University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna
Vienna, Austria

The University of Natural Resources and Life science, Vienna, or simply BOKU , founded in 1872, is an "an education and research centre for renewable resources" in Vienna. There are currently around 12,000 students enrolled at BOKU. Wikipedia.

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Schneider F.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna
Waste Management | Year: 2013

The donation of food which is still edible can be seen as a specific application of urban mining as food is recovered for its original purpose - human intake. There are several projects implemented worldwide but due to a lack of data, scientific literature about the topic is rare. This paper summarises briefly the evolution of food donation activities and gives information on the differences and similarities of current organisations distributing food to people in need as well as the political, legal, social and logistical barriers and incentives which occur with respect to this topic. A concept for a food donation network is presented and impact on ecology, economy and society is discussed. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Stanzl-Tschegg S.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna
International Journal of Fatigue | Year: 2014

Ever since high-strength steels were found to fail below the traditional fatigue limit when loaded with more than 108 cycles, the investigation of metals' and alloys' very high cycle fatigue properties has received increased attention. A lot of research was invested in developing methods and machinery to reduce testing times. This overview outlines the principles and testing procedures of very high cycle fatigue tests and reports findings in the areas of crack formation, non-propagating small cracks, long crack propagation and thresholds. Furthermore, superimposed and variable amplitude loading as well as frequency effects are reported. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Tunega D.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna
Journal of Physical Chemistry C | Year: 2012

Magnetic, electronic, structural, vibrational, and mechanical properties of mineral goethite (α-FeOOH) at ambient conditions and their dependence on isostatic volume compression (corresponding pressure range 0-80 GPa) have been studied by means of spin-polarized density functional theory (spDFT), modified spDFT+U method, which includes a Hubbard-type on-site repulsion term U, and hybrid DFT functional MSE06. The antiferromagnetic high spin ground state has been confirmed as the most stable at low-pressure conditions. Calculated Fe magnetic moments differ from experiment by about 0.3-0.4 μ B. The antiferromagnetic high spin state is stable over the whole compression range in the spDFT+U and MSE06 calculations. For the spDFT, a collapse from a high spin to low spin state has been induced by compression. In comparison to experiment, the spDFT method strongly underestimates electronic band gap, and the spDFT+U results are in a reasonable agreement (with a difference of 0.1-0.5 eV), while the hybrid MSE06 functional gives an overestimated value. The spDFT+U calculated band gap narrows upon increasing volume compression. Structural parameters calculated by all three methods are in very good agreement with experimental data with an error below 1-1.5%. The analysis of structural parameters has shown that the compression proceeds mainly through the compression of structural channels containing hydrogen bonds. Very narrow splitting in a range of ∼20 cm -1 has been found for the calculated OH stretching modes. The predicted bulk modulus of 114.3 GPa (spDFT+U) is in accord with an experimental value of 111 GPa. The calculated elastic constants document an anisotropic character of the single crystal structure of goethite. In general, the spDFT+U provides reliable results for all studied properties, while the MSE06 overestimates some of them (e.g., band gap). © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Atzberger C.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna
Remote Sensing | Year: 2013

Many remote sensing applications are devoted to the agricultural sector. Representative case studies are presented in the special issue "Advances in Remote Sensing of Agriculture". To complement the examples published within the special issue, a few main applications with regional to global focus were selected for this review, where remote sensing contributions are traditionally strong. The selected applications are put in the context of the global challenges the agricultural sector is facing: minimizing the environmental impact, while increasing production and productivity. Five different applications have been selected, which are illustrated and described: (1) biomass and yield estimation, (2) vegetation vigor and drought stress monitoring, (3) assessment of crop phenological development, (4) crop acreage estimation and cropland mapping and (5) mapping of disturbances and land use/land cover (LULC) changes. Many other applications exist, such as precision agriculture and irrigation management (see other special issues of this journal), but were not included to keep the paper concise. The paper starts with an overview of the main agricultural challenges. This section is followed by a brief overview of existing operational monitoring systems. Finally, in the main part of the paper, the mentioned applications are described and illustrated. The review concludes with some key recommendations. © 2013 by the authors.

Pitzschke A.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna
Frontiers in Plant Science | Year: 2013

The value of Agrobacterium tumefaciens for plant molecular biologists cannot be appreciated enough. This soil-borne pathogen has the unique capability to transfer DNA (T-DNA) into plant systems. Gene transfer involves both bacterial and host factors, and it is the orchestration of these factors that determines the success of transformation. Some plant species readily accept integration of foreign DNA, while others are recalcitrant. The timing and intensity of the microbially activated host defense repertoire sets the switch to "yes" or "no". This repertoire is comprised of the specific induction of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), defense gene expression, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and hormonal adjustments. Agrobacterium tumefaciens abuses components of the host immunity system it mimics plant protein functions and manipulates hormone levels to bypass or override plant defenses. A better understanding of the ongoing molecular battle between agrobacteria and attacked hosts paves the way toward developing transformation protocols for recalcitrant plant species. This review highlights recent findings in agrobacterial transformation research conducted in diverse plant species. Efficiency-limiting factors, both of plant and bacterial origin, are summarized and discussed in a thought-provoking manner. © 2013 Pitzschke.

Mooshammer M.,University of Vienna | Mooshammer M.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna
Nature communications | Year: 2014

Microbial nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) describes the partitioning of organic N taken up between growth and the release of inorganic N to the environment (that is, N mineralization), and is thus central to our understanding of N cycling. Here we report empirical evidence that microbial decomposer communities in soil and plant litter regulate their NUE. We find that microbes retain most immobilized organic N (high NUE), when they are N limited, resulting in low N mineralization. However, when the metabolic control of microbial decomposers switches from N to C limitation, they release an increasing fraction of organic N as ammonium (low NUE). We conclude that the regulation of NUE is an essential strategy of microbial communities to cope with resource imbalances, independent of the regulation of microbial carbon use efficiency, with significant effects on terrestrial N cycling.

Strasser R.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna
Glycobiology | Year: 2016

Protein glycosylation is an essential co- and post-translational modification of secretory and membrane proteins in all eukaryotes. The initial steps of N-glycosylation and N-glycan processing are highly conserved between plants, mammals and yeast. In contrast, late N-glycan maturation steps in the Golgi differ significantly in plants giving rise to complex N-glycans with β1,2-linked xylose, core α1,3-linked fucose and Lewis A-type structures. While the essential role of N-glycan modifications on distinct mammalian glycoproteins is already well documented, we have only begun to decipher the biological function of this ubiquitous protein modification in different plant species. In this review, I focus on the biosynthesis and function of different protein N-linked glycans in plants. Special emphasis is given on glycan-mediated quality control processes in the ER and on the biological role of characteristic complex N-glycan structures. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

Staudacher E.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna
Biological Chemistry | Year: 2012

A methyl (Me) group on a sugar residue is a rarely reported event. Until now, this type of modification has been found in the animal kingdom only in worms and molluscs, whereas it is more frequently present in some species of bacteria, fungi, algae and plants, but not in mammals. The monosaccharides involved as well as the positions of the Me groups on the sugar vary with species. Methylation appears to play a role in some recognition events, but details are still unknown. This review summarises the current knowledge on methylation of sugars in all types of organism. Copyright © by Walter de Gruyter • Berlin • Boston.

Steyaert S.M.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna
Biology letters | Year: 2013

Behavioural strategies to reduce predation risk can incur costs, which are often referred to as risk effects. A common strategy to avoid predation is spatio-temporal avoidance of predators, in which prey typically trade optimal resources for safety. Analogous with predator-prey theory, risk effects should also arise in species with sexually selected infanticide (SSI), in which females with dependent offspring avoid infanticidal males. SSI can be common in brown bear (Ursus arctos) populations and explains spatio-temporal segregation among reproductive classes. Here, we show that in a population with SSI, females with cubs-of-the-year had lower quality diets than conspecifics during the SSI high-risk period, the mating season. After the mating season, their diets were of similar quality to diets of their conspecifics. Our results suggest a nutritive risk effect of SSI, in which females with cubs-of-the-year alter their resource selection and trade optimal resources for offspring safety. Such risk effects can add to female costs of reproduction and may be widespread among species with SSI.

Margreitter C.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna
Nucleic acids research | Year: 2013

Post-translational modifications (PTMs) play a key role in numerous cellular processes by directly affecting structure, dynamics and interaction networks of target proteins. Despite their importance, our understanding of protein PTMs at the atomistic level is still largely incomplete. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, which provide high-resolution insight into biomolecular function and underlying mechanisms, are in principle ideally suited to tackle this problem. However, because of the challenges associated with the development of novel MD parameters and a general lack of suitable computational tools for incorporating PTMs in target protein structures, MD simulations of post-translationally modified proteins have historically lagged significantly behind the studies of unmodified proteins. Here, we present Vienna-PTM web server (, a platform for automated introduction of PTMs of choice to protein 3D structures (PDB files) in a user-friendly visual environment. With 256 different enzymatic and non-enzymatic PTMs available, the server performs geometrically realistic introduction of modifications at sites of interests, as well as subsequent energy minimization. Finally, the server makes available force field parameters and input files needed to run MD simulations of modified proteins within the framework of the widely used GROMOS 54A7 and 45A3 force fields and GROMACS simulation package.

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