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Nielsen D.C.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Lyon D.J.,Washington State University | Higgins R.K.,University of the Plains | Hergert G.W.,University of Nebraska Panhandle Research and Extension Center | And 2 more authors.
Agronomy Journal | Year: 2016

Crop production systems in the water-limited environment of the semiarid central Great Plains may not have potential to profitably use cover crops because of lowered subsequent wheat (Triticum asestivum L.) yields following the cover crop. Mixtures have reportedly shown less yield-reducing eff ects on subsequent crops than single-species plantings. This study was conducted to determine winter wheat yields following both mixtures and single-species plantings of spring-planted cover crops. The study was conducted at Akron, CO, and Sidney, NE, during the 2012–2013 and 2013–2014 wheat growing seasons under both rainfed and irrigated conditions. Precipitation storage efficiency before wheat planting, wheat water use, biomass, and yield were measured and water use efficiency and harvest index were calculated for wheat following four single-species cover crops (flax [Linum usitatissimum L.], oat [Avena sativa L.], pea [Pisum sativum ssp. arvense L. Poir], rapeseed [Brassica napus L.]), a 10-species mixture, and a fallow treatment with proso millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) residue. Th ere was an average 10% reduction in wheat yield following a cover crop compared with following fallow, regardless of whether the cover crop was grown in a mixture or in a single-species planting. Yield reductions were greater under drier conditions. The slope of the wheat water use–yield relationship was not significantly different for wheat following the mixture (11.80 kg ha–1 mm–1) than for wheat following single-species plantings (12.32–13.57 kg ha–1 mm–1). The greater expense associated with a cover crop mixture compared with a single species is not justified. © 2016 by the American Society of Agronomy. 5585. Guilford Road, Madison, WI 53711. USA All rights reserved.


Walker S.N.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | Pullen C.H.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | Hageman P.A.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | Boeckner L.S.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | And 3 more authors.
Nursing Research | Year: 2010

Background: In the Wellness for Women Project, a randomized-by-site 1-year controlled clinical trial, the efficacy of generic newsletters and newsletters tailored on Health Promotion Model behavior-specific cognitions, eating behavior, and activity behavior were compared among 225 women aged 50 to 69 years. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare the maintenance of change in healthy eating and physical activity over the 12 months following the tailored versus generic mailed newsletter intervention. Methods: Outcomes at 18 and 24 months included behavioral markers and biomarkers of physical activity and eating. Data were analyzed using the multivariate approach to repeated measures analysis of variance and generalized estimating equations (α <.05). Results: At 18 months, the tailored group maintained levels of all eating and activity behaviors, whereas the generic group maintained levels of fruit and vegetable servings, a moderate or greater activity, stretching exercise, lower body strength and flexibility but increased saturated fat intake and declined in weekly strength exercise and cardiorespiratory fitness. At 24 months, both groups maintained or returned to 12-month levels of all eating behaviors,moderate or greater activity, stretching exercise, and flexibility but declined in cardiorespiratory fitness; the tailored group maintained levels of strength exercise and lower body strength, whereas the generic group decreased in both. A greater proportion of women who received tailored newsletters continued to achieve most Healthy People 2010 criteria for eating and activity. Discussion: Mailed tailored print newsletters were more efficacious than generic newsletters in facilitating maintenance of change in eating and activity for 6 months postintervention. Both tailored and generic newsletters facilitated the maintenance of change in eating behaviors and in moderate or greater physical activity and stretching exercise, whereas tailored newsletters were more efficacious in maintaining change in strength exercise for 12 months postintervention. Copyright © 2010 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Nielsen D.C.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Lyon D.J.,Washington State University | Hergert G.W.,University of Nebraska Panhandle Research and Extension Center | Higgins R.K.,University of the Plains | Holman J.D.,Southwest Research and Extension Center
Agronomy Journal | Year: 2015

The water-limited environment of the semiarid Central Great Plains may not produce enough cover crop biomass to generate benefits associated with cover crop use in more humid regions. There have been reports that cover crops grown in mixtures produce more biomass with greater water use efficiency than single-species plantings. This study was conducted to determine differences in cover crop biomass production, water use efficiency, and residue cover between a mixture and single-species plantings. The study was conducted at Akron, CO, and Sidney, NE, during the 2012 and 2013 growing seasons under both rainfed and irrigated conditions. Water use, biomass, and residue cover were measured and water use efficiency was calculated for four single-species cover crops (flax [Linum usitatissimum L.], oat [Avena sativa L.], pea [Pisum sativum ssp. arvense L. Poir], rapeseed [Brassica napus L.]) and a 10-species mixture. The mixture did not produce greater biomass nor exhibit greater water use efficiency than the single-species plantings. The slope of the water-limited yield relationship was not significantly greater for the mixture than for single-species plantings. Waterlimited yield relationship slopes were in the order of rapeseed < flax < pea < mixture < oat, which was the expected order based on previously published biomass productivity values generated from values of glucose conversion into carbohydrates, protein, or lipids. Residue cover was not generally greater from the mixture than from single-species plantings. The greater expense associated with a mixture is not justified unless a certain cover crop forage quality is required for grazing or haying. © 2015 by the American Society of Agronomy 5585 Guilford Road, Madison, WI 53711 USA All rights reserved.


Yates B.C.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | Pullen C.H.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | Santo J.B.,University of Nebraska at Omaha | Boeckner L.,University of Nebraska Panhandle Research and Extension Center | And 3 more authors.
Social Science and Medicine | Year: 2012

Although studies demonstrate that dietary interventions for healthy adults can result in beneficial dietary changes, few studies examine when and how people change in response to these interventions, particularly in rural populations. The purpose of this study was to examine patterns of change over time in healthy eating behaviors in midlife and older women in response to a one-year health-promoting intervention, and to examine what predictors (perceived benefits, barriers, self-efficacy, and family support for healthy eating) influence the changes during the intervention and follow-up. Data for this secondary analysis were from the Wellness for Women community-based trial. Women (N = 225) between the ages of 50-69 in rural Nebraska, U.S. A., were recruited. A repeated-measures experimental design was used with randomization of two rural counties to intervention (tailored newsletter) or comparison (standard newsletter) groups. Eating behavior was measured by the Healthy Eating Index. The predictor variables were assessed using standard measures. Data analysis was done using latent growth curve modeling. The tailored newsletter group was successful in improving their healthy eating behavior compared to the standard newsletter group during the one-year intervention, at the end of the intervention, and during the follow-up phase. Family support at the end of the intervention was positively associated with healthy eating at the end of the intervention. Perceived barriers had the strongest impact on healthy eating behavior at all time points. Compared to participants in the standard newsletter group, those in the tailored newsletter group perceived more family support and fewer barriers for healthy eating at the end of the intervention (mediation effects). Based on these findings, both family support and perceived barriers should be central components of interventions focused on healthy eating behavior in rural midlife and older women. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Nichols C.A.,University of Nebraska - Lincoln | Erickson G.E.,University of Nebraska - Lincoln | Vasconcelos J.T.,University of Nebraska Panhandle Research and Extension Center | Streeter M.N.,Merck Animal Health | And 5 more authors.
Professional Animal Scientist | Year: 2014

A commercial feedlot study compared effects of a Revalor IS/Revalor S implant program to a Revalor XS singleimplant program on performance and carcass characteristics of feedlot cattle. Yearling crossbred steers (1,356; BW = 313.3 ± 16.0 kg) were used in a randomized complete block designed trial. Pens were assigned randomly to 1 of 2 implant treatments. Cattle on the Revalor IS/ Revalor S treatment were reimplanted on d 80 with Revalor S. Diets consisted of 54.9% dry-rolled corn, 35% wet distillers grains plus solubles, 5.5% mixed hay, and 4.6% liquid supplement (DM basis). There were no differences (P = 0.96) in DMI because of treatment. Also, no differences (P > 0.90) in final BW, ADG, or G:F were observed on a carcassadjusted basis. No differences in final BW, ADG, and G:F (P > 0.50) were observed for live performance. Marbling score, 12th-rib fat thickness, LM area, and YG were unaffected (P > 0.69) by implant strategies. Steers on the Revalor XS treatment had a greater number of Low Choice carcasses (P = 0.01) and a lower number of Select carcasses (P = 0.02) compared with Revalor IS/Revalor S, with 58% of Revalor XS cattle grading Low Choice and 50% of Revalor IS/Revalor S cattle grading Low Choice. Steers on the Revalor XS treatment tended to have a greater (P = 0.11) number of USDA YG 5 carcasses. Steers implanted with Revalor XS performed similar to cattle implanted initially with Revalor IS followed by Revalor S. © 2014 American Registry of Professional Animal Scientists.

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