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Garcia-Lorenzo M.L.,Complutense University of Madrid | Martinez-Sanchez M.J.,University of Murcia | Perez-Sirvent C.,University of Murcia | Lopez-Sanchez J.,University of Murcia | And 2 more authors.
Environmental Forensics | Year: 2015

The objective of this study was to determine the As and Sb contents in soils from the Murcia Region of Spain and the possible relationship between the mineralogical composition, soil properties, and As and Sb concentrations. In this study, 490 samples were selected from areas with different characteristics in order to study As and Sb variability. Results show that As and Sb concentrations are positively correlated with the phyllosilicate and quartz content but negatively correlated with the calcite content. The generic reference level (GRL) for these elements was determined according to the Spanish legislation. Established GRL values vary according to the established mineralogical groups, suggesting that GRL has to be determined considering the lithological characteristics of the study area. © 2015, Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source

Espin L.,University of MurciaMurcia | Marquina M.,University of MurciaMurcia | Hidalgo V.,University of Valencia | Salvador A.,University of Valencia | Gomez-Amor J.,University of MurciaMurcia
Psychoneuroendocrinology | Year: 2016

Generalized Social Phobia (GSP) is a common anxiety disorder that produces clear social life disruptions. There is no consensus on the specific processes involved in its development, but the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been suggested. This study analyzed the effects of the cortisol response to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) on the memory retrieval of pictures with different emotional valences in 45 non-treated young students with GSP and 50 non-anxious (NA) subjects (mean = 19.35 years, SD = 0.18). No differences were found in the cortisol response of GSP and NA subjects to the TSST and control sessions. In addition, psychosocial stress impaired memory retrieval in both the GSP and NA groups, with no differences between them. Regarding the sex factor, no effects were found in the cortisol response to the TSST. However, during the encoding session, GSP men had higher cortisol levels than GSP women and NA subjects. There was also a significant interaction between sex and stress exposure on memory retrieval. Women recognized more unpleasant and neutral pictures than men; however, under stress, the women's advantage disappeared, and the men's performance improved. Sex also interacted with social phobia on positive mood, with GSP women exposed to the TSST showing the lowest positive mood. These results suggest that GSP subjects do not present an HPA axis sensitization to psychosocial stress, and they emphasize the importance of Sex in understanding stress effects on memory. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd Source

Campoy G.,University of MurciaMurcia | Castella J.,Autonomous University of BarcelonaBarcelona | Provencio V.,University of MurciaMurcia | Hitch G.J.,University of YorkYork | Baddeley A.D.,University of YorkYork
Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology | Year: 2015

The concreteness effect in verbal short-term memory (STM) tasks is assumed to be a consequence of semantic encoding in STM, with immediate recall of concrete words benefiting from richer semantic representations. We used the concreteness effect to test the hypothesis that semantic encoding in standard verbal STM tasks is a consequence of controlled, attention-demanding mechanisms of strategic semantic retrieval and encoding. Experiment 1 analysed the effect of presentation rate, with slow presentations being assumed to benefit strategic, time-dependent semantic encoding. Experiments 2 and 3 provided a more direct test of the strategic hypothesis by introducing three different concurrent attention-demanding tasks. Although Experiment 1 showed a larger concreteness effect with slow presentations, the following two experiments yielded strong evidence against the strategic hypothesis. Limiting available attention resources by concurrent tasks reduced global memory performance, but the concreteness effect was equivalent to that found in control conditions. We conclude that semantic effects in STM result from automatic semantic encoding and provide tentative explanations for the interaction between the concreteness effect and the presentation rate. © 2014, © 2014 The Experimental Psychology Society. Source

Garcia-Hernandez M.P.,University of MurciaMurcia | Rodenas M.C.,University of MurciaMurcia | Cabas I.,University of MurciaMurcia | Garcia-Alcazar A.,Spanish Institute of Oceanography | And 2 more authors.
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part - C: Toxicology and Pharmacology | Year: 2016

17α-Ethynylestradiol (EE2), which is used in oral contraceptives and hormone replacement therapy, is a well documented estrogenic endocrine disruptor and an aquatic contaminant. In the present study, adult male specimens of the marine hermaphrodite teleost gilthead (Sparus aurata L.) were fed a diet containing tamoxifen (Tmx), an estrogen receptor ligand used in cancer therapy, alone or combined with EE2, for 25 days and then fed a commercial diet for a further 25 days (recovery period). The effects of short (5 days) and long (25 days) treatments on several reproductive and gonad immune parameters and the reversibility of the disruptive effects after the recovery period were examined. Our data showed that Tmx acted as an estrogenic endocrine disruptor as revealed by the increase in the hepatic transcription of the vitellogenin gene in males, the serum levels of 17β-estradiol and the gonad expression levels of the estrogen receptor α and G protein-coupled estrogen receptor genes, and the recruitment of leukocytes into the gonad, a well known estrogenic-dependent process in gilthead seabream males. On the other hand, Tmx also increased sperm concentration and motility as well as the serum levels of androgens and the expression levels of genes that codify for androgenic enzymes, while decreasing the expression levels of the gene that code for gonadal aromatase. When applied simultaneously, Tmx and EE2 could act in synergy or counteract, each other, depending on the parameter measured. The disruptive effect of EE2 and/or Tmx was not reversible after a 25 day recovery period. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. Source

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