University of Nebraska Medical Centers Munroe Meyer Institute

Nebraska City, Nebraska, United States

University of Nebraska Medical Centers Munroe Meyer Institute

Nebraska City, Nebraska, United States
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Peterson K.M.,University of Nebraska Medical Centers Munroe Meyer Institute | Piazza C.C.,University of Nebraska Medical Centers Munroe Meyer Institute | Volkert V.M.,University of Nebraska Medical Centers Munroe Meyer Institute
Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis | Year: 2016

Treatments of pediatric feeding disorders based on applied behavior analysis (ABA) have the most empirical support in the research literature (Volkert & Piazza, 2012); however, professionals often recommend, and caregivers often use, treatments that have limited empirical support. In the current investigation, we compared a modified sequential oral sensory approach (M-SOS; Benson, Parke, Gannon, & Muñoz, 2013) to an ABA approach for the treatment of the food selectivity of 6 children with autism. We randomly assigned 3 children to ABA and 3 children to M-SOS and compared the effects of treatment in a multiple baseline design across novel, healthy target foods. We used a multielement design to assess treatment generalization. Consumption of target foods increased for children who received ABA, but not for children who received M-SOS. We subsequently implemented ABA with the children for whom M-SOS was not effective and observed a potential treatment generalization effect during ABA when M-SOS preceded ABA. © 2016 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior


Addison L.R.,Addison Behavioral Resources | Piazza C.C.,University of Nebraska Medical Centers Munroe Meyer Institute | Patel M.R.,Clinic 4 Kidz | Bachmeyer M.H.,Kennedy Krieger Institute | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis | Year: 2012

We compared the effects of escape extinction (EE) plus noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) with sensory integration therapy as treatment for the feeding problems of 2 children. Results indicated that EE plus NCR was more effective in increasing acceptance, decreasing inappropriate behavior, and increasing amount consumed relative to sensory integration for both children. The results are discussed in terms of the challenges of evaluating sensoryintegration-based treatments, and the reasons why component analyses of multicomponent treatments like sensory integration are important.


Luczynski K.C.,University of Nebraska Medical Centers Munroe Meyer Institute | Hanley G.P.,University of Nebraska Medical Centers Munroe Meyer Institute
Journal of applied behavior analysis | Year: 2014

Several studies have shown that children prefer contingent reinforcement (CR) rather than yoked noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) when continuous reinforcement is programmed in the CR schedule. Preference has not, however, been evaluated for practical schedules that involve CR. In Study 1, we assessed 5 children's preference for obtaining social interaction via a multiple schedule (periods of fixed-ratio 1 reinforcement alternating with periods of extinction), a briefly signaled delayed reinforcement schedule, and an NCR schedule. The multiple schedule promoted the most efficient level of responding. In general, children chose to experience the multiple schedule and avoided the delay and NCR schedules, indicating that they preferred multiple schedules as the means to arrange practical schedules of social interaction. In Study 2, we evaluated potential controlling variables that influenced 1 child's preference for the multiple schedule and found that the strong positive contingency was the primary variable. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.


PubMed | University of Nebraska Medical Centers Munroe Meyer Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of applied behavior analysis | Year: 2016

Researchers typically modify individual functional analysis (FA) conditions after results are inconclusive (Hanley, Iwata, & McCord, 2003). Hanley, Jin, Vanselow, and Hanratty (2014) introduced a marked departure from this practice, using an interview-informed synthesized contingency analysis (IISCA). In the test condition, they delivered multiple contingencies simultaneously (e.g., attention and escape) after each occurrence of problem behavior; in the control condition, they delivered those same reinforcers noncontingently and continuously. In the current investigation, we compared the results of the IISCA with a more traditional FA in which we evaluated each putative reinforcer individually. Four of 5 participants displayed destructive behavior that was sensitive to the individual contingencies evaluated in the traditional FA. By contrast, none of the participants showed a response pattern consistent with the assumption of the IISCA. We discuss the implications of these findings on the development of accurate and efficient functional analyses.


PubMed | University of Southern Maine, Nova Southeastern University and University of Nebraska Medical Centers Munroe Meyer Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of applied behavior analysis | Year: 2016

Many studies have shown that (a) functional communication training (FCT) is effective for reducing problem behavior, and (b) multiple schedules can facilitate reinforcer schedule thinning during FCT. Most studies tha have used multiple schedules with FCT have included therapist-arranged stimuli (e.g., colored cards) as the discriminative stimuli (S(D) s), but recently, researchers have evaluated similar multiple-schedule training procedures with naturally occurring S(D) s (e.g., overt therapist behavior). The purposes of the current study were to compare the effects of arranged and naturally occurring S(D) s directly during (a) acquisition of discriminated functional communication responses (FCRs) and (b) generalization of discriminated FCRs when we introduced the multiple schedules in novel contexts in which the naturally occurring stimuli were either relatively easy or difficult to discriminate. Results showed that (a) 2 of 3 participants acquired discriminated responding of the FCR more rapidly with arranged than with naturally occurring stimuli, (b) 2 of 3 participants showed resurgence of problem behavior , and (c) 2 of 3 participants showed greater generalization of discriminated responding to novel contexts with arranged stimuli than with naturally occurring stimuli. We discuss these results relative to the conditions under which naturally occurring and arranged S(D) s may promote rapid and generalized treatment gains.


PubMed | University of Nebraska Medical Centers Munroe Meyer Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of applied behavior analysis | Year: 2016

Treatments of pediatric feeding disorders based on applied behavior analysis (ABA) have the most empirical support in the research literature (Volkert & Piazza, 2012); however, professionals often recommend, and caregivers often use, treatments that have limited empirical support. In the current investigation, we compared a modified sequential oral sensory approach (M-SOS; Benson, Parke, Gannon, & Muoz, 2013) to an ABA approach for the treatment of the food selectivity of 6 children with autism. We randomly assigned 3 children to ABA and 3 children to M-SOS and compared the effects of treatment in a multiple baseline design across novel, healthy target foods. We used a multielement design to assess treatment generalization. Consumption of target foods increased for children who received ABA, but not for children who received M-SOS. We subsequently implemented ABA with the children for whom M-SOS was not effective and observed a potential treatment generalization effect during ABA when M-SOS preceded ABA.


PubMed | University of Nebraska Medical Centers Munroe Meyer Institute
Type: Case Reports | Journal: Journal of applied behavior analysis | Year: 2014

The efficacy of nonremoval of the cup or spoon as treatment for feeding refusal is dependent on prevention of escape from presentations. In the current investigation, 1 child with feeding refusal escaped presentations during nonremoval of the cup and spoon by clenching his teeth. Therefore, we used a syringe to deposit liquids and solids, increased the volume of liquids and solids in the syringe, and conducted syringe-to-cup and syringe-to-spoon fading.


PubMed | University of Nebraska Medical Centers Munroe Meyer Institute
Type: Case Reports | Journal: Journal of applied behavior analysis | Year: 2014

Children with feeding disorders exhibit a variety of problem behaviors during meals. One method of treating problem mealtime behavior is to implement interventions sequentially after the problem behavior emerges (e.g., Sevin, Gulotta, Sierp, Rosica, & Miller, 2002). Alternatively, interventions could target problem behavior in anticipation of its emergence. In the current study, we implemented nonremoval and re-presentation of bites either on a spoon or on a Nuk for 12 children with feeding problems. The nonremoval and re-presentation treatment improved feeding behavior for 8 of 12 children. Of those 8 children, 5 had lower levels of expulsions, and 4 of the 8 children had higher levels of mouth clean with the Nuk than with the spoon. We describe the subsequent clinical course of treatment and present follow-up data for 7 of the 8 children who responded to the nonremoval and re-presentation treatment with the spoon or Nuk. The data are discussed in terms of potential reasons why the utensil manipulation improved feeding behavior for some children.


PubMed | University of Nebraska Medical Centers Munroe meyer Institute
Type: Case Reports | Journal: Journal of applied behavior analysis | Year: 2015

We evaluated the efficacy of a procedure that incorporated a mirror to teach gross motor imitation with a 2-year-old boy who had been diagnosed with autistic disorder. Responses taught with a mirror were acquired more quickly than responses taught without the mirror and were maintained after the mirror was removed. These data indicate that a mirror can facilitate acquisition of motor imitation.


PubMed | University of Nebraska Medical Centers Munroe Meyer Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of the experimental analysis of behavior | Year: 2016

With four children with autism we evaluated a refinement to time-based reinforcement designed to reduce response persistence when we simultaneously introduced time-based reinforcement and extinction. We further evaluated whether this refinement mitigated response recurrence when all reinforcer deliveries ceased during an extinction-only disruptor phase. The refinement involved increasing the saliency of the contingency change from contingent reinforcement (during baseline) to time-based reinforcement by delivering different colored reinforcers during time-based reinforcement. Behavioral momentum theory predicts that increasing the discriminability of the change from variable-interval to variable-time reinforcement should lead to faster reductions in responding. We present data on four participants, three of whom displayed response patterns consistent with the predictions of behavioral momentum theory during time-based reinforcement. However, the participants showed more varied patterns of recurrent behavior during extinction. We discuss these results within a translational research framework focusing on strategies used to mitigate treatment relapse for severe destructive behavior, as time-based reinforcement is one of the most commonly prescribed interventions for destructive behavior displayed by individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities.

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