University Of Neuchtel

La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland

University Of Neuchtel

La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland
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Morina N.,University of Zürich | Morina N.,UniversitatsSpital Zurich | Maier T.,UniversitatsSpital Zurich | Schmid Mast M.,University Of Neuchtel
PPmP Psychotherapie Psychosomatik Medizinische Psychologie | Year: 2010

Language is the most essential tool in psychotherapies. Treatment is not possible if there is no common language between therapist and patient. To enable communication between therapists and patients not speaking a common language, the use of professional trained interpreters is inevitable. With the presence of a third person the interpreter a triad is established, which bears difficulties, but also chances. In the present paper, these problems and chances are discussed. Recommendations to optimize the work of interpreters in the psychotherapeutic setting are presented. Interpreters should familiarize themselves with the principles of psychotherapeutic methods and clear role concepts for therapists and interpreters should be defined. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart - New York.

Borer M.,Museum of Natural History Neuchtel | Van Noort T.,University of Neuchtel | Arrigo N.,University of Arizona | Buerki S.,Jodrell Laboratory | Alvarez N.,University of Lausanne
BMC Evolutionary Biology | Year: 2011

Background: Within the Coleoptera, the largest order in the animal kingdom, the exclusively herbivorous Chrysomelidae are recognized as one of the most species rich beetle families. The evolutionary processes that have fueled radiation into the more than thirty-five thousand currently recognized leaf beetle species remain partly unresolved. The prominent role of leaf beetles in the insect world, their omnipresence across all terrestrial biomes and their economic importance as common agricultural pest organisms make this family particularly interesting for studying the mechanisms that drive diversification. Here we specifically focus on two ecotypes of the alpine leaf beetle Oreina speciosissima (Scop.), which have been shown to exhibit morphological differences in male genitalia roughly corresponding to the subspecies Oreina speciosissima sensu stricto and Oreina speciosissima troglodytes. In general the two ecotypes segregate along an elevation gradient and by host plants: Oreina speciosissima sensu stricto colonizes high forb vegetation at low altitude and Oreina speciosissima troglodytes is found in stone run vegetation at higher elevations. Both host plants and leaf beetles have a patchy geographical distribution. Through use of gene sequencing and genome fingerprinting (AFLP) we analyzed the genetic structure and habitat use of Oreina speciosissima populations from the Swiss Alps to examine whether the two ecotypes have a genetic basis. By investigating a wide range of altitudes and focusing on the structuring effect of habitat types, we aim to provide answers regarding the factors that drive adaptive radiation in this phytophagous leaf beetle. Results: While little phylogenetic resolution was observed based on the sequencing of four DNA regions, the topology and clustering resulting from AFLP genotyping grouped specimens according to their habitat, mostly defined by plant associations. A few specimens with intermediate morphologies clustered with one of the two ecotypes or formed separate clusters consistent with habitat differences. These results were discussed in an ecological speciation framework. Conclusions: The question of whether this case of ecological differentiation occurred in sympatry or allopatry remains open. Still, the observed pattern points towards ongoing divergence between the two ecotypes which is likely driven by a recent shift in host plant use. © 2011Borer et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Reut M.S.,University Of Neuchtel | Jobson R.W.,University of Oxford
Australian Systematic Botany | Year: 2010

Phylogenetic relationships among 26 of the 37 recognised taxa of Utricularia subgenus Polypompholyx sensu Mller Borsch were assessed by cladistic analysis of DNA sequences from the plastid rps16 intron. We also examined the placement of the recently described U. simmonsii (sect. Minutae), which was reported to share some morphological characters with subgenus Polypompholyx. We found strong jackknife support for a monophyletic subgenus Polypompholyx lineage; however, our strict consensus tree shows an unresolved relationship between the sections Polypompholyx and Pleiochasia. Within the section Pleiochasia, we found two supported clades, generally differing in a more northern or southern distribution. Despite high levels of morphological heterogeneity and convergence, we found some clade-specific character homogeneity within these two clades, particularly that of growth and bladder-trap form, and floral structure. Bladder-trap form corresponds most strongly with terrestrial v. aquatic habits. The evolution of filiform corolla appendages corresponds with floral colour, and is possibly associated with sexual mimicry, with those of the upper corolla arising twice independently. Furthermore, we found that U. monanthos and U. novae-zelandiae remain synonyms of U. dichotoma, and that U. simmonsii is not included in the subgenus Polypompholyx, but instead is allied with sections Stomoisia and Enskide of subgenus Bivalvaria. © CSIRO.

Bshary R.,University of Neuchtel | Raihani N.,University College London
Behavioral and Brain Sciences | Year: 2013

Baumard et al. propose a functional explanation for the evolution of a sense of fairness in humans: Fairness preferences are advantageous in an environment where individuals are in strong competition to be chosen for social interactions. Such conditions also exist in nonhuman animals. Therefore, it remains unclear why fairness (equated with morality) appears to be properly present only in humans. © 2013 Cambridge University Press.

Pellaton M.,University Of Neuchtel | Affolderbach C.,University Of Neuchtel | Petremand Y.,Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne | De Rooij N.,Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne | Mileti G.,University Of Neuchtel
Physica Scripta | Year: 2012

We present our microwave spectroscopic studies on laser-microwave double-resonance (DR) signals obtained from a micro-fabricated Rb vapor cell. This study focuses on the characteristics and systematic shifts of the ground-state 'clock transition' in 87Rb (|F g=1,m F=0〉→| F g=2, m F=0〉) used in Rb atomic clocks, and represents a first step toward a miniature atomic clock based on the DR scheme. A short-term clock instability below 2×10 11τ -1/2 is demonstrated, staying below 10 -11 up to τ=10 4s. © 2012 The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.

Hunziker S.,University of Basel | Hunziker S.,Harvard University | Johansson A.C.,Harvard University | Tschan F.,University of Neuchtel | And 4 more authors.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology | Year: 2011

Despite substantial efforts to make cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) algorithms known to healthcare workers, the outcome of CPR has remained poor during the past decades. Resuscitation teams often deviate from algorithms of CPR. Emerging evidence suggests that in addition to technical skills of individual rescuers, human factors such as teamwork and leadership affect adherence to algorithms and hence the outcome of CPR. This review describes the state of the science linking team interactions to the performance of CPR. Because logistical barriers make controlled measurement of team interaction in the earliest moments of real-life resuscitations challenging, our review focuses mainly on high-fidelity human simulator studies. This technique allows in-depth investigation of complex human interactions using precise and reproducible methods. It also removes variability in the clinical parameters of resuscitation, thus letting researchers study human factors and team interactions without confounding by clinical variability from resuscitation to resuscitation. Research has shown that a prolonged process of team building and poor leadership behavior are associated with significant shortcomings in CPR. Teamwork and leadership training have been shown to improve subsequent team performance during resuscitation and have recently been included in guidelines for advanced life support courses. We propose that further studies on the effects of team interactions on performance of complex medical emergency interventions such as resuscitation are needed. Future efforts to better understand the influence of team factors (e.g., team member status, team hierarchy, handling of human errors), individual factors (e.g., sex differences, perceived stress), and external factors (e.g., equipment, algorithms, institutional characteristics) on team performance in resuscitation situations are critical to improve CPR performance and medical outcomes of patients. © 2011 American College of Cardiology Foundation.

Carlson S.E.,Yale University | Carlson S.E.,University of Neuchtel | Howarth D.G.,St. John's University | Donoghue M.J.,Yale University
BMC Evolutionary Biology | Year: 2011

Background: CYCLOIDEA (CYC)-like genes have been implicated in the development of capitulum inflorescences (i.e. flowering heads) in Asteraceae, where many small flowers (florets) are packed tightly into an inflorescence that resembles a single flower. Several rounds of duplication of CYC-like genes have occurred in Asteraceae, and this is hypothesized to be correlated with the evolution of the capitulum, which in turn has been implicated in the evolutionary success of the group. We investigated the evolution of CYC-like genes in Dipsacaceae (Dipsacales), a plant clade in which capitulum inflorescences originated independently of Asteraceae. Two main inflorescence types are present in Dipsacaceae: (1) radiate species contain two kinds of floret within the flowering head (disk and ray), and (2) discoid species contain only disk florets. To test whether a dynamic pattern of gene duplication, similar to that documented in Asteraceae, is present in Dipsacaceae, and whether these patterns are correlated with different inflorescence types, we inferred a CYC-like gene phylogeny for Dipsacaceae based on representative species from the major lineages. Results: We recovered within Dipsacaceae the three major forms of CYC-like genes that have been found in most core eudicots, and identified several additional duplications within each of these clades. We found that the number of CYC-like genes in Dipsacaceae is similar to that reported for members of Asteraceae and that the same gene lineages (CYC1-like and CYC2B-like genes) have duplicated in a similar fashion independently in both groups. The number of CYC-like genes recovered for radiate versus discoid species differed, with discoid species having fewer copies of CYC1-like and CYC2B-like genes. Conclusions: CYC-like genes have undergone extensive duplication in Dipsacaceae, with radiate species having more copies than discoid species, suggesting a potential role for these genes in the evolution of disk and ray florets. The similarity in CYC-like gene diversification seen in Dipsacaceae and some members of the Asteraceae sets the stage to investigate whether the convergent evolution of capitulum inflorescences in both groups may have been underlain by convergent evolution in the same gene family. © 2011 Carlson et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Petremand Y.,Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne | Affolderbach C.,University Of Neuchtel | Straessle R.,Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne | Pellaton M.,University Of Neuchtel | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering | Year: 2012

This paper presents a new fabrication method to manufacture alkali reference cells having dimensions larger than standard micromachined cells and smaller than glass-blown ones, for use in compact atomic devices such as vapour-cell atomic clocks or magnetometers. The technology is based on anodic bonding of silicon and relatively thick glass wafers and fills a gap in cell sizes and technologies available up to now: on one side, microfabrication technologies with typical dimensions < 2 mm and on the other side, classical glass-blowing technologies for typical dimensions of about 610 mm or larger. The fabrication process is described for cells containing atomic Rb and spectroscopic measurements (optical absorption spectrum and double resonance) are reported. The analysis of the bonding strength of our cells was performed and shows that the first anodic bonding steps exhibit higher bonding strengths than the later ones. The spectroscopic results show a good quality of the cells. From the double-resonance signals, we predict a clock stability of ≈ 3×10 -11at 1 s of integration time, which compares well to the performance of compact commercial Rb atomic clocks. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.

Kurmann A.,University of Neuchtel | Peter M.,University of Neuchtel | Tschan F.,University of Neuchtel | Muhlemann K.,University of Bern | And 3 more authors.
British Journal of Surgery | Year: 2011

Background: The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the noise level in an operating theatre as a possible surrogate marker for intraoperative behaviour, and to detect any correlation between sound level and subsequent surgical-site infection (SSI). Methods: The sound level was measured during 35 elective open abdominal procedures. The noise intensity was registered digitally in decibels (dB) every second. A standard questionnaire was used to evaluate the behaviour of the surgical team during the operation. The primary outcome parameter was the SSI rate within 30 days of surgery. Results: The overall rate of SSI was six of 35 (17 per cent). Demographic parameters and duration of operation were not significantly different between patients with, or without SSI. The median sound level (43·5 (range 26·0-60·0) versus 25·0 (25·0-60·0) dB; P = 0·040) and median level above baseline (10·7 (0·6-33·3) versus 0·6 (0·5-10·8); P = 0·001) were significantly higher for patients who developed a SSI. The sound level was at least 4 dB above the median in 22·5 per cent of the peaks in patients with SSI compared with 10·7 per cent in those without (P = 0·029). Talking about non-surgery-related topics was associated with a significantly higher sound level (P = 0·024). Conclusion: Intraoperative noise volume was associated with SSI. This may be due to a lack of concentration, or a stressful environment, and may therefore represent a surrogate parameter by which to assess the behaviour of a surgical team. © 2011 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Herrmann C.,University of Neuchtel | Gern L.,University of Neuchtel
Journal of Medical Entomology | Year: 2010

To determine whether Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) influences tick survival under thermohygrometric stress, Ixodes ricinus (L.) (Acari: Ixodidae) questing ticks were tested under various relative humidities (13, 32, 51.5, 61, and 89% RH) at two different temperatures (12.5 and 25°C) and investigated for Borrelia infection. Survival rate of females was highest (77.6%), followed by males (51.6%), and nymphs (43.2%). The thermohygrometric factor that most importantly determined survival was saturation deficit (SD). As SD increased, tick survival rate decreased in all stages. Among the 1,500 ticks tested for B. burgdorferi s.l., 34.8% (n = 522) were infected. Adult infection rate (39.6%) was higher than that of nymphs (25.5%). Infection load in real-time polymerase chain reaction ranged from 1 to 1.2 million spirochetes per tick. B. afzelii (39.7%), B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (12.1%), B. garinii (37.9%), B. myamotoi (3.6%), and B. valaisiana (23.8%) were recorded. B. garinii infected significantly less nymphs than adults whereas B. afzelii displayed the opposite trend. Survival rate of nymphal and adult I. ricinus was significantly enhanced by infection by B. burgdorferi s.l. (2: nymph, P = 0.008; adult, P = 0.021). In adults, a negative effect of infection on tick survival was observed when spirochete load overcame a threshold estimated at 160,000 spirochetes per tick but not in nymphs. Moreover, ticks infected by B. afzelii survived better than other ticks (infected by other genospecies or not). The results here indicate that infection by B. burgdorferi s.l., and more specifically infection by B. afzelii, confers survival advantages to l. ricinus under challenging thermohygrometric conditions. © 2010 Entomological Society of America.

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