic setting are presented. Interpreters should familiarize themselves with the principles of psychotherapeutic methods and clear role concepts for therapists and interpreters should be defined. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart - New York. Source

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