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Szwajgier D.,University of Natural science
Journal of the Institute of Brewing | Year: 2011

A purified extracellular ferulic acid esterase from Lactobacillus acidophilus K1 was successfully used during mashing for the release of free phenolic acids into sweet wort. The enzyme was produced in bioreactors and partially purified to obtain the monoenzyme preparation. Release of free ferulic and vanillic acid into the wort at 52°C (with the use of 4.09-14.60 enzyme activity units/L of the mash) and ferulic acid at 62°C (14.60 units/L) was observed. Free p-OH-benzoic and syringic acids were effectively released at 26°C at each enzyme concentration used. Free p-OH-benzoic acid was also released by the enzyme (14.60 U/L) at 52°C-74°C. Free protocatechuic acid was effectively hydrolyzed by the enzyme preparation (8.75 U/L and 14.60 U/L) at 26°C-52°C. Free caffeic acid (effectively released at 26°C-62°C) originated from chlorogenic acid. No p-coumaric acid was released due to the action of bacterial esterase during mashing. Ferulic acid esterase from L. acidophilus K1 exhibited no ability to release free phenolic acids during mashing at 62°C or at 74°C due to its low thermostability. In conclusion, L. acidophilus K1 is an attractive source for the production of ferulic acid esterase, which can be useful for the release of antioxidant phenolic acids in the early stages of mashing. © 2011 The Institute of Brewing & Distilling. Source


In this work, fermentable sugar, total protein, phenolics and ferulic acid content were estimated in sweet worts at different points of lautering. Transfer of these selected malt compounds into worts was analyzed in relation to the method of malt milling (wet milling of malt - the "test worts" or dry milling of malt -the "reference worts"). Glucose, maltose and maltotriose were more rapidly transferred into sweet worts at the early stages of lautering (40 hL and/or 80 hL of wort) after wet milling in comparison to dry milling. Total protein content in the test worts was significantly higher than in the corresponding reference worts at each stage of lautering. Transfer of phenolic compounds and ferulic acid (in the free as well as in the ester form) from the mash into sweet worts was significantly improved by dry milling, but not by wet milling. No difference in the total antioxidant activity was observed between the two types of worts. In conclusion, it can be stated that wet conditioning of malt before milling enhances the fast transfer of fermentable sugars and proteins from the mash into the sweet wort during lautering. Lautering is a time-consuming process, and time reduction without the loss of wort quality should be a priority. Therefore, wet milling can be of interest to professionals in the field as an interesting alternative method to improve the mashing process. © 2011 The Institute of Brewing & Distilling. Source


Pawlak Z.,Tribochemistry Consulting | Pawlak Z.,University of economics | Urbaniak W.,University of economics | Kaldonski T.,Military University of Technology | Styp-Rekowski M.,University of Natural science
Ecological Engineering | Year: 2010

This study concentrates on the investigation of energy and environmental benefits for used oil pertaining to its reuse through: (i) recovering the heating value of used oils in a combustion process and (ii) re-refining of used oil to produce fresh lube oil products. Tests were made with the used oil samples by ICP technique and the results were compared with standard requirements. We have found that the problems could successfully be solved through used oil management practices including collection centers, transporters, and processors by providing encouragement and financial support towards the re-refining industry. The novelty and value of our work lies in the conclusion that reformulation of motor oil results in lower levels of hazardous elements in used oils. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source


Zawiska I.,Polish Academy of Sciences | Zawisza E.,Polish Academy of Sciences | Zawisza E.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Woszczyk M.,Adam Mickiewicz University | And 3 more authors.
Hydrobiologia | Year: 2013

Change in the trophic state of lakes is a topic of primary interest for limnologists and paleolimnologists, but also for governments in many countries. These changes can be the result of the natural evolution of lake ecosystems, but nowadays are most often connected with human activity influencing water bodies. In this article, we reconstruct changes in the lake productivity and trophic state in three dystrophic (humic) lakes located in Northern Poland. Sediments from these lakes, which are part of a national park, were submitted to Cladocera and chemical composition analyses. Currently, the trophic state of these lakes has been described based on the water's chemical composition, and they have been classified as undisturbed ecosystems with a stable trophic state. The main objective of this study was to evaluate whether these lakes have been stable and undisturbed ecosystems during the past centuries and therefore whether they can be classified as natural and pristine. The results of subfossil Cladocera analysis and sedimentary geochemical analysis confirmed the specific nature of studied lakes. However, our results were surprising and showed that during the last 200 years two of the three lakes have undergone distinct trophic changes, while one of them has barely changed at all. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source


Szwajgier D.,University of Natural science
Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences | Year: 2014

In this work, anticholinesterase activities of 24 polyphenolic compounds were tested using the modified Ellman's spectrophotometric method. The most efficient acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitors were anthocyanins (pelargonidin, delphinidin and cyanidin), flavones (apigenin and luteolin), flavonols (quercetin, kaempferol and myricetin), as well as dihydrochalcone phloridzin and prenylated chalcone xanthohumol. It was established that all the tested compounds were within a narrow molecular weight range of 254.24-354.40 g/mol, which probably was not discriminative for their inhibitory activity. Among all the classes of polyphenolic compounds, the lowest activities were exerted by flavan-3-ols. The inhibitory activity of the tested polyphenols was decreased by the presence of a 3-hydroxyl group. A simultaneous substitution of a carbonyl group at position 4 and a hydroxyl group at position 3 or a lack of both of these substitutions had no effect on the activity of the investigated compounds. The number and position of other hydroxyl groups in the tested molecules played a minor role in this context. Aglycons were more effective cholinesterase inhibitors than their corresponding glycosylated forms. Overall, the results show that phenolic acids can play a role in neuroprotection. However, further in vitro and in vivo studies involving a larger number of polyphenolic compounds simultaneously with well-known cholinesterase inhibitors should be performed in the nearest future to confirm these findings. © by Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of the Polish Academy of Sciences. Source

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