Nairobi, Kenya

University of Nairobi
Nairobi, Kenya

The University of Nairobi is a collegiate research university based in Nairobi. It is the largest university in Kenya. Although its history as an educational institution goes back to 1956, it did not become an independent university until 1970 when the University of East Africa was split into three independent universities: Makerere University in Uganda, the University of Dar es Salaam in Tanzania, and the University of Nairobi.In 2011 the University had some 61,912 students, of whom 49,488 were undergraduates and 12,424 postgraduates. The university has launched several policy frameworks and introduced self-funded enrollment to cope with the demand of higher education in Kenya. Wikipedia.

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News Article | May 4, 2017

Kenyan Ambassador Stephen Karau told WTO members on Wednesday 26 April that he would seek to pick up talks on agricultural trade from where they had left off, in the first negotiating session he convened as the new chair on the topic. WTO members agreed on 7 April that Karau would take over the role from New Zealand ambassador Vangelis Vitalis, who has returned to Wellington. (See Bridges Weekly, 13 April 2017) "I am humbled by the confidence shown in me by the members and would like to assure you that I will carry out my tasks with determination and dedication," Karau told the meeting. He also underscored the need for countries to intensify engagement immediately to lay the necessary groundwork for the upcoming ministerial conference in Buenos Aires, Argentina, this December. "I know that there is no time to waste with the Buenos Aires ministerial meeting just around the corner," he said. WTO members had previously been discussing options for potentially disciplining domestic agricultural support, with the prior chair reporting that the vast bulk of the organisation’s membership is interested in seeing such a deal at this year’s eleventh ministerial conference. (See Bridges Weekly, 24 November 2016) Karau was among the negotiating group chairs who met with WTO Director-General Roberto Azevêdo and Argentine Foreign Minister Susana Malcorra earlier this week to discuss the ministerial preparations, given Argentina’s role as conference host. (For more on Malcorra’s visit to Geneva, see related story, this edition) Consultations to begin at once Sources familiar with the meeting told Bridges that Karau pledged to begin consultations immediately, with a view to convening an informal meeting open to all WTO members in mid-May. Meanwhile, a meeting of the WTO’s General Council is planned for 10-11 May. The General Council is the organisation’s highest level of meetings outside of the ministerial setting. The timeframe would allow the new chair to conduct an initial round of consultations ahead of a mini-ministerial meeting in Paris, which is scheduled for 8 June on the margins of an annual high-level event at the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), one source said. Another trade official said that Karau also encouraged negotiators to continue engaging directly with one another, underlining that his own role in the talks would be to serve as an impartial facilitator. "I know that trust is absolutely essential in my new role as chair and I commit to working fairly, objectively, and transparently with all delegations,” he told members. With the chair discouraging delegates from taking the floor to offer congratulations on his appointment, only Benin spoke to emphasise the importance of reforms in the cotton sector. Karau is also due to chair related negotiations in the WTO sub-committee dealing with that commodity. The chair indicated he would continue to structure the talks along the lines that had been followed by Vitalis in the wake of the WTO’s tenth ministerial conference in Nairobi, Kenya, in December 2015. Karau had been among the senior officials whose role as a facilitator was credited for the successful outcome of the conference, which saw ministers strike a deal on a package of items, including on eliminating agricultural export subsidies. (See Bridges Weekly, 19 December 2015) In addition to facilitating talks on agricultural trade reform, the new chair clarified that he would continue to hold dedicated sessions on a proposed new “special safeguard mechanism” which developing countries would be able to use to address sudden import surges or price depressions. He also referred to plans for hosting dedicated sessions on the question of public food stockholding, where some developing countries have argued that current farm subsidy rules unfairly prevent them from pursuing their domestic food security objectives. In Nairobi, members reaffirmed an earlier agreement from November 2014 to establish a “permanent solution” to the problems countries face in this area, with the goal of doing so by the eleventh ministerial conference. Should this deadline not be met, the November 2014 agreement among members says that they will  refrain from challenging these public stockholding schemes under the organisation’s dispute settlement system. This standstill – known in trade circles as a “peace clause” – would then continue until a permanent solution is reached. It does not specify an alternative date, leaving it effectively open-ended. (See Bridges Weekly, 27 November 2014) A new negotiating submission from the G-33 group of developing countries, which includes China, India, and various other countries in Asia, Africa, and the Caribbean, called for a “comprehensive and development-oriented outcome” in the talks, including progress in these areas. The group’s paper argued that flexibilities for developed countries in the existing WTO rules “make their farmers and exporters artificially competitive,” and singled out a number of policy instruments which the group said were responsible for doing so.

The program is a one-week intensive course at Babson, led by Susan Duffy, Executive Director for Babson's Center for Women's Entrepreneurial Leadership and Mary Gale, Lecturer in the Entrepreneurship division, followed by continued mentoring for a year to help the women implement specific initiatives aimed at having a social impact in their communities. "It was an honor to work with such an extraordinary group of women," said Susan Duffy. "Together, they created a high-impact learning community by embracing Babson's Entrepreneurial Thought & Action® (ET&A™) methodology, as well as generously sharing their own insights and experiences with each other." The program at Babson ran in June and included sessions on strengths, design thinking, digital media, governance, and resilience. Throughout the week, the women worked on an entrepreneurial leadership challenge in peer coaching groups that they presented to a panel at the end of the week. As one participant said, "My mind is blown open. I am energized in ways I didn't think were available to me and I have tools, resources, and community to support. For a program to impact both my mind, heart, and business is something that is really incredible!" Throughout the year, women will work with the University of Nairobi's Wangari Maathai Institute to participate in local networking, webinars, and to receive support from local professionals. Launch and Grow was created as an initiative of The Women for Africa Foundation and Banco Santander to strengthen the skills of business women in Kenya to create social and economic value. Babson Executive Education, a division of Babson College, develops entrepreneurial leaders who can create opportunities and envision and navigate change to drive innovation and growth for companies. Established 35 years ago, Babson Executive Education is a top provider of executive education worldwide. Babson faculty and staff work with clients around the world to design and deliver programs that help address business goals. About the Center for Women's Entrepreneurial Leadership Founded in 2000, the Center for Women's Entrepreneurial Leadership (CWEL) at Babson College fulfills and extends Babson's mission by educating, inspiring, and empowering women entrepreneurial leaders to reach their full potential to create economic and social value for themselves, their organizations, and society. The Center does this through innovative education programs, events, and by supporting and widely disseminating research about the unique skills and experiences of women entrepreneurial leaders. Additionally, CWEL supports and advances gender equality as a growth strategy for individuals and for organizations of all sizes, everywhere in the world. Babson College is the educator, convener, and thought leader for Entrepreneurship of All Kinds®. The top-ranked college for entrepreneurship education, Babson is a dynamic living and learning laboratory where students, faculty, and staff work together to address the real-world problems of business and society. We prepare the entrepreneurial leaders our world needs most: those with strong functional knowledge and the skills and vision to navigate change, accommodate ambiguity, surmount complexity, and motivate teams in a common purpose to make a difference in the world, and have an impact on organizations of all sizes and types. As we have for nearly a half-century, Babson continues to advance Entrepreneurial Thought & Action® as the most positive force on the planet for generating sustainable economic and social value.

Indian Commerce and Industry Minister Nirmala Sitharaman called for taking a “multi-pronged approach” towards supporting multilateralism in the trade world, suggesting that “multilateralism as embodied at the WTO is at a crossroads” during a speech to a Geneva audience on Tuesday 18 July. The Indian official gave a speech at the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies under the theme “Reclaiming Multilateralism,” and met earlier with WTO Director-General Roberto Azevêdo on the preparations for this December’s WTO ministerial conference. The global trade body’s Eleventh Ministerial Conference is (MC11) scheduled for 10-13 December in Buenos Aires, Argentina, with negotiators looking at ways to discipline harmful fisheries subsidies, along with potentially advancing some outcomes on agriculture, though these and other topics are still under negotiation. Sitharaman also spoke regarding the global geopolitical context on trade, warning against “protectionist” and “inward-focused” policies and political approaches being seen in some parts of the world, without referring to specific countries by name. “History teaches us that inward looking policies rarely achieve common good,” she said, adding that the lesson applies not just to trade, but also to environmental concerns, humanitarian issues, and other topics. The Indian official’s speech focused primarily on the WTO context, looking both at the negotiations to update global trade rules along with the function of the organisation’s dispute settlement branch. Discussing first the domestic context in India, including economic and social issues such as its struggles with extreme poverty in some internal regions, she described the country as a “microcosm of similar problems faced by most developing countries.” She added that New Delhi does not play the role of “naysayer for the sake of it” at the global trade body, given the wide-ranging implications of trade rule-making. Among other points, she reaffirmed earlier concerns raised by her country’s negotiators over how and whether to deal with so-called “new issues” in the WTO negotiating context – an issue that has long proved contentious, including two years ago at the Nairobi ministerial conference, when countries agreed to disagree on whether to reaffirm the Doha Round’s mandate and later ministerial declarations and decisions. In Nairobi, the final declaration also said that while “officials should prioritise work where results have not yet been achieved, some wish to identify and discuss other issues for negotiation; others do not. Any decision to launch negotiations multilaterally on such issues would need to be agreed by all members.” (See Bridges Daily Update, 19 December 2015) During her speech on Tuesday, Sitharaman noted the perception of India “being less than enthusiastic about new issues in the negotiations and is even sometimes accused of standing in the way of the WTO’s progress.” “Nothing could be further from the truth.” she said, noting that global challenges, including those involving trade, are regularly evolving. However, she added that the South Asian economy has “good reason to be cautious,” suggesting that these new issues need to be better understood, given varying experiences with these topics at the domestic level, among several other factors. She also warned that these new issues can “divert attention from priority areas for which mandates exist.” Among the new issues she referred to on Tuesday were proposed binding rules on e-commerce and steps on investment facilitation, which have been backed by some WTO members. “While some countries are pushing for initiating negotiations on the new issues, we cannot ignore many of the legacy issues of the Doha Round,” she said, saying that WTO members need to decide by consensus over the end of the Round and calling for members to “engage in good faith” to do so. She also suggested that the decisions made at the global trade body in the next couple of years could have reverberations for a long time to come, and said that there was a need to ensure “mutual trust” among the WTO membership. That trust, she said, “unfortunately seems to have been serially eroded over the years and dealt a body blow by the developments at the Nairobi ministerial conference,” she said, citing concerns over whether all members felt ownership over the final outcomes, among other questions. Moving forward, Sitharaman advocated for an approach at the WTO built around “strengthening the system, countering protectionism, and fostering development.” For example, she suggested that negotiating at WTO ministerial conferences be conducted in a more inclusive manner, starting immediately, and also said that the organisation’s dispute settlement branch is in need of reform. Regarding the latter, she specifically suggested changes to the system of Appellate Body appointments, moving from two four-year terms to one single term of five to six years. “We need to make sure that the Appellate Body members retain their autonomy, without being influenced by the governments of their member countries,” she said. WTO members have lately struggled to resolve a disagreement over advancing the appointment of new members to the organisation’s highest court, even though two of these members will see their terms end this year and various proposals have been put forward on the subject, according to Geneva trade officials familiar with the talks. Sitharaman also called for countering protectionism, such as by stopping the “misuse” of sanitary and phytosanitary measures with “protectionist intent” and taking other steps in the areas of agricultural tariffs and trade remedies. The final pillar raised by the Indian official focused on topics that she said fell under the subject of development, such as food security and past pledges to provide duty-free, quota-free market access on 97 percent of product lines from least developed countries. The South Asian economy, which is home to over 1.3 billion people, has raised concerns repeatedly over making sure farm subsidy rules do not unfairly inhibit developing countries from buying food at minimum prices as part of their public stockholding programmes for food security purposes. Sitharaman argued that over 800 million are hungry or malnourished in her country, while noting that the issue is not just important to India, but also to many other developing nations. She also called for a lasting solution – referring to an earlier WTO deal reached in Bali four years ago as a “partial” solution to the situation. (For more on the WTO negotiations, see related story, this edition) India has also put forward a WTO proposal for a “trade facilitation agreement in services,” which it says would build off the approach taken under the organisation’s Trade Facilitation Agreement (TFA) that involves goods trade. The TFA has been in force since early 2017. (See Bridges Weekly, 23 February 2017) Sitharaman referred to the services proposal in her speech on Tuesday, urging WTO members to view the proposal “objectively” and with an “open mind.”

News Article | July 20, 2017

NAIROBI, Kenya — China's Alibaba expects its revenue to expand by 45 to 48 percent in its fiscal year from April as more small businesses join its online community in search of sales, executive chairman Jack Ma said on Thursday. Alibaba had revenue of $22.99 billion in its year to the end of March. "Our revenue this year, we will still have 45-48 percent growth, the money comes from solving problems for others," Ma told hundreds of senior executives who filled a large ballroom in a five-star hotel to listen to him on his first visit to Africa. Ma, who founded the Hangzhou-based e-commerce firm, said he would consider investing in Kenya after meeting young entrepreneurs and being impressed by the East African nation's broadband infrastructure. "I was surprised by the speed of the internet," he told the executives. He told a separate gathering at the University of Nairobi that the speed was faster than in some developed nations. He said he would consider the investment opportunities he had seen in the country, and make a firm announcement at a later date, adding that the dozens of Chinese entrepreneurs who accompanied him had also been stirred by locals' drive to build businesses. "They say it is very difficult to find another Jack Ma in China but today we found a lot of Jack Mas in Africa," he said.

SOUTHAMPTON, 25-Jul-2017 — /EuropaWire/ — A project led by the University of Southampton has secured £5m over four years to help improve food and water security for people in sub-Saharan Africa. The money, from Research Councils UK (RCUK), is part of wider funding from one of the most ambitious international research programmes ever created. Leading experts from the UK, and in developing countries across the world, are joining forces to tackle some of the most serious global challenges.  £225m has been invested across 37 interdisciplinary projects to address challenges in fields such as; health, humanitarian crises, conflict, the environment, the economy, domestic violence, society, and technology.  The Global Challenges Research Fund (GCRF) Research Councils UK Collective Fund is supporting these latest projects with awards of between £2m to £8m. The Southampton project, ‘Building research capacity for sustainable water and food security in drylands of sub-Saharan Africa’ is led by Professor Justin Sheffield of Geography and Environment.  It will connect scientists from Kenya, Ghana and Malawi with each other and UK researchers, to help set in motion water and food research projects aimed at benefitting the region. Professor Sheffield said:  “Subsistence farmers across Africa rely on rainwater for their crops, so it is vital not only for drinking and food production, but also as a crucial part of the economy.  As a fragile and precious resource, we want to collaborate with institutes in the region to help ensure its future supply.” Commenting on the funding award, Vice President (Research and Enterprise) at the University of Southampton, Professor Mark Spearing, said: “This project is exemplary in bringing very high quality research to bear on a problem of global importance, with a strong group of international partners.  I wish the team every success in delivering it and achieving its goals.” Dean of Social, Human and Mathematical Sciences at Southampton, Professor Jane Falkingham, added: “Today, over 600 million lack access to safe water; almost half of people drinking water from unprotected sources live in sub-Saharan Africa. This project has the potential to make a real difference to the lives of some of the poorest people on our planet, directly contributing to the University’s mission of changing the world for the better.” Southampton project partner Dr Jean-Marie Kileshye Onema, of WaterNet/SADC, said: “As the Southern African Development Community (SADC) institution for capacity-building in water resources management, WaterNet is thrilled to be part of this GCRF collaborative research project, as this will further contribute toward improved people’s livelihood through enhanced food and water security in our dry land regions.” The Global Challenges Research Fund aims to build upon research knowledge in the UK, and strengthen capacity overseas, to help address challenges, informed by expressed need in developing countries. Jo Johnson, Minister for Universities and Science, said: “From healthcare to green energy, the successful projects receiving funding today highlight the strength of the UK’s research base and our leadership in helping developing countries tackle some of the greatest global issues of our time. “At a time when the pace of scientific discovery and innovation is quickening, we are placing science and research at the heart of our Industrial Strategy to build on our strengths and maintain our status as science powerhouse.” Professor of Hydrology and Remote SensingProfessor Justin Sheffield is a Professor of Hydrology and Remote Sensing in the Faculty of Geography at the University of Southampton. Partners on the University of Southampton led project are: University of Malawi University of Nairobi University of Ghana Kenyatta University, Kenya Technical University of Kenya Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology, Kenya UNESCO International Hydrology Programme International Institute for Environment and Development AGRHYMET Regional Center, West-Africa WaterNet/SADC

News Article | August 2, 2017

Kenya's Standard Gauge Railway is a $3.2 billion (2.8 billion euro) railway linking Nairobi with the port city of Mombasa (AFP Photo/SIMON MAINA) Nairobi (AFP) - The timing was perfect. Two months before Kenya's August 8 vote, President Uhuru Kenyatta inaugurated the nation's biggest infrastructure project: a railway connecting the capital Nairobi and the port of Mombasa. With pomp and ceremony Kenyatta touted the railway as proof of his campaign promises on the economy, yet at the same time the price of maize flour, a Kenyan staple, was rising fast, stoking anger, especially among the poorest. Rising food prices constitute a crisis on the eve of a high-stakes election in which Kenyatta, and his economic record, go head to head with longtime opposition leader Raila Odinga. "On the one hand, there's the symbol of Kenya which continues developing -- even though it means an increased debt -- and remains the most dynamic economy in East Africa," said Francis Mwangi, an analyst at Standard Investment Bank. "On the other hand, there's the Kenya which hardly benefits from the effects of economic growth." Kenyatta has put the economy at the heart of his campaign. Thanks largely to increasing household consumption and public investment Kenya has seen growth of more than five percent a year since his election in 2013. But analysts say there is more -- and less -- to Kenya's economy than meets the eye. The country's debt is rising, corruption is endemic and economic growth has not benefited the country's poor, they say. As in many other African countries, agriculture is the dominant activity, but Kenya's economy is atypical in other ways. It has relatively few natural resources, but the country's stability, economic dynamism and well-developed service industry stand out. Kenyatta has presided over a slew of infrastructure projects, including airports, roads, bridges, the start of a new port in the town of Lamu and wind and geothermal energy plants to boost electricity production. Ethiopia's larger, cheaper workforce means it recently overtook Kenya as the region's biggest economy, but analysts say the world's largest tea exporter remains East Africa's most dynamic market thanks to its skilled workers, fast internet and entrepreneurial mindset. Terror warnings and attacks, including the 2013 jihadist assault on Nairobi's Westgate mall, scared off tourists for a while, but the country's International Monetary Fund representative Armando Morales said the country has since bounced back. "Despite that, the GDP grew quite well, and conditions for business have improved," he said. But not all of Kenya's progress can be credited to Kenyatta. His term in office coincided with low oil prices and his economic policies broadly match those of his predecessor who kickstarted some of the more eye-catching infrastructure projects Kenyatta takes credit for. Devolution has given counties more money and power, which has led to improvements in health infrastructure and the construction of wells and dams, said Winnie Mitulah, a development specialist at the University of Nairobi. But government spending on new public works has caused Kenya's debt to balloon, increasing during Kenyatta's term to over 50 percent of GDP, much of it owed to Chinese lenders who negotiated advantageous terms. "I think Kenya had to make those investments," said Aly-Khan Satchu, a Kenyan analyst. "But now, they need to reap the benefits of those investments, but they also need to space the next investments carefully." Observers say it's difficult to talk about Kenyatta's economic record without including his poor performance in battling corruption. Graft is widespread in Kenya, and while Satchu said it is difficult to tell just how deep it runs, he believes it represents a major drain on the economy. "Look where Kenya is now, and imagine where it could be without all that money disappearing through corruption," he said. Perhaps the biggest criticism levelled at Kenyatta is that despite the growth, Kenya's poor haven't seen much improvement in their daily lives, Mwangi said. That's in part because Kenya lacks a strong manufacturing base able to provide mass employment. A drought since late 2016 has reduced agricultural production, hitting the poorest hardest. Compounding the problem, producers speculated and the government was slow to respond. As a result, a two kilogramme bag of the staple maize flour -- known as 'unga' and used to make the hugely popular 'ugali' -- rose to as much as 180 shillings ($1.70; 1.80 euros), up by almost 50 percent in a year. With elections less than a week away, several opinion polls have identified food prices as the top issue among Kenyans. "In Kenya, we have a saying: 'you can't eat GDP'", said Satchu.

NAIROBI (Reuters) - Kenya's election commission dismissed claims on Wednesday by opposition leader Raila Odinga that its systems and website had been hacked to produce a "fictitious" lead for Odinga's long-time rival President Uhuru Kenyatta. Angry protests erupted in opposition strongholds in the capital Nairobi and the western city of Kisumu as the counting of votes from Tuesday's election continued, but the election commission said the election had been free and fair. Police shot dead at least three people and protesters killed a fourth, witnesses said. Although the violence remained largely contained, Kenyans were nervously hoping to avoid a repetition of the ethnic killings that followed a disputed 2007 presidential poll, when some 1,200 people died. As of 1900 GMT, provisional results from the election commission website put Kenyatta in front with 54.3 percent of votes counted to 44.8 percent for Odinga - a margin of 1.4 million ballots with 97 percent of polling stations reported. Earlier Odinga published his own party's assessment of the count on Twitter, saying he had 8.1 million votes against 7.2 million for Kenyatta. He provided no supporting documentation. "Our election management system is secure. There was no external interference to the system at any point before, during, and after voting," election commission head Ezra Chiloba told a news conference. "The (hacking) claims being made could not be substantiated from our end," he said following an investigation. Odinga had said hackers could have used the identity of a top election official, who was tortured and murdered days before the vote. His statements raised concerns of unrest over the results in Kenya, which has East Africa's biggest economy and is a regional hub. Odinga posted 50 pages of computer logs online to support his hacking claims, but they were "inconclusive", according to Matt Bernhard, who studies computer security in election systems at the University of Michigan. Some time stamps appeared out of order and it was hard to evaluate the veracity of screenshots without access to a server, he said. Odinga urged his supporters to remain calm but added: "I don't control the people". His deputy Kalonzo Musyoka said the opposition might call for unspecified "action" later. In Nairobi police killed one demonstrator, and in Kisumu, an opposition stronghold, they fired teargas to scatter a group of 100 protesters. Unarmed men marched through the streets waving sticks and chanting "No Raila, no peace". In coastal Tana River county, a gang wielding machetes attacked a tallying center, killing one man and injuring another, said a community elder who witnessed the attack. Police shot dead two attackers. Foreign observer missions declined to comment on the hacking allegations but urged all parties to stay calm. Kenyatta, a 55-year-old businessman seeking a second five-year term, has held a steady lead of around 10 percent since the start of counting after Tuesday's peaceful vote, the culmination of a hard-fought contest between the heads of Kenya's two political dynasties. Odinga, 72, a former political prisoner and self-described leftist, described the reported hack as an attack on Kenya's democracy and published 50 pages of computer logs on his Facebook page to support his claims. Despite its multi-million dollar electronic voting system, the crucial evidence on voting comes from the paper forms signed at each of the country's 41,000 polling stations. Results in each polling station are recorded on a form - known as 34A - that observers from each party must sign. These are then scanned and sent to the election board for posting online, a measure designed to combat rigging. The commission said it was working flat out to post all 41,000 forms online. The Kenya Human Rights Commission, a well-known non-governmental organization, said it had discovered some discrepancies between provisional results on the election commission website and the paper forms. Of 112 polling stations sampled by Reuters from across the country, two thirds had a match between the electronic and paper results. The rest either had no online scan of the 34A form, or the photographs were illegible or of something else.

University of Nairobi, Trek Science and Kenya Agricultural And Livestock Research Organization | Date: 2017-03-22

This invention relates to antimicrobial compositions and methods of making and using such antimicrobial compositions. Components of the antimicrobial compositions are obtained from the whole broth product of fermentation of cultures of Xenorhabdus griffiniae XN45, or are derived from materials so obtained. In an aspect, compositions and methods for controlling antibiotic resistant bacteria are provided.

Agency: GTR | Branch: NERC | Program: | Phase: Research Grant | Award Amount: 891.34K | Year: 2015

IMPALA will deliver a step change in global model climate prediction for Africa on the 5-40 year timescale by delivering reductions in model systematic errors, resulting in reduced uncertainty in predictions of African climate and enabling improved assessment of the robustness of multi-model projections for the continent. IMPALA will include key foci on continental convection and land-atmosphere coupling as fundamental drivers of local rainfall, and oceanic convection and aerosols as influencing global modes of variability and the teleconnection pathways by which they drive rainfall over various parts of the continent. Convection, land-atmosphere coupling and aerosols have been identified in the DFID/Met Office Climate Science Research Partnership (CSRP) as first order drivers of African rainfall and processes where contemporary models show significant uncertainties and biases. IMPALA will use a single multi-temporal, multi-spatial resolution model, the Met Office Unified Model (MetUM), to allow rapid pull through of improvements made in the project into improved African climate modelling capability although the methodology and understanding will be widely applicable across all contemporary models. We will work through a pan-Africa lens to develop a benchmark suite of metrics targeted on key processes and user-relevant variables and will use the most relevant observations from past and future campaigns and latest remote sensing data. Strong links to partners and Regional Consortia (RC) will facilitate two-way evaluation and feedback, ensuring local understanding of relevant climate processes and required climate information in the regions. Evaluation of the impacts of the global model improvements, developed both within the project and through gearing from the ongoing model development process at the Met Office will be tested in idealised-scenarios of climate change. The unique capability of the MetUM to run across a broad range of spatial and temporal scales will be central to the project. Running the MetUM as a cloud-resolving weather model, through to a multi-decadal climate model, will allow evaluation of physical processes controlling the uncertainty in key metrics of pan-African climate variability and climate change on the 5-40 year time scale. The latest global coupled models available at the Met Office will be harnessed to drive a higher resolution (4km) convection-permitting regional model, for the first time across the entire African continent, under both current and idealised future climates. This will deliver understanding of the roles played by improved local representation of convective processes and high impact weather on the climate variability and change over the continent and be used to improve convective, land-atmosphere coupling and aerosol parametrizations in the coarser-scale models. The results will also provide an important new resource for RC and other African-focused climate research, enabling better-informed evaluation of the robustness of multi-model projections. This, in turn, can be utilised by decision makers to improve risk management for health, agriculture and water resources and help protect the livelihoods of the most vulnerable, safeguarding societal development already achieved. Key model results, metrics and observations will be made available to the FCFA RC and local partners through an interactive webpage. The consortium will also work closely with the FCFA Coordination, Capacity Development and Knowledge Exchange (CCKE) Unit in their pan-African cross-programme research activities.

Little is known about safety of and adherence to intermittent HIV PrEP regimens, which may be more feasible than daily dosing in some settings. We present safety and adherence data from the first trial of an intermittent PrEP regimen among Kenyan men who have sex with men (MSM) and female sex workers (FSW). MSM and FSW were randomized to daily oral FTC/TDF or placebo, or intermittent (Monday, Friday and within 2 hours after sex, not to exceed one dose per day) oral FTC/TDF or placebo in a 2:1:2:1 ratio; volunteers were followed monthly for 4 months. Adherence was assessed with the medication event monitoring system (MEMS). Sexual activity data were collected via daily text message (SMS) queries and timeline followback interviews with a one-month recall period. Sixty-seven men and 5 women were randomized into the study. Safety was similar among all groups. Median MEMS adherence rates were 83% [IQR: 63-92] for daily dosing and 55% [IQR:28-78] for fixed intermittent dosing (p = 0.003), while adherence to any post-coital doses was 26% [IQR:14-50]. SMS response rates were low, which may have impaired measurement of post-coital dosing adherence. Acceptability of PrEP was high, regardless of dosing regimen. Adherence to intermittent dosing regimens, fixed doses, and in particular coitally-dependent doses, may be more difficult than adherence to daily dosing. However, intermittent dosing may still be appropriate for PrEP if intracellular drug levels, which correlate with prevention of HIV acquisition, can be attained with less than daily dosing and if barriers to adherence can be addressed. Additional drug level data, qualitative data on adherence barriers, and better methods to measure sexual activity are necessary to determine whether adherence to post-coital PrEP could be comparable to more standard regimens. NCT00971230.

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