Rathke J.,University of Natural Resources and Life science |
Stratev D.,Wood K plus Competence Center for Wood Composites and Wood Chemistry |
Stratev D.,Vienna University of Technology
BioResources | Year: 2013
In Central Europe the main species that are used for the production of sawn wood are spruce, pine, and European beech. After the sawing process, the sawn timber is technically dried to a certain moisture content by means of condensation drying. The water movement in the cellular structure, which is caused by the drying process, draws some of the extractives into solution. In the process of kiln drying, hot air evaporates the water and the dissolved extractives. Some of the water condenses on the floor and the walls of the kiln, while the rest is blown out with the steam. Therefore, condensate was taken from the bottom of the kiln as well as from the energy recovery system. A chemical analysis by means of purge-and-trap showed the presence of volatiles that could be classified as typical for the wood materials from which they originated under the conditions of high temperature and high moisture content.
Ruiz-Mallen I.,Autonomous University of Barcelona |
Ruiz-Mallen I.,Applied Technology Internet |
Schunko C.,University of Natural Resources and Life science |
Corbera E.,Autonomous University of Barcelona |
And 4 more authors.
Ecology and Society | Year: 2015
Indigenous and rural communities have developed strategies aimed at supporting their livelihoods and protecting biodiversity Motivational factors underlying these local conservation strategies, however, are still a largely neglected topic. We aimed to enrich the conceptualization of community-based conservation by exploring trigger events and motivations that induce local people to be engaged in practical institutional arrangements for successful natural resource management and biodiversity conservation. By examining the history and development of three community conservation initiatives in Brazil, Mexico, and Bolivia, we have illustrated and discussed two main ways of understanding community-based conservation from the interaction between extrinsic and intrinsic motivations. First, incentive-based conservation policies can stimulate people’s economic interests and mobilize individual and collective behavior toward the formalization of conservation-oriented actions. Second, environmental justice concerns, such as international and national movements for the recognition of indigenous peoples’ rights, can support local people’s sense of autonomy and result in increased control over their territory and resources, as well as a renewed conservation commitment. The results are useful from a policy perspective because they provide insight into the governance of conservation development by bridging the gap between communities’ culturally based motivations for conservation, which are still embedded in customary institutions, and broader political and socioeconomic contexts. © 2015 by the author(s).
Obiero C.O.,Egerton University |
Birech R.,Egerton University |
Joyce J.,Kenya Agricultural Research Institute |
Kibet N.,Egerton University |
Freyer B.,University of Natural Resources and Life science
Asian Journal of Agricultural Research | Year: 2013
As the world's fossil fuel reseverves is shown to be out of oil supply in a few years from now, efforts to finding an alternative, environmentally friendly and sustainable sources of fuel have been heightened towards on-farm biodiesel production and industrial processing of bioethanol. Jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.) has been selected among other biodiesel feedstocks targeted for this on-farm biodiesel production with intensive production witnessed in India. In Kenya, however, smallholder farmers are found growing Jatropha despite the limited knowledge about its agro-ecological adaptability. The study hypothesis was that regions for biofuel production have not been properly identified in Kenya. Therefore, the objective of this research was to study the performance of Jatropha under different soil and climatic conditions within the smallholder farms in Kenya. A quantitative baseline survey was conducted from July to August, 2010 in 140 randomly selected farms in Lamu, Kibwezi, Nyando and Bondo districts of Kenya (35 per district). A qualitative in-depth study of 5 farms chosen randomly from each region was also done to verify the information obtained. Results showed that performance of Jatropha was positively linked to humid conditions, well distributed annual rainfall of 500-750 mm, moderately sandy to loam soils, neutral pH and good level of management. It was concluded that good crop management together with climatic and soil suitability are important for successful Jatropha production. Furthermore, it was evident that not all regions where Jatropha is promoted for production in Kenya, though, with suitable climate and soils, support the crop without proper crop management practices. © Knowledgia Review, Malaysia.
Freyer B.,University of Natural Resources and Life science |
Bingen J.,Michigan State University |
Paxton R.,University of Natural Resources and Life science
Ecology and Society | Year: 2014
In a continuously expanding, globalizing, and industrializing organic market, organic consumers confront increasing complexity in organic product representation, labeling, and information that challenges how they build trust in organic products. We present a conceptual framework to analyze how consumers might build and practice trust in the organic agrifood chain. We asked specifically about the role of multicriteria assessment tools (MCATs) for trust building. We identified three consumer trust types: Uninformed trust in labels (type 1); informed trust in extensive information, control, and certification (type 2); and informed and engaged trust in forms of close farmer–consumer relationships (type 3). Three concepts of “reflexivity”—unreflective, reflective, selfreflective— are used to explain how these three consumer trust types are operating. We see MCATs as tools accepted and applied mainly by the informed and reflective type. We further examined how reflexivity about two aspects—ethics and systems thinking—in the context of the organic agrifood chain can affect how people trust. Hedonistic, materialistic-oriented consumers might not care about MCATs to deepen their trust in organic, while anthropocentric-oriented consumers were identified as those applying MCATs; ecocentric and holistic-oriented consumers perceive MCATs more as a confinement that limits their self-reflexive and holistic understanding of organic. Awareness of, and interest in, systems thinking by unreflective and uninformed consumer trust types is rather limited; any MCAT is therefore without relevance. The reflective and informed consumer trust type uses a bundle of systems thinking methodologies, and in this context, MCATs would serve as an orientation. The self-reflective, informed, and engaged consumer trust type applies systems theory to learn how to become independent and to better learn how to protect against power interventions; e.g., from industries into the local agrofood chain system. MCATs might play a role, however, would be seen critically because of the high degree of selfdetermination of this type. The unreflective consumer type will not ask for any governance process or related MCAT because they are not sensitized for any bottom-up processes in the agrofood chain. The reflective consumer, however, appreciates more transparency and participation, and would welcome in this context any MCAT that supports more voice for the consumer. The self-reflective consumer who asks for independence and full voice in creating the relation to farmers would at least develop their own MCAT in collaboration with the processors and farmers. Single, double, and triple loop learning are seen as the learning processes that take place when a consumer engages reflexively in the organic agrifood chain. The uninformed consumer type is a single loop learner not heavily interested in MCATs, while the informed is a double loop learner, where MCAT might be a useful tool, and the triple loop learner is seen as the consumer type being engaged in the agrofood chain and would ideally develop their own MCAT. We conclude that MCATs are not relevant for the uninformed consumer to build trust, while the informed consumer would like to apply a predefined MCAT as a tool that allows proof if they can trust in the organic chain. The informed and engaged consumer mostly would not be interested in predefined MCATs, but in some cases might develop their own together with their partners. Their concept of trust is based mainly on being an active partner in the organic agrofood chain and knowing the system by their own experience and contributions. Further theoretical elaboration and empirical research is needed to validate these conceptual reflections on consumer trust. © 2014 by the author(s). Published here under license by the Resilience Alliance.