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D'Amato G.,High Specialty Hospital A Cardarelli | D'Amato G.,University of Naples Medical School | Holgate S.T.,University of Southampton | Pawankar R.,Nippon Medical School | And 37 more authors.
World Allergy Organization Journal | Year: 2015

The prevalence of allergic airway diseases such as asthma and rhinitis has increased dramatically to epidemic proportions worldwide. Besides air pollution from industry derived emissions and motor vehicles, the rising trend can only be explained by gross changes in the environments where we live. The world economy has been transformed over the last 25 years with developing countries being at the core of these changes. Around the planet, in both developed and developing countries, environments are undergoing profound changes. Many of these changes are considered to have negative effects on respiratory health and to enhance the frequency and severity of respiratory diseases such as asthma in the general population. Increased concentrations of greenhouse gases, and especially carbon dioxide (CO2), in the atmosphere have already warmed the planet substantially, causing more severe and prolonged heat waves, variability in temperature, increased air pollution, forest fires, droughts, and floods - all of which can put the respiratory health of the public at risk. These changes in climate and air quality have a measurable impact not only on the morbidity but also the mortality of patients with asthma and other respiratory diseases. The massive increase in emissions of air pollutants due to economic and industrial growth in the last century has made air quality an environmental problem of the first order in a large number of regions of the world. A body of evidence suggests that major changes to our world are occurring and involve the atmosphere and its associated climate. These changes, including global warming induced by human activity, have an impact on the biosphere, biodiversity, and the human environment. Mitigating this huge health impact and reversing the effects of these changes are major challenges. This statement of the World Allergy Organization (WAO) raises the importance of this health hazard and highlights the facts on climate-related health impacts, including: deaths and acute morbidity due to heat waves and extreme meteorological events; increased frequency of acute cardio-respiratory events due to higher concentrations of ground level ozone; changes in the frequency of respiratory diseases due to trans-boundary particle pollution; altered spatial and temporal distribution of allergens (pollens, molds, and mites); and some infectious disease vectors. According to this report, these impacts will not only affect those with current asthma but also increase the incidence and prevalence of allergic respiratory conditions and of asthma. The effects of climate change on respiratory allergy are still not well defined, and more studies addressing this topic are needed. Global warming is expected to affect the start, duration, and intensity of the pollen season on the one hand, and the rate of asthma exacerbations due to air pollution, respiratory infections, and/or cold air inhalation, and other conditions on the other hand. © 2015 D'Amato et al.

Ungaro F.,University of Naples Federico II | Conte C.,University of Naples Federico II | Ostacolo L.,University of Naples Federico II | Maglio G.,University of Naples Federico II | And 6 more authors.
Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine | Year: 2012

Amphiphilic block copolymers of poly(e{open}-caprolactone) and poly(ethylene oxide) were assembled in core-shell nanoparticles (NPs) by a melting-sonication technique (MeSo). The entrapment of the poorly water-soluble anticancer drug docetaxel (DTX), nanocarrier cytotoxicity toward different cells and toxicity in mice were investigated. The encapsulation mechanism was rationalized and related to copolymer properties such as crystallinity and drug solubility in the copolymer phase. DTX release from NPs occurred in 2 drug pulses over 30 days. DTX entrapment in NPs strongly decreased haemolysis of erythrocytes in comparison with a commercial DTX formulation. In comparison with free DTX, NPs were both more efficient in inhibiting cell growth of breast and prostate cancer cells and less toxic in experimental animal models. The results of this study indicate that MeSo is an interesting technique for the achievement of peculiar core-shell nanocarriers for the passive targeting and sustained release of poorly water-soluble anticancer drugs. From the Clinical Editor: In this study, stealth nanoparticles of PEO/PCL block copolymers for passive targeting of docetaxel to solid tumors were developed using a novel technique. The studied properties of NPs suggest strong potential as anticancer drug-delivery system. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Daliento L.,University of Padua | Dal Bianco L.,University of Padua | Bagato F.,University of Padua | Secco E.,University of Padua | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Background: The aim of this study was to describe gender differences in patients operated on for TOF and to define the impact of pregnancy in late post-surgical follow-up in women. Methods: In this research, we studied 145 patients after correction of TOF: 66 male, 79 women, 41 of which reported history of 68 pregnancies, means age 37±10 years, age at operation 7±8 years, mean duration of post-surgical follow-up 30±7 years. Selected variables were compared according to sex and according to history of pregnancy with statistical tests. Results: Men had more severe hemodynamic impairment and a higher number of cardiac reoperations than females. 41% of patients had at least one complication during pregnancy; there were 16 (67%) abortions and 39 (74%) Caesarian delivers; the recurrence of congenital heart defect was 10%. After pregnancy, there was a shift from first to second functional class: unique pregnancy determined no differences in term of morpho-functional ventricular features compared to nulliparous, but they complained fatigue and palpitation and echocardiographyc dysfunction. Left ventricular dysfunction and QRS duration at ECG were independent predictors of ventricular arrhythmias in all patients. Conclusions: There were no gender-specific differences in patients operated on for TOF using ventriculotomy. Pregnancy is an event in these patients at risk for the newborn, in terms of miscarriage, prematurity, and recurrence of birth defects, and for the mother in terms of ventricular dysfunction and electrical instability. At least a single pregnancy does not appear to significantly modify the natural history of post-surgical patients operated on for TOF. © 2012 Daliento et al.

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