The University of Music and Performing Arts, Vienna is an Austrian university located in Vienna, established in 1817.Today, with a student body of over three thousand, it is the largest institution of its kind in Austria, and one of the largest in the world.In 1819, it was established by the Society for the Friends of Music. It was nationalized in 1909 as the Imperial Academy of Music and the Performing Arts. In 1998, the university assumed its current name to reflect its university status, attained in a wide 1970 reform for Austrian Arts Academies. Wikipedia.
Kausel W.,University of Music and Performing Arts Vienna |
Zietlow D.W.,Rollins College |
Moore T.R.,Rollins College
Journal of the Acoustical Society of America | Year: 2010
The results of an experimental and theoretical investigation of the influence of wall vibrations on the sound of brass wind instruments are presented. Measurements of the transmission function and input impedance of a trumpet, with the bell both heavily damped and freely vibrating, are shown to be consistent with a theory that assumes that the internal pressure causes an oscillation of the diameter of the pipe enclosing the air column. These effects are shown to be most significant in sections where there are flaring walls, which explains why damping these vibrations in cylindrical pipes normally produces no measurable effects. © 2010 Acoustical Society of America.
Goebl W.,University of Music and Performing Arts Vienna |
Bresin R.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology |
Fujinaga I.,McGill University
Journal of the Acoustical Society of America | Year: 2014
Both timbre and dynamics of isolated piano tones are determined exclusively by the speed with which the hammer hits the strings. This physical view has been challenged by pianists who emphasize the importance of the way the keyboard is touched. This article presents empirical evidence from two perception experiments showing that touch-dependent sound components make sounds with identical hammer velocities but produced with different touch forms clearly distinguishable. The first experiment focused on finger-key sounds: musicians could identify pressed and struck touches. When the finger-key sounds were removed from the sounds, the effect vanished, suggesting that these sounds were the primary identification cue. The second experiment looked at key-keyframe sounds that occur when the key reaches key-bottom. Key-bottom impact was identified from key motion measured by a computer-controlled piano. Musicians were able to discriminate between piano tones that contain a key-bottom sound from those that do not. However, this effect might be attributable to sounds associated with the mechanical components of the piano action. In addition to the demonstrated acoustical effects of different touch forms, visual and tactile modalities may play important roles during piano performance that influence the production and perception of musical expression on the piano. © 2014 Acoustical Society of America.
Bilbao S.,University of Edinburgh |
Torin A.,University of Edinburgh |
Chatziioannou V.,University of Music and Performing Arts Vienna
Acta Acustica united with Acustica | Year: 2015
Collisions play an important role in many aspects of the physics of musical instruments. The striking action of a hammer or mallet in keyboard and percussion instruments is perhaps the most important example, but others include reed-beating efects in wind instruments, the string/neck interaction in fretted instruments such as the guitar as well as in the sitar and the wire/membrane interaction in the snare drum. From a simulation perspective, whether the eventual goal is the validation of musical instrument models or sound synthesis, such highly nonlinear problems pose various dificulties, not the least of which is the risk of numerical instability. In this article, a novel finite diference time domain simulation framework for such collision problems is developed, where numerical stability follows from strict numerical energy conservation or dissipation, and where a power law formulation for collisions is employed, as a potential function within a passive formulation. The power law serves both as a model of deformable collision, and as a mathematical penalty under perfectly rigid, non-deformable collision. Various numerical examples, illustrating the unifying features of such methods across a wide variety of systems in musical acoustics are presented, including numerical stability and energy conservation/dissipation, bounds on spurious penetration in the case of rigid collisions, as well as various aspects of musical instrument physics. © S. Hirzel Verlag • EAA.
Goebl W.,University of Music and Performing Arts Vienna |
Palmer C.,McGill University
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013
Skilled piano performance requires considerable movement control to accomplish the high levels of timing and force precision common among professional musicians, who acquire piano technique over decades of practice. Finger movement efficiency in particular is an important factor when pianists perform at very fast tempi. We document the finger movement kinematics of highly skilled pianists as they performed a five-finger melody at very fast tempi. A three-dimensional motion-capture system tracked the movements of finger joints, the hand, and the forearm of twelve pianists who performed on a digital piano at successively faster tempi (7-16 tones/s) until they decided to stop. Joint angle trajectories computed for all adjacent finger phalanges, the hand, and the forearm (wrist angle) indicated that the metacarpophalangeal joint contributed most to the vertical fingertip motion while the proximal and distal interphalangeal joints moved slightly opposite to the movement goal (finger extension). An efficiency measure of the combined finger joint angles corresponded to the temporal accuracy and precision of the pianists' performances: Pianists with more efficient keystroke movements showed higher precision in timing and force measures. Keystroke efficiency and individual joint contributions remained stable across tempo conditions. Individual differences among pianists supported the view that keystroke efficiency is required for successful fast performance. © 2012 Goebl, Palmer.
Chatziioannou V.,University of Music and Performing Arts Vienna |
Van Walstijn M.,Queens University of Belfast
Acta Acustica united with Acustica | Year: 2012
Analysis of the acoustical functioning of musical instruments invariably involves the estimation of model parameters. The broad aim of this paper is to develop methods for estimation of clarinet reed parameters that are representative of actual playing conditions. This presents various challenges because of the difficulties of measuring the directly relevant variables without interfering with the control of the instrument. An inverse modelling approach is therefore proposed, in which the equations governing the sound generation mechanism of the clarinet are employed in an optimisation procedure to determine the reed parameters from the mouthpiece pressure and volume flow signals. The underlying physical model captures most of the reed dynamics and is simple enough to be used in an inversion process. The optimisation procedure is first tested by applying it to numerically synthesised signals, and then applied to mouthpiece signals acquired during notes blown by a human player. The proposed inverse modelling approach raises the possibility of revealing information about the way in which the embouchure-related reed parameters are controlled by the player, and also facilitates physics-based re-synthesis of clarinet sounds. © S. Hirzel Verlag · EAA.