Sankt Anton am Arlberg, Austria

University of Music and Performing Arts Vienna
Sankt Anton am Arlberg, Austria

The University of Music and Performing Arts, Vienna is an Austrian university located in Vienna, established in 1817.Today, with a student body of over three thousand, it is the largest institution of its kind in Austria, and one of the largest in the world.In 1819, it was established by the Society for the Friends of Music. It was nationalized in 1909 as the Imperial Academy of Music and the Performing Arts. In 1998, the university assumed its current name to reflect its university status, attained in a wide 1970 reform for Austrian Arts Academies. Wikipedia.

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Goebl W.,University of Music and Performing Arts Vienna | Bresin R.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology | Fujinaga I.,McGill University
Journal of the Acoustical Society of America | Year: 2014

Both timbre and dynamics of isolated piano tones are determined exclusively by the speed with which the hammer hits the strings. This physical view has been challenged by pianists who emphasize the importance of the way the keyboard is touched. This article presents empirical evidence from two perception experiments showing that touch-dependent sound components make sounds with identical hammer velocities but produced with different touch forms clearly distinguishable. The first experiment focused on finger-key sounds: musicians could identify pressed and struck touches. When the finger-key sounds were removed from the sounds, the effect vanished, suggesting that these sounds were the primary identification cue. The second experiment looked at key-keyframe sounds that occur when the key reaches key-bottom. Key-bottom impact was identified from key motion measured by a computer-controlled piano. Musicians were able to discriminate between piano tones that contain a key-bottom sound from those that do not. However, this effect might be attributable to sounds associated with the mechanical components of the piano action. In addition to the demonstrated acoustical effects of different touch forms, visual and tactile modalities may play important roles during piano performance that influence the production and perception of musical expression on the piano. © 2014 Acoustical Society of America.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2013-ITN | Award Amount: 3.81M | Year: 2013

The BATWOMAN ITN aims at structuring research training in basic and advanced acoustics and setting up a work program on methodologies for acoustics for skills development in a highly diverse research field offering multiple career options. The consortium consists of renowned public and private partners from musical acoustics, room acoustics and automotive acoustics who will merge their existing knowledge, extend it jointly and complement it with insights of recent sound perception research. This will exploit existing synergies and overcome obvious fragmentation in research, methodology and basic as well as advanced acoustics training. Providing interdisciplinary training and joining or exchanging methodology in research, is expected to have a strong impact on the skills of trained researchers as far as sound design capabilities, modelling accuracy, efficiency and applicable frequency range is concerned. Adding the understanding of human auditory perception will help to tackle the hard problem of sound quality parameters and to better understand stimulating effects on well-being and cognition of people exposed to sound, but also harmful effects, like annoyance or even deteriorating cognitive performance. The ITN will provide interdisciplinary and intersectoral research training for excellence. It will structure existing PhD-level training in acoustics setting up European curricula with compatible and recognised courses offered by Universities and private enterprises. Simultaneously it will push the state of the art in vibro-acoustic modelling and in interdisciplinary design optimisation by initiating a joint research effort increasing critical mass. The complementary structure of the network will make it not to break apart after the ITN project period. It is rather expected that the methodologies used to analyse, design and optimise transport vehicles, rooms and musical instruments will grow together and will be further developed in an interdisciplinary joint effort.

Chatziioannou V.,University of Music and Performing Arts Vienna | Van Walstijn M.,Queen's University of Belfast
Acta Acustica united with Acustica | Year: 2012

Analysis of the acoustical functioning of musical instruments invariably involves the estimation of model parameters. The broad aim of this paper is to develop methods for estimation of clarinet reed parameters that are representative of actual playing conditions. This presents various challenges because of the difficulties of measuring the directly relevant variables without interfering with the control of the instrument. An inverse modelling approach is therefore proposed, in which the equations governing the sound generation mechanism of the clarinet are employed in an optimisation procedure to determine the reed parameters from the mouthpiece pressure and volume flow signals. The underlying physical model captures most of the reed dynamics and is simple enough to be used in an inversion process. The optimisation procedure is first tested by applying it to numerically synthesised signals, and then applied to mouthpiece signals acquired during notes blown by a human player. The proposed inverse modelling approach raises the possibility of revealing information about the way in which the embouchure-related reed parameters are controlled by the player, and also facilitates physics-based re-synthesis of clarinet sounds. © S. Hirzel Verlag · EAA.

Goebl W.,University of Music and Performing Arts Vienna | Palmer C.,McGill University
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Skilled piano performance requires considerable movement control to accomplish the high levels of timing and force precision common among professional musicians, who acquire piano technique over decades of practice. Finger movement efficiency in particular is an important factor when pianists perform at very fast tempi. We document the finger movement kinematics of highly skilled pianists as they performed a five-finger melody at very fast tempi. A three-dimensional motion-capture system tracked the movements of finger joints, the hand, and the forearm of twelve pianists who performed on a digital piano at successively faster tempi (7-16 tones/s) until they decided to stop. Joint angle trajectories computed for all adjacent finger phalanges, the hand, and the forearm (wrist angle) indicated that the metacarpophalangeal joint contributed most to the vertical fingertip motion while the proximal and distal interphalangeal joints moved slightly opposite to the movement goal (finger extension). An efficiency measure of the combined finger joint angles corresponded to the temporal accuracy and precision of the pianists' performances: Pianists with more efficient keystroke movements showed higher precision in timing and force measures. Keystroke efficiency and individual joint contributions remained stable across tempo conditions. Individual differences among pianists supported the view that keystroke efficiency is required for successful fast performance. © 2012 Goebl, Palmer.

Kretz J.,University of Music and Performing Arts Vienna
41st International Computer Music Conference, ICMC 2015: Looking Back, Looking Forward - Proceedings | Year: 2015

This paper presents the author's experience in developing a software called "morph tunnel" for morphing sounds in real time in the frame of the MaxMSP environment, as well as its application for the composition and performance of a work, "timbre tunnel" for 6 musicians, dancer (optional) and live electronics. The main idea is to create a spectral - and temporal - "tunnel" through a method of pattern matching between overtones, where the user - or a dancer - can navigate in real time between spectra and time in a continuous way. © 2015 by Johannes Kretz.

Bilbao S.,University of Edinburgh | Torin A.,University of Edinburgh | Chatziioannou V.,University of Music and Performing Arts Vienna
Acta Acustica united with Acustica | Year: 2015

Collisions play an important role in many aspects of the physics of musical instruments. The striking action of a hammer or mallet in keyboard and percussion instruments is perhaps the most important example, but others include reed-beating efects in wind instruments, the string/neck interaction in fretted instruments such as the guitar as well as in the sitar and the wire/membrane interaction in the snare drum. From a simulation perspective, whether the eventual goal is the validation of musical instrument models or sound synthesis, such highly nonlinear problems pose various dificulties, not the least of which is the risk of numerical instability. In this article, a novel finite diference time domain simulation framework for such collision problems is developed, where numerical stability follows from strict numerical energy conservation or dissipation, and where a power law formulation for collisions is employed, as a potential function within a passive formulation. The power law serves both as a model of deformable collision, and as a mathematical penalty under perfectly rigid, non-deformable collision. Various numerical examples, illustrating the unifying features of such methods across a wide variety of systems in musical acoustics are presented, including numerical stability and energy conservation/dissipation, bounds on spurious penetration in the case of rigid collisions, as well as various aspects of musical instrument physics. © S. Hirzel Verlag • EAA.

Chatziioannou V.,University of Music and Performing Arts Vienna | Hofmann A.,University of Music and Performing Arts Vienna
Acta Acustica united with Acustica | Year: 2015

Musicians use various articulation techniques during expressive performance. In the case of single-reed woodwind instruments these may involve tongue strokes to the reed or modulation of the blowing pressure. To analyse the emerging transient phenomena, a time-domain physical model of the player-instrument interaction is employed. In order to avoid adding new terms and complexity to the model, the effect of tonguing is simulated by allowing temporal variation of existing, physically meaningful parameters. Experimental measurements show differences between tones separated using the tongue or the blowing pressure and comparisons with numerical simulations are carried out. In particular the synthesised mouthpiece pressure and reed displacement are compared with data obtained under real playing conditions. In an attempt to understand how articulatory actions affect the excitation mechanism of the instrument, the physical model parameters that are required to resynthesise the recorded sounds are estimated. This allows tracking the evolution of parameters that evade direct measurement. © S. Hirzel Verlag · EAA.

Smetana M.,University of Music and Performing Arts Vienna
Nordic Journal of Music Therapy | Year: 2016

Finding and using a particular musical object (e.g. a special song, a musical instrument, a specific musical pattern) often helps adolescents with severe affect and contact regulation disorders to manage the building of a therapeutic relationship. The coincidence of the repeated recourse to a musical object and the diagnostic assessment of a structural disorder led to the question as to why these adolescents in particular repeatedly make use of such a consistent musical “third element”. To widen the understanding for this concurrence and to describe the phenomenology of the potentials of recurring musical objects in music therapy for adolescents with structural disorders, three different cases were analysed from a qualitative, hermeneutic perspective. The findings consist of typical characteristics of a musical object, central aspects of its psychodynamic variety of meaning, and its importance for the adolescent patient, as well as the key factors involved in the reconstructed and analysed music therapy processes, both in terms of the therapeutic stance and methodological needs. Music therapy immanent factors could be associated with the concept of a “third position” within the therapeutic dyad. Because of its safety-giving function, a musical object allows the development of exploration, contact regulation, mentalization and symbolization. © 2016 GAMUT – The Grieg Academy Music Therapy Research Centre

Chatziioannou V.,University of Music and Performing Arts Vienna
Proceedings of Meetings on Acoustics | Year: 2013

Time-domain simulations of wind instruments can, in principle, deal with non-linear oscillations and are also capable of modeling both the steady-state and the transient behavior of a system. The starting transient is usually an important identifying feature of the instrument that is played. Subtle control of articulation is required from skilled musicians to modulate transients during expressive performance. Focusing on single-reed woodwind instruments, the physical phenomena that underlie different articulation techniques are analyzed. A saxophone player is recorded during portato playing, where articulation is achieved either by the use of the tongue, or by modulating the air flow into the mouthpiece. The bending of the reed and the pressure inside the mouthpiece are measured and a physical model is formulated with the aim to capture the transient effects. Instead of adding new terms (and complexity) to a single mass-spring model, in order to simulate the player's tongue, existing physically meaningful parameters are allowed to vary. In particular, the effect of tonguing is modeled by modulating the equilibrium position of the (lumped) reed and its internal damping, whereas, in the case of air-separated tones, only a variation of the blowing pressure is required. © 2013 Acoustical Society of America.

Chatziioannou V.,University of Music and Performing Arts Vienna
ACM International Conference Proceeding Series | Year: 2015

Nonlinear interactions may impose several restrictions to nu- merical simulation attempts, in particular concerning the de- sign of unconditionally stable algorithms. Such algorithms are required for real-time synthesis applications where vir- tual instruments may be modified on-line. One characteris- tic case of nonlinear interactions is that of impact sounds. This paper gives a brief summary of recently developed nu- merical techniques that are suitable for the simulation of systems involving collisions. A simple numerical example, involving a lumped collision model, is used to demonstrate the methodology, and further perspectives concerning the applicability of the presented family of schemes to real-time synthesis applications are discussed. © 2015 ACM.

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