Nairobi, Kenya
Nairobi, Kenya

The University of Nairobi is a collegiate research university based in Nairobi. It is the largest university in Kenya. Although its history as an educational institution goes back to 1956, it did not become an independent university until 1970 when the University of East Africa was split into three independent universities: Makerere University in Uganda, the University of Dar es Salaam in Tanzania, and the University of Nairobi.In 2011 the University had some 61,912 students, of whom 49,488 were undergraduates and 12,424 postgraduates. The university has launched several policy frameworks and introduced self-funded enrollment to cope with the demand of higher education in Kenya. Wikipedia.


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News Article | May 4, 2017
Site: www.ictsd.org

Kenyan Ambassador Stephen Karau told WTO members on Wednesday 26 April that he would seek to pick up talks on agricultural trade from where they had left off, in the first negotiating session he convened as the new chair on the topic. WTO members agreed on 7 April that Karau would take over the role from New Zealand ambassador Vangelis Vitalis, who has returned to Wellington. (See Bridges Weekly, 13 April 2017) "I am humbled by the confidence shown in me by the members and would like to assure you that I will carry out my tasks with determination and dedication," Karau told the meeting. He also underscored the need for countries to intensify engagement immediately to lay the necessary groundwork for the upcoming ministerial conference in Buenos Aires, Argentina, this December. "I know that there is no time to waste with the Buenos Aires ministerial meeting just around the corner," he said. WTO members had previously been discussing options for potentially disciplining domestic agricultural support, with the prior chair reporting that the vast bulk of the organisation’s membership is interested in seeing such a deal at this year’s eleventh ministerial conference. (See Bridges Weekly, 24 November 2016) Karau was among the negotiating group chairs who met with WTO Director-General Roberto Azevêdo and Argentine Foreign Minister Susana Malcorra earlier this week to discuss the ministerial preparations, given Argentina’s role as conference host. (For more on Malcorra’s visit to Geneva, see related story, this edition) Consultations to begin at once Sources familiar with the meeting told Bridges that Karau pledged to begin consultations immediately, with a view to convening an informal meeting open to all WTO members in mid-May. Meanwhile, a meeting of the WTO’s General Council is planned for 10-11 May. The General Council is the organisation’s highest level of meetings outside of the ministerial setting. The timeframe would allow the new chair to conduct an initial round of consultations ahead of a mini-ministerial meeting in Paris, which is scheduled for 8 June on the margins of an annual high-level event at the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), one source said. Another trade official said that Karau also encouraged negotiators to continue engaging directly with one another, underlining that his own role in the talks would be to serve as an impartial facilitator. "I know that trust is absolutely essential in my new role as chair and I commit to working fairly, objectively, and transparently with all delegations,” he told members. With the chair discouraging delegates from taking the floor to offer congratulations on his appointment, only Benin spoke to emphasise the importance of reforms in the cotton sector. Karau is also due to chair related negotiations in the WTO sub-committee dealing with that commodity. The chair indicated he would continue to structure the talks along the lines that had been followed by Vitalis in the wake of the WTO’s tenth ministerial conference in Nairobi, Kenya, in December 2015. Karau had been among the senior officials whose role as a facilitator was credited for the successful outcome of the conference, which saw ministers strike a deal on a package of items, including on eliminating agricultural export subsidies. (See Bridges Weekly, 19 December 2015) In addition to facilitating talks on agricultural trade reform, the new chair clarified that he would continue to hold dedicated sessions on a proposed new “special safeguard mechanism” which developing countries would be able to use to address sudden import surges or price depressions. He also referred to plans for hosting dedicated sessions on the question of public food stockholding, where some developing countries have argued that current farm subsidy rules unfairly prevent them from pursuing their domestic food security objectives. In Nairobi, members reaffirmed an earlier agreement from November 2014 to establish a “permanent solution” to the problems countries face in this area, with the goal of doing so by the eleventh ministerial conference. Should this deadline not be met, the November 2014 agreement among members says that they will  refrain from challenging these public stockholding schemes under the organisation’s dispute settlement system. This standstill – known in trade circles as a “peace clause” – would then continue until a permanent solution is reached. It does not specify an alternative date, leaving it effectively open-ended. (See Bridges Weekly, 27 November 2014) A new negotiating submission from the G-33 group of developing countries, which includes China, India, and various other countries in Asia, Africa, and the Caribbean, called for a “comprehensive and development-oriented outcome” in the talks, including progress in these areas. The group’s paper argued that flexibilities for developed countries in the existing WTO rules “make their farmers and exporters artificially competitive,” and singled out a number of policy instruments which the group said were responsible for doing so.


Patent
University of Nairobi, Trek Science and Kenya Agricultural And Livestock Research Organization | Date: 2017-03-22

This invention relates to antimicrobial compositions and methods of making and using such antimicrobial compositions. Components of the antimicrobial compositions are obtained from the whole broth product of fermentation of cultures of Xenorhabdus griffiniae XN45, or are derived from materials so obtained. In an aspect, compositions and methods for controlling antibiotic resistant bacteria are provided.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-TP | Phase: KBBE.2012.1.4-06 | Award Amount: 1.86M | Year: 2012

The proposed project Food Planning and Innovation for Sustainable Metropolitan Regions (FOODMETRES) thrives to assess both the environmental and the socio-economic impacts of food chains with regard to spatial, logistical and resource dimension of growing food as well as food planning and governance. Recognising that food production and consumption is not only linked via food chains in a physical-logistic way, but above all via value chains in terms of social acceptance, FOODMETRES is designed to combine quantitative and evidence-based research principles with qualitative and discursive methods to address the wider dimensions of food chains around metropolitan agro-systems. The main goals are: - Identify concepts as well as practical examples for food chain innovation in the context of small-scale urban, peri-urban and peri-urban-rural forms of agriculture and food production up to large-scale metropolitan production regimes geared towards feeding urban populations; - Assess the economic, environmental and social impacts of innovative food chain systems from small scale to large scale, making use of the ecological footprint and product life cycle analysis with special emphasis on efficiency, regional competitiveness, cultural identity (landscapes and regional markets) and ecosystem services such as water management, nutrient recycling and biodiversity; - Study and compare technical, logistical, organisational and governance aspects of innovative food chain systems in selected case studies to define best practice when engaging regional stakeholders from both business and policy in sustainable food planning at the level of metropolitan regions. - Supply scenario modeling and impact assessment tools to all stakeholders in urban-peri-urban areas to assist with planning and decision making. This is complemented by active knowledge brokerage to speed up innovation and innovation exchange within the case studies, but also for any other users in urban areas of Europe or developing countries.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP-SICA | Phase: ENV.2010.1.2.1-1 | Award Amount: 4.16M | Year: 2011

The HEALTHY FUTURES project is motivated by concern for the health impacts of environmental changes. HEATHLY FUTURES aims to respond to this concern through construction of a disease risk mapping system for three water-related high-impact VBDs (malaria, Rift valley fever and schistosomiasis) in Africa, accounting for environmental/climatic trends and changes in socio-economic conditions to predict future risk. Concentrating on eastern Africa as a study area, HEALTHY FUTURES comprises a comprehensive, inter-disciplinary consortium of health, environment, socio-economic, disease modelling and climate experts in addition to governmental health departments. To achieve its aims, HEALTHY FUTURES will deploy a bottom-up, end-user/stakeholder-focused approach combining field-, laboratory- and library-based research.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-CA | Phase: HEALTH.2012.4.1-6 | Award Amount: 2.81M | Year: 2012

The MDGs succeeded in generating consensus on and mobilising resources towards agreed goals. They were less successful at clarifying responsibilities for achieving them. The MDG target on sharing global health innovation is particularly ambiguous about the allocation of responsibilities. The members of the consortium behind this proposal assume that the new goals for global health will need to be based on a broad global consensus on the goals, on accepted national and international responsibilities to achieve those goals, and on the kind of governance that is needed to ensure accountability for accepted responsibilities. They believe that the internationally agreed right to health provides a useful point of departure for the formulation of such a global consensus, that the goals should incorporate universal coverage, and that community input is critical to designing the goals. Consortium members will: * Assess the achievements and shortcomings of the MDG approach; * Consult communities whose health is most compromised on their essential needs and their perception of their entitlements under the right to health; * Assess the capacity of low and middle income countries to meet those needs and entitlements, including to identify where international assistance (financial and technical) or cooperation (on sharing innovation or avoiding the brain drain of health workers) is needed; * Analyse the international political economy of global health and global governance for health, to formulate international responsibility for global health; * Analyse, clarify, and re-affirm national responsibility for health, in the light of international responsibility for global health; * Propose new goals for global health, clarifying national and international responsibilities; * Provide suggestions for governance for global health to effectuate these responsibilities.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-TP | Phase: KBBE.2011.3.4-01 | Award Amount: 3.88M | Year: 2012

The focus of APROPOS is to develop novel eco-efficient bio-mechanical processing solutions to enrich intermediate fractions from industrial high protein and oil-containing process residues originating from agriculture and fisheries. Enzyme-aided modification steps are developed for the intermediate fractions to obtain value-added nutritive and bio-active components, chemical as well as functional bio-materials suitable for exploitation in food, skin care, wound healing, bio-pesticide and soil improvement product applications. Mentioned residues are voluminous in Europe and globally significant. Zero waste concepts to be developed aim at avoidance of unnecessary purification of the components, establishment of local and distributed processing units in connection with the primary production and new business opportunities essentially for SMEs in Europe and beyond. An emphasis is directed to East Africa and India to support their needs to process local residues to components directed to nourish infants and fight against pests, respectively, in rural areas of both regions. The success of technological developments will be assessed in terms of economical feasibility, raw material efficiency and environmental impacts. The assessment will also include study on how the developed residue producer-end use value chain will affect the existing value chain from the residue producer to feed or energy. The multidisciplinary research group and cross-industrial SME group together cover the whole value chain from residue producers and processors to various end-users. The expertises of the partners include crop and fish processing, process hard ware manufacture, mechanical, chemical and biotechnical biomaterial processing, biomaterial up-grading and analytics, enzyme technology, end-product applications, assessment of eco-efficiency and value chains, technology transfer and commercialization. Feasibility of the developed processes is verified by demonstrations. Bio-mechanical processi


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-CA | Phase: HEALTH.2011.3.4-2 | Award Amount: 2.35M | Year: 2011

SDH-Nets aim is to build, strengthen and link research capacities for health and its social determinants (SDH) in African and Latin American low- and middle income countries (LMIC) in close collaboration with European partners. The focus on SDH will allow for an in-depth and broad capacity-building approach, including managerial and technical excellence, ethical issues, and research strategies. Lessons learnt will be checked against best practices and success factors in other Latin American, African and global settings, leading to lessons learnt on how to build SDH-related research capacity with strong relevance to the respective context. A sound mapping exercise of (i) social determinants of health (SDH) and research activity in the field; (ii) national and global stakeholders in the research environment, and (iii) existing research capacities in the participating countries will be carried out building the basis for developing and piloting innovative research capacity building tools with a particular focus on research management, ethics and methodology relevant to comprehensively address social determinants of health. Finally, links between research and policy will be forged and lessons will be drawn to support the development of sustainable and attractive research structures and expertise. SDH-Net will be carried out by a strong consortium, based on clusters of existing networks of best in its kind public health institutions from Mexico, Colombia, Brazil and South Africa, Tanzania, and Kenya. The team is complemented by three distinguished European institutions: London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine; COHRED, and University of Geneva. SDH-Net is coordinated by GIZ with long term experience in health research and capacity building in LMIC, and IESE Business School, excellent in management capacity building. SDH-Net will have an important impact by developing a concept for research capacity building on individual, institutional and system level, contributing to research system strengthening and to the creation of research landscapes that enable and stimulate locally relevant, interdisciplinary research. It will lead to enhanced capacities for conducting and managing research on SDH and links between research, policy and practice will be forged by developing tools and mechanisms facilitating sustained collaboration. Furthermore, SDH-Net will lay foundations and provide tools for further research capacity building and research system strengthening in the future.


Grant
Agency: GTR | Branch: NERC | Program: | Phase: Research Grant | Award Amount: 891.34K | Year: 2015

IMPALA will deliver a step change in global model climate prediction for Africa on the 5-40 year timescale by delivering reductions in model systematic errors, resulting in reduced uncertainty in predictions of African climate and enabling improved assessment of the robustness of multi-model projections for the continent. IMPALA will include key foci on continental convection and land-atmosphere coupling as fundamental drivers of local rainfall, and oceanic convection and aerosols as influencing global modes of variability and the teleconnection pathways by which they drive rainfall over various parts of the continent. Convection, land-atmosphere coupling and aerosols have been identified in the DFID/Met Office Climate Science Research Partnership (CSRP) as first order drivers of African rainfall and processes where contemporary models show significant uncertainties and biases. IMPALA will use a single multi-temporal, multi-spatial resolution model, the Met Office Unified Model (MetUM), to allow rapid pull through of improvements made in the project into improved African climate modelling capability although the methodology and understanding will be widely applicable across all contemporary models. We will work through a pan-Africa lens to develop a benchmark suite of metrics targeted on key processes and user-relevant variables and will use the most relevant observations from past and future campaigns and latest remote sensing data. Strong links to partners and Regional Consortia (RC) will facilitate two-way evaluation and feedback, ensuring local understanding of relevant climate processes and required climate information in the regions. Evaluation of the impacts of the global model improvements, developed both within the project and through gearing from the ongoing model development process at the Met Office will be tested in idealised-scenarios of climate change. The unique capability of the MetUM to run across a broad range of spatial and temporal scales will be central to the project. Running the MetUM as a cloud-resolving weather model, through to a multi-decadal climate model, will allow evaluation of physical processes controlling the uncertainty in key metrics of pan-African climate variability and climate change on the 5-40 year time scale. The latest global coupled models available at the Met Office will be harnessed to drive a higher resolution (4km) convection-permitting regional model, for the first time across the entire African continent, under both current and idealised future climates. This will deliver understanding of the roles played by improved local representation of convective processes and high impact weather on the climate variability and change over the continent and be used to improve convective, land-atmosphere coupling and aerosol parametrizations in the coarser-scale models. The results will also provide an important new resource for RC and other African-focused climate research, enabling better-informed evaluation of the robustness of multi-model projections. This, in turn, can be utilised by decision makers to improve risk management for health, agriculture and water resources and help protect the livelihoods of the most vulnerable, safeguarding societal development already achieved. Key model results, metrics and observations will be made available to the FCFA RC and local partners through an interactive webpage. The consortium will also work closely with the FCFA Coordination, Capacity Development and Knowledge Exchange (CCKE) Unit in their pan-African cross-programme research activities.


Little is known about safety of and adherence to intermittent HIV PrEP regimens, which may be more feasible than daily dosing in some settings. We present safety and adherence data from the first trial of an intermittent PrEP regimen among Kenyan men who have sex with men (MSM) and female sex workers (FSW). MSM and FSW were randomized to daily oral FTC/TDF or placebo, or intermittent (Monday, Friday and within 2 hours after sex, not to exceed one dose per day) oral FTC/TDF or placebo in a 2:1:2:1 ratio; volunteers were followed monthly for 4 months. Adherence was assessed with the medication event monitoring system (MEMS). Sexual activity data were collected via daily text message (SMS) queries and timeline followback interviews with a one-month recall period. Sixty-seven men and 5 women were randomized into the study. Safety was similar among all groups. Median MEMS adherence rates were 83% [IQR: 63-92] for daily dosing and 55% [IQR:28-78] for fixed intermittent dosing (p = 0.003), while adherence to any post-coital doses was 26% [IQR:14-50]. SMS response rates were low, which may have impaired measurement of post-coital dosing adherence. Acceptability of PrEP was high, regardless of dosing regimen. Adherence to intermittent dosing regimens, fixed doses, and in particular coitally-dependent doses, may be more difficult than adherence to daily dosing. However, intermittent dosing may still be appropriate for PrEP if intracellular drug levels, which correlate with prevention of HIV acquisition, can be attained with less than daily dosing and if barriers to adherence can be addressed. Additional drug level data, qualitative data on adherence barriers, and better methods to measure sexual activity are necessary to determine whether adherence to post-coital PrEP could be comparable to more standard regimens. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00971230.


Obiero J.,University of Nairobi
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2012

Two decades of research on topical microbicides for prevention of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) have had limited success. However, new microbicide randomised controlled trial (RCT) data have recently been published; but these have not yet been the subject of a systematic review. To determine the effects of topical microbicides for prevention of the acquisition of STIs, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, by women from men and by men who have sex with men (MSM). In July 2011 we searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, NLM Gateway, CLIB, AIDS Education Global Information System, ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform; handsearched reference lists of relevant articles and contacted relevant organisations and experts. RCTs of topical microbicides (except Nonoxynol-9) in sexually active, HIV-negative women or MSM. We excluded Nonoxynol-9 because previous systematic reviews showed that it does not have a significant effect on HIV or STIs. We assessed study eligibility, extracted data and assessed risk of bias in duplicate; resolving differences by discussion and consensus. We then conducted fixed-effect meta-analysis, stratified by type of microbicide. We found that by the end of 2011, nine microbicide RCTs had either been conducted to term (one BufferGel and 0.5% PRO 2000, one Carraguard and one tenofovir trial) or stopped early due to safety concerns (two cellulose sulphate trials) or insufficient rate of HIV infection and low likelihood of showing a protective effect (one 2% PRO 2000, one tenofovir and two SAVVY trials). The nine RCTs enrolled 31,941 sexually active women between 2004 and 2011; in Benin, Ghana, Malawi, Nigeria, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe, India, and the US. A small proof-of-concept RCT found that tenofovir (a nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor) reduced the risk of HIV acquisition (one trial, 889 women; risk ratio (RR) 0.63; 95% CI 0.43 to 0.93). Effectiveness data are not yet available from the second tenofovir RCT that enrolled 5000 women and was stopped early due to low likelihood of showing a protective effect. We found no evidence of an effect on HIV acquisition for cellulose sulphate (2 trials, n = 3069; RR 1.20; 95% CI 0.74 to 1.95), SAVVY (two trials, n = 4295; RR 1.38; 95% CI 0.79 to 2.41), Carraguard (one trial, n = 6202; RR 0.89; 95% CI 0.71 to 1.11), PRO 2000 (two trials, n = 12,486; RR 0.93, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.14) and BufferGel (one trial, n = 1546; RR 1.05; 95% CI 0.73 to 1.52). Tenofovir reduced the incidence of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection (one trial, 426 women; RR 0.55; 95% CI 0.37 to 0.83) and cellulose sulphate reduced the risk of chlamydia infection (two trials, n = 3069; RR 0.70, 95% CI 0.49 to 0.99). However, there was no evidence of an effect of any microbicide on the acquisition of gonorrhoea, syphilis, condyloma acuminatum, trichomoniasis, or human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. A substudy of the Carraguard trial found the prevalence of high-risk HPV infection (HR-HPV) to be 23.5% in women on Carraguard and 23.0% on placebo (n = 1718; RR 1.02; 95% CI 0.86 to 1.21). After controlling for HR-HPV risk factors, the authors found that compliant Carraguard users were 0.62 (95% CI 0.41 to 0.94) times as likely to be HR-HPV positive as compliant placebo users. Overall, there was no significant difference in the incidence of adverse events between microbicide and placebo groups. Limited evidence suggests that vaginal tenofovir microbicides may reduce the risk of acquisition of HIV and HSV-2 infections in women; but other types of topical microbicides have not shown evidence of an effect on HIV or STI acquisition. Therefore, there is not enough evidence to recommend topical microbicides for HIV or STI prevention at present. Further studies are needed to confirm the beneficial effects of tenofovir microbicide gel in vaginal sex. In addition, further research should continue on the development and testing of new microbicides. If the effectiveness of the tenofovir and/or other microbicides is confirmed in further studies, there will need to be a clear pathway to rapid regulatory approval. Successful launch of the effective gel would depend on having in place appropriate mechanisms for distribution to the women who need it, along with a strategy for ensuring that they use it correctly.

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