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Giani U.,University of Naples Federico
MeMeA 2011 - 2011 IEEE International Symposium on Medical Measurements and Applications, Proceedings | Year: 2011

The present paper is an attempt to explore the role of measurement in clinical decision-making. First an outline of the bayesian approach to clinical evidential reasoning is carried out. Then, the complex and somewhat counterintuitive features of the dynamics of physiological variables in health and illness are described. Finally, the diagnostic and prognostic value of the measures of biological complexity is discussed. © 2011 IEEE.

de Felice B.,The Second University of Naples | Blasi V.O.,The Second University of Naples | de Castro O.,University of Naples Federico | Cennamo P.,Suor Orsola Benincasa University of Naples | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Genetics | Year: 2012

Biofuels are an important alternative, renewable source of energy in the face of the ongoing depletion of fossil fuels. Cheese whey is a dairy industry waste characterized by high lactose concentration, which represents a significant environmental problem. Bio-ethanol production by cheese whey could be an effective nonvegetable source for renewable energy production. Here, we report the isolation of a mixed microbial population, able to produce ethanol as main fermentation product from fermenting whey. The microbial consortium has been used to perform a batch fermentation of crude whey in both anoxic and hypoxic conditions. Maximum ethanol concentrations achieved in this study was obtained using the mixed culture in hypoxic conditions, grown at pH 4 and 30°C, with ethanol production yield of 60 g/L. Our research has pointed out an alternative way to both dispose and valorize cheese whey, a dairy by-product that could cause water pollution and harm to the environment if not properly treated. © 2012 Indian Academy of Sciences.

Costa E.,University of Porto | Giardini A.,Scientific Institute of Montescano PV | Savin M.,European Association of Pharmaceutical Full line Wholesalers | Menditto E.,University of Naples Federico | And 6 more authors.
Patient Preference and Adherence | Year: 2015

Medication adherence and persistence is recognized as a worldwide public health problem, particularly important in the management of chronic diseases. Nonadherence to medical plans affects every level of the population, but particularly older adults due to the high number of coexisting diseases they are affected by and the consequent polypharmacy. Chronic disease management requires a continuous psychological adaptation and behavioral reorganization. In literature, many interventions to improve medication adherence have been described for different clinical conditions, however, most interventions seem to fail in their aims. Moreover, most interventions associated with adherence improvements are not associated with improvements in other outcomes. Indeed, in the last decades, the degree of nonadherence remained unchanged. In this work, we review the most frequent interventions employed to increase the degree of medication adherence, the measured outcomes, and the improvements achieved, as well as the main limitations of the available studies on adherence, with a particular focus on older persons. © 2015 Costa et al.

De Felice B.,The Second University of Naples | Copia L.,University of Naples Federico | Guida M.,University of Naples Federico
Molecular Biology Reports | Year: 2012

Pharmaceuticals are continually released in the environment and therefore pollution from drugs is a pressing problem in the environment. Diclofenac, 2-[(2,6- dichlorophenyl)amino]phenylacetic acid is a FDA approved non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) for the treatment of inflammation. This pharmaceutical has been found as pollutant in superficial waters. Danio rerio (zebrafish) embryo has been used as a model organism for acute pollutant toxicity tests in order to identify morphological alterations in development and death rate. Through the combination of mRNA differential display and quantitative Real Time experiments, we analyzed the alterations of gene expression in zebrafish embryos left to develop in the presence of diclofenac and thereby assess the molecular mechanism involved in ecotoxicity of diclofenac polluted waters. This approach, in embryos exposed to 1.25 mg/l drug for 48 h, allowed identifying 36 different genes, with both known and unknown functions, whose transcription is differentially regulated. The identity and ontological classification of these genes is presented. The wide variety of functional classes of transcripts isolated in this screen reflects the diverse spectrum of influences operating across diclofenac exposure. Of these 36 genes, several have been selected for detailed quantitative Real Time analysis to validate the screen. Our results, for the first time, provide an insight into some of the varied and novel molecular networks following zebrafish exposure to diclofenac polluted waters. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011.

Miranda B.,University of Naples Federico | Esposito V.,University of Naples Federico | De Girolamo P.,University of Naples Federico | Sharp P.J.,Roslin Institute | And 2 more authors.
Brain Research | Year: 2013

In mammals Orexin-A and -B are neuropeptides involved in the hypothalamic regulation of diverse physiological functions including food intake and the sleep-wake cycle. This generalisation was investigated in meat-(broiler) and layer-type juvenile domestic chickens by immunocytochemical localisation of orexin A/B in the hypothalamus, and by measurements of hypothalamic hypocretin mRNA which encodes for orexin A/B after chronic food restriction, and during the sleep-wake cycle. Orexin immunoreactive fibres were observed throughout the hypothalamus with cell bodies in and around the paraventricular nucleus. No differences were observed in the pattern of immunoreactivity using anti- human orexin-A, or -B antisera. The amount of hypothalamic hypocretin mRNA in food -restricted broilers was higher than in broilers fed ad libitum, but the same as in layer- type hens fed ad libitum. Hypothalamic hypocretin mRNA was increased (P<0.01) in 12-week-old broilers fed 25% of their ad libitum intake between 6-12 weeks of age. No difference in hypothalamic hypocretin mRNA was seen in 12-week-old layer- type hens when they were awake (1-2 h after lights on) or sleeping (1-2 h after lights off). It is concluded that in the chicken, we could not find evidence that hypothalamic orexin plays a role in the sleep-wake cycle and it may be involved in aspects of energy balance. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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