Cutucache C.E.,University of Nebraska at Omaha
International Immunopharmacology | Year: 2013
Malignant cells are able to suppress host immune responses in an effort to avoid immune detection in vivo. Tumor-induced immunosuppression can be achieved at the molecular, cellular, and/or physiological levels. Herein the contribution of immune-tolerant genes and regulatory cells to immunosuppression related to alterations of T-cells and antigen-presentation is reviewed. Furthermore, key advances in countering tumorinduced immunosuppression are described in reference to immune evasion mechanisms used by chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells. Lastly, the challenges associated with targeting the tumor microenvironment coupled with the usefulness of immunomodulatory drugs are discussed. This review summarizes select immune evasion tactics orchestrated by the conversation between CLL cells and their microenvironment. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Savolainen J.,University of Nebraska at Omaha
Criminology | Year: 2014
Does employment promote desistance from crime? Most perspectives assume that individuals who become employed are less likely to offend than those who do not. The critical issue has to do with the timing of employment transitions in the criminal trajectory. The turning point hypothesis expects reductions in offending after job entries, whereas the maturation perspective assumes desistance to have occurred ahead of successful transitions to legitimate work. Focusing on a sample of recidivist males who became employed during 2001-2006 (N = 783), smoothing spline regression techniques were used to model changes in criminal offending around the point of entry to stable employment. Consistent with the maturation perspective, the results showed that most offenders had desisted prior to the employment transition and that becoming employed was not associated with further reductions in criminal behavior. Consistent with the turning point hypothesis, we identified a subset of offenders who became employed during an active phase of the criminal career and experienced substantial reductions in criminal offending thereafter. However, this trajectory describes less than 2 percent of the sample. The patterns observed in this research suggest that transition to employment is best viewed as a consequence rather than as a cause of criminal desistance. © 2014 American Society of Criminology.
Hughes L.A.,University of Nebraska at Omaha
Criminology | Year: 2013
Data from Short and Strodtbeck's (1965) study of gangs in Chicago, 1959-1962, are used to examine the association between intragang friendship networks and violent and delinquent behaviors among 248 boys from 11 different gangs (9 Black and 2 White). Contrary to expectations of tightly connected gangs being the most dangerous, estimates from multilevel overdispersed Poisson regression models showed significantly increased mean levels of violence among gangs with relatively low group cohesion. No relationship was observed between delinquency and gang cohesiveness, regardless of the specific network measure employed. At the individual level, popular boys were at a significantly increased risk for both delinquency and violence, suggesting a link between prestigious positions within the structure of gang friendship networks and conformity with group processes. The implications of these findings for detached worker intervention are discussed. © 2013 American Society of Criminology.
Baccouch M.,University of Nebraska at Omaha
Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering | Year: 2012
In this paper we present new superconvergence results for the local discontinuous Galerkin (LDG) method applied to the second-order scalar wave equation in one space dimension. Numerical experiments show O(hp+1)L2 convergence rate for the LDG solution and O(h p+2) superconvergent solutions at Radau points. More precisely, a local error analysis reveals that, at a fixed time t, the leading terms of the discretization errors for the solution and its derivative using p-degree polynomial approximations are proportional to the (p+1)-degree right Radau and (p+1)-degree left Radau polynomials, respectively. Thus, the p-degree LDG solution is O(h p+2) superconvergent at the roots of the (p+1)-degree right Radau polynomial and the derivative of the LDG solution is O(h p+2) superconvergent at the roots of the (p+1)-degree left Radau polynomial. These results are used to construct simple, efficient, and asymptotically correct a posteriori error estimates in regions where solutions are smooth. Finally, we present several numerical examples to validate the superconvergence results and the asymptotic exactness of our a posteriori errors estimates under mesh refinement. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.
Huberty J.L.,University of Nebraska at Omaha
Journal of physical activity & health | Year: 2011
The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of Ready for Recess: an elementary school recess intervention targeting staff training (ST) and providing recreational equipment (EQ). Ready for Recess had 4 intervention schools: 1) EQ+ST, 2) EQ, 3) ST, and 4) control. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was assessed with accelerometers at the four schools in 257 3rd- to 6th-grade children. Random intercept models for overweight/obese (OWOB) and healthy weight (HW) for boys and girls separately, examined change in percentage of time spent in MVPA during recess across EQ+ST, EQ, and ST compared with the control from baseline to postintervention. HW boys receiving EQ+ST increased MVPA by 19.4%, OWOB boys receiving ST increased MVPA by 4.5%, OWOB girls receiving EQ-ST increased MVPA by 6.0%, while HW girls receiving EQ decreased MVPA by 13.6% in comparison with the control. Ready for Recess represents a possible means to increase MVPA in OWOB girls/boys, populations least likely to meet MVPA recommendations. However, the effect of the intervention was not uniform across all subgroups.