Munster, Germany
Munster, Germany

The University of Münster is a public university located in the city of Münster, North Rhine-Westphalia in Germany. The WWU is part of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, a society of Germany's leading research universities. Wikipedia.

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Reiter D.E.,University of Munster
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2017

The interaction of a light field with a quantum-mechanical system can be studied in an optically controlled semiconductor quantum dot. When driven by a continuous light field switched on instantaneously, the quantum dot occupation performs Rabi oscillations. Unlike an atomic system, the quantum dot is coupled to phonons, which leads to a damping of the Rabi oscillations. Here we model the time-resolved probe spectra to monitor these dynamics and study the influence of phonons on the spectra. The spectra consist of up to three peaks, similar to the Mollow triplet known from quantum optics. We develop analytical equations within a rate equation model and show that they agree excellently with a numerical solution using a well established correlation expansion approach. © 2017 American Physical Society.

Schwab N.,University of Munster | Schneider-Hohendorf T.,University of Munster | Melzer N.,University of Munster | Cutter G.,University of Alabama at Birmingham | Wiendl H.,University of Munster
Neurology | Year: 2017

Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) associated with natalizumab treatment continues to be a severe problem of clinically successful therapy. This is an update of risk stratification developments and discusses the current approach to depict and calculate PML incidence and PML risk. (1) PML incidence and resulting risk used in today's clinical practice are potentially outdated and the risk for patients with prior immunosuppression might have been underestimated. (2) Risk stratification according to treatment duration epochs likely suggests lower risk due to patients stopping treatment within a given epoch. PML incidence within the complete treatment epoch is statistically lowered due to the fact that patients at the beginning of an epoch presumably have a lower PML risk than the patients at the end. Periodic risk is not accurate in assessing risk for long treatment durations. (3) The JC virus (JCV) serostatus risk factor has low specificity concerning PML prediction and anti-JCV seroconversion during treatment with natalizumab further lowers its specificity over time. Specificity of the risk factor treatment duration varies depending on the average treatment duration and the number of short-term patients. These short-term patients reduce overall average treatment duration and thus enhance the specificity of the risk factor and reduce overall PML incidence. It is also suggested that short-term natalizumab patients are exclusively non-PML, even though they might still develop PML. Clinicians have to consider the cumulative risk of patients to stratify efficiently. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

Li Y.,University of Munster | Studer A.,University of Munster
Organic Letters | Year: 2017

The reaction of in situ generated arynes with aryl vinyl sulfoxides provides ortho-arylsulfinylaryl vinyl ethers via aryne σ-bond insertion into the S-O-bond and concomitant stereospecific S-O-vinyl migration. The cascade allows preparing di- or trisubstituted vinyl ethers with excellent stereospecificity. The reactions proceed under mild conditions, the substrate scope is broad, and the products obtained are valuable. © 2017 American Chemical Society.

Dugas M.,University of Munster
BMC medical informatics and decision making | Year: 2015

BACKGROUND: Clinical trials apply standards approved by regulatory agencies for Electronic Data Capture (EDC). Operational Data Model (ODM) from Clinical Data Interchange Standards Consortium (CDISC) is commonly used. Electronic Health Record (EHR) systems for patient care predominantly apply HL7 standards, specifically Clinical Document Architecture (CDA). In recent years more and more patient data is processed in electronic form.RESULTS: An open source reference implementation was designed and implemented to convert forms between ODM and CDA format. There are limitations of this conversion method due to different scope and design of ODM and CDA. Specifically, CDA has a multi-level hierarchical structure and CDA nodes can contain both XML values and XML attributes.CONCLUSIONS: Automated transformation of ODM files to CDA and vice versa is technically feasible in principle.

Small electrodynamic shakers are becoming increasingly popular for diagnostic investigations of the human vestibular system. More specifically, they are used as mechanical stimulators for eliciting a vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP). However, it is largely unknown how shakers perform under typical measurement conditions, which considerably differ from the normal use of a shaker. Here, it is shown how the basic properties of a shaker can be determined without requiring special sensors such as accelerometers or force gauges. In essence, the mechanical parts of the shaker leave a signature in the electrical impedance, and an interpretation of this signature using a simple model allows for drawing conclusions about the properties of the shaker. The theory developed (which is quite general so that it is usable also in other contexts) is applied to experimental data obtained for the minishaker commonly used in VEMP measurements. It is shown that the experimental conditions substantially influence the properties of the shaker. Relevant factors are, in particular, the spatial orientation of the shaker (upright, horizontal or upside-down) and the static force acting on the table of the shaker (which in a real measurement corresponds to the force by which the shaker is pressed against the test person's head). These results underline the desirability of a proper standardization of VEMP measurements. Direct measurements of displacement and acceleration prove the consistency of the conclusions derived from the electrical impedance. © 2017 Bernd Lütkenhöner.This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Wiemers-Meyer S.,University of Munster | Winter M.,University of Munster | Winter M.,Jülich Research Center | Nowak S.,University of Munster
Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics | Year: 2017

This work describes the development of an in situ battery cell to monitor liquid electrolytes by means of NMR spectroscopy. The suitability of this approach is confirmed by NMR measurements and electrochemical analysis. The cell allows for undistorted high resolution NMR spectroscopy. Furthermore, constant current cycling data, C-rate sequences and impedance measurements indicates a long cycle life as well as reasonable specific capacities and Ohmic resistances. © the Owner Societies 2017.

The model of “Return-Flow in a Subduction Channel” (RFSC) is put to the test, by opposing key-assumptions of the model to an integrated review of field data, petrology, geochronology and structures of high-P mélanges of the Franciscan Subduction Complex (FSC), to which RFSC has been first applied. Key-assumptions are: (i) The subduction channel (SC) is a low-viscosity zone of finite width restrained by the rigid, subducted and overriding plates. (ii) Forced (return) flow in the SC is associated with formation and km-scale displacements of small tectonic blocks (< 1 km) in a highly deformable matrix. (iii) This results in apparently random distributions and close associations of blocks exhumed from different depths. Hence, the block-in-matrix structures and “exotic” blocks in high-P mélanges would reflect the structural state at depth of the SC. On the basis of the predictions ensuing from the key assumptions of the RFSC model on the rock record, it is detailed why the actual record of the high-P mélanges of the FSC does not comply with this perception. The record rather reflects recurring subduction, underplating-associated décollement, erosion and mingling of high-P rocks by sedimentary processes, in the trench, all occurring in an 80 m.y.-lasting period. Distributed deformation of the mélange matrix is unrelated to formation of apparently chaotic block-in-matrix structures since: (i) creation, subduction, ascent and cooling of “exotic” blocks on counterclockwise P-T paths predates deposition of the bulk of the metasediments constituting the matrix by ~ 20–40 m.y.; (ii) deformation of the matrix occurs during a second loop of high-P metamorphism postdating creation and ascent of the “exotic” blocks by at least ~ 20–40 m.y.; (iii) the magnitudes of distributed deformation of the matrix are too low to cause juxtaposition of blocks different in P-T paths against each other from km-scale vertical distances. Instead, narrow (few tens of metres-wide) fault/shear and décollement zones formed at locally high pore fluid pressures accumulate the major tectonic transport during high-P metamorphism. They bound several 100s of metres wide tabular tectonic bodies that are coherent. Sedimentary processes at the active continental margin formed the bulk of the mélanges. Tectonically formed block-in-matrix structures within the shear and décollement zones are unrelated to juxtaposition of “exotic” blocks. Universal diagnostic criteria are developed to identify return-RFSC as a mechanism that potentially amalgamates heterogeneous metamorphic terrains by using field data petrology and geochronology. © 2017 International Association for Gondwana Research

Brennecka G.A.,University of Munster | Kleine T.,University of Munster
Astrophysical Journal Letters | Year: 2017

Precise knowledge of the abundances of short-lived radionuclides at the start of the solar system leads to fundamental information about the stellar environment of solar system formation. Previous investigations of the short-lived 135Cs → 135Ba system (t1/2 = 2.3Ma) have resulted in a range of calculated initial amounts of 135Cs, with most estimates elevated to a level that requires extraneous input of material to the protoplanetary disk. Such an array of proposed 135Cs/133Cs initial solar system values has severely restricted the systems use as both a possible chronometer and as an informant about supernovae input. However, if 135Cs was as abundant in the early solar system as previously proposed, the resulting deficits in its daughter product 135Ba would be easily detectable in volatile-depleted parent bodies (i.e., having sub-chondritic Cs/Ba) from the very early solar system. In this work, we show that angrites and eucrites, which were volatile-depleted within ∼1 million years of the start of the solar system, do not possess deficits in 135Ba compared to other planetary bodies. From this, we calculate an upper limit for the initial 135Cs/133Cs of 2.8 × 10-6, well below previous estimates. This significantly lower initial 135Cs/133Cs ratio now suggests that all of the 135Cs present in the early solar system was inherited simply from galactic chemical evolution and no longer requires an addition from an external stellar source such as an asymptotic giant branch star or SN II, corroborating evidence from several other short-lived radionuclides. © 2017. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

Kischkewitz M.,University of Munster | Okamoto K.,Kyoto University | Muck-Lichtenfeld C.,University of Munster | Studer A.,University of Munster
Science | Year: 2017

Vinyl boronic esters are valuable substrates for Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reactions. However, boron-substituted alkenes have drawn little attention as radical acceptors, and the radical chemistry of vinylboron ate complexes is underexplored. We show here that carbon radicals add efficiently to vinylboron ate complexes and that their adduct radical anions undergo radical-polar crossover: A 1,2-alkyl/aryl shift from boron to the α-carbon sp2 center provides secondary or tertiary alkyl boronic esters. In contrast to the Suzuki-Miyaura coupling, a transition metal is not required, and two carbon-carbon bonds are formed. The valuable boronic ester moiety remains in the product and can be used in follow-up chemistry, enlarging the chemical space of the method. The cascade uses commercial starting materials and provides access to perfluoroalkylated alcohols, γ-lactones, γ-hydroxy alkylnitriles, and compounds bearing quaternary carbon centers. © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science. All rights reserved.

Klor B.,University of Munster
Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems, PACIS 2016 - Proceedings | Year: 2016

Green information systems (IS) can contribute to more sustainable actions in a globalized and complex business environment. Since sustainable actions can only result from a pluralistic decision-making process, researchers agree that decision support systems (DSSs) in particular are important for green IS research. Because this research field has grown during the last decade, we set out to identify the contribution of DSS research conducted in green IS research. We conducted a structured literature review to reveal currently available DSSs contributions, their structure, and impact. The applied literature search and selection process identified 23 papers to be relevant to the review. A concept-centric literature analysis revealed that many DSS contributions conduct design research and demonstrate the addressed research problems' feasibility by implemented DSS prototypes. However, the literature review identifies a lack of subscription to green IS research. Despite numerous "green" DSSs are available in the literature, their subscription to the field of green IS research is missing. Finally, a research agenda is conceptualized for systematizing future DSS research in the domain of green IS research. Further research should increase the number of contributions conducting design-oriented research that should mainly result in software implementations to demonstrate the solutions' feasibility and "green" utility.

Von Hoffen M.,University of Munster
Proceedings - CBI 2016: 18th IEEE Conference on Business Informatics | Year: 2016

Batteries in Electric Vehicles (EV) are subject to a degradation process that has many, yet not fully understood, influential factors. Typically, the battery is continuously monitored by a proprietary Battery Management System (BMS) which records and analyzes various key figures of the battery. Because the BMS is proprietary, the data collected throughout the lifetime of an EV and its battery cannot simply be looked into by the owner but only by the EV manufacturer and licensed service providers. Hence, the EV owner is dependent on the manufacturer to retrieve accurate data regarding the State of Health (SOH) of the battery, e.g. when selling the vehicle or when the battery needs replacement. An in-depth understanding of charging behavior and the degradation process of an EV's battery requires a vast amount of data, which is a crucial factor limiting current research. This paper proposes an information system that blends into the EV charging infrastructure and utilizes a crowdsourcing approach to collect charging transaction data. In order to identify concealed dependencies with regards to battery degradation and to identify patterns in the charging behavior, an enrichment of the raw transaction data is motivated and different information providers are discussed. This augmentation integrates environmental information from various sources such as weather and location data. On a macroscopic view, analyses could point out the correlation between weather, public events, location, and charging demand. On an individual basis, the effect of environmental impacts, charging behavior, and driving profile on battery degradation can be investigated and compared. © 2016 IEEE.

Von Hoffen M.,University of Munster
2016 6th International Electric Drives Production Conference, EDPC 2016 - Proceedings | Year: 2016

Acceptance of electric mobility is hampered by an insufficient charging infrastructure as investors refrain from investing into additional charging stations while potential buyers of electric vehicles wait for a more advanced charging infrastructure to be established. The optimal siting and sizing of charging infrastructure is a major issue of electric mobility. In this context, the analysis of charging transaction data is a promising means to identify regions with lacking charging infrastructure as well as to learn about utilization and patterns in the charging behavior. Additionally, charging transaction data yields potential to learn about battery degradation when combined with state-of-health readings. To exploit the full potential of analytical assessment of charging transaction data, the enrichment of the data to integrate background as well as environmental information from various sources, e.g., weather and location data, is discussed. Different perspectives for analytics of charging transactions are motivated and preliminary findings are presented that motivate further research in this area. © 2016 IEEE.

Li W.,University of Munster | Wiesenfeldt M.P.,University of Munster | Glorius F.,University of Munster
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2017

A novel and practical chiral ruthenium-NHC-diamine system is disclosed for the enantioselective hydrogenation of isocoumarins, which provides a new concept to apply (chiral) NHC ligands in asymmetric catalysis. A variety of optically active 3-substituted 3,4-dihydroisocoumarins were obtained in excellent enantioselectivities (up to 99% ee). Moreover, this methodology was utilized in the synthesis of O-methylmellein, mellein, and ochratoxin A. © 2017 American Chemical Society.

Haake R.,University of Munster
Journal of Physics: Conference Series | Year: 2017

Highly energetic jets are sensitive probes of the kinematic properties and the topology of high energy hadron collisions. Jets are collimated sprays of charged and neutral particles, which are produced in fragmentation of hard scattered partons from an early stage of the collision. In ALICE, jets have been measured in pp, p-Pb, and Pb-Pb collisions at several collision energies. While analyses of Pb-Pb events unveil properties of the hot and dense medium formed in heavy-ion collisions, pp and p-Pb collisions can shed light on hadronization and cold nuclear matter effects in jet production. Additionally, pp and p-Pb collisions serve as a baseline for disentangling hot and cold nuclear matter effects. A possible modification of the initial state is tested in p-Pb analyses. For the extraction of a jet signal, the exact evaluation of the background from the underlying event is an especially important ingredient. Due to the different nature of underlying events, each collision system requires a different analysis technique for removing the effect of the background on the jet sample. The focus of this publication is on the ALICE measurements of nuclear modification factors connecting p-Pb and Pb-Pb events to pp collisions. Furthermore, the radial jet structure is explored by comparing jet spectra reconstructed with different resolution parameters. © Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd.

Based on the rising number of sensors (traditional earth observation sensors as well as small sensors for example integrated in smartphones), a flood on geo-information is available (partly in real-time) that allows for a variety of novel time-critical geo-applications. This article presents possibilities and the added value of fusing geo-information from different data sources by presenting two exemplary time-critical use cases. For use case 1 an agent-based model for estimating the movement of individuals is presented that is based on the combination of remote sensing images and smartphone movement data. The modelling results correspond to the original walking path of the test person with slight deviations (0.95 m to 1.29 m maximum distance), depending on the integration frequency of new information (from 1 second to 15 seconds). The comparison of different integration frequencies also emphasises the importance of real-time geo-information for this time-critical question regarding errors in modelling and the accuracy of results. Use case 2 illustrates the added value of fused geo-information by generating an up-to-date data base for spatial analysis in the context of route calculation based on crowd density information. This information is derived from remote sensing images and smartphone measurements. The key aspect is the combination of the complementary opportunities of the data sources: the large-scale but temporal limited data acquisition from remote sensors with up-to-date but punctual measurements from smartphones. Due to the increasing ubiquity of sensors in daily life, geo-information fusion has the potential to play a major role regarding exploitation and effective usage of such data sources for time-critical geo-applications.

Havlik D.,AIT Austrian Institute of Technology | Pielorz J.,AIT Austrian Institute of Technology | Widera A.,University of Munster
Proceedings of the International ISCRAM Conference | Year: 2016

The EU FP7 project DRIVER is conducting a number of experiments to assess the feasibility of addressing known deficiencies in crisis management. In this paper, we introduce experiments that investigate two-way communication solutions between crisis managers and citizens or unaffiliated volunteers. In the so-called "Interaction with Citizens" experiments we are testing the usability and acceptance of the various methods and tools that facilitate crisis communication at several levels. This includes: informing and alerting of citizens; micro-tasking of volunteers; gathering of situational information about the crisis incident from volunteers; and usage of this information to improve situation awareness. At the time of writing this paper, our "Interaction with Citizens" experiments are still under way. Therefore, this paper reports the lessons learned in the first two experiments along with the experimental setup and expectations for the final experiment.

BACKGROUND:: In a multicenter, randomized trial, the authors enrolled patients at high-risk for acute kidney injury as identified by a Cleveland Clinic Foundation score of 6 or more. The authors enrolled 240 patients at four hospitals and randomized them to remote ischemic preconditioning or control. The authors found that remote ischemic preconditioning reduced acute kidney injury in high-risk patients undergoing cardiac surgery. The authors now report on the effects of remote ischemic preconditioning on 90-day outcomes. METHODS:: In this follow-up study of the RenalRIP trial, the authors examined the effect of remote ischemic preconditioning on the composite endpoint major adverse kidney events consisting of mortality, need for renal replacement therapy, and persistent renal dysfunction at 90 days. Secondary outcomes were persistent renal dysfunction and dialysis dependence in patients with acute kidney injury. RESULTS:: Remote ischemic preconditioning significantly reduced the occurrence of major adverse kidney events at 90 days (17 of 120 [14.2%]) versus control (30 of 120 [25.0%]; absolute risk reduction, 10.8%; 95% CI, 0.9 to 20.8%; P = 0.034). In those patients who developed acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery, 2 of 38 subjects in the remote ischemic preconditioning group (5.3%) and 13 of 56 subjects in the control group (23.2%) failed to recover renal function at 90 days (absolute risk reduction, 17.9%; 95% CI, 4.8 to 31.1%; P = 0.020). Acute kidney injury biomarkers were also increased in patients reaching the major adverse kidney event endpoint compared to patients who did not. CONCLUSIONS:: Remote ischemic preconditioning significantly reduced the 3-month incidence of a composite endpoint major adverse kidney events consisting of mortality, need for renal replacement therapy, and persistent renal dysfunction in high-risk patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Furthermore, remote ischemic preconditioning enhanced renal recovery in patients with acute kidney injury. Copyright © by 2017, the American Society of Anesthesiologists, Inc. Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Fischer-Godde M.,University of Munster | Kleine T.,University of Munster
Nature | Year: 2017

The excess of highly siderophile elements in the Earth's mantle is thought to reflect the addition of primitive meteoritic material after core formation ceased. This â late veneer' either comprises material remaining in the terrestrial planet region after the main stages of the Earth's accretion, or derives from more distant asteroidal or cometary sources. Distinguishing between these disparate origins is important because a late veneer consisting of carbonaceous chondrite-like asteroids or comets could be the principal source of the Earth's volatiles and water. Until now, however, a 'genetic' link between the late veneer and such volatile-rich materials has not been established or ruled out. Such genetic links can be determined using ruthenium (Ru) isotopes, because the Ru in the Earth's mantle predominantly derives from the late veneer, and because meteorites exhibit Ru isotope variations arising from the heterogeneous distribution of stellar-derived dust. Although Ru isotopic data and the correlation of Ru and molybdenum (Mo) isotope anomalies in meteorites were previously used to argue that the late veneer derives from the same type of inner Solar System material as do Earth's main building blocks, the Ru isotopic composition of carbonaceous chondrites has not been determined sufficiently well to rule them out as a source of the late veneer. Here we show that all chondrites, including carbonaceous chondrites, have Ru isotopic compositions distinct from that of the Earth's mantle. The Ru isotope anomalies increase from enstatite to ordinary to carbonaceous chondrites, demonstrating that material formed at greater heliocentric distance contains larger Ru isotope anomalies. Therefore, these data refute an outer Solar System origin for the late veneer and imply that the late veneer was not the primary source of volatiles and water on the Earth. © 2017 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Washausen S.,University of Munster | Knabe W.,University of Munster
Brain Structure and Function | Year: 2017

The present work aims to improve our understanding of the causes and functions of apoptosis during the morphogenesis of epibranchial placodes in mice. Schematic maps helped to compare the spatiotemporal sequence of apoptotic events with the protein expression patterns of general (Six1) and specific placodal markers (Pax2, Pax8). Our findings challenge the view that, in mammals, all three epibranchial placodes spring from the original posterior placodal area (PPA) of presomite or early somite embryos. Instead, close-meshed analysis of the Pax2/Pax8 expression patterns demonstrates the stepwise emergence of two subdomains which both belong to the gradually expanding PPA, and which largely give rise to the otic placode and epibranchial placode 1 (anterior subdomain), or to the caudal epibranchial placodes (posterior subdomain). Our observations reinforce previous doubts raised on the PPA progeny of early somite Xenopus embryos (Schlosser and Ahrens, Dev Biol 271:439–466, 2004). They also demonstrate that partly different Pax2/Pax8 codes accompany epibranchial placode development in Xenopus laevis and mice. In mice, interplacodal apoptosis assists in the establishment of the two PPA subdomains and, subsequently, of individualized placodes by predominantly eliminating Six1+ placodal precursor cells. Onset of interplacodal and intraplacodal large-scale apoptosis is almost always preceded and/or paralleled by Pax2/Pax8 expression minima in the very same region. Future work will demand the use of knock-out mice and whole embryo culture to experimentally test, whether the combined action of differentially expressed Pax2 and Pax8 genes exerts antiapoptotic effects in the mammalian PPA. © 2017 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

Muller C.,University of Munster
American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation | Year: 2017

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of a 4-wk inpatient rehabilitation program on postural control and gait in pediatric patients with cancer. DESIGN: Eighty-eight patients with brain tumors (n = 59) and bone/soft tissue sarcomas (n = 29) were evaluated. Postural control was assessed examining the velocity of the center of pressure and single-leg stance time on a pressure distribution platform. Walk ratio, a measure of neuromotor control, was used to evaluate intervention effects on gait. RESULTS: Repeated measures analysis of variance showed improvements in postural control measures, indicated by a decrease in velocity of center of pressure of −0.4 cm/sec (F1,80 = 7.175, P = 0.009, ηp = 0.082) and increase in single-leg stance time (mean [median] = 1.1 [2.6] sec, respectively; F1,80 = 12.617, P = 0.001, ηp = 0.136). Walk ratio increased by 0.2 mm/steps per min (F1,82 = 3.766, P = 0.056, ηp = 0.044). Mean changes in dependent variables did not differ between both patient groups (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate benefits of an inpatient rehabilitation program comprising standard physical therapy as well as aquatic and hippo therapy on postural control and gait after treatment of pediatric patients with cancer. Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

Distinguishing bipolar disorder from major depressive disorder is a major challenge in psychiatric treatment. Consequently, there has been growing interest in identifying neuronal biomarkers of disorder-specific pathophysiological processes to differentiate affective disorders. Thirty-six depressed bipolar patients, 36 depressed unipolar patients, and 36 matched healthy controls (HCs) participated in an fMRI experiment. Emotional faces served as stimuli in a matching task. We investigated neural activation towards angry, fearful, and happy faces focusing on prototypical regions related to emotion processing, ie, the amygdala and the anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG). Furthermore, we employed a whole-brain and a multivariate pattern classification analysis. Unipolar patients showed abnormally reduced ACG activation toward happy and fearful faces compared with bipolar patients and HCs respectively. Furthermore, the whole-brain analysis revealed significantly increased activation in bipolar patients compared with unipolar patients in the fearful condition in the right frontal and parietal cortex. Moreover, the multivariate pattern classification analysis yielded significant classification rates of up to 72% based on ACG activation elicited by fearful faces. Our results question the rather ‘amygdalocentric’ neurobiological models of mood disorders. We observed patterns of abnormally reduced ventral and supragenual ACG activation, potentially indicating impaired bottom-up emotion processing and automatic emotion regulation specifically in unipolar but not in bipolar individuals.Neuropsychopharmacology advance online publication, 15 March 2017; doi:10.1038/npp.2017.36. © 2017 American College of Neuropsychopharmacology

Opel N.,University of Munster
Molecular Psychiatry | Year: 2017

Genetic and neuroimaging research has identified neurobiological correlates of obesity. However, evidence for an integrated model of genetic risk and brain structural alterations in the pathophysiology of obesity is still absent. Here we investigated the relationship between polygenic risk for obesity, gray matter structure and body mass index (BMI) by the use of univariate and multivariate analyses in two large, independent cohorts (n=330 and n=347). Higher BMI and higher polygenic risk for obesity were significantly associated with medial prefrontal gray matter decrease, and prefrontal gray matter was further shown to significantly mediate the effect of polygenic risk for obesity on BMI in both samples. Building on this, the successful individualized prediction of BMI by means of multivariate pattern classification algorithms trained on whole-brain imaging data and external validations in the second cohort points to potential clinical applications of this imaging trait marker.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 28 March 2017; doi:10.1038/mp.2017.51. © 2017 Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature.

Trials with second generation CD19 chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) T-cells report unprecedented responses but are associated with risk of cytokine release syndrome (CRS). Instead, we studied the use of donor Epstein–Barr virus-specific T-cells (EBV CTL) transduced with a first generation CD19CAR, relying on the endogenous T-cell receptor for proliferation. We conducted a multi-center phase I/II study of donor CD19CAR transduced EBV CTL in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). Patients were eligible pre-emptively if they developed molecular relapse (>5 × 10-4) post first stem cell transplant (SCT), or prophylactically post second SCT. An initial cohort showed poor expansion/persistence. We therefore investigated EBV-directed vaccination to enhance expansion/persistence. Eleven patients were treated. No CRS, neurotoxicity or graft versus host disease (GVHD) was observed. At 1 month, 5 patients were in CR (4 continuing, 1 de novo), 1 PR, 3 had stable disease and 3 no response. At a median follow-up of 12 months, 10 of 11 have relapsed, 2 are alive with disease and 1 alive in CR 3 years. Although CD19CAR CTL expansion was poor, persistence was enhanced by vaccination. Median persistence was 0 (range: 0–28) days without vaccination compared to 56 (range: 0–221) days with vaccination (P=0.06). This study demonstrates the feasibility of multi-center studies of CAR T cell therapy and the potential for enhancing persistence with vaccination.Leukemia advance online publication, 10 March 2017; doi:10.1038/leu.2017.39. © 2017 Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature.

Kestner R.-I.,University of Munster
Acta dermato-venereologica | Year: 2017

Patients with chronic pruritus may develop scratch-induced lesions with elevated borders and central necrosis. This so-called umbilicated type of prurigo (UP) is rare and is assumed to develop preferentially in the context of metabolic diseases. The aim of this study was to characterize UP in its clinical and histological dimension. Demographic and clinical data were collected from 23 patients with UP. Intensive light microscopical analysis of biopsied lesions was performed. Statistical comparison with previous results for prurigo nodularis (PN) showed that UP is clearly a subtype of PN. In addition, clinical and microscopic features of epidermal perforation identical to those in acquired reactive perforating dermatosis (ARDP) were observed. Hence, we suggest that ARDP is identical to UP and is therefore a subtype of PN. We assume that reduced wound healing capacities due to underlying systemic disorders, particularly diabetes mellitus and uraemia, underlie the pathomechanism of development of umbilicated skin lesions with a perforating aspect.

Gubaev A.,University of Munster | Weidlich D.,University of Munster | Klostermeier D.,University of Munster
Nucleic Acids Research | Year: 2016

The topological state of DNA is important for replication, recombination and transcription, and is regulated in vivo by DNA topoisomerases. Gyrase introduces negative supercoils into DNA at the expense of ATP hydrolysis. It is the accepted view that gyrase achieves supercoiling by a strand passage mechanism, in which double-stranded DNA is cleaved, and a second double-stranded segment is passed through the gap, converting a positive DNA node into a negative node. We show here that gyrase with only one catalytic tyrosine that cleaves a single strand of its DNA substrate can catalyze DNA supercoiling without strand passage. We propose an alternative mechanism for DNA supercoiling via nicking and closing of DNA that involves trapping, segregation and relaxation of two positive supercoils. In contrast to DNA supercoiling, ATP-dependent relaxation and decatenation of DNA by gyrase lacking the C-Terminal domains require both tyrosines and strand passage. Our results point towards mechanistic plasticity of gyrase and might pave the way for finding novel and specific mechanism-based gyrase inhibitors. © 2016 The Author(s).

Bruser L.,University of Munster | Bogdan S.,University of Munster | Bogdan S.,University of Marburg
Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology | Year: 2017

Cadherin-based adherens junctions are conserved structures that mediate epithelial cell–cell adhesion in invertebrates and vertebrates. Despite their pivotal function in epithelial integrity, adherens junctions show a remarkable plasticity that is a prerequisite for tissue architecture and morphogenesis. Epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin) is continuously turned over and under- goes cycles of endocytosis, sorting and recycling back to the plasma membrane. Mammalian cell culture and genetically tractable model systems such as Drosophila have revealed con- served, but also distinct, mechanisms in the regulation of E-cadherin membrane trafficking. Here, we discuss our current knowledge about molecules and mechanisms controlling endocytosis, sorting and recycling of E-cadherin during junctional remodeling. © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

Lei Y.,University of Munster | Yang S.,University of Munster | Wu M.,Shanghai University | Wilde G.,University of Munster
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2011

Surface nano-patterns on substrates are the fundamental structures of various nano-devices. Template-based surface nano-patterning techniques are highly efficient methods in realizing different surface nano-patterns. The time-saving and low-cost fabrication processes of the template-based surface patterning are highly desirable for industry in fabricating different kinds of nano-devices. This tutorial review summarizes the recent advancements in the field of template-based surface nano-patterning, especially focusing on three templates prepared using self-assembly processes: ultra-thin alumina membranes, monolayer polystyrene sphere arrays, and block copolymer patterns. The basic concepts, the general fabrication processes, the structure-related properties, and the device applications of these template-based surface nano-patterning techniques are introduced. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Pritchard-Jones K.,University College London | Pieters R.,Erasmus MC Sophia Childrens Hospital | Reaman G.H.,U.S. Food and Drug Administration | Hjorth L.,Skåne University Hospital | And 4 more authors.
The Lancet Oncology | Year: 2013

Cancer in children and adolescents is rare and biologically very different from cancer in adults. It accounts for 1·4% of all cancers worldwide, although this proportion ranges from 0·5% in Europe to 4·8% in Africa, largely because of differences in age composition and life expectancy. In high-income countries, survival from childhood cancer has reached 80% through a continuous focus on the integration of clinical research into front-line care for nearly all children affected by malignant disease. However, further improvement must entail new biology-driven approaches, since optimisation of conventional treatments has in many cases reached its limits. In many instances, such approaches can only be achieved through international collaborative research, since rare cancers are being subdivided into increasingly smaller subgroups on the basis of their molecular characteristics. The long-term effect of anticancer treatment on quality of life must also be taken into account because more than one in 1000 adults in high-income countries are thought to be survivors of cancer in childhood or adolescence. The introduction of drugs that are less toxic and more targeted than those currently used necessitates a partnership between clinical and translational researchers, the pharmaceutical industry, drug regulators, and patients and their families. This therapeutic alliance will ensure that efforts are focused on the unmet clinical needs of young people with cancer. Most children with cancer live in low-income and middle-income countries, and these countries account for 94% of all deaths from cancer in people aged 0-14 years. The immediate priority for these children is to improve access to an affordable, best standard of care in each country. Every country should have a national cancer plan that recognises the unique demographic characteristics and care needs of young people with cancer. Centralisation of the complex components of treatment of these rare diseases is essential to improve survival, accelerate research, and train the future specialist workforce. Referral routes and care pathways must take account of the large geographical distances between many patients' homes and treatment centres, and the economic, cultural, and linguistic diversity of the populations served. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Kreft M.E.,University of Ljubljana | Robenek H.,University of Munster
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

The primary function of the urothelium is to provide the tightest and most impermeable barrier in the body, i.e. the blood-urine barrier. Urothelial plaques are formed and inserted into the apical plasma membrane during advanced stages of urothelial cell differentiation. Currently, it is supposed that differentiation with the final formation of urothelial plaques is hindered in cultured urothelial cells. With the aid of the high-resolution imaging technique of freeze-fracture replica immunolabelling, we here provide evidence that urothelial cells in vitro form uroplakin-positive urothelial plaques, localized in fusiform-shaped vesicles and apical plasma membranes. With the establishment of such an in vitro model of urothelial cells with fully developed urothelial plaques and functional properties equivalent to normal bladder urothelium, new perspectives have emerged which challenge prevailing concepts of apical plasma membrane biogenesis and blood-urine barrier development. This may hopefully provide a timely impulse for many ongoing studies and open up new questions for future research. © 2012 Kreft, Robenek.

Grimme S.,University of Munster | Kruse H.,University of Munster | Erker G.,University of Munster
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2010

("Figure Presented") A new picture of H2 activation is given by state-of-the-art quantum chemical calculations of potential energy surfaces and transition states and a thorough theoretical analysis. Key factors for activation of H2 and other small molecules by so-called frustrated Lewis pairs (FLP) are entrance (preparation) steps and the electric field strength inside the FLP cavity. © 2010 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH &. Co. KGaA,.

Kowert R.,University of Munster | Oldmeadow J.A.,Swinburne University of Technology
Computers in Human Behavior | Year: 2015

Internet connectivity has changed the way video games are played by allowing individuals to connect worldwide in shared gaming spaces. These highly social environments allow players to connect, interact with, and learn from each other. However, there is a growing concern that these social environments also have the potential to displace real-world connections and interactions, contributing to a variety of losses in 'offline' sociability. The current study aims to elucidate what users may be gaining or losing (socially) as a result of continued participation in online video game environments, and what potentially underlies these social changes, by examining the associations between social skills and online video game involvement through the perspective of attachment theory. The results challenge the assumption that online video game play is inexorably associated with negative social consequences for the player and indicates the potential for online gaming spaces to serve critical attachment functions by providing a social outlet that promotes a sense of closeness, belonging, and security that satisfies attachment needs for those high in attachment avoidance. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Lappe C.,University of Munster | Steinstrater O.,Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research | Pantev C.,University of Munster
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience | Year: 2013

The mismatch negativity (MMN), an event-related potential (ERP) representing the violation of an acoustic regularity, is considered as a pre-attentive change detection mechanism at the sensory level on the one hand and as a prediction error signal on the other hand, suggesting that bottom-up as well as top-down processes are involved in its generation. Rhythmic and melodic deviations within a musical sequence elicit a mismatch negativity in musically trained subjects, indicating that acquired musical expertise leads to better discrimination accuracy of musical material and better predictions about upcoming musical events. Expectation violations to musical material could therefore recruit neural generators that reflect top-down processes that are based on musical knowledge. We describe the neural generators of the musical MMN for rhythmic and melodic material after a short-term sensorimotor-auditory training. We compare the localization of musical MMN data from two previous MEG studies by applying beamformer analysis. One study focused on the melodic harmonic progression whereas the other study focused on rhythmic progression. The MMN to melodic deviations revealed significant right hemispheric neural activation in the superior temporal gyrus (STG), inferior frontal cortex (IFC), and the superior frontal (SFG) and orbitofrontal (OFG) gyri. IFC and SFG activation was also observed in the left hemisphere. In contrast, beamformer analysis of the data from the rhythm study revealed bilateral activation within the vicinity of auditory cortices and in the inferior parietal lobule, an area that has recently been implied in temporal processing. We conclude that different cortical networks are activated in the analysis of the temporal and the melodic content of musical material, and discuss these networks in the context of the the dual-pathway model of auditory processing. © 2013 Lappe, Steinsträter and Pantev.

Nalluri S.K.M.,University of Munster | Voskuhl J.,University of Munster | Bultema J.B.,University of Groningen | Boekema E.J.,University of Groningen | Ravoo B.J.,University of Munster
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2011

The wavelength determines whether DNA is captured in a light-responsive ternary supramolecular complex or released (see scheme). The reversible binding of DNA is triggered by a photoisomerization, which switches the complex from a multivalent to a monovalent binding mode. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

King H.E.,University of Munster | Plumper O.,University of Oslo | Putnis A.,University of Munster
Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2010

Large-scale olivine carbonation has been proposed as a potential method for sequestering CO2 emissions. For in situ carbonation techniques, understanding the relationship between the formation of carbonate and other phases is important to predict the impact of possible passivating layers on the reaction. Therefore, we have conducted reactions of olivine with carbonated saline solutions in unstirred batch reactors. Altering the reaction conditions changed the Mg-carbonate morphology. We propose that this corresponded to changes in the ability of the system to precipitate hydromagnesite or magnesite. During high-temperature reactions (200 °C), an amorphous silicaenriched phase was precipitated that was transformed to lizardite as the reaction progressed. Hematite was also precipitated in the initial stages of these reactions but dissolved as the reaction proceeded. Comparison of the experimental observations with reaction models indicates that the reactions are governed by the interfacial fluid composition. The presence of a new Mgsilicate phase and the formation of secondary products at the olivine surface are likely to limit the extent of olivine to carbonate conversion. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

Samanta A.,University of Munster | Stuart M.C.A.,University of Groningen | Ravoo B.J.,University of Munster
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2012

The development of triggered release systems for delivery of peptides and proteins is critical to the success of biological drug therapies. In this paper we describe a dynamic supramolecular system able to capture and release proteins in response to light. The ternary system self-assembles in a dilute aqueous solution of three components: vesicles of amphiphilic cyclodextrin host, noncovalent cross-linkers with an azobenzene and a carbohydrate moiety, and lectins. The cross-linkers form inclusion complexes with the host vesicles, provided the azobenzene is in the trans state. The formation of a ternary complex with lectins requires a high density of cross-linkers on the surface of vesicles. The key innovation in this system is a photoinduced switch from a multivalent, high-affinity state that captures protein to a monovalent, low-affinity state that releases protein. By using isothermal titration calorimetry, dynamic light scattering, UV/vis spectroscopy, and cryogenic transmission electron microscopy, we demonstrate that photoinduced capture and release of lectins in dense multilamellar complexes is highly efficient, highly selective, and fully reversible. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Meinhardt S.,Institute For Physik | Smiatek J.,University of Munster | Eichhorn R.,University of Stockholm | Schmid F.,Institute For Physik
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2012

We propose a method to separate enantiomers in microfluidic or nanofluidic channels. It requires flow profiles that break chiral symmetry and have regions with high local shear. Such profiles can be generated in channels confined by walls with different hydrodynamic boundary conditions (e.g., slip lengths). Because of a nonlinear hydrodynamic effect, particles with different chirality migrate at different speeds and can be separated. The mechanism is demonstrated by computer simulations. We investigate the influence of thermal fluctuations (i.e., the Péclet number) and show that the effect disappears in the linear response regime. The details of the microscopic flow are important and determine which volume forces are necessary to achieve separation. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Putnis A.,University of Munster | Austrheim H.,University of Oslo
Geofluids | Year: 2010

Geofluids (2010) 10, 254-269. Metamorphism and metasomatism both involve the reequilibration of mineral assemblages due to changes in pressure, temperature and/or chemical environment. Both processes involve material transport but on different length scales, so every metamorphic reaction is metasomatic on a local scale. Fluids provide a transport mechanism which is orders of magnitude faster than solid state diffusion and induce reequilibration through dissolution of parent phases and reprecipitation of products. Chemical weathering (kaolinitization and serpentinization), and albitization are used as examples to describe the coupling between dissolution and precipitation. Albitization of feldspars in nature and in experiments is a pseudomorphic replacement which generates porosity in the albite. Porosity generation associated with interface-coupled dissolution-precipitation allows rapid material transport and together with fluid induced fracturing, is the mechanism of pervasive fluid flow through reacting crystals. Examples of metamorphic reactions in granulite-eclogite rocks illustrate the role of fluids in inducing chemical changes along fluid pathways. Microstructural criteria for a metamorphic event (i.e. change in P, T) are critically reviewed by describing the corona formed by reaction between kyanite and garnet, as well as partial replacement textures. We conclude that both corona structures and partial replacement textures are equally indicative of a metasomatic reaction (driven by a fluid-induced compositional change) as they may be of a metamorphic reaction driven by a change in P and/or T. This raises the question of the extent to which fluids play not only a catalytic role but also a thermodynamic role in determining the course of a metamorphic reaction. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Brown J.M.,University of California at Santa Cruz | Stellmach S.,University of Munster
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2013

A region of a star that is stable to convection according to the Ledoux criterion may nevertheless undergo additional mixing if the mean molecular weight increases with radius. This process is called fingering (thermohaline) convection and may account for some of the unexplained mixing in stars such as those that have been polluted by planetary infall and those burning 3He. We propose a new model for mixing by fingering convection in the parameter regime relevant for stellar (and planetary) interiors. Our theory is based on physical principles and supported by three-dimensional direct numerical simulations. We also discuss the possibility of formation of thermocompositional staircases in fingering regions, and their role in enhancing mixing. Finally, we provide a simple algorithm to implement this theory in one-dimensional stellar codes, such as KEPLER and MESA. © 2013. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

Himmelein S.,University of Munster | Lewe V.,University of Munster | Stuart M.C.A.,University of Groningen | Ravoo B.J.,University of Munster
Chemical Science | Year: 2014

In this edge article we report the preparation of a supramolecular carbohydrate hydrogel containing cyclodextrin vesicles as 3D junctions. A cellulose polymer is randomly modified with hydrophobic side groups that act as guests for the cyclodextrin hosts on the surface of the vesicles. Hence, the vesicles interconnect the polymer chains into a three-dimensional network and act as multivalent linkages. The resulting gel shows significant shear-thinning and self-healing properties, which make it highly suitable for applications that require injectability. Furthermore, SAXS and cryo-TEM measurements indicate that intact vesicles are present in the gel matrix. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2014.

Voskuhl J.,University of Munster | Stuart M.C.A.,University of Groningen | Ravoo B.J.,University of Munster
Chemistry - A European Journal | Year: 2010

An artificial glycocalix selfassembles when unilamellar bilayer vesicles of amphiphilic β-cyclodextrins are decorated with maltose and lactose by host-guest interactions. To this end, maltose and lactose were conjugated with adamantane through a tetra(ethyleneglycol) spacer. Both carbohydrate-adamantane conjugates strongly bind to β-cyclodextrin (Ka ≈ 4 × 10 4M-1). The maltose-decorated vesicles readily agglutinate (aggregate) in the presence of the lectin concanavalin A, whereas the lactose-decorated vesicles agglutinate in the presence of peanut agglutinin. The orthogonal multivalent interaction in the ternary system of host vesicles, guest carbohydrates, and lectins was investigated by using isothermal titration calorimetry, dynamic light scattering, UV/Vis spectroscopy, and cryogenic transmission electron microscopy. It was shown that agglutination is reversible, and the noncovalent interaction can be suppressed and eliminated by the addition of competitive inhibitors, such as D-glucose or β-cyclodextrin. Also, it was shown that agglutination depends on the surface coverage of carbohydrates on the vesicles. © 2010 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: HEALTH.2011.2.3.3-1 | Award Amount: 15.69M | Year: 2011

In recent years, an increased number of zoonotic viruses and bacteria have crossed the species barrier to humans and caused or threatened to cause human pandemics with high morbidity and mortality. Because of our inability to predict the emergence of these pathogens, it is difficult to take preventive measures. It is known that zoonotic pathogens need to cross barriers at the animal-human interface, at the pathogen-host interface within humans, and at the human-human interface before they can cause a human pandemic. However, it is poorly understood which pathogen, host, arthropod vector, and environmental factors allow zoonotic pathogens to successfully cross these barriers. Therefore, our overall objective is to identify the key factors that render zoonotic pathogens prone to cross the species barrier and gain efficient transmissibility among humans. ANTIGONE has a two-pronged approach to reach this objective. First, we will perform primary research studies to fill important gaps in our understanding of how zoonotic pathogens can gain pandemic potential. These studies will focus on selected viruses and bacteria, including SARS coronavirus, , Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus, Nipah virus, Ebola virus, E. coli, M. bovis, B. burgdorferi, C. burnetii and S. suis. Integral to these activities will be a cross-disciplinary training programme for young scientists (Young ANTIGONE) and a web-based pathogen information sharing platform. Second, we will organize Dahlem studies where experts from the human and veterinary fields, from within and outside ANTIGONE, will discuss key issues in infectivity, pathogenicity, and transmissibility of zoonotic pathogens and determine general criteria to assess the risk of these pathogens to gain human pandemic potential. Together, the results of these activities will improve our ability to model and predict potential human pandemics of zoonotic origin and to develop effective and timely preventive measures.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-RISE | Phase: MSCA-RISE-2014 | Award Amount: 855.00K | Year: 2015

RISE_BPM networks world-leading research institutions and corporate innovators to develop new horizons for Business Process Management (BPM). BPM is a boundary-spanning discipline focused on division and re-integration of day-to-day work in organisations and on analysis of process data for organisational decision-making. Recent break-through innovations in Social Computing, Smart Devices, Real-Time Computing, and Big Data Technology create a strong impetus for propelling BPM into a pervasive corporate topic that enables design of entirely new products and services. All RISE_BPM consortium members possess excellent expertise in distinct aspects of the BPM lifecycle, ranging from Strategy and Modelling to Implementation and Analysis of business processes. RISE_BPM networks this complementary knowledge to create a unique environment for BPM research and innovation. The research activities are organised with reference to the design-science paradigm, including joint activities for analysing technological enablers and societal impact factors, as well as designing innovative IT artefacts for the BPM lifecycle. Staff secondments and joint events promote a cumulative exchange of knowledge in a think-pair-square-share approach that networks large-scale research capabilities and innovation projects carried out by the involved organisations. Key objectives of RISE_BPM are (a) to propel BPM research into the era of Social Computing, Smart Devices, Real-Time Computing, and Big Data Technology; (b) to enable companies to develop new products and services for designing and analysing business processes; and (c) to supply the involved staff with a unique intellectual environment for accumulating boundary-spanning knowledge and skills that refer to the entire BPM lifecycle. RISE_BPM extends the established administrative structures of the European Research Center for Information Systems (ERCIS) by involving additional BPM thought leaders and corporate innovators.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-ITN-2008 | Award Amount: 6.05M | Year: 2010

Astronomical observations are revealing in ever increasing detail how our Universe works. Existing and planned European investment in sophisticated observational platforms approaches many billions of Euros. However, the observations that can be made on these telescopes would be little more than pretty pictures were it not for the efforts of the experimental and theoretical laboratory astrophysics communities in collaboration with their astronomical colleagues in developing models of our Universe firmly grounded here on Earth. These models recognise the importance of chemical processes in the astronomical environment and the young science of Astrochemistry seeks to understand the rich variety of this chemistry in such a way as to make a significant contribution to us truly understanding the evolution of the modern day Universe. The LASSIE (Laboratory Astrochemical Surface Science in Europe) Initial Training Network seeks to address the key issue of the interaction of the astronomical gas phase with the dust that pervades the Universe. The gas-grain interaction, as it is know, has been recognised by astronomers as crucial in promoting chemistry. The LASSIE ITN brings together the leading European players in experimental and computational surface and solid state astrochemistry, astronomers seeking to understand the detailed role of chemical species in our modern Universe, industrial partners engaged in the development of relevant laboratory instrumentation and experts in public engagement. Through this combination LASSIE will develop capacity in astrochemistry in Europe, produce researchers equipped with a range of specialist and generic skills necessary to engage in a wide range knowledge-based careers and to reach out to all aspects of European society to deliver a positive message in relation to the scientific and technical advancement of Europe.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: NMP-2007-2.2-1 | Award Amount: 27.17M | Year: 2009

The call 4.2.2-1 organic materials for electronics and photonics is based on the observation that the limited availability of high-performance multi-functional materials is a roadblock to further industrial progress. To address the wide scope of the call, we have identified specific materials bottlenecks to the fields of electronics and photonics. They constitute the focal points of our project. One-P main objective is: to invent, design, synthesize, characterize, process, and to supply the missing materials in the fields of organic electronics and photonics and to develop appropriate patterning methods for micro- and nano-structuring of these materials that can be up-scaled to roll-to-roll technologies. The work plan is composed of five technical workpackages, each one addressing current materials challenges: 1) charge transport and injection, 2) detection and sensing, 3) light emission, 4) functional self-assembled monolayers, 5) continuous processing and technology. Computer-aided design of materials and the use of advanced characterization tools are transversal activities that are integrated in technical workpackages. The sixth workpackage is devoted to dissemination, exploitation, and management of intellectual properties that are essential for the project success. To carry out this multi-disciplinary project, a cross-sectorial consortium has been formed at the European level. It is composed of strong academic and industrial teams with necessary and complementary expertises to cover all scientific, technological and exploitation aspects. The project will generate fundamental knowledge and help to develop unprecedented technologies. They will have a positive impact on competitiveness of European industries, environment, job creation, health, security, safety, and welfare of European citizens

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: GC-SST.2010.7-9. | Award Amount: 5.22M | Year: 2011

The focus of the project is on the development of fluorinated electrolyte/separator and binders in combination with active electrodes (anode LiC6 and cathode: LiNixMn2-xO4 - 4,7V) for high performing, safe and durable Li batteries. The main deliverables of the project are the development of cell prototypes capacity > 10 A.h on which performance assessment will be conducted. The AMELIE prototype performances will be assessed towards the following objectives for EV and PHEV applications: high specific energy: cells >200 Wh/kg, improved life time: > 1000 cycles, 80% DOD for EV applications, High calendar life: > 10 years, high recyclability / recovery/ reuse: battery components 85% recycled and improved competitiveness: <500 /kWh on prototype paving the way for mass production cost <150/ kWh. The utilization of higher performing inactive organic materials (polymers and ionomers) will enable to reduce the amount of the same materials while increasing the energy and power densities of the battery, and consequently decreasing the cost per kWh of the final battery. In addition, the reuse of the components will contribute to the cost reduction of the battery. To this end a complete Life Cycle Analysis of the new battery components will be performed. To take up these challenges, academic and private organisations have partnered up in the AMELIE consortium. As the developments in this field are extremely interconnected, improved Lithium ion batteries for automotive sector can be manufactured only by the synergistic optimisation of all their components: active materials and binders for electrodes, gel polymers, lithium salts and solvents for the ionic conductors. Although innovative materials are a key lever of such improvements, the cell design will be essential for both improved performances and safety.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2011.3.5 | Award Amount: 10.64M | Year: 2012

In recent years it has become clear that mid-IR imaging spectroscopy has the potential to open a new chapter in bio-medical imaging and offers an effective tool for early cancer diagnosis and improved survival rates. Rather than a search for cancer marker absorption peaks, great progress has been made by analysing the entire bio-molecular mid-IR spectral signature using automated algorithms. However, the lack of suitable sources, detectors and components has restricted the technology to one of academic interest, based on weak thermal sources, low power lasers or synchrotron research tools.For the first time the photonic technology is in place to develop a new mid-IR technology platform on which entirely novel supercontinuum sources (c. 1000x brighter than thermal sources) covering the whole range from 1.5 to 12 m may be built:-Low loss robust chalcogenide fibres for fibre lasers, supercontinuum generation and delivery -Fibre end caps, splicing and fusion technology for soft glass fibres -Crystal technology and novel designs for mid-IR AO modulators based on calomel -Flexible fast AO driver technology to enable high speed HSI acquisition -Low cost T2SL FPA detectors with performance matching state-of-the-art MSL devices -2.9 m Er:ZBLAN and 4.5 m Pr-doped chalcogenide fibre laser pumps -Robust designs for a range of mid-IR SCG sources: a) 1.5-4.5 m from ZBLAN fibre b) 1.5-5.5 m from InF3 fibre c) 3-9 m from 2.9 m pumped PCF chalcogenide fibre d) 4-12 m from 4.5 m pumped step-index chalcogenide fibre.Two specific high impact applications will be addressed: high volume pathology screening (i.e. automated microscope-based examination of samples) and in vivo, remote, real-time skin surface examination (i.e. non-invasive investigation of suspected skin cancer).This project will open the mid-IR to further exploitation, and the technology developed will be transferable to a huge range of applications both in bio-photonics and in wider industry.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2012-ITN | Award Amount: 4.16M | Year: 2013

The FlowTrans Initial Training Network is a unique environment for career development, built on joint challenges of Industry and University partners in a newly emerging supra-disciplinary field, spanning from Physics to Earth Sciences and aiming to understand Flow in Transforming Porous Media. Training will be hosted by 8 Universities in synergy with 2 full and 4 associated industry partners with the objective of delivering highly-trained mobile researchers to the European market. The objective of FlowTrans is the creation of a unique research training environment and a new inter-sectoral supra-interdisciplinary field to de-fragment European knowledge and combine industry and universities to harness understanding of basic scientific questions for tackling future challenges in Exploration of Geological Resources. Our research training objectives focus on teaching ESRs and ERs the necessary interdisciplinary skills needed to study Flow in Transforming Porous Media. The characterization and the understanding of flow of fluids within rocks and granular media has become an ever-increasing problem in Earth Sciences, Physics, and in many industrial applications, including CO2 sequestration, hydrocarbon migration, ore deposit development, and radioactive waste disposal. One of the main problems is the understanding of flows in transforming porous media (PM), where the rocks and fluid pathways evolve spatially and temporally, for example due to chemical interactions with the flow, or due to compaction of the solid matrix. We propose to study the feedback mechanisms and their impact on the porous media through an interdisciplinary approach between Earth Scientists and Physicists. State of the art analytical and experimental methods will be used on natural systems and rock analogues, and will be complemented by multi-scale dynamical simulations, to develop new basic understanding and new methods that can be directly used in industrial applications.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: NMP-2008-2.4-1 | Award Amount: 9.75M | Year: 2009

ORION puts together a multidisciplinary consortium of leading European universities, research institutes and industries with the overall goal of advancing the fabrication of inorganic-organic hybrid materials using ionic liquids. Maximum research efforts within ORION will be addressed to achieve inorganic-organic hybrids with an ordered nanostructure and to understand and characterize the new generation of inorganic-organic hybrids. ORION aims to take advantage of the properties of Ionic Liquids as templating supramolecular solvents in the synthesis of novel hybrid materials. Additionally, the use of ILs will bring innovative properties to the hybrid materials due to their intrinsic wide electrochemical window and high ionic conductivity and hence this method will generate radically new materials. The new ordered inorganic-organic hybrids will be morphologically and electrochemically characterized with emphasis on their potential application in batteries, innovative solar cells and gas sensors. By reaching this ambitious goal, ORION will pave the way towards inorganic-organic hybrid products for chemical, materials, energy and sensor industries.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-ITN-2008 | Award Amount: 5.18M | Year: 2009

New and recent developments have revolutionized the prostate cancer research and clinical arenas, requiring the next generation scientists to have comprehensive knowledge and expertise in basic, clinical and applied research. PRO-NEST offers young researchers a European integrated, multi-disciplinary training programme to become an independent and all-round scientist and team leader in (prostate) cancer research. This network is driven by recognised and experienced scientists from 17 academic and industrial partners. The joint PRO-NEST research programme focuses on the understanding of the molecular events responsible for the initiation and progression of prostate cancer as well as on the development of novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets, with the ultimate goal to improve the diagnosis, prognosis, treatment and prevention of this major European health problem. The fellows will strongly contribute to this programme by their individual research projects that will be carried out in a high standard and collaborative scientific infrastructure under the supervision of experts in the field. In this way, they will become technical specialists in a dedicated area of cancer research. The scientific and complementary skills of the fellows will be expanded and deepened by secondments and by theoretical and practical network-wide training courses on basic and clinical aspects of prostate cancer, biomarkers, technology, valorisation, scientific writing and presentation, project management, communication skills and job application skills. In an international conference entitled The European prostate cancer research floor on stage organised at the end of PRO-NEST, the fellows are given the opportunity to present themselves to potential coming academic and industrial employers. The expertise, state of the art tools and technological skills provided by each of the partners are competitive at the world scale, and form the comprehensive basis of top-level research and training in PRO-NEST. The available support from professional organizations and the existing collaborations in large research consortia ensures the successful realization of the PRO-NEST goals.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: NMP-17-2014 | Award Amount: 7.97M | Year: 2015

Lithium sulphur batteries (LSB) are viable candidate for commercialisation among all post Li-ion battery technologies due to their high theoretical energy density and cost effectiveness. Despites many efforts, there are remaining issues that need to be solved and this will provide final direction of LSB technological development. Some of technological aspects, like development of host matrices, interactions of host matrix with polysulphides and interactions between sulphur and electrolyte have been successfully developed within Eurolis project. Open porosity of the cathode, interactions between host matrices and polysulphides and proper solvatation of polysulphides turned to be important for complete utilisation of sulphur, however with this approach didnt result long term cycling. Additionally we showed that effective separation between electrodes enables stable cycling with excellent coulombic efficiency. The remaining issues are mainly connected with a stability of lithium anode during cycling, with engineering of complete cell and with questions about LSB cells implementation into commercial products (ageing, safety, recycling, battery packs). Instability of lithium metal in most of conventional electrolytes and formation of dendrites due to uneven distribution of lithium upon the deposition cause several difficulties. Safety problems connected with dendrites and low coulombic efficiency with a constant increase of inner resistance due to electrolyte degradation represent main technological challenges. From this point of view, stabilisation of lithium metal will have an impact on safety issues. Stabilised interface layer is important from view of engineering of cathode composite and separator porosity since this is important parameter for electrolyte accommodation and volume expansion adjustment. Finally the mechanism of LSB ageing can determine the practical applicability of LSB in different applications.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2012-ITN | Award Amount: 3.90M | Year: 2013

The CO2-REACT ITN has been created to address twin objectives: (1) to provide urgently needed training in CO2 storage preparing candidates for critical roles in the coming years and (2) to significantly advance our understanding of the fate and consequences of CO2 injection into the subsurface during carbon storage efforts. The CO2-REACT ITN addresses these objectives through a balanced combination of 6 academic and 6 industrial teams. The academic partners have been selected for their unique and diverse expertise in the reactivity of carbonate phases at scales ranging from the atomic to the field scale. The six industry partners were selected to represent a spectrum of the largest stakeholders in CO2 storage. By formally joining these teams, we are creating a training/research platform that is unique in the world in its ability to understand the fate and consequences of CO2 injected into subsurface reservoirs using an impressive array of experimental and modeling techniques. CO2-REACT aims to train 13 ESRs and 1 ER, through an integrated and coherent set of research and training activities that will significantly improve our understanding of the consequences of injecting CO2 into the subsurface. We chose this technical focus because: (1) new knowledge is essential for solving a critical societal problem, (2) the problem is interdisciplinary, requiring input from chemistry, geology, physics, chemistry, hydrology and engineering, (3) producing solutions that industry can implement will promote tight academia-industry collaboration, a true plus for the trainees and and 4) by focusing on a single theme, close interaction and collaboration among the CO2-REACT teams is fostered. An additional societal objective of CO2-REACT is help to raise public awareness to the needs, challenges and safety issues in subsurface CO2 storage through public outreach efforts.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-TP | Phase: KBBE.2013.3.5-01 | Award Amount: 3.85M | Year: 2013

The Decathlon project will bring together a broad range of experts and expertise to jointly work on the development of new or improved methods that are needed in the field of 1) food pathogens, 2) traceability of GMOs and 3) customs issues. The project will develop advanced methods for all three application areas with method characteristics that meet the requirements of the individual areas, as will be laid down in minimal performance parameters (MPPs) for the types of methods as will be developed within the Decathlon project. Decathlon brings together all relevant molecular biological and bioinformatics expertise through the participation of expert European researchers in the respective fields of application. Besides technical experts, also field-related, application-oriented scientists will participate for the three areas of interest, which are fully aware of the user requirements for the methods to be developed, also in the light of current and future European regulations. By combining this awareness with technical expertise, user requirements will be translated into technical and bioinformatics method requirements that will form the starting-point for the molecular biological technical methods (including any related bioinformatics module, where applicable) to be developed. In this way the Decathlon project will develop focused DNA-based (on-site) methods for the identified areas of food pathogens, GMOs and customs issues, and at the same time stimulate the development of DNA methods for similar applications in numerous other fields that require high-quality, focused DNA-based detection and identification methods. Decathlon will provide the roadmap and blueprint for this broader application of all methods and modules developed in Decathlon. Furthermore, Decathlon will have the cooperation platform and network in place that will be extended effectively throughout the duration of the project as a consolidated European network of analytical experts.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-IRSES | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2011-IRSES | Award Amount: 361.20K | Year: 2012

The overall objective of the MONICA project is to accelerate the transfer and deployment of research knowledge between European countries and China in order to obtain better understanding of mobile cloud computing in terms of its networks, services and architecture. In particular, the transfer of knowledge, mainly as a result of researchers mobility, will focus on a new vision of mobile cloud computing paradigm. This new vision advocates the seamless integration of both arms of a mobile cloud computing platform, each locating at the different layers, namely, cloud computing at the application layer and mobile wireless networks at the network and transmission layer. This integration calls for cross-layer information exchange of the two layers to create a mobile cloud computing system where mobile network operators, service providers and end users all benefit. This staff exchange programme will also help develop new research links and deepen and strengthen the current research links amongst the partners and help build up long-term, world-class research in this exciting new research field of mobile cloud computing.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: GC.NMP.2013-1 | Award Amount: 9.01M | Year: 2013

MARS-EV aims to overcome the ageing phenomenon in Li-ion cells by focusing on the development of high-energy electrode materials (250 Wh/kg at cell level) via sustainable scaled-up synthesis and safe electrolyte systems with improved cycle life (> 3000 cycles at 100%DOD). Through industrial prototype cell assembly and testing coupled with modelling MARS-EV will improve the understanding of the ageing behaviour at the electrode and system levels. Finally, it will address a full life cycle assessment of the developed technology. MARS-EV proposal has six objectives: (i) synthesis of novel nano-structured, high voltage cathodes (Mn, Co and Ni phosphates and low-cobalt, Li-rich NMC) and high capacity anodes (Silicon alloys and interconversion oxides); (ii) development of green and safe, electrolyte chemistries, including ionic liquids, with high performance even at ambient and sub-ambient temperature, as well as electrolyte additives for safe high voltage cathode operation; (iii) investigation of the peculiar electrolyte properties and their interactions with anode and cathode materials; (iv) understanding the ageing and degradation processes with the support of modelling, in order to improve the electrode and electrolyte properties and, thus, their reciprocal interactions and their effects on battery lifetime; (v) realization of up to B5 format pre-industrial pouch cells with optimized electrode and electrolyte components and eco-designed durable packaging; and (vi) boost EU cell and battery manufacturers via the development of economic viable and technologically feasible advanced materials and processes, realization of high-energy, ageing-resistant, easily recyclable cells. MARS-EV brings together partners with complementary skills and expertise, including industry covering the complete chain from active materials suppliers to cell and battery manufacturers, thus ensuring that developments in MARS-EV will directly improve European battery production capacities.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: HEALTH.2013.1.4-1 | Award Amount: 7.82M | Year: 2013

This project will tackle the huge complexity of taking stem cell therapies to clinical application for neurodegenerative disease by focusing on selective differentiation of a single neuronal phenotype (medium spiny striatal neuron: MSN) for a single well-defined disease (Huntingtons: HD). Our consortium contains expertise in all elements required to drive this technology to the point of clinical delivery, including expertise in stem cell differentiation and control of proliferation; in vitro genetic, molecular, cellular and functional characterisation; preclinical assessment in both rodents and primates models of HD; GMP knowledge, development and production; and clinical translation. Our clinical team includes world leaders in HD clinical trials, including fetal neural transplants and is well placed to design the translation process. We focus on human embryonic stem (hES) cells as our primary target for first-in-man proof-of-concept studies, as they are closest to clinical readiness. HD is the target disease as it provides both an excellent model relevant to a wide range of neurodegenerative conditions, and is a stringent test of the capacity of selectively differentiated stem cells to repair neural circuits. The starting point for the work is the existence within the consortium of three of the most advanced protocols to date for MSN differentiation, and a feature of our consortium is that the specificity of stem cell differentiation will be tested against primary fetal MSNs (current gold standard) at all stages of both in vitro and in vivo assessment. In order to maintain flexibility in an emerging ethical environment, we will develop induced pluripotent (hiPS) cells to the point of GMP validation as a second generation target to hESCs. This will build European infrastructure and capacity to deliver emergent stem cell therapies through the highest quality clinical trials into clinical practice in a broad range of human neurodegenerative diseases.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: ICT-39-2015 | Award Amount: 3.93M | Year: 2016

its4land delivers an innovative suite of land tenure recording tools that responds to sub Saharan Africas immense challenge to rapidly and cheaply map millions of unrecognized land rights in the region. ICT innovation will play a key role. Existing approaches have failed: disputes abound, investment is impeded, and the communitys poorest lose out. its4land reinforces strategic collaboration between the EU and East Africa via a scalable and transferrable ICT solution. Established local, national, and international partnerships drive the project results beyond R&D into the commercial realm. its4land combines an innovation process with emerging geospatial technologies, including smart sketchmaps, UAVs, automated feature extraction, and geocloud services, to deliver land recording services that are end-user responsive, market driven, and fit-for-purpose. The transdisciplinary work also develops supportive models for governance, capacity development, and business capitalization. Gender sensitive analysis and design is also incorporated. Set in the East African development hotbeds of Rwanda, Kenya, and Ethiopia, its4land falls within TRL 5-7: 3 major phases host 8 work packages that enable contextualization, design, and eventual land sector transformation. In line with Living Labs thinking, localized pilots and demonstrations are embedded in the design process. The experienced consortium is multi-sectorial, multi-national, and multidisciplinary. It includes SMEs and researchers from 3 EU countries and 3 East African countries: the necessary complementary skills and expertise is delivered. Responses to the range of barriers are prepared: strong networks across East Africa are key in mitigation. The tailored project management plan ensures clear milestones and deliverables, and supports result dissemination and exploitation: specific work packages and roles focus on the latter.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-ITN-ETN | Phase: MSCA-ITN-2014-ETN | Award Amount: 3.88M | Year: 2015

The European Brain Council (EBC) has recommended the disorders of the brain to be prioritised for funding. The purpose of this ChildBrain ETN is 1) to train young scientists, Early Stage Researchers (ESRs), to utilise evidence-based neuroscientific knowledge for helping children, especially those at high risk for dropout due to neurocognitive disorders, to meet future educational and societal demands. The network aims 2) to develop new, innovative brain imaging-based tools through research and industry to be applied by researchers and clinical sector end users for 3) increasing understanding and improving diagnosis and treatment of neurocognitive disorders, as well as enhancing targeted educational programs. To accomplish these goals, we aim 4) to form a cross-disciplinary and trans-sectorial European network of experts. Three research and two training work packages (WPs) are planned to reach these goals. The Childhood neurodevelopmental disorders WP comprises new research and training on the neural underpinnings of dyslexia, ADHD, epilepsy, and hearing loss and creates links to healthcare industry and special education. The Brain development WP will focus on understanding the systems-level brain development at the level of the individual child. The Brain research methods WP will develop new multi-modal data analysis methodologies that are essential for children and will also further brain research in adults. The academic, industrial and private sector partners will work across these themes, offering the ESRs project-specific collaboration, secondments, workshops, summer school and courses on scientific, transferable and entrepreneurial skills, as well as supervision. The ChildBrain ETN will produce a new generation of scientists with the theoretical, technological, and entrepreneurial skills necessary for making breakthroughs in the understanding of brain development and childhood neurocognitive disorders.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-TP | Phase: KBBE.2012.3.4-02 | Award Amount: 9.94M | Year: 2012

SYNPOL aims to propel the sustainable production of new biopolymers from feedstock. SYNPOL will thereto establish a platform that integrates biopolymer production through modern processing technologies, with bacterial fermentation of syngas, and the pyrolysis of highly complex biowaste (e.g., municipal, commercial, sludge, agricultural). The R&D activities will focus on the integration of innovative physico-chemical, biochemical, downstream and synthetic technologies to produce a wide range of new biopolymers. The integration will engage novel and mutually synergistic production methods as well as the assessment of the environmental benefits and drawbacks. This integrative platform will be revolutionary in its implementation of novel microwave pyrolytic treatments together with systems-biology defined highly efficient and physiologically balanced recombinant bacteria. The latter will produce biopolymer building-blocks and polyhydroxyalkanoates that will serve to synthesize novel bio-based plastic prototypes by chemical and enzymatic catalysis. Thus, the SYNPOL platform will empower the treatment and recycling of complex biological and chemical wastes and raw materials in a single integrated process. The knowledge generated through this innovative biotechnological approach will not only benefit the environmental management of terrestrial wastes, but also reduce the harmful environmental impact of petrochemical plastics. This project offers a timely strategic action that will enable the EU to lead worldwide the syngas fermentation technology for waste revalorisation and sustainable biopolymer production.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: HEALTH.2011.1.1-1 | Award Amount: 7.78M | Year: 2012

Next generation sequencing (NGS) has fundamentally altered genomic research. New developments will bring NGS costs and performance down to an everybodys technology with extreme potential for ultra fast and accurate molecular typing and diagnostic as it provides the ultimate whole genome information. However, technical and bioinformatics constraints, restrict the application of NGS to few highly experienced laboratories. The goal of this project is the transition of NGS from a basic research tool to a highly efficient technology for pathogen typing and diagnostics on the EU level. This objective will be achieved by establishing a unique European consortium that brings together three SMEs leading in the fields of data to knowledge and NGS genome research with leading experts in clinical microbiology of three model pathogens of high European and worldwide importance (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Campylobacter spp., and M. tuberculosis complex. Particularly we will i) develop bio-informatics pipelines for quality-controlled and easy interpretation of NGS data, ii) optimize sample preparation steps and evaluate newest NGS (Ion Torrent) and Optical Mapping (OM) technologies, and iii) develop new, dedicated NGS-based pathogen diagnostic kits. Ultimate goal is to generate automatically plain language reports and to implement GIS and space-time cluster detections for automatic early-warning systems based on NGS-data. Application programming interfaces and a microbial typing ontology for a linked web will be developed. Product-like prototypic software development for automatic analysis of microbial NGS-data will be guided by two leading SMEs. The development of new and improved tools/technologies in this SME-targeted project will overcome existing obstacles of NGS and open the door for a wide application of NGS for European scientists and clinical microbiologist, thus fostering competitiveness of Europe in NGS research and medical applications.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-ITN-ETN | Phase: MSCA-ITN-2016 | Award Amount: 3.83M | Year: 2017

ES-Cat will use directed evolution as a tool to reproduce Natures remarkable ability to generate molecular machines - in particular enzymes that perform at levels near perfection. Instead of seeing rational and combinatorial approaches as alternatives, we combine them in this network to achieve a smarter and more efficient exploration of protein sequence space. By harnessing the forces of Darwinian evolution and design in the laboratory we want to (i) screen large and diverse libraries for proteins with improved and useful functions, (ii) optimize existing proteins for applications in medicine or biotechnology and (iii) provide a better understanding of how existing enzymes evolved and how enzyme mechanisms can be manipulated. This Network brings together leading academic and industrial groups with diverse and complementary skills. The range of methodologies represented in ES-Cat allows an integrated approach combining in silico structural and sequence analysis with experimental high-throughput screening selection methods (phage-, ribozyme and SNAP display, robotic liquid handling, lab-on-a-chip/microfluidics) with subsequent systematic kinetic and biophysical analysis. This integration of methods and disciplines will improve the likelihood of success of directed evolution campaigns, shorten biocatalyst development times, and make protein engineering applicable to a wider range of industrial targets. It will also train the next generation of creative researchers ready to fill roles in tailoring enzymes and other proteins for industrial application in synthetic biology efforts to move towards a bio-based economy, rivaling advances that are being made in the US and allowing the EU economy to harvest its evident socio-economic benefits.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-ITN-ETN | Phase: MSCA-ITN-2016 | Award Amount: 4.01M | Year: 2016

Large Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules are deeply interwoven in the fabric of the Universe and lock up ~15% of the elemental carbon in the interstellar medium (ISM) of galaxies. They dominate the mid-infrared emission characteristics of galaxies that can be used to trace star formation locally as well as in the early universe, they influence the phase structure of the ISM and the star formation rate of galaxies, and they are the epitome of molecular complexity in space, heralding the importance of top-down chemistry. In spite of the influential role of PAHs in the ISM, their lifecycle, catalytic activity, interaction with interstellar radiation, gas and grains and their role in the organic inventory of solar system bodies is still poorly understood. The EUROPAH ETN aims to change this by creating a highly multidisciplinary network that combines astronomy, molecular physics, molecular spectroscopy, environmental science, quantum chemistry, surface sciences, and plasma physics in a comprehensive research and training program. EUROPAH will train 16 ESRs through cutting edge individual research and innovation projects investigating key physical and chemical processes of PAHs in space and related terrestrial settings and linking directly to R&D needs of our industrial beneficiaries. EUROPAH will engage all ESRs in industry driven innovation activities aimed at R&D of the industrial participants products and services, including outreach activities led by our industrial science communication beneficiary. Research and innovation training is complemented by an extensive program of network-wide training events to expose ESRs to all disciplines in the network and to instill in them a comprehensive set of transferable skills. This will provide the ESRs with a unique learning environment in a multidisciplinary setting aimed at developing a research oriented creative and innovative mind set and will place them well for a future career in academia or in industry.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: EE-08-2016 | Award Amount: 1.99M | Year: 2016

The project aims at improving our understanding on behavioural mechanisms in energy efficiency, following an interdisciplinary and broad behavioural science approach. The project will provide an empirical and numerical assessment of the psychological, social, economic and financial factors that influence energy efficiency in the residential and industry sectors By paring with energy utilities and retailers in different European countries, the project will conduct scientific experiments (A/B testing) which will enhance the design of policies aiming at maximizing energy efficient behaviors. The project will use novel data from different European countries to take into consideration institutional and political factors. The project will analyze consumers behavior related to the consumption of energy, the investment in energy efficient products, as well as the renovation of buildings. Finally, ex ante assessment will be executed using improved energy economy models, which will generate quantitative information with regard to expected impacts of EU and global policies.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-ITN-ETN | Phase: MSCA-ITN-2016 | Award Amount: 3.08M | Year: 2017

For the selective and effective incorporation of oxygen into biological molecules (oxygenation reaction), several enzyme types have evolved in nature. They catalyse crucial reactions in various metabolic routes. The chemistry feasible with these biocatalysts is unrivalled when compared with conventional chemical methods. Therefore, these oxygenating enzymes are very promising tools in biotechnological approaches. However, when compared with other enzyme classes, such as hydrolases, oxygenases are still in their infancy considering their biotechnological potential. To fully exploit the catalytic power of oxygenases, several hurdles have to be taken for which a higher level of knowledge on these enzymes is needed while also technical aspects have to be solved. The European Training Network (ETN) OXYTRAIN is a joint academic/non-academic training initiative supporting the convergence of biochemistry, enzyme engineering and biotechnology. The consortiums mutual goal is developing a new generation of innovative and entrepreneurial early stage researchers (ESRs) to satisfy the need for knowledge and skills to produce and apply oxidative enzymes. This will be achieved by setting up a network and intersectoral programme in which multiple disciplines will be integrated and exploited. By bringing together 7 academic beneficiaries that are experts in the field of individual oxygenase groups, the network will provide perfect conditions for cross-fertilization of knowledge, while the 3 industrial beneficiaries and 5 partner organisations will add to the consortium by translating the generated knowledge into real industrial applications, such as textiles, pharmaceuticals and biorefineries.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SSH-2009-3.2.1. | Award Amount: 3.11M | Year: 2010

One of the key changes in societal trends and lifestyles witnessed over the past few years has been the move on-line of many consumers and the way they have become increasingly sophisticated in their media consumption habits. Have these recent changes to consumer and commercial practices developed in such a way that consumers are (in)voluntarily signing away their fundamental right to privacy? This project (CONSENT) seeks to examine how consumer behaviour, and commercial practices are changing the role of consent in the processing of personal data. While consumer consent is a fundamental value on which the European market economy is based, the way consumer consent is obtained is questionable in popular user-generative/user-generated (UGC) online services (including sites like MySpace, YouTube and Facebook), whose commercial success depends to a large extent on the disclosure by their users of substantial amounts of personal data. There is an urgent need to study and analyse the changes in consumption behaviour and consumer culture arising from the emergence of UGC online services and how contractual, commercial and technical practices and other factors affect consumer choice and attitudes toward personal privacy in the digital economy. CONSENTs multidisciplinary team intends to carry out a status quo analysis of commercial practices, legal position and consumer attitudes, identifying criteria for fairness and best practices, and then create a toolkit for policy makers and corporate counsel which will enable them to address problem identified in the analysis. CONSENT will advance the knowledge base that underpins the formulation and implementation of policies and corporate procedures in the area of privacy and consumer protection with a view to informing policy-making in the European Union and to contribute to the development of European research communities in these areas.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: HEALTH.2012.2.4.4-2 | Award Amount: 3.88M | Year: 2012

Disorders of sex development (DSD) are a conglomerate of rare diseases with an estimated incidence of 1: 4500. The causes of DSD are mainly disorders with gonadal dysgenesis, decreased androgen synthesis or function in XY males or disorders with elevated androgen production in XX females. Decision on sex of rearing is difficult in some cases as the prenatal androgen imbalances result in ambiguous genitalia at birth and furthermore they are likely to influence psychosexual development. Genital constructive surgery is needed in most cases. Lifelong cortisone replacement is needed in DSD due to defects of cortisone synthesis. Sex hormone substitution is indicated in many cases of DSD in puberty and adult life. Decision of sex of rearing, genital surgery and hormone therapies have a life-long impact on the affected individuals, which become evident mainly after puberty. In many cases psychological counselling is advised. Interpretation of previous outcome studies of DSD is hampered by small patient numbers and conglomerates of diagnoses and therapies. The study DSD-Life investigates and compares the long-term outcome of different off-label treatments in adequate numbers of adolescents and adults with different known genetic entities of DSD to develop evidence base guidelines for treatment of DSD for which no dedicated treatment is currently approved. To reach this aim, the influences and interrelations of sex assignment, genital surgery, hormone therapy, metabolism, fertility, psychological intervention but also cultural influences and patients and parents views on psychosocial adaption, health related quality of life and psychological well-being and will be investigated. The long-term impact of the study will be improvement of care and subsequently higher quality of life with better integration and participation of individuals with DSD in the society.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2009.6.4 | Award Amount: 5.48M | Year: 2010

The ENVISION project provides an ENVIronmental Services Infrastructure with Ontologies that aims to support non ICT-skilled users in the process of semantic discovery and adaptive chaining and composition of environmental services. Innovations in ENVISION are: on-the-Web enabling and packaging of technologies for their use by non ICT-skilled users, support for migrating environmental models to be provided as models as a service (Maas), and the use of data streaming information for harvesting information for dynamic building of ontologies and adapting service execution.\nThe ENVISION Environmental Decision Portal supports the creation of web-based applications enabled for dynamic discovery and visual service chaining. The ENVISION Ontology Infrastructure provides support for visual semantic annotation tools and multilingual ontology management. The ENVISION Execution Infrastructure comprises a semantic discovery catalogue and a semantic service mediator based on a generic semantic framework and adaptive service chaining with data-driven adaptability.\nScenario requirements and pilots from the ENVISION user partners focus on landslide hazard assessment and environmental pollution (oil spills) decision support systems. The benefit of ENVISION for the wider community will be better accessibility to modelling tools using the Web and it will provide greater flexibility through improved connections to distributed sources of information.\nThe technology partners contribute their technologies for semantic service discovery and chaining based on semantic annotations as a foundation for the infrastructure of ENVISION.\nThe impact of the project is ensured through strong partner participation and leadership in relevant standardisation communities (e.g. INSPIRE, OGC, ISO/TC211, OMG and OASIS), in user communities like SEISnet and EuroGeoSurveys and through the development of open-source software and reference implementations supporting open standards.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: NMP.2012.1.4-2 | Award Amount: 3.88M | Year: 2013

CARINHYPH projects deals with the hierarchical assembly of functional nanomaterials into novel nanocarbon-inorganic hybrid structures for energy generation by photocatalyic hydrogen production, with Carbon NanoTubes (CNTs) and graphene the choice of nanocarbons. The scientific activities include the development of new functionalisation strategies targeted at improving charge transfer in hybrids and therefore their photocatalytic activity, and in transferring these synergistic effects by assembling the hybrid units into macroscopic structures. Three different types of hybrid architectures will be explored: Hybrid 1 consisting of inorganic gyroids impregnated with the nanocarbon; Hybrid 2 consisting of nanocarbon membranes coated with the inorganic compound by atomic layer deposition; Hybrid 3 - electrospun hybrid fibres. CARINHYPH specifically aims to tailor interfacial charge and energy transfer processes by means of chemical functionalisation and evaluate them with photochemical and transient spectroscopy, as well as explore the effect of the nanocarbon as a substrate and heat sink, which stabilises smaller semiconductor particles and reduces agglomeration that will result in larger accessible surface areas. Two industrial partners in the consortium, a nanocarbon supplier and a potential end user, guarantee that both ends of the production line are taken into account for the development of new technologies and the production of a roadmap for industrial deployment. This roadmap will also measure sustainability of processes and materials developed in this project in terms of environmental and economical impact as compared to state-of-the-art techniques for the production of hydrogen by the use of adequate Life Cycle Costing (LCC) and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approaches.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2011-ITN | Award Amount: 3.80M | Year: 2012

The MINSC Initial Training Network (ITN) is comprised of partners from first-rate universities and high-level industrial partners located in the United Kingdom, France, Denmark, Iceland, Germany, Norway, and Italy. The prime aims of this network is to provide research and training opportunities to a new generation of young fellows in fundamental and collaborative research projects related to the nucleation and growth of a series of relevant scale mineral systems in the absence or presence of inhibitors agents. The training will combine molecular level research with studies linked to clear industrial processes at the field-level. The ultimate goal is to better understand one of the highly relevant problems in oil, geothermal and food industrial processes: pipe clogging and surface corrosion by mineral scale precipitates during production. To achieve this, the network will combine training of early stage and experienced researchers in state-of-the-art techniques of mineral formation and characterization both in laboratory and industrial settings with research objectives that aim at quantifying the nucleation and growth of several mineral systems: carbonates, sulphates/sulphides, oxalates and silicates. Scaling can often be retarded via inhibitors but their role in affecting rates of formation of these minerals in solution, on surfaces as well as in real-world industrial settings (i.e., pipes, cores etc.) are unknown. We will determine these rates in laboratory experiments and implement and test these novel findings directly in industrial power plant systems. The prime industrially-driven science goal is twofold (a) to better understand what leads to the precipitation of a series of mineral scales causing a massive decrease in efficiency and increased cost for industrial processes (i.e., oil and gas production, geothermal energy, beer) and (b) to develop processes/inhibitors that can help mitigate and / or prevent scale formation in such environments.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-ITN-ETN | Phase: MSCA-ITN-2016 | Award Amount: 3.89M | Year: 2017

The network Collective effects and optomechanics in ultra-cold matter (ColOpt) will train early-stage researchers (ESR) in fundamental science and applications in the areas of cold atom and quantum physics, optical technologies and complexity science to promote European competiveness in emergent quantum technologies. It consists of nine academic nodes and three companies from six European countries, supported by two partners in Brazil and the USA, five further non-academic partners and one public-private partnership. Collective, nonlinear dynamics and spontaneous self-organization are abundant in nature, sciences and technology and of central importance. Building on this interdisciplinary relevance, a particular novelty of ColOpt is the integration of classical and quantum self-organization. The research program focuses on collective interactions of light with laser-cooled cold and quantum-degenerate matter. We will explore innovative control of matter through optomechanical effects, identify novel quantum phases, enhance knowledge of long-range coupled systems and advance the associated trapping, laser and optical technologies, establishing new concepts in quantum information and simulation. ColOpt combines cutting-edge science with training in complex instrumentation and methods to the highest level of technical expertise, both experimentally and theoretically, and fosters the development of transferable skills and critical judgement. Each ESR will be exposed to a broad spectrum of experimental, theoretical and industrial environments, to obtain core competence in one of them and the collaborative experience and skills to thrive in a truly international and intersectorial framework. ESRs will develop the capabilities to analyse and understand complex interactions, and will gain awareness of societal and entrepreneurial needs and opportunities. Taken together, this will enable them to excel in a variety of sectors of our diverse and rapidly changing society.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: ICT-29-2016 | Award Amount: 4.00M | Year: 2016

The project GALAHAD targets the critical need for better glaucoma diagnostic systems. Glaucoma is an age-related major cause of blindness. The eye disease is characterized by an irreversible damage to the optic nerve head caused by increased intra-ocular pressure. The current screening and basic diagnostics for the disease involve intra-ocular pressure measurement, visual field tests and detection of structural damage to the optic nerve head and retinal nerve fibre layer. The present methods have high rates of false positive or false negative results since the in depth analysis of optical nerve head damage is not possible due to the poor resolution of available optical technologies. A leading candidate is optical coherence tomography (OCT), but the required axial resolution is ~1 m, well beyond the 3-5 m resolution of commercial systems. GALAHAD aims to develop a label free, compact and easy to operate high resolution diagnostic OCT system. The multiband and multimodal system will use submicron ultra-high resolution polarisation sensitive OCT (UHR PS OCT). The key breakthrough elements are: (i) A revolutionary low cost multiband supercontinuum light source. (ii.) Ground-breaking ultra-broadband photonic components required to exploit such a source. (iii.) Automated glaucoma screening algorithms: using end user evaluation of cell and animal models and tissue samples, automated algorithms will be developed, trained and tested so that non-expert operators will be able to perform glaucoma screening. The GALAHAD in depth glaucoma diagnostics after a positive screening with conventional methods will dramatically reduce false positive and false negative screening results and decrease the number of patients suffering from glaucoma-related disability. The project is driven by world leading companies and manufacturers of OCT systems and guided by requirement specifications and validated by high ranking clinical and experimental ophthalmologists in their clinical settings.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-RISE | Phase: MSCA-RISE-2015 | Award Amount: 1.19M | Year: 2016

The project For a Better Tomorrow: Social Enterprises on the Move (FAB-MOVE) brings together researchers and practitioners in order to explore the question of how social enterprises can grow and flourish. These objectives will be achieved through a carefully crafted network of academic and non-academic partner organisations co-operating worldwide. Managers and practitioners of social enterprises often lack an easy access to the frontiers of science. FAB-MOVE will significantly improve the transfer of knowledge between academics and non-academics and thus increase the practical applicability of research findings. For an enduring sustainable impact, FAB-MOVE develops a teaching tool to educate (future) managers of social enterprises on how to set up their enterprise in a specific environment, how to combine business with a social goal, and how to develop strategies for growth and scaling-up. Currently there is a lack of knowledge about the influence of different social and economic environments on social enterprises. Local eco-systems and traditions have a decisive impact on the wellbeing, growth and potentials for scaling-up of social enterprises. FAB-MOVE focuses on the embeddedness of social enterprises and its impact on their evolution. It identifies crucial success factors for a sustainable development of these new and innovative organisations in an internationally comparative perspective. Thoroughly analysed case studies will serve as best practices by highlighting how social enterprises overcome crucial problems and manage to grow in different social areas and various regions around the world. In particular, the cases will shed light on how managers of social enterprises cooperate with stakeholders and how their environment composed of promoting actors and existing (political) structures meet their needs in order to improve social cohesion all over Europe.

University of Munster and Max Planck Gesellschaft Zur Forderung Der Wissenschaften E.V. Westfallsche Wilhelms | Date: 2012-09-27

The invention refers to a process for the production of graphene nanoribbons in the presence of an anisotropic metal surface which induces a spatial orientation of the nanoribbons.

Tasaki K.,Mitsubishi Chemical Holdings America | Goldberg A.,Accelrys Software Inc. | Winter M.,University of Munster
Electrochimica Acta | Year: 2011

Density functional theory (DFT) calculations and classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been performed to gain insight into the difference in cycling behaviors between the ethylene carbonate (EC)-based and the propylene carbonate (PC)-based electrolytes in lithium-ion battery cells. DFT calculations of the lithium solvation, Li+(S)i (S = EC or PC; i = 1-4) with and without the presence of the counter anion showed that the desolvation energy to remove one solvent molecule from the first solvation shell of the lithium ion was significantly reduced by as much as 70 kcal mol-1 (293.08 kJ mol-1) in the presence of the counter anion, suggesting the lithium ion is more likely to be desolvated at high salt concentrations. The thermodynamic stability of the ternary graphite intercalation compounds, Li+(S)iC72, in which Li+(S)i was inserted into a graphite cell, was also examined by DFT calculations. The results suggested that Li+(EC) iC72 was more stable than Li+(PC) iC72 for a given i. Furthermore, some of Li +(PC)iC72 were found to be energetically unfavorable, while all of Li+(EC)i=1-4C72 were stable, relative to their corresponding Li+(S)i in the bulk electrolyte. In addition, the interlayer distances of Li +(PC)iC72 were more than 0.1 nm longer than those of Li+(EC)iC72. MD simulations were also carried out to examine the solvation structures at a high salt concentration of LiPF6: 2.45 mol kg-1. The results showed that the solvation structure was significantly interrupted by the counter anions, having a smaller solvation number than that at a lower salt concentration (0.83 mol kg-1). We propose that at high salt concentrations, the lithium desolvation may be facilitated due to the increased contact ion pairs so as to form a stable ternary GIC with less solvent molecules without destruction of graphite particles, followed by solid-electrolyte-interface film formation reactions. The results from both DFT calculations and MD simulations are consistent with the recent experimental observations. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: HEALTH.2010.4.2-3 | Award Amount: 3.92M | Year: 2011

Until the age of biotechnology, treatment options for children and adolescents with severe arthritis, inflammatory bowel diseases and other serious diseases with chronic inflammation were limited. Advances in understanding the pathophysiology of the inflammatory responses have led to the development of a new class of medications that are capable of inhibiting selectively the principal mediators of inflammation and tissue damage. The introduction of these new immunomodulators, which are collectively termed biologics, has opened a new era in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Recent reports however suggest unexpected increases in adverse - or serious events -associated with the use of these biologics. PHARMACHILD aims to detect, assess and understand long term and short term side effects of the use of biologics by studying the pharmacovigilance in a large international cohort of patients with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (children and young adults) in order to support regulatory decisions on marketing authorizations for these products. There is a clear need for a study that will enable the promotion of more effective and safer use of biologics in JIA as children and young adolescents represent an especially vulnerable patient group, JIA is the most common chronic disease of childhood treated with biologics, and data available from adults cannot be extrapolated to children. PHARMACHILD brings together leading European scientists in the field of infectious diseases, immunity, inflammation and oncology. Our network combines resources from international organizations and existing national registries. This combination will enable us to achieve the critical mass (in terms of expertise and resources) to identify the risk factors for developing adverse events, to elucidate the mechanisms involved in the adverse events (such as latent infection reactivation) and to develop methodologies for screening and predicting patients at risk.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: HEALTH-2011.2.2.1-2 | Award Amount: 24.91M | Year: 2012

The goal of this proposal (INMiND) is to carry out collaborative research on molecular mechanisms that link neuroinflammation with neurodegeneration in order to identify novel biological targets for activated microglia, which may serve for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes, and to translate this knowledge into the clinic. The general objectives of INMiND are: (i) to identify novel mechanisms of regulation and function of microglia under various conditions (inflammatory stimuli; neurodegenerative and -regenerative model systems); (ii) to identify and implement new targets for activated microglia, which may serve for diagnostic (imaging) and therapeutic purposes; (iii) to design new molecular probes (tracers) for these novel targets and to implement and validate them in in vivo model systems and patients; (iv) to image and quantify modulated microglia activity in patients undergoing immune therapy for cognitive impairment and relate findings to clinical outcome. Within INMiND we bring together a group of excellent scientists with a proven background in efficiently accomplishing common scientific goals (FP6 project DiMI,, who belong to highly complementary fields of research (from genome-oriented to imaging scientists and clinicians), and who are dedicated to formulate novel image-guided therapeutic strategies for neuroinflammation related neurodegenerative diseases. The strength of this proposal is that, across Europe, it will coordinate research and training activities related to neuroinflammation, neurodegeneration/-regeneration and imaging with special emphasis on translating basic mechanisms into clinical applications that will provide health benefits for our aging population. With its intellectual excellence and its crucial mass the INMiND consortium will play a major role in the European Research Area and will gain European leadership in the creation of new image-guided therapy paradigms in patients with neurodegenerative diseases.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: HEALTH-2009-2.1.2-1 | Award Amount: 14.94M | Year: 2010

AIM: To identify the molecular mechanisms characterizing cilium function, and the discrete perturbations associated with dysfunction caused by mutations in inherited ciliopathies, applying a systems biology approach. BACKGROUND: Cilia are microtubule-based, centriole-derived projections from the cell surface. They transduce extracellular signals and regulate key processes in which signals of the extracellular environment are translated into a cellular response, such as cell cycle control, Wnt signalling, Shh signalling and planar cell polarity. Disruption of cilium-based processes by mutations can cause very severe disorders. Many of these ciliopathies have overlapping phenotypes. There is evidence, that ciliary proteins are organized in cell/context specific complexes and/or in shared regulatory circuits in cilia of affected tissues. Yet, knowledge of the composition, wiring, dynamics and associated signaling pathways of the corresponding molecular building blocks and associated protein networks remains very limited. APPROACH: We propose here that ciliopathies can be considered systemically as specific perturbations in a versatile dynamically regulated multifunctional molecular machine. Mainly based on the comprehensive description of the ciliary interactome, quantitative functional assays as well as human genetic data derived from ciliopathy patients, we will generate a comprehensive stream of content-rich quantitative data towards systemic analysis of ciliar function. These data will be used to generate and validate discrete models that describe functional modules and regulatory circuits in the ciliome as well as predicting biological context specific features of cilia as well as perturbations leading to ciliopathies. This will enable us to 1) understand the systemic features of discrete ciliary functions, 2) scrutinize the molecular disease mechanisms of different overlapping ciliopathies, and 3) develop therapeutic strategies towards improved treatment.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-IRSES | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2010-IRSES | Award Amount: 128.70K | Year: 2011

The project aims to contribute to the advancement of the public sector through the identification of innovative practices of public administration and governance which, through serving peoples needs best, strengthen social cohesion and inclusion through participative governance within the three countries of Germany, Denmark and the USA and hence, in effect, uphold the legitimacy of the public sector. At the national level, the project will address two objectives: 1) to provide an overview of public administration and management innovations and 2) to assess the level of participative governance achieving gh social cohesion operationalised throuh inclusion and responsiveness. At the local level drawing on a case-study design, the project will research the impact of new modes of public governance on the demand-side from the citizens and beneficiaries of public services and on the supply-side from the civil servants and other providers of the services. The selected cases of urban areas, representing the lowest echelon in public governance and service delivery, will be identified by drawing on the results of the analysis conducted at the national level.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-CSA-Infra | Phase: INFRA-2011-1.1.20. | Award Amount: 12.58M | Year: 2012

The Project promotes the access to five European Research Infrastructures, and it is structured into nine Networking Activities, plus the Management of the Consortium, and fourteen Joint Research Activities. The Project will profit of the success of the previous HadronPhysics project in FP6 and the current HadronPhysics2 in FP7, and originates from the initiative of more than 2.500 European scientists working in the field of hadron physics. Hadron physics deals with the study of strongly interacting particles, the hadrons. Hadrons are composed of quarks and gluons. Their interaction is described by Quantum Chromo Dynamics, the theory of the strong force. Hadrons form more complex systems, in particular atomic. Under extreme conditions of pressure and temperature, hadrons may loose their identity and dissolve into a new state of matter similar to the primordial matter of the early Universe. The Networking Activities are related to the organization of experimental and theoretical collaborative work concerning both ongoing activities at present Research Infrastructures and planned experiments at future facilities. In hadron physics the close interaction between experimentalists and theoreticians is of paramount importance. The Joint Research Activities concentrate on technological innovations for present and future experiments. Applications in material science, medicine, information, technology, etc., represent natural fall-outs. The main objective of this Integrating Activity is to optimize the use and development of the Research Infrastructures existing in Europe working in the field of hadron physics. The Project aims as well at structuring, on European scale, the way Research Infrastructures operate, and at fostering their joint development in terms of capacity and performance. The approach used is the bottom up approach, to respond to the needs of the scientific community in all fields of science and technology.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-TP | Phase: KBBE.2012.3.4-02 | Award Amount: 12.10M | Year: 2012

The 4-year SPLASH project will develop a new biobased industrial platform using microalgae as a renewable raw material for the sustainable production and recovery of hydrocarbons and (exo)polysaccharides from the species Botryococcus braunii and further conversion to renewable polymers. The project comprises 20 partners of which 40% SME and several large corporates plus universities and research institutes. Two bioproduction platforms will be explored: (1) green alga Botryococcus braunii on its own and (2) the green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, to which the unique hydrocarbon and polysaccharides producing genes from Botryococcus will be transferred. SPLASH will deliver knowledge, tools and technologies needed for the establishment of a new industry sector: Industrial Biotechnology with algae and/or algal genes for the manufacture of polyesters and polyolefins. The building blocks for these polymers will be derived from the sugars (polyesters) and hydrocarbons (polyolefins) exuded by the algae: adipic acid from galactose, 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid from glucose, rhamnose and fucose, 1,4-pentanediol from rhamnose and fucose, ethylene from green naphtha, propylene from green naphtha. The conversion of ethylene and propylene to polyolefins is common technology, and will not be included in the project. The sugar-derived building blocks will be converted to new condensation polymers, including poly(ethylene 2,5-furandioate) (PEF) and poly(1,4-pentylene adipate-co-2,5-furandioate). End-use applications include food packaging materials and fibres for yarns, ropes and nets. The project encompasses (1) development of Botryococcus as an industrial production platform, (2) Systems biology analysis, (3) Development of procedures for production, in situ extraction and isolation, (4) product development.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: INFRAIA-1-2014-2015 | Award Amount: 10.23M | Year: 2015

The Europlanet 2020 Research Infrastructure (EPN2020-RI) will address key scientific and technological challenges facing modern planetary science by providing open access to state-of-the-art research data, models and facilities across the European Research Area. Its Transnational Access activities will provide access to world-leading laboratory facilities that simulate conditions found on planetary bodies as well as specific analogue field sites for Mars, Europa and Titan. Its Virtual Access activities will make available the diverse datasets and visualisation tools needed for comparing and understanding planetary environments in the Solar System and beyond. By providing the underpinning facilities that European planetary scientists need to conduct their research, EPN2020-RI will create cooperation and effective synergies between its different components: space exploration, ground-based observations, laboratory and field experiments, numerical modelling, and technology. EPN2020-RI builds on the foundations of successful FP6 and FP7 Europlanet programmes that established the Europlanet brand and built structures that will be used in the Networking Activities of EPN2020-RI to coordinate the European planetary science communitys research. It will disseminate its results to a wide range of stakeholders including industry, policy makers and, crucially, both the wider public and the next generation of researchers and opinion formers, now in education. As an Advanced Infrastructure we place particular emphasis on widening the participation of previously under-represented research communities and stakeholders. We will include new countries and Inclusiveness Member States, via workshops, team meetings, and personnel exchanges, to broaden/widen/expand and improve the scientific and innovation impact of the infrastructure. EPN2020-RI will therefore build a truly pan-European community that shares common goals, facilities, personnel, data and IP across national boundaries

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: GC.NMP.2012-1 | Award Amount: 3.74M | Year: 2012

This project is aimed to the identification and development of nanostructured electrode and electrolyte materials to promote the practical implementation of the very high energy lithium-sulfur battery. In particular, the project will be directed to the definition and test of a new, lithium metal-free battery configuration based on the use of lithiated silicon as the anode and a nanostructured sulfur-carbon composite as the cathode. It is expected that this battery will offer an energy density at least three times higher than that available from the present lithium battery technology, a comparatively long cycle life, a much lower cost (replacement of cobalt-based with a sulfur-based cathode) and a high safety degree (no use of lithium metal). All the necessary steps for reaching this goal are considered, starting from material synthesis and characterization, exploiting nanotechnology for improving rate capability and fast charging, the fabrication and test of large scale prototypes and to the completion of the cycle by setting the conditions for the recycling process. A team of experts have been selected as partners of the project, including a number of academic laboratories, all with worldwide recognized experience in the lithium battery field, whose task will be that of defining the most appropriate electrode and electrolyte nanostructures. The project will benefit by the support of a laboratory expert in battery modeling to provide the theoretical guidelines for materials optimization. Large research laboratories, having advanced and modern battery producing machineries will be involved in the preparation and test of middle size battery prototypes. Finally, chemical and battery manufacturing industries will assure the necessary materials scaling-up and the fabrication and test of large batteries and particular attention will be devoted to the control of the safety and to definition and practical demonstration of its most appropriate recycling process.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: NoE | Phase: HEALTH.2010.2.4.1-3 | Award Amount: 14.22M | Year: 2011

ENCCA aims to establish a durable, European Virtual Institute clinical and translational research in childhood and adolescent cancers that will define and implement an integrated research strategy and will facilitate the necessary investigator-driven clinical trials to introduce the new generation of biologically targeted drugs into standard of care for children and adolescents with cancer. This will lead to more efficacious and less toxic therapies that will maximise the quality of life of the increasing number of survivors of cancer at a young age in Europe and allow them to assume their proper place in society. This biologically-driven research agenda will improve training of the clinical investigators and translational scientists of the future to spread excellence, increase capacity to participate in research and monitor outcomes across Europe. Patients and their families will be full partners and will be better informed about the need for and processes of clinical research. They will be in a better situation to care from their long term health risks for children. Drug development will be accelerated in partnership with industry through improved access to young patients with cancer, to academic expertise in care, clinical and biological research. All of this will be achieved with respect for the highest ethical and patient safety standards. ENCCA will bring all stakeholders to the table in a timely and efficacious manner. It will address the needs of all the current multinational clinical trial groups for the benefit of children with cancer. It will provide them with common tools and approaches to solve the bottlenecks in testing new therapeutic strategies for those rare diseases in a vulnerable age group and in running a competitive clinical research agenda. Ongoing efforts to coordinate EU and US clinical research will be reinforced. ENCCA will be led by the most active EU institutes in the field (31), recognised as being at the forefront of excellence.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-SA | Phase: SiS.2012.2.2.1-1 | Award Amount: 3.78M | Year: 2013

This project aims to promote a widespread use of inquiry-based science teaching (IBST) in primary and secondary schools. Our major innovation is to connect IBST in school with the world of work making science more meaningful for young European students and motivating their interest in careers in S & T. To this end, we will run training courses in which pre- and in-service teachers will learn about IBST supported by teachers from vocational education, representatives from industry and informal learning. They will develop inquiry tasks in vocational contexts, leading to a large European task repository. Teachers will experience IBST themselves and through iterative cycles of implementation followed by reflection integrate this into their practice. To ensure widespread participation we will use a pyramid model in which we will work with a small number of teachers first each of which will then work with further teachers. Additionally we will develop an innovative interactive e-learning platform. To profit from the international perspective offered by the project teachers will be connected with existing European networks and our own thematic network on IBST through (virtual) meetings, a forum and the task repository. We will adopt a systemic approach to dissemination working with teachers and additionally parents, students, school authorities and policy makers. National and European advisory panels will bring together stakeholders to advise partners throughout the project; dialogue with policy makers will be facilitated by workshops and policy papers. To ensure effectiveness our work will be informed by a detailed analysis of the educational systems in partner nations. We plan to reach more than 65.000 teachers directly and 800.000 teachers indirectly (via stakeholders, media). Throughout, our work will be subject to rigorous evaluation and measures of quality assurance that will be both summative and formative in informing the progress of the project.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: HEALTH-2007-3.1-4 | Award Amount: 3.83M | Year: 2009

The main objective of the proposed project is to develop and to validate a system for measurement and feedback of outcome quality and support of decision making. The project will be executed in the areas of postoperative pain management which serves as an example for other fields of medicine with a high variation of care. The project will provide the medical community with a unique, user-friendly system to improve treatment of patients with postoperative pain. We propose to develop and implement a web-based information system, featuring three functions: Feedback and benchmarking system which provides participating sites with continuously updating data and analyses about the quality of care they provide compared to other institutions and allows identification of best clinical practice. Clinical Decision Support System for Post-Operative Pain, which responds to queries made by physicians for advice regarding treatment of individual patients. A Knowledge Library which provides clinicians with easily accessible summaries of evidence-based recommendations tailored to specific post-operative situations. The first two functions will draw their information from a large database or registry. The registry will receive data about post-operative patients from x participating clinical sites across Europe. The third function, the Knowledge Library, will draw its information from published, peer-reviewed studies, and will be updated periodically. To increase the benefit of the system to end-users, the registry will be complemented with patient data on side effects and treatment costs. All of these will be integrated into the feedback system. The proposed project is the first comprehensive, concerted European effort in the field of improving clinical decision making. It integrates experience gained from national initiatives, and the expertise of world-leading, European-based, groups dealing with benchmarking, health outcomes and health care utilization research

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SEC-2013.2.5-2 | Award Amount: 3.75M | Year: 2014

Some progress has been made in understanding and managing cyber crime as well assessing its economic impact. Yet much remains to be done. Lack of co-ordination in law enforcement and legislation, lack of common consensus on the nature of cyber crime and lack of knowledge sharing and trust are just some of the issues that both afflict cyber crime responses and cloud our understanding of cyber crime. E-CRIME addresses these well-known problems, while analysing the economic impact of cyber crime and developing concrete measures to manage risks and deter cyber criminals in non-ICT sectors. E-CRIME does so by adopting an interdisciplinary and multi-level-stakeholder focused approach that fully integrates a wide range of stakeholders knowledge and insights into the project. First, the project will create a detailed taxonomy and inventory of cyber crime in non-ICT sectors and analyse cyber criminal structures and economies by combining the best existing data sources with specialist new insights from key stakeholders and experts. Second, E-CRIME will assess existing counter-measures against cyber crime in non-ICT sectors in the form of current technology, best practices, policy and enforcement approaches, and awareness and trust initiatives. Third, having mapped the as-is of cyber crime, the project will use available information and new data to develop a multi-level model to measure the economic impact of cyber crime on non ICT-sectors. Fourth, E-CRIME will integrate all its previous findings to identify and develop diverse, concrete counter-measures, combined in portfolios of inter-sector and intra-sector solutions, including enhancement for crime-proofed applications, risk management tools, policy and best practices, and trust and confidence measures. The analysis will proceed in close co-operation with relevant and diverse stakeholders. This will be achieved through conducting interviews and survey, organising workshops and setting up an E-CRIME Stakeholder Forum.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: HEALTH-2007-1.2-4 | Award Amount: 15.50M | Year: 2008

Cell therapy can be defined as the transplantation of living cells for the treatment of medical disorders. Three different principles underlie the increasing interest in cell therapy. 1. Transplanted cells used as an active drug 2. Transplanted cells used to replace damaged and degenerated tissue. 3. Cells used as a drug delivery vehicle. Promising results have been obtained in pre-clinical and clinical studies, however, success rates have been variable and clinical benefits have been limited. A major issue is the fact that the mechanisms by which cell therapy works in the different disease areas, are still poorly understood. The ability to non-invasively monitor the fate and modes of action of transplanted cells over time is mandatory. The development of relevant imaging tools will lead to a better understanding of how cell therapy works, the possibility of response monitoring in patients, and sufficient safety of the treatment.. ENCITE will provide tools to allow this by developing; New imaging methods to improve the spatio-temporal tracking of labelled cells Dual- and multimodality imaging procedures to cross-validate each individual approach New contrast agents and procedures that will improve the sensitivity and specificity of cellular labelling Combining of molecular biology for the generation of molecular and cellular imaging reporters with multimodal imaging techniques Novel cell and animal reporter systems detecting the location and function of individual cells and small cell subsets within the target organ Cellular labelling that does not interfere with cellular functions and therapeutic efficacy Methods for quantitative assessment to generate reliable biomarkers of the cell fate and therapeutic effects Cell homing for therapeutic delivery to target organs The tools and methodologies developed will be validated in 5 key disease areas; Neurological, Cardiovascular, Musculoskeletal, Diabetes and Cancer.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: PHC-11-2015 | Award Amount: 5.86M | Year: 2016

Breast cancer represents a leading cause of cancer death in women and a major socio-economic issue. With currently available methods, early diagnosis frequently fails. Moreover, beyond mere detection, there is an ever-increasing need for improved non-invasive characterisation of cancer. Targeted therapies require an in-depth analysis of cancer to select and guide appropriate treatment. Both, PET and MRI can provide molecular and functional information that may be of pivotal importance for tailoring therapy. However, current whole-body PET/MRI systems lack the necessary sensitivity and resolution for this task. HYPMED addresses this by engineering an innovative imaging tool. HYPMED will integrate an innovative fully-digital MRI-transparent PET-detector into a novel multi-channel PET-transparent MRI surface coil. The PET-RF insert will allow unprecedented imaging of breast cancer with high-resolution/ultra-high sensitivity PET, combined with high-level structural and functional MRI, and allow minimal-invasive MR- and PET-guided targeted biopsy. Moreover with such PET-RF inserts, every regular clinical MR-system can, upon demand, be turned into a hybrid system. We will evaluate the impact of this technology on breast cancer diagnosis, prediction, and monitoring/assessment of treatment response by a carefully designed clinical study that employs established and novel PET tracers in 250 patients. Imaging data will be correlated with established and novel molecular biomarkers; results will be compared to those obtained from whole-body PET/MRI and PET/CT. A multidisciplinary consortium of clinical scientists, 3 SMEs and an industry partner will pave the way for commercialization of HYPMED products for advanced clinical decision making in cancer patients. Once HYPMED is successful, we will expand this approach to other applications such as prostate cancer or cardiac hybrid imaging, and thus introduce a paradigm shift in the field of PET/MR hybrid imaging as a whole.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: LCE-31-2016-2017 | Award Amount: 3.34M | Year: 2016

The Energy Union Framework Strategy laid out on 25 February 2015 has embraced a citizens-oriented energy transition based on a low-carbon transformation of the energy system. The success of the energy transition pillar in the Energy Union will hinge upon the social acceptability of the necessary reforms and on the public engagement in conceptualizing, planning, and implementing low carbon energy transitions. The ENABLE.EU project will aim to define the key determinants of individual and collective energy choices in three key consumption areas - transportation, heating & cooling, and electricity and in the shift to prosumption (users-led initiatives of decentralised energy production and trade). The project will also investigate the interrelations between individual and collective energy choices and their impact on regulatory, technological and investment decisions. The analysis will be based on national household and business surveys in 11 countries, as well as research-area-based comparative case studies. ENABLE.EU aims to also strengthen the knowledge base for energy transition patterns by analysing existing public participation mechanisms, energy cultures, social mobilisation, scientists engagement with citizens. Gender issues and concerns regarding energy vulnerability and affluence will be given particular attention. The project will also develop participatory-driven scenarios for the development of energy choices until 2050 by including the findings from the comparative sociological research in the E3ME model created by Cambridge Econometrics and used extensively by DG Energy. The findings from the modelling exercise will feed into the formulation of strategic and policy recommendations for overcoming the gaps in the social acceptability of the energy transition and the Energy Union plan. Results will be disseminated to relevant national and EU-level actors as well as to the general public.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: HEALTH.2012.2.4.5-2 | Award Amount: 7.45M | Year: 2013

In chronic joint disease, only a subgroup of patients has classical autoantibodies, while the other variants are seronegative arthritis syndromes with a predominance of innate immune disturbances. These forms of joint diseases frequently show extra-articular manifestations of epithelial tissues like skin and gut. On the molecular level, innate immune activation and the release of damage associated molecular pattern proteins (DAMPs) of the S100 family are important mechanisms of initiation and perpetuation. Early diagnosis remains a significant problem, and prediction of disease extension and course is challenging. Despite all efforts we do not have therapies that alleviate the disease and protect from disease progression, damage and long-term disability. The identification of specific inflammatory mechanisms that correlate to patterns of disease characteristics would allow targeted therapeutic approaches. In a comprehensive research approach, MIAMI will establish relevant disease mechanisms and translate finding into novel biomarkers for individual adaptation of therapies (personalised medicine) for seronegative arthritis. Our research strategy leaves retracted ways of genetics and classical autoimmunity; instead we will focus on innate immunity and inflammation. The goals of MIAMI are ambitious and will be reached with cutting-edge research performed by the most excellent researchers in the field, who have been combined to form a multidisciplinary consortium. The choice of the scientific as well as industry partners was entirely based on excellence. Thus, MIAMI brings together the leading teams that are working on mechanisms of innate immunity in arthritis and mucosal inflammation. In summary, MIAMI will significantly contribute to progress on the key questions: Who will be affected by which disease manifestation or complication, how can we use this knowledge to identify the disease, and what will be a meaningful target to treat or even prevent deleterious outcome.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: PEOPLE-2007-1-1-ITN | Award Amount: 3.11M | Year: 2008

In this ITN we investigate the mechanism of mineral reequilibration (phase transformation) in the presence of a fluid phase in a wide range of minerals and rocks, under a range of chemical and physical conditions, using both natural and experimental samples. Interface-coupled dissolution-reprecipitation is a recently defined mechanism which applies to a wide range of mineral transformation phenomena. We apply these principles in individual projects to better understand the mechanisms of processes important in earth sciences and in industry, including metasomatic reactions in rocks, chemical weathering, mineral replacement mechanisms in CO2 sequestration, the aqueous durability of nuclear waste materials, remediation of contaminated water by mineral reaction, and the preservation of stone-based cultural heritage. The research methods bring together a range of complementary expertise, from field-related studies to nano-scale investigations of reaction interfaces using state-of-the-art high resolution analytical methods. The application of fundamental principles of mineral reequilibration to a wide range of applications, together with industrial involvement at all levels will ensure that the project provides a strong platform for training.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: BSG-SME | Phase: SME-2013-1 | Award Amount: 1.35M | Year: 2013

Therapeutic antibodies have transformed cancer therapy during the last decade, due to their high selectivity of targeting cancer cells in comparison to standard small molecule chemotherapy. Most recently, the coupling of cellular toxins to therapeutic antibodies has demonstrated an even greater efficacy in the therapy of cancer and the first, highly potent antibody drug conjugate (ADC), Adcetris, was FDA approved in August 2011. All ADCs currently in clinical development are generated by chemical conjugation of small molecule toxins to antibodies. This is an inefficient process, as site and ratio of toxin coupling cannot be controlled. In addition, the chemical conjugation involves chemical modification of potentially functional parts of the antibody. This can have negative effects on stability, specificity, CMC properties and the overall structure of the antibody. All this renders ADC manufacturing highly challenging, complicates regulatory procedures, and adds to development time and costs. The SME consortium has complementary proprietary technologies and proposes to leverage this complementary expertise and know-how for defining novel processes of enzymatically conjugating small molecule toxins to antibodies that allow full control about toxin coupling site and ratio. Due to the high selectivity of enzymatic conjugation and physiologic conjugation conditions, it is expected that more homogeneous ADCs are generated with better CMC properties, higher potency, and at lower cost-of-goods in manufacturing. The consortium members believe that this represents a disruptive technology that will be highly competitive to traditional chemical conjugation, currently dominated by U.S.-based ADC technology companies Seattle Genetics and Immunogen. In addition to novel composition-of-matter IP, important novel know-how for ADC development will be created. Most importantly, better quality and potency of these next-generation ADCs will eventually benefit cancer patients.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: GC.SST.2011.7-7.;GC.NMP.2011-1 | Award Amount: 8.54M | Year: 2011

GREENLION is a Large Scale Collaborative Project with the FP7 (topic GC.NMP.2011-1) leading to the manufacturing of greener and cheaper Li-Ion batteries for electric vehicle applications via the use of water soluble, fluorine-free, high thermally stable binders, which would eliminate the use of VOCs and reduce the cell assembly cost. GREENLION has 6 key objectives: (i) development of new active and inactive battery materials viable for water processes (green chemistry); (ii) development of innovative processes (coating from aqueous slurries) capable of reducing electrode production cost and avoid environmental pollution; (iii) development of new assembly procedures (including laser cutting and high temperature pre-treatment) capable of substantially reduce the time and the cost of cell fabrication; (iv) lighter battery modules with air cooling and easier disassembly through eco-designed bonding techniques (v) waste reduction, which, by making use of the water solubility of the binder, allows the extensive recovery of the active and inactive battery materials; and (vi) construction of fully integrated battery module for electric vehicle applications with optimized cells, modules, and other ancillaries. Accordingly, GREENLION aims to overcome the limitations of present Li-ion manufacturing technology for electric vehicle batteries with the goal to: 1- perform breakthrough work to position Europe as a leader in the manufacturing of high energy and environmentally benign batteries; 2- develop highly effective eco-designed processes; 3- develop automotive battery module systems with: A) specific energy higher than 100 Wh/kg and specific power higher than 500 W/kg with respect to the overall weight of the system; B) coulombic efficiency on average higher than 99.95% during cycling; C) cycle life of 1,000 cycles with 20% maximum loss of capacity upon cycling between 100% and 0% SOC; and D) evaluate their integration in electric cars and renewable energy systems.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: HEALTH-2007-2.1.1-6 | Award Amount: 16.02M | Year: 2008

Lipids are central to the regulation and control of cellular processes by acting as basic building units for biomembranes, the platforms for the vast majority of cellular functions. Recent developments in lipid mass spectrometry have set the scene for a completely new way to understand the composition of membranes, cells and tissues in space and time by allowing the precise identification and quantification of alterations of the total lipid profile after specific perturbations. In combination with advanced proteome and transcriptome analysis tools and novel imaging techniques using RNA interference, it is now possible to unravel the complex network between lipids, genes and proteins in an integrated lipidomics approach. This project application of the European Lipidomics Initiative (ELife; will address lipid droplets (LD) as dynamic organelles with regard to composition, metabolism and regulation. LD are the hallmark of energy overload diseases with a major health care impact in Europe. The project will exploit recent advances in lipidomics to establish high-throughput methods to define drugable targets and novel biomarkers related to LD lipid and protein species, their interaction and regulation during assembly, disassembly and storage. Translational research from mouse to man applied to LD pathology is a cornerstone of this project at the interface between research and development. To maximize the value of the assembled data generated throughout the project, LipidomicNet as a detailed special purpose Wiki formate data base will be developed and integrated into the existing Lipidomics Expertise Platform (LEP) established through the SSA ELife project ( ELife collaborates with the NIH initiative LIPID MAPS ( and the Japanese pendant Lipidbank ( and is connected to the Danubian Biobank consortium (SSA DanuBiobank, for clinical lipidomics.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-CSA-Infra | Phase: INFRA-2010-1.1.9 | Award Amount: 9.24M | Year: 2011

Biomedical research depends on the availability of living non-human primates and biological material with primate origin. The need for animal research using non-human primates is therefore recognised by all governments that support internationally competitive biomedical research aimed at addressing the worlds most pressing medical challenges. While essential for biomedical research owing to their similarity to humans, non-human primates are more than other animals endowed with high sensory and cognitive abilities. This is the basis of an international consensus that the use of primates in research has to comply with the highest ethical standards and should be restricted to cases where no alternatives exist. Research with primates has to follow the 3R-concept of Refinement, Reduction and Replacement. Meeting this requirement necessitates a commitment to substantial investments into appropriate facilities, specialized equipment and extensive training of personnel, which has been realised by the establishment of the I3-project EUPRIM-Net in the 6th framework programme. The aim of EUPRIM-Net is to contribute to European science by improving the ability of its participants to provide the best services, support the best science that meets the highest ethical standards for primate-based animal research. With the funding of EUPRIM-Net II we will build on the successes of the starting phase of EUPRIM-Net to focus on the following overarching core objectives: - advancing the 3Rs (refinement, reduction, replacement) in primate research - develop, refine and ensure best practice in primate research - extend the network in Europe to include commercial partners and extend the network to include non-European primate centres to insure a global sharing of available resources. Additionally, EUPRIM-Net places a focus on moving away from EU funding and implementing self-sustaining structures.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-TP | Phase: KBBE.2013.3.3-04 | Award Amount: 9.11M | Year: 2013

OPTIBIOCAT is a 48 months project aimed at developing biocatalysts based on feruloyl esterases (FAEs) and glucuronoyl esterases (GEs) for production of phenolic fatty- and sugar- esters with antioxidant activity for cosmetic industry, expanding the number/type of industrial biotransformations. Selected FAEs and GEs available within the consortium will be improved for their thermo- and solvent- resistance and substrate specificity by site-directed mutagenesis and directed evolution. Novel enzymes will be discovered by mining for new genes from available genomes. An inventory of novel FAEs and GEs will be developed including 50 fungal and 500 bacterial esterases, 25 site-directed and 20 directed evolved mutants. Enzymatic performances will be optimized to enhance the yield (up to the theoretical yield of 100%) and productivity (up to 0.5-1 g/l/h) of reactions giving the main targeted antioxidants: butyl ferulate, p-coumarate, caffeate, sinapate and 5-O-(trans-feruloyl)-arabinofuranose (using FAEs), glucuronate and benzyl glucuronate (using GEs). FAEs and GEs will be also tested for production of other compounds with improved biological activity and properties of hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity for cosmetic applications. Cost-effective methods will be developed for production of the new biocatalysts, in the g/L scale, and for their technical application to produce antioxidants for cosmetic industry, up to 20L. Enzyme immobilization will increase their recyclability up to ten cycles. The ability of the developed catalysts to work in conditions miming the industrial ones with reduced use of solvents and lower temperature than the chemical routes will be demonstrated. The techno-economic viability and environmental friendliness will be assessed considering a full industrial scale scenario. OPTIBIOCAT involves a highly skilled and multidisciplinary partnership of 16 partners from 8 EU countries, and it is a strongly industry driven project through the participation of 8 SMEs and 1 large company.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: PHC-17-2014 | Award Amount: 6.00M | Year: 2015

Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are chronic bone marrow malignancies of the elderly, complicated by severe anaemia. MDS significantly affects quality-adjusted survival and it imposes an increasing financial burden on patients and healthcare (HC) systems. The burden of disease is expected to worsen in the future, given the aging EU population and newly identified MDS cases among those diagnosed with Anaemia of the Elderly. EUMDS - a unique registry with prospective, observational data on 1600 lower-risk MDS patients from 16 EU countries - enables comparison of existing MDS HC interventions (HCI). Objectives 1) Comparison of outcomes and costs of existing HCI, using established and new core outcome sets. This, alongside health technology assessment, will provide robust evidence to underpin sustainable use of HC resources; 2) Enhanced compliance with diagnostic procedures in MDS by introducing new minimally-invasive diagnostic methods. This will increase the number of correctly and timely diagnosed MDS patients; 3) Raised awareness of the relevance of obtaining the right diagnosis in elderly by comparing HRQoL between EUMDS and against a non-MDS cohort. This will improve HRQoL of individual patients through better tailoring of HCI; 4) Better outcome predictability of available HCI by refining classification of cases using molecular characterisation to incorporate response to HCI and to provide evidence for personalised medicine; 5) Improved, evidence-based, guidelines supporting the regulatory process, and providing information to patients and physicians to promote personalised decisions in MDS care; 6) Establishment of a European MDS competence network encompassing all stakeholders in the MDS field. Relevance Better treatment compliance, a more evidence-based use of HCI and an increasing tailored use of existing HC options will contribute to an efficient and cost effective (personalised) use of HC resources for elderly patients with MDS and their co-morbidities.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-CSA-Infra-PP | Phase: INFRA-2010-2.2.7 | Award Amount: 6.99M | Year: 2010

Euro-BioImaging brings together imaging technologies stretching from basic biological imaging with advanced light microscopy, in vivo molecular imaging of single cells to animal models up to the clinical and epidemiological level of medical imaging of humans and populations. Euro-BioImaging, in close consultation with its stakeholders, will address the imaging requirements of both biological and medical imaging research communities by creating a coordinated and harmonized plan for infrastructure deployment in Europe. Euro-BioImaging infrastructures will be planned to provide access to state-of-the-art equipment as well as to provide training and continue the development of imaging technologies to be able to offer them as new services. The vision of Euro-BioImaging is to provide a clear path of access to imaging technologies for every biomedical scientist in Europe. The Euro-BioImaging infrastructure will be focused on imaging technologies grouped around different scales of biological organization, from the single molecule to the whole human organism. Euro-BioImaging will therefore develop a plan to construct and operate a set of complementary and strongly interlinked infrastructure facilities appropriately distributed across the European member states. To achieve this, Euro-BioImaging will define the legal and governance framework with its currently 22 member states and develop a finance plan in close cooperation with national funding bodies as well as with the European Commission. The key objective of the Euro-BioImaging preparatory phase project is to integrate these plans into an overarching business plan that provides a realistic basis for construction and operation of the Euro-BioImaging infrastructure. Through the combination of these technological and strategic objectives, Euro-BioImaging will be able to address the key elements of successful infrastructures: supporting research, training and innovation in biomedical imaging across Europe.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: KBBE-2007-3-2-07 | Award Amount: 8.23M | Year: 2009

The PolyModE project convenes an international, interdisciplinary, and intersectorial consortium to identify, characterise, and optimise novel polysaccharide modifying enzymes, and to develop robust fermentation strategies for their large-scale production, to exploit the potential of biopolymers for food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and technical applications. We have selected the six complex carbohydrates with the highest current market share or expected future market potential, namely alginate, carrageenan, chitosan, glycosaminoglycan, pectin, and xanthan gum. For each of these, the industrial partners have identified those enzymes which will answer to the most pressing needs or offer the most promising potential for improved production of polysaccharides with novel physico-chemical properties and biological functionalities. Primary targets will be alginate epimerases, carrageenan sulfatases, chitosan de-acetylases, glycosaminoglycan sulfatases, pectin de-acetylases, and xanthan gum de-acetylases. These enzymes together with secondary target enzymes, e.g. sequence specific lyases and hydrolases, will allow the generation and analysis of polymers and oligomers with novel, non-random patterns of modification. Two parallel approaches will be followed for each type of polysaccharide modifying enzyme, namely a knowledge-based genomic approach and a broad, un-biased metagenomic approach, e.g. using soil or sludge samples with a history of contact with the polysaccharide in question. A pipeline of three levels of fermentation systems will be established, ranging from lab-scale innovative expression systems with features shaped according to the specific characteristics of our target enzymes, through medium-scale, novel and unusual fermentation systems provided by a number of SME with highly specialised knowledge and expertise in developing and using such systems, to the established large-scale fermentation systems and facilities of market leaders in White Biotechnology.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENERGY.2013.7.3.3 | Award Amount: 4.42M | Year: 2013

SIRBATT (Stable Interfaces for Rechargeable Batteries) is a multisite collaborative project consisting of 12 full partners from the European Area (6 Universities, 1 Research Institute and 5 industrial partners). Collaboration with leading battery research groups in the USA and Japan is also considered. The diversity of the research organisations in the partnership has been chosen to provide a wide range of complementary expertise in areas relating to the study of battery electrode interfaces, covering both experimental and theoretical aspects of this important contemporary area. SIRBATT will develop microsensors to monitor internal temperature and pressure of lithium cells in order to maintain optimum operating conditions to allow long-life times that can be scaled for use in grid scale batteries. The cells will comprise of candidate electrode materials in which the complex interfacial region and surface layers have been well characterised and understood via utilisation of a suit of advanced in situ measurement techniques complemented by application of transformative modelling methods. The knowledge from these studies will be used to develop candidate electrode materials with an optimised cycle life and stability, for example by the use of novel stable lithium salts and the inclusion of stable film forming additives into the electrolyte. The scientific aim of SIRBATT is the radical improvement in the fundamental understanding of the structure and reactions occurring at lithium battery electrode/electrolyte interfaces which it will seek to achieve through an innovative programme of collaborative research and development.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2012-ITN | Award Amount: 3.31M | Year: 2012

Aim of the CAFFEIN network is to provide 10 early stage researchers (ESRs) and 2 exprerienced researchers (ERs) with excellent training in an industry relevant area of cancer research, complementary skills required for pharmaceutical industry, and knowledge in setting up biomedical start-up companies. To this end, the network comprises two full industrial partners: the established pharmaceutical company Medimmune, a global leader in immunopharmaceuticals, and the small biotech company Gimmune, which used breakthrough results in nanotechnology to establish a new enterprise. The research focus of CAFFEIN, which stands for Cancer Associated Fibroblasts (CAF) Function in Tumor Expansion and Invasion, is to understand the mechanisms, how fibroblastoid cells support tumor progression and metastasis formation. CAF biology is therefore rather complex, but the research groups of the CAFFEIN network cover many different aspects of it, thus having a critical mass to provide relevant training in this area. Training in complementary skills important for work in the pharmaceutical industry is provided by the industrial partner MedImmune, where communication with management, industrial project planning, IPR, etc. will be taught. Entrepreneurial skills, business plans, funding by venture capitalists, and patentability of research findings are highlights of the training provided by the industrial partner Gimmune. All this training is transmitted to the ESRs/ERs by networkwide events, secondments and tight research collaboration. Taken together, the CAFFEIN research training network combines the acquisition of excellent scientific knowledge in an area highly attractive for pharmaceutical industry with special education in relevant complementary skills that increase employment chances of the trained researchers in industry and that encourage them to translate their scientific results into products, thus improving health and economic welfare of European citizens.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2007.6.3 | Award Amount: 13.61M | Year: 2008

The GENESIS Project has the objective of providing Environment management and Health actors with an innovative solution based on advanced ICT. Relying on interoperability standards and harmonization process, GENESIS helps to constitute complex information networks, by combining benefits of various information systems with a collaborative systems approach. The proposed generic solution allows easy deployment and customization to thematic needs on a wide range of applications, at regional, national or Europe levels for various thematic fields. The main benefits of GENESIS solution are two-fold :-to improve and facilitate actors daily practices in relation with the management of environmental data; -to perform an essential step in the deployment of the Single Information Space for the environment in Europe. The GENESIS solution will be validated through dedicated scenarios addressing thematic fields of Air Quality, Water Quality and their impact on Health. For the final benefits and information of European citizens, the needs of Environment and Health stakeholders are covered through fundamental services like : -environment monitoring,\n-multi-criteria finding of the information; -visualization and combination of static or near-real-time information; -fusion of various sources of environmental data; -correlation between environmental with health data; -support of decision making processes; -support of the risk management and response to crisis; -near-real-time information of citizens. The GENESIS generic solution is open and sustainable as based on de facto and emerging standards (OGC, OASIS, INSPIRE,...). Moreover, the GENESIS project development integrates current state of the art and innovative researches of major EC or ESA projects. GENERIS project represents an important step in operational environmental management in Europe thus paving the way to an effective wide deployment of the solution as part of the future Single European Information Space for Environment.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-TP | Phase: KBBE.2013.3.6-01 | Award Amount: 11.70M | Year: 2013

The Nano3Bio project convenes a consortium of world renowned experts from 8 EU universities, 1 large company, and 14 SME, to develop biotechnological production systems for nanoformulated chitosans. Chitosans, chitin-derived polysaccharides varying in their degree of polymerisation (DP), degree of acetylation (DA), and pattern of acetylation (PA), are among the most versatile and most promising biopolymers, with excellent physico-chemical and material properties, and a wide range of biological functionalities, but their economic potential is far from being exploited due to i) problems with reproducibility of biological activities as todays chitosans are rather poorly defined mixtures, and ii) the threat of allergen contamination from their typical animal origin. The Nano3Bio project will overcome these hurdles to market entry and penetration by producing in vitro and in vivo defined oligo- and polymers with controlled, tailor-made DP, DA, and PA. Genes for chitin synthases, chitin deacetylases, and transglycosylating chitinases/chitosanases will be mined from different (meta)genomic sources and heterologously expressed, the recombinant enzymes characterized and optimized by protein engineering through rational design and molecular evolution, e.g. targeting engineered glycosynthases. These enzymes and genes will be used for in vitro and in vivo biosynthesis in microbial and microalgal systems, focusing on bacteria and diatoms. The bioinspired chitosans will be formulated into biomineralised hydrogels, nanoparticles, nanoscaffolds, etc., to impart novel properties, including by surface nano-imprinting, and will be bench-marked against their conventional counterparts in a variety of cell based assays and routine industrial tests for e.g. cosmetics and pharma markets. The process will be accompanied by comprehensive life cycle assessments including thorough legal landscaping, and by dissemination activities targeted to the scientific community and the general public.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-ITN-2008 | Award Amount: 3.10M | Year: 2009

Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death and disability in the European population and represent a great burden of suffering and costs. Their complex etiology originates from different pathological stimuli and involves different cell types, resident in the vascular wall or infiltrating from the blood. The adaptation of the vasculature to physiological and pathophysiological forces depends on both the communication between its cellular components and their interaction with the extracellular matrix (ECM). When subjected to enhanced stretch, cyclic mechanical strain, or shear stress, blood vessels undergo typical transformations in wall shape that are always associated with alterations of the ECM and cellular composition, collectively described as vascular remodelling. Remodelling processes occur specifically in small arteries and arterioles, which show extreme changes in their size and function (microvascular remodelling). This is especially the case in hypertensive or diabetic patients, and contributes to a vicious cycle resulting in organ dysfunction and progression of vascular disease. A multidisciplinary approach is required to better understand vascular remodelling processes. We propose an interdisciplinary ITN to promote excellence in vascular biology, with focus on small vessels/arteries and their ECM. This will enhance the interaction between 8 academic groups and one SME in 7 European countries, specialized in physiology, signalling mechanisms, cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions in vascular endothelium and smooth muscle, as well as in drug discovery and development. The ITN will provide a specialized training ground by connecting investigations of the biology of vascular cells and their surrounding ECM in an innovative manner. It will therefore promote the careers of young investigators by specialising them in a field of vascular biology with a great potential for the future.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-CSA-Infra | Phase: INFRA-2008-1.1.1 | Award Amount: 18.74M | Year: 2009

The Project promotes the access to five European Research Infrastructures, and it is structured intop eight Networking Activities, plus the Management of the Consortium, and fourteen Joint Research Activities. The Project represents the continuation of the successful HadronPhysics project in FP6 and originates from the initiative of more than 2.500 European scientists working in the field of hadron physics. Hadron physics deals with the study of strongly interacting particles, the hadrons. Hadrons are composed of quarks and gluons. Their interaction is described by Quantum Chromo Dynamics, the theory of the strong force. Hadrons form more complex systems, in particular atomic. Under extreme conditions of pressure and temperature, hadrons may loose their identity and dissolve into a new state of matter similar to the primordial matter of the early Universe. The Networking Activities are related to the organization of experimental and theoretical collaborative work concerning both ongoing activities at present Research Infrastructures and planned experiments at future facilities. In hadron physics the close interaction between experimentalists and theoreticians is of paramount importance. The Joint Research Activities concentrate on technological innovations for present and future experiments. Applications in material science, medicine, information, technology, etc., represent natural fall-outs. The main objective of this Integrating Activity is to optimize the use and development of the Research Infrastructures existing in Europe working in the field of hadron physics. The Project aims as well at structuring, on European scale, the way Research Infrastructures operate, and at fostering their joint development in terms of capacity and performance. The approach used is the bottom up approach, to respond to the needs of the scientific community in all fields of science and technology.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: HEALTH.2012.2.4.5-2 | Award Amount: 7.93M | Year: 2012

Chronic inflammatory diseases of joints are major causes of disability in the ageing population. Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most common types of arthritis and a major cause of pain and disability in older individuals. OA is expected to place a heavy burden on European healthcare systems, as European citizens grow older. Cartilage damage in OA is detected radiographically by decreases in joint space width (JSW). However, radiographic evidence is seen only after significant cartilage degradation has already taken place. The early stages of the disease may remain latent and asymptomatic for many years. Therefore, there is an acute need for reliable biomarkers and diagnostic tests that can facilitate earlier diagnosis of OA, and inform the prognosis, monitoring and therapeutic strategies for chronic and disabling forms of this disease. However, there is currently a lack of reliable, quantifiable and easily measured biomarkers that provide an earlier diagnosis of OA, inform on the prognostic of the disease and monitor and predict responses to therapeutic modalities. Biomarkers of tissue turnover in joints can reflect disease relevant biological activity and provide valuable information that may be useful diagnostically and therapeutically, potentially enabling a more rational and personalized approach to healthcare management. The proliferation of omic technologies has facilitated rapid progress in biomarker research. Combinations of omic technologies are dominating the biomarker research arena and are playing increasingly important roles in the identification, validation and qualification of new biomarkers. The aim of the D-BOARD consortium is to bring together leading academic institutions and European Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) to focus on the identification, validation and qualification of new combination biomarkers and the development of diagnostic tests capable of subclinical disease diagnosis for degenerative and inflammatory diseases of joints.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2013-ITN | Award Amount: 4.19M | Year: 2014

Knee Osteoarthritis (KOA) is the most common chronic musculoskeletal disorder, currently affecting over 8 million people within the EU, for which currently no cure is available. Adverse biomechanics, affected through some of the major health issues of our time (ageing, obesity, sedentary lifestyle) lie at the heart of the disease. The research theme of the KNEEMO ITN is towards targeted and tailored interventions for KOA, and focuses on identifying the right patients for the right treatment at the right time. Research areas include anatomy, musculoskeletal modelling, prevention and early identification of patients, epidemiology, biomechanical mechanisms, and intervention studies. The KNEEMO training programme combines existing best practices from consortium members and is designed to equip researchers with skills and knowledge specific to the research field (KOA anatomy, pathology and disease mechanisms, musculoskeletal modelling, functional assessment, KOA interventions), generic research skills (epidemiology, methodology, statistics, clinimetrics, ethics), and complementary training (entrepreneurship, project management, product development, intellectual property issues). At the individual level, training will be provided through direct research project supervision and intersectoral exchange visits and secondments. At the network level, regular workshops, courses, and summer schools will be scheduled. Additionally, web-based seminars will be provided and a social media virtual learning environment will be available for continuous supervision, peer-support and expert help. Dissemination and outreach activities will also be undertaken to showcase project results and to communicate with both the scientific community and the general public to promote the importance of research and to raise public awareness of the Marie Curie Actions.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SSH-2010-2.1-2 | Award Amount: 3.06M | Year: 2010

The effort to strengthen social cohesion and lower social inequalities is among Europes main policy challenges. It means that local welfare systems are at the forefront of the struggle to address this challenge and they are far from winning. While the statistics show some positive signs, the overall picture still shows sharp and sometimes rising inequalities, a loss of social cohesion and failing policies of integration. But, contrary to what is sometimes thought, a lack of bottom-up innovation is not the issue in itself. European cities are teeming with new ideas, initiated by citizens, professionals and policymakers. The problem is, rather, that innovations taking place in the city are not effectively disseminated because they are not sufficiently understood. Many innovations are not picked up, because their relevance is not recognised or they fail after they have been introduced, because they were not suitable to the different conditions in another city in another country. In this project, we will look into this missing link between innovations at the local level and their successful transfer and implementation to other settings. We will examine innovation in cities, not as a disconnected phenomenon, but as an element in a tradition of welfare that is part of particular socio-economic models and the result of specific national and local cultures. By contextualising innovations in local welfare, will be more effective in understanding how they could work in other cities, for the benefit of other citizens. In short, the aim of the project is to examine, through cross-national comparative research, how local welfare systems affect social inequalities and how they favour social cohesion and sustainability. The results will be used, through strong interaction with stakeholders and urban policy recommendations, to link immediately to the needs of practitioners.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SSH.2013.3.2-3 | Award Amount: 3.31M | Year: 2014

The main objective of the proposed research project is to create knowledge that will further advance the contributions that the third sector and volunteering can make to the socio-economic development of Europe. These unique renewable resources for social and economic problem-solving and civic engagement in Europe are needed more than ever at this time of social and economic distress and enormous pressures on governmental budgetsnot as an alternative to government but as a full-fledged partner in the effort to promote European progress. To take full advantage of this resource we need a clearer understanding of the third sectors scope and scale, its existing and potential impacts, and the barriers to its full contributions to the continents common welfare. Building on our previous work, this project seeks to: 1) Clarify the concept of the third sector in its European manifestations; 2) Identify the major contours of the sector so definedits size, structure, composition, sources of support, and recent trends; 3) Identify the impacts of this sector, its contributions to European economic development, innovation, citizen well-being, civic engagement, and human development, and to create capabilities to measure these contributions into the future; 4) Identify barriers both internal to organizations and external to them and suggest ways these barriers might be overcome; and 5) Forge a partnership between the research community and European Third Sector practitioners so that the understanding of the Third Sector generated by this work remains grounded in reality and enjoy sufficient support among key stakeholders to ensure respectful attention from policy makers and sector leaders long after the project is completed. By drawing on the combined strengths of the academic community, government, and the third sector itself. As such, the proposal provides a solid embodiment of the FP7 theme of science in society, of generating knowledge to advance the quality of life.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: SEC-2013.4.1-1 | Award Amount: 46.27M | Year: 2014

DRIVER starts from the experience that neither successful R&D nor strong end-user demand always lead to innovation in the Crisis Management (CM) domain. This is a problem since as societies become more complex, increasing scope and unpredictability of potential crises and faster dynamics of major incidents put increasingly stringent demands on CM. European CM capabilities already constitute a mature System of Systems; hence wholesale redesign would often be too costly and might critically destabilise existing CM capabilities. Therefore DRIVER focuses on augmenting rather than replacing existing capabilities and will aim at producing a comprehensive, well-balanced and cost-effective Portfolio of CM tools exploiting high potential RTD work from the last decade, not least in FP7 and FP6 projects. This portfolio will address not only needs of professional responders but also of society at large. DRIVER will carry out experimentation campaigns in three strands: tools and methods for responders, resilience of civil society and learning by both. The intra-strand experimentation leads into two Joint Experiment campaigns and a Final Demo focusing on challenges requiring highly complex interaction between CM tools. To evaluate and benchmark these CM tools, a strong evidence base for tool selection is crucial; to this end DRIVER will build a distributed European CM Test-bed, itself a major innovation. To maximise impact beyond the scope of the project and of the DRIVER consortium it is necessary to develop the sustainability of the European Test-bed, the exploitation of the DRIVER Portfolio of Tools and to make emerge a European CM community, which shares a common CM understanding and is increasingly willing to share capabilities and collaborate in CM innovation. These three objectives need and feed each other, thus developing Europes ability to continue adapting its CM capabilities to emerging needs long after the project end.

Atilla-Gokcumen G.E.,Dana-Farber Cancer Institute | Atilla-Gokcumen G.E.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Muro E.,King's College London | Relat-Goberna J.,King's College London | And 7 more authors.
Cell | Year: 2014

Although massive membrane rearrangements occur during cell division, little is known about specific roles that lipids might play in this process. We report that the lipidome changes with the cell cycle. LC-MS-based lipid profiling shows that 11 lipids with specific chemical structures accumulate in dividing cells. Using AFM, we demonstrate differences in the mechanical properties of live dividing cells and their isolated lipids relative to nondividing cells. In parallel, systematic RNAi knockdown of lipid biosynthetic enzymes identified enzymes required for division, which highly correlated with lipids accumulated in dividing cells. We show that cells specifically regulate the localization of lipids to midbodies, membrane-based structures where cleavage occurs. We conclude that cells actively regulate and modulate their lipid composition and localization during division, with both signaling and structural roles likely. This work has broader implications for the active and sustained participation of lipids in basic biology. © 2014 The Authors.

Zarbock A.,University of Munster | Ley K.,La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology | McEver R.P.,Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation | Hidalgo A.,CSIC - National Center for Metallurgical Research
Blood | Year: 2011

Reversible interactions of glycoconjugates on leukocytes with P- and E-selectin on endothelial cells mediate tethering and rolling of leukocytes in inflamed vascular beds, the first step in their recruitment to sites of injury. Although selectin ligands on hematopoietic precursors have been identified, here we review evidence that PSGL-1, CD44, and ESL-1 on mature leukocytes are physiologic glycoprotein ligands for endothelial selectins. Each ligand has specialized adhesive functions during tethering and rolling. Furthermore, PSGL-1 and CD44 induce signals that activate the β2 integrin LFA-1 and promote slow rolling, whereas ESL-1 induces signals that activate the β2 integrin Mac-1 in adherent neutrophils. We also review evidence for glycolipids, CD43, L-selectin, and other glycoconjugates as potential physiologic ligands for endothelial selectins on neutrophils or lymphocytes. Although the physiologic characterization of these ligands has been obtained in mice, we also note reported similarities and differences with human selectin ligands. © 2011 by The American Society of Hematology.

Frigerio M.,CNRS Charles Coulomb Laboratory | Yaguna C.E.,University of Munster
European Physical Journal C | Year: 2015

We show that novel paths to dark matter generation and baryogenesis are open when the standard model is extended with three sterile neutrinos Niand a charged scalar δ+. Specifically, we propose a new production mechanism for the dark matter particle—a multi-keV sterile neutrino,N1—that does not depend on the active-sterile mixing angle and does not rely on a large primordial lepton asymmetry. Instead,N1 is produced, via freeze-in, by the decays ofδ+ while it is in equilibrium in the early Universe. In addition, we demonstrate that, thanks to the couplings between the heavier sterile neutrinos N2,3 andδ+, baryogenesis via leptogenesis can be realized close to the electroweak scale. The lepton asymmetry is generated either by N2,3-decays for masses M2,3≳TeV, or by N2,3-oscillations for M2,3∼ GeV. Experimental signatures of this scenario include an X-ray line from dark matter decays, and the direct production ofδ+ at the LHC. This model thus describes a minimal, testable scenario for neutrino masses, the baryon asymmetry, and dark matter. © 2015, The Author(s).

Nicoli S.,University of Massachusetts Medical School | Nicoli S.,Yale Cardiovascular Research Center | Knyphausen C.-P.,University of Massachusetts Medical School | Knyphausen C.-P.,University of Munster | And 3 more authors.
Developmental Cell | Year: 2012

Angiogenesis requires coordination of distinct cell behaviors between tip and stalk cells. Although thisprocess is governed by regulatory interactions between the vascular endothelial growth factor (Vegf) and Notch signaling pathways, little is known about the potential role of microRNAs. Through deep sequencing and functional screening in zebrafish, we find that miR-221 is essential for angiogenesis. miR-221 knockdown phenocopied defects associated with loss of the tip cell-expressed Flt4 receptor. Furthermore, miR-221 was required for tip cell proliferation and migration, as well as tip cell potential in mosaic blood vessels. miR-221 knockdown also prevented " hyper-angiogenesis" defects associated with Notch deficiency and miR-221 expression was inhibited by Notch signaling. Finally, miR-221 promoted tip cell behavior through repression of two targets: cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 1b (cdkn1b) and. phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit 1 (pik3r1). These results identify miR-221 as an important regulatory node through which tip cell migration and proliferation are controlled during angiogenesis. Angiogenesis requires coordination of distinct cell behaviors between sprouting tip cells and the stalk cells connected to the patent circulatory system. Nicoli etal. identify a microRNA, miR-221, that is required for tip cell migration and proliferation through the repression of targets involved in PI3K signaling and cell cycle inhibition. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Volmering S.,University of Munster | Block H.,University of Munster | Boras M.,University of Munster | Lowell C.A.,University of California at San Francisco | Zarbock A.,University of Munster
Immunity | Year: 2016

Neutrophils are recruited from the blood to sites of sterile inflammation, where they are involved in wound healing but can also cause tissue damage. During sterile inflammation, necrotic cells release pro-inflammatory molecules including formylated peptides. However, the signaling pathway triggered by formylated peptides to integrin activation and leukocyte recruitment is unknown. By using spinning-disk confocal intravital microscopy, we examined the molecular mechanisms of leukocyte recruitment to sites of focal hepatic necrosis in vivo. We demonstrated that the Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) was required for multiple Mac-1 activation events involved in neutrophil recruitment and functions during sterile inflammation triggered by fMLF. The Src family kinase Hck, Wiskott-Aldrich-syndrome protein, and phospholipase Cγ2 were also involved in this pathway required for fMLF-triggered Mac-1 activation and neutrophil recruitment. Thus, we have identified a neutrophil Btk signalosome that is involved in a signaling pathway triggered by formylated peptides leading to the selective activation of Mac-1 and neutrophil recruitment during sterile inflammation. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.

Kahl B.C.,University of Munster | Becker K.,University of Munster | Loffler B.,Jena University Hospital
Clinical Microbiology Reviews | Year: 2016

Small colony variants (SCVs) were first described more than 100 years ago for Staphylococcus aureus and various coagulase-negative staphylococci. Two decades ago, an association between chronic staphylococcal infections and the presence of SCVs was observed. Since then, many clinical studies and observations have been published which tie recurrent, persistent staphylococcal infections, including device-associated infections, bone and tissue infections, and airway infections of cystic fibrosis patients, to this special phenotype. By their intracellular lifestyle, SCVs exhibit socalled phenotypic (or functional) resistance beyond the classical resistance mechanisms, and they can often be retrieved from therapy- refractory courses of infection. In this review, the various clinical infections where SCVs can be expected and isolated, diagnostic procedures for optimized species confirmation, and the pathogenesis of SCVs, including defined underlying molecular mechanisms and the phenotype switch phenomenon, are presented. Moreover, relevant animal models and suggested treatment regimens, as well as the requirements for future research areas, are highlighted. © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Buddenkotte J.,University of Munster | Steinhoff M.,University of California at San Francisco
Allergy: European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology | Year: 2010

Pruritus (itch) is a major characteristic and one of the most debiliating symptoms in allergic and atopic diseases and the diagnostic hallmark of atopic dermatitis. Pruritus is regularly defined as an unpleasant sensation provoking the desire to scratch. Although we achieved rather good knowledge about certain inducers of itch such as neuropeptides, amines, μ-opioids, cytokines and proteases, for example, less is known about the pathophysiological specifities among the different diseases, and the therapeutic consequences which may derive thereoff. This review dissects the role of mediators, receptors and itch inhibitors on peripheral nerve endings, dorsal root ganglia, the spinal cord and the CNS leading to the amplification or - vice versa - suppression of pruritus. As the treatment of pruritus in allergic and atopic skin disease is still not satisfactory, knowing these pathways and mechanisms may lead to novel therapeutic approaches against this frequently encountered skin symptom. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2011.1.6 | Award Amount: 1.88M | Year: 2012

This Future Internet Research Experiment addresses an important emerging class of distributed applications known as Real-Time Online Interactive Applications (ROIA). These include multi-player online computer games, advanced simulation-based e-Learning and training platforms, and other applications dependent upon synchronised bidirectional media distribution. These applications are computationally intensive and typically cloud-hosted, and place heavy demands on the network. The loads are also highly variable, depending on the popularity of an application and the behaviour of is possible to use SLA-based management of cloud hosting across multiple data centres to scale and load balance applications dynamically and securely, while reducing start-up costs. However, network bottlenecks are introduced which limit scalability and quality of experience.\nToday there is no effective means whereby an application can manage the network over which it runs, such that business conflicts can be resolved when the application is distributed across multiple data centres and/or accessed via multiple ISPs, providing a mutually acceptable balance between the needs of ISPs, application providers, network providers and users such that users expectations of performance can be met economically and sustainably for all service providers.\nOFERTIE will extend SLA-based management and APIs, integrating with OpenFlow, the programmable networking technology under-pinning the OFELIA experimental facility. The enhanced SLA-based management system will be used to control the use of computational resources by application processes running at each OFELIA site, and use OpenFlow to control routing decisions at each network switch. We will work with the OFELIA Testbed to run experiments to establish how programmable networks can be used to support appropriate technical solutions and investigate which business models would be able to use these solutions in an economically sustainable fashion

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-IRSES | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2013-IRSES | Award Amount: 277.40K | Year: 2014

Quantum semiconductor microcavities are structures in which photons can be confined within an area whose size is comparable to the wavelength of light. In this scenario, light-matter interactions can be substantially enhanced. A traditional microcavity is composed of two dielectric or semiconductor Bragg reflectors confining an active area which contains a quantum object such as a quantum well. From the initial observation of strong coupling between photons and excitons in such microcavities, the physics of polaritons has developed very quickly demonstrating such fascinating effects as stimulated scattering and Bose-condensation of polariton; room-temperature polariton lasing, superfluidity, bistability and multistability, soliton formation and many others. Recently it was shown that a localized state of light (Tamm Plasmon) can be formed at the interface between a specially designed Bragg mirror and metallic layer. For decades it was assumed that metallic elements are detrimental to optical coherence and lasing, however the intrinsic properties of the spatial distribution of the electric field of the Tamm Plasmon facilitate optical coherence and lasing in a microcavity with an embedded metallic layer. By coupling a microcavity polariton to a Tamm Plasmon, lateral localization can be achieved, opening the way for polaritonic logic elements and polaritonic circuits. This project is aimed at the design, fabrication and investigation of novel optoelectronic structures: hybrid metallic microcavities. These structures will be used for fabrication of lasers and sources of single photons and entangled photon pairs, polaritonic logic circuits as well as for fundamental studies of microcavity polaritons.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: NOE | Phase: ICT-2007.3.5 | Award Amount: 5.23M | Year: 2008

Today Biophotonics is an emerging multidisciplinary research area, embracing all light-based technologies applied to the life sciences and medicine. Enhancing diagnosis, therapy and follow-up care, Biophotonics drives the trend towards personalized medicine and plays a crucial role in limiting health-care costs and appropriately addressing the accelerating challenges associated with population aging and the consequent increase in age-related diseases. Its economic and socio-political importance is reflected in the enormous annual growth rates of industries in this field.\nAs a Network of Excellence, PHOTONICS4LIFE aims to provide a coherent framework for research in the strongly fragmented field of Biophotonics in Europe. One of the challenging tasks of PHOTONICS4LIFE is therefore to map and to overview the research and technological developments across these various subdisciplines with their manifold but not sufficiently explored interdependences.\nPHOTONICS4LIFE targets to bridge the gaps between the different research communities ranging from Physics and Engineering via Chemistry and Physical Chemistry to Biology and Medicine for the analysis of cell processes, for non- and minimally-invasive diagnosis and therapy and for point-of-care diagnostics.\nPHOTONICS4LIFE aims to link the expertise of research institutes towards the SMEs and large companies in order to foster Biophotonics research and to strengthen the economical competitiveness of Europe in the global Biophotonics market.\nPHOTONICS4LIFE is composed of partners standing on the forefront of Biophotonics research and covering together the broadness of fields including the related ethical issues. The partners will work towards a durable integration, provide a critical mass that will act as a nucleus for integrated fundamental and applied Biophotonics research across Europe and reach out to the international scene. With its objectives, PHOTONICS4LIFE is aimed directly at improving the quality of life.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2013-ITN | Award Amount: 3.30M | Year: 2014

Organofluorine chemistry has played a significant role in the majority of the spectacular scientific and technological developments of the past century although this is not widely recognised even by the scientific community. Fluoroorganic molecules are key components in an ever increasing number of high-value commercially important products particularly in the life science industries. The use of fluorinated systems in drug discovery programmes has continued to grow and, at present, approximately 30% of new pharmaceutical and agrochemical systems that enter the market bear fluorine atoms or fluorinated substituents, contributing enormously to the economic wellbeing of the EU as a whole and the health of its citizens. All useful fluoroorganic systems are man-made and the key step in developing new products and applications involving fluorinated derivatives is the synthesis of carbon-fluorine bonds. We will develop new selective fluorination processes by using both innovative chemoselective methodology and the emerging field of synthetic biology to provide new technology platforms beyond the current state-of-the-art. The desire to introduce a fluorine atom into an organic system is often driven by the fact that the C-F bond imparts unique and highly tuneable control of both geometric and stereoelectronic phenomena within a molecular structure. The Networks expertise in handling and analysing fluorinated molecules will allow us to engineer the properties of organic and biological molecules through the strategic introduction of C-F bonds by molecular editing. A large number of world-leading research scientists in academia in the various fields of organofluorine chemistry have retired in the recent past and, consequently, if training of ESRs and support of youthful research groups is not continued, the EU will lose very competitive, highly valuable, high technology, research expertise that contributes significantly to all chemical, life science and materials sectors.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2011-ITN | Award Amount: 3.76M | Year: 2012

Immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMID) are important health challenges in Europe and beyond, afflicting an estimated 5-8% of the total population. IMID with an onset during childhood such as Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) cause particular concern as pediatric patients form an especially vulnerable group. Currently there is no safe and cost-effective cure for JIA and related juvenile IMID. Thus, these children face lifelong treatment with serious consequences both for the patient (high risks of long-term side effects) and for society as a whole (high costs). Translating the progress in molecular medicine into new therapies for JIA has also met with limited success. The route from idea to drug has many hurdles and is a very fragmented process. Translational medicine encompasses the continuum of activities that extend from the conception of an idea to advanced clinical testing and, ultimately, to the development of a new medical technology or drug. This itinerary includes many components that require very different skills such as biomedical research skills, design of pre-clinical and clinical trials, regulatory issues, legal issues, intellectual property rights, communicational skills and more. Such skills are often compartmentalized within three separate domainsacademia, government and industry. Each of these domains has its own set of challenges. If we are to really change the way in which we are thinking and working in the drug development process it will be essential that we start with changing the education process of our students. EUTRAIN brings together leading scientists and institutes in the field of IMID. Its goal is to provide the next generation of researchers with insights, tools and knowledge necessary to bridge the gap between bench and bedside in IMID. In doing this EUTRAIN addresses two specific needs: the need for novel therapeutic approaches for IMID and the need for novel approaches in translational medicine.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-IAPP | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2011-IAPP | Award Amount: 3.65M | Year: 2012

The current diagnosis of psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and mood disorders, is highly subjective, due to the lack of empirical markers or objective tests specific for these diseases. PSYCH-AID searchers to fill the gap thrpugh the in-parallel study of schizophrenia and mood disorder patients combining, validating and registering 4 sets of biomarker tests already in advanced stage of development in two other EU-FP7 projects of partners (MOODINFLAME and SchizDX). Biomarkers are based on activated immune response system in conjunction with an abnormal neuro-endocrine set point. PSYCH-AID aims at the developm,ent of clinically applicable blood assays identifying pateints/individuals with such activated set points by combining the efforts of academia and industry. PSYCH-AID unites 9 European partners excelling in this field: 5 academia and 5 SMEs. The intersectoral and interdisciplinary collaboration and exchange of researchers will foster the translation of fundamental clinical research into practical solutions for the diagnosis and treatment of people affected by schizophrenia or mood disorders. This fit perfectly with the IAPP scheme. PSYCH-AID contributes to building a long lasting collaboration between the partners, the first consortium in the world to put objective diagnostic and prognostic tests for psychiatric disorders into practice. European industry will benefit from this competitive lead. Since the disorders have a serious impact on the quality of life of the individuals affected, an improved diagnosis and prognosis will substantially contribute to improving their quality of life. Furthermore, PSYCH-AID gives the researchers involved a platform to acquire complementary skills, thus ameliorating their professional career opportunities.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: NMP-2010-1.3-1 | Award Amount: 12.48M | Year: 2011

While there are standard procedures for product life cycle analysis, exposure, hazard, and risk assessment for traditional chemicals, is not yet clear how these procedures need to be modified to address all the novel properties of nanomaterials. There is a need to develop specific reference methods for all the main steps in managing the potential risk of ENM. The aim of MARINA is to develop such methods. MARINA will address the four central themes in the risk management paradigm for ENM: Materials, Exposure, Hazard and Risk. The methods developed by MARINA will be (i) based on beyond-state-of-the-art understanding of the properties, interaction and fate of ENM in relation to human health and the quality of the environment and will either (ii) be newly developed or adapted from existing ones but ultimately, they will be compared/validated and harmonised/standardised as reference methods for managing the risk of ENM. MARINA will develop a strategy for Risk Management including monitoring systems and measures for minimising massive exposure via explosion or environmental spillage.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: HEALTH.2013.2.4.1-1 | Award Amount: 7.56M | Year: 2013

Ewing Sarcomas (ES) are fatal, rare bone cancers particularly affecting young people. About 60% of patients achieve long term survival with current treatment but there has been no improvement in this proportion for 25 years. Treatment is unsuccessful because chemotherapy fails to prevent the development of, or to effectively treat established, metastases. In addition, of the 600 new cases of ES occurring in the EU each year, less than half will receive treatment appropriate to deliver the most favourable outcome. The EUROEWING Consortium (EEC) is a coalition of clinical study groups bringing together the most active clinicians and scientists in Europe dedicated to improving survival from ES. This initiative can achieve this through an integrated programme of investigator-driven, inclusive clinical trials that are rigorously designed, conducted, analysed and reported, and underpinned by complementary embedded translational research. These include i) a first line randomised study in patients of all ages with ES which defines standards of care to prevent development of metastases and serves as a backbone for implementation of new agents, and ii) a randomised study of current second line chemotherapy in patients of all ages with ES which will serve as a platform for testing of new agents. Companion studies in association with these trials will be performed investigating tumour biology, underlying causes of differential response and toxicity, and other biomarkers. The programme will be supported by new initiatives for the involvement of patients in research planning and operation. Through collaborative working, the EEC will provide ES patients with greater access to clinical trials, allow efficient acquisition of knowledge and deliver clinically meaningful results within the lifetime of the grant, thereby contributing to improved survival from ES.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2013-ITN | Award Amount: 2.95M | Year: 2014

In many European countries at least 20% of young men exhibit sperm parameters below the lower WHO reference level and this will affect their fertility. Male infertility has a dramatic impact on the individual and couples psychological and social well-being and results in significant healthcare costs. Currently male patients that do not produce sperm have no therapeutic options to father children. Different therapeutic interventions for male infertility have to be developed depending on the severity of germ cell deficits in individual patients. In cases where undifferentiated germ cells are present in the testis, strategies based on sperm development from spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) in vitro or in vivo need to be established. However, if no germ cells are present in the testis, somatic cells of such patients will be the only option from which to develop their own sperm. Development of these potential therapies requires detailed understanding of the entire process of sperm production from stem cells through to functional sperm. This information is still incomplete and fragmented. The current proposal seeks to train young scientists in a network that joins together the complementary knowledge and expertise of several public and private EU partners from disciplines of physiology, cell biology, molecular biology, chemistry and medicine in the field of male reproduction to investigate three strategies for sperm development: (1) propagation of human SSCs in vitro followed by their transplantation, (2) sperm development in vitro from stem cells or early germ cells, (3) sperm development in human testis tissue grafts in vivo. By coaching young scientists in this inter-sectorial and multidisciplinary network, we will train the next generation of researchers within the EU who are then primed to become leaders in the field of male fertility that continue to investigate basic science and translational aspects leading to novel interventions and clinical applications.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2013-ITN | Award Amount: 3.45M | Year: 2013

Neuroinflammation is a hallmark of multiple sclerosis and ischemic stroke. Investigating neuroinflammation as a common theme in neurological disorders, this ITN will focus in particular on myeloid cells, microglia, and endothelial cells. Sixteen partners from the academic and private sector with complementary scientific background join forces to train 13 ESRs in neuroinflammatory concepts and technologies that are valid across specific disease entities. Using an interdisciplinary and intersectorial approach the training will promote technical expertise, insight into entrepreneurship, as well as leadership and communication skills and lay the foundation for a successful career of ESRs either in the academic or private sector.

University of Munster and Basf | Date: 2013-09-05

The invention is about E. coli host cells which are capable to convert glycerol to serinol. Furthermore, a process for producing serinol is disclosed, which comprises culturing E. coli host cells inactive for triosephosphate isomerase and active for dihydroxyacetone phosphate aminotransferase to convert glycerol to serinol, induction of conversion from glycerol to serinol by adding at least glycerol to the cell culture, and isolating serinol from the cell culture.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2013-ITN | Award Amount: 3.91M | Year: 2013

Cardiovascular disease remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Europe. Small arteries form a key element in the pathogenesis. Thus, these vessels dictate local perfusion and blood pressure by adaptation of their caliber. Structural changes towards smaller caliber, small artery remodelling, cause hypertension and decreased organ perfusion, leading to acute events and chronic end organ dysfunction. Despite this role, these vessels are poorly studied and therapeutic options based on these arteries are lacking. SmArteR (Small Artery Remodelling) collects 13 academic and SME partners who have set up a training programme for 12 ESRs and 3 ERs. We address the interaction between cells, extracellular matrix and mechanical loading in an integrative way, taking advantage of the multidisciplinary partnership. Thus, we will unravel the processes in small artery remodelling at the molecular, cellular and integrative physiology level, and we will develop novel and marketable technology aimed at studying these vessels in vitro under the right biomechanical conditions. The ESRs and ERs are trained in not only cardiovascular R&D, but also in a range of skills required to form the new generation of frontrunners in biomedical research in academia and industry.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: PHC-23-2014 | Award Amount: 6.15M | Year: 2015

The evidence base of Internet-based interventions in the prevention and treatment of mental health conditions has rapidly grown in the past decade. Yet many European countries (e.g., Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Great Britain, The Netherlands, Spain) have not implemented these promising approaches into health systems. Individuals with risk conditions or distinct mental health problems interested in using online interventions are often unable to access appropriate and evidence-based online interventions. The aim of this proposal is to establish a comprehensive model of health promotion, risk detection, disease prevention, and treatment facilitation for the most prevalent mental health problems and disorders (depression, anxiety, adjustment disorders, eating disorders/weight management and substance abuse) that assists individuals and mental health professionals in selecting and using evidence-based, online interventions. To reach this aim, the project partners bring together over 30 evidence-based, online interventions spanning the mental health intervention spectrum from universal and targeted prevention, self-help to treatment for the respective conditions applicable to children, adolescents and adults. Following a stakeholder needs survey, the model will be integrated into existing health care and other settings in Germany, Great Britain, Switzerland, Austria, The Netherlands, and Spain by 1. developing valid and economic, online screenings to allocate individuals to interventions, 2. developing technology for a common e-Health intervention platform, 3. developing implementation plans, 4. implementing evidence-based interventions into health care, and 5. evaluating and comparing their feasibility, acceptability, reach, efficacy and (cost)-effectiveness, adoption, and dissemination including moderators of interventions. Our proposal aims at the sustained implementation of the ICare model into health services and collaborations with health care providers across different EU countries.

The decision-making in chemotherapy nowadays depends on standard methods that are liquid chromatography (LC-MS/MS) followed by mass spectrometry or capillary electrophoresis; both are labour- and cost-intensive and can be performed only in dedicated hospitals and laboratories. This lead to a minimal therapeutic drug monitoring in patients and hence that 30-60% of drugs are administered without clinical benefits. We propose to develop a point-of-care device for quantification of chemotherapeutic drugs in small body fluid samples by highly selective nanoparticle extraction and liquid crystal detection incorporated in microfluidic lab-on-chip device (optofluidics based) allowing the real-time drug monitoring. This will improve the therapeutic outcome and reduced health care costs.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-CA | Phase: HEALTH-2009-4.2-4 | Award Amount: 1.25M | Year: 2010

The project on living organ donation in Europe is a coordination action that aims to 1) establish an inventory of living donation practices in Europe, 2) explore and promote living donation as a way to increase organ availability and 3) develop tools that improve the quality and safety of living organ donations in Europe. This action aims to achieve broad European coverage with a specific focus on new EU Member States. It includes 11 participants from 10 countries. It draws upon the support, knowledge and network of the European platform on Ethical, Legal and Psychosocial Aspects of Organ Transplantation (ELPAT) and the European Society for Organ Transplantation (ESOT). To fulfil its objective this project contains 2 scientific research packages. The first package focuses on living unrelated donation practices in Europe. The second package focuses on legal restrictions and safeguards for living donations in Europe. The remaining three work packages focus on the coordination of the work, dissemination of the project results and the organisation of meetings. 13 deliverables will result from this project, including an implementation plan to guarantee European-level dissemination of the accumulated knowledge, information and recommendations. By doing so, the end-goal is to exchange best practise and effective organisational models to promote and safeguard living donation in Europe.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SSH.2013.2.1-2 | Award Amount: 3.17M | Year: 2013

The project has four main objectives: To provide advices to stakeholders on how to foster Social Entrepreneurship and Social Innovation; to draft an Evolutionary Theory of Social Entrepreneurship to explain the different evolutionary paths of Social Entrepreneurship in Europe and how Social Entrepreneurship and institutions co-evolved during time; to identify the features of an enabling eco-system for Social Entrepreneurship; to identify the New Generation of Social Entrepreneurs, its features, needs and constraints as well as their contribution to Social Innovation. In pursuing these four main objectives other objectives will be reached: increasing the understating of their functioning of Social Enterprises, increase the visibility of the local, domestic and international role of Social Entrepreneurship, understand which are the main problems in accessing resources for Social Entrepreneurs, understand the degree of inappropriateness of the legal environments in relation with the daily operation of the Social Enterprise

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: HEALTH.2012.2.4.4-2 | Award Amount: 3.85M | Year: 2012

Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia (PCD) is a rare genetically heterogeneous disorder which results from dysfunction of motile hair-like organelles (cilia) that results in severe, chronic airways disease. Due to other cilia-related disease mechanisms several other organ systems like the heart can be affected. The complexity of the disease phenotype, late diagnosis, as well as lack of evidence based management guidelines contribute to a high burden of disease and cause high health care costs. Therefore, there is a great need for observational trials as well as well-designed randomised controlled trials to put evidence-based diagnostic and treatment approaches into effect. The main objective of our project is to improve diagnosis and treatment of PCD patients. To accomplish this, we propose to: 1) Establish widespread, early diagnosis by introduction of nasal Nitric Oxide measurement as screening tool, and by introduction of high-speed videomicroscopy as diagnostic tool; 2) Develop new outcome criteria, especially a PCD-specific quality of life questionnaire, as a prerequisite for controlled PCD trials; 3) Establish a PCD registry for both cross-sectional analysis of current disease status and longitudinal observational analysis of disease progression under different regimens; 4) Generate evidence-based treatment guidelines by conducting two prospective randomized trials on the inhalation of hypertonic saline and long term azithromycin therapy. To achieve these goals members of the European Respiratory Societys PCD task force will join forces with members of the NIH-funded US-PCD-network. In our multi-national project, we will for the first time establish evidence-based guidelines for diagnosis, clinical management and therapy. We expect that in a high proportion of children the diagnosis will be established before irreversible lung damage has occurred. In later diagnosed individuals the disease burden will be reduced and chronic respiratory failure retarded.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-ITN-2008 | Award Amount: 1.66M | Year: 2010

The main objective of PLANTORIGINS-ITN is to improve career prospects of young researchers in the growing field of plant evolutionary developmental biology through a programme of research, training and transfer of knowledge that integrates new discoveries and approaches in the fields of plant morphology, systematics, and developmental genetics with the overall goal of understanding the origins of form in plants. Much research in plant evolutionary developmental biology focuses on comparatively modern groups within the flowering plants, especially on economically important crops. But, as the field develops, it is becoming increasingly important and feasible to extend the scope of research to address questions of a fundamental nature in plants. The overarching and long term scientific question of PLANTORIGINS-ITN is: how did the major tissues and organ systems of plants evolve and what is their genetic regulatory basis? PLANTORIGINS-ITN brings together into a cohesive network a group of eight leading academic and industrial partners to provide unique state of the art training in these key areas. Because of the highly multidisciplinary nature of this network, transfer of knowledge within and between sectors is given high priority in our training programme. We regard this as fundamental to fostering the development and exploitation of research in this field. Our two industrial partners contribute state of the art analytical skills in the area of gene expression (microarray technology) and complementary business skills in the area of intellectual property rights and will provide valuable direction and feedback. The skills and competencies developed by the eight young researchers that we will train are directly transferable to the plant biotechnology sector, which is recognised as a strategically important industry that makes a key contribution to Europes agricultural competitiveness, sustainable development and economic growth.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: NoE | Phase: SEC-2011.7.4-1 | Award Amount: 8.18M | Year: 2012

The EUROFORGEN-NoE proposal aims to develop a network of excellence for the creation of a European Virtual Centre of Forensic Genetic Research. Forensic genetics is a highly innovative field of applied science with a strong impact on the security of citizens. However, the genetic methods to identify offenders as well as the creation of national DNA databases have caused concerns to the possible violation of privacy rights. Furthermore, studies to assess the societal dimension of security following the implementation of even more intrusive methods such as the genetic prediction of externally visible characteristics are highly relevant for their public acceptance. The network includes some of the leading groups in European forensic genetic research. It aims to create a closer integration of existing collaborations, as well as establishing new interactions in the field of security, as all key players are addressed: scientists, stakeholders, end-users, educational centres and scientific societies. Only if a long-term collaborative network can be established it will become possible to connect all scientific groups active in the field of forensic genetics, and to initiate a sustained effort covering all aspects of research. These efforts have to be combined with identifying and selecting the most innovative ideas to meet the challenges of analyzing biological crime scene samples compromised by degradation or indentified as mixtures of traces from multiple human sources. The proposal integrates five working packages. WP 1 is devoted to management and coordination. WP 2 will lead the activities aimed at the creation of the virtual centre of research. WP 3 will carry out exemplar projects as models of collaboration and integration of cutting edge research, later complemented by a competitive call for new research projects. The societal dimension of security as well as the ethical and legal aspects wil be addressed in WP 4, whereas WP 5 is devoted to education and training.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: HEALTH-2007-2.2.1-8;HEALTH-2007-2.4.1-12 | Award Amount: 13.76M | Year: 2008

Partners come from 10 European countries to achieve two main objectives: A) The further exploration of 3 animal models (the OBX rat, GS rat and NOD mouse) characterized by an activated immune response system (IRS), an abnormal tryptophan catabolism and a depressive-like behaviour to study the pathogenesis of inflammation-related mood disorders and the efficacy/working mechanism of anti-inflammatory and tryptophan metabolism restoring drugs. B) The in-parallel study of mood disorder patients to validate two sets of already developed biomarker tests to identify patients and individuals at risk for a mood disorder and characterized by an activated IRS to be able to treat these patients/individuals with drugs counteracting the consequences of the activated IRS/disturbed catabolism of tryptophan. Five strategic approaches (broken down in 12 workpackages) are used: 1) Study of the animal models for depressive-like behavior and aberrancies in monocytes/ macrophages, the tryptophan metabolism and the microglia-astrocyte-neuron interaction. 2/3) The validation of a high-throughput biomarker mRNA blood monocyte signature test and a biomarker test to detect an abnormal tryptophan catabolism. 4) Correlation studies between the outcomes of these biomarker tests in patients to various clinical variables, a.o. gene polymorphisms and the brain scan. 5) The therapeutic targetting of the activated IRS/abnormal tryptophan catabolism using a PDE4 inhibitor, a COX-2 inhibitor and a KMO-inhibitor in the animal models and in a phase II intervention study in depressed patients. Novel approaches are the prospective assessment of patients/individuals to identify whether changes in the IRS have any prognostic value and that the program aims at a personalized treatment of patients on the basis of their activated IRS. We heavily rely in this on the study of the animal models, which allow us to test anti-inflammatory therapeutics and to know their mechanism of action at the brain.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: KBBE-2007-3-1-06 | Award Amount: 7.77M | Year: 2008

Natural rubber is a widely used raw material essential to industry, medicine, transportation and defence, whose major source, the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis, is currently both sustainable and environmentally beneficial. However, increased worldwide demand for natural rubber and latex means that alternative sustainable sources are urgently required. In order to meet this challenge, we propose to create a Network that links all stakeholders involved in the development and sustainable use of Parthenium argentatum (guayule) and Taraxacum koksaghyz (Russian dandelion) as alternative rubber and latex sources in the EU. To guarantee the sustainable development and exploitation of both crops throughout the value creation chain, the project includes research into the collection and creation of new germplasm, biochemistry and genetics, breeding, agronomy, processing, and product development. The entire rubber biosynthetic pathway will be analysed, and potential bottlenecks will be identified and bypassed through targeted conventional breeding. Genes involved in rubber biosynthesis will be mapped, helping to accelerate breeding strategies in order to generate plants with commercially-viable rubber yields. Such plants will be tested for efficient growth and rubber production in the field under different climatic and edaphic conditions in Europe. The technical performance and economic potential of rubber extracted from these plants will be evaluated by producing specific prototypes, such as surgical gloves and tires. The envisaged consortium will create a collaborative network of European research organisations and industrial participants, with the necessary scientific and administrative expertise and cross-disciplinary experience to meet the project objectives, and the motivation and determination to produce the deliverables and achieve the project milestones as outlined in the proposal.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: CSA | Phase: GERI-4-2015 | Award Amount: 1.86M | Year: 2016

EQUAL-IST aims at introducing structural changes to enhance gender equality within Information Systems and Technology Research institutions, which have been demonstrated to be among the research sectors most affected by gender inequalities at all levels. The project aims at supporting seven RPOs from Northern, Southern and Central European countries plus a CSI country, in developing and implementing Gender Equality Action Plans. All the 7 RPOs of the EQUAL-IST consortium are at a starting stage in the setting up of GEPs and they have also ensured the support of the highest management levels both from their faculties and university as whole. The project will combine gender mainstreaming and positive actions on 3 main levels: HR practices and management processes, research design and delivery, student services and institutional communication. For addressing and solving issues of horizontal and vertical segregation in research and administrative careers, work life balance, gender neutral-blind approaches to IST research, gender gaps in students enrollment, EQUAL-IST will try to operate at the same time on organizational structures, discourses and behaviors. In addition, EQUAL-IST will promote a participatory approach towards Gender Equality Policies based on co-design and at the same time ensuring the active dialogue with and involvement of top decision makers at the partner RPOs. By setting up a dedicated crowdsourcing- online collaborative platform the project will support both the initial internal assessment of the RPOs and the GEPs design process. EQUAL-IST toolkits and guidelines, lessons learned and used methodologies will be disseminated broadly in Europe and other CSI countries with a communication strategy focused on IST Research Institutions and RFOs and through collaboration with the EURAXESS network, in order to support ERA objectives in relation to gender equality in research.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-ITN-ETN | Phase: MSCA-ITN-2014-ETN | Award Amount: 3.66M | Year: 2015

The CREEP Innovative Training Network is a training and career development platform for early stage researchers (ESRs) in Geodynamics, Mineral Physics, Seismology, Fluid Mechanics, and Materials Sciences. It aims to structure the collaboration in research and doctoral training between 10 leading academic centers in Earth Sciences in Europe: the CNRS (FR), represented by Geosciences Montpellier and the FAST Orsay, the universities of Bristol, Durham and UCL (UK), Munster and Mainz (DE), Roma TRE (IT) and Utrecht (NL), and as a partner organization: ETH (CH), and 11 partner organizations whose activity encompasses a variety of industrial applications of rheology: oil (Baker Hughes, Schlumberger) and chemical industries (AkzoNobel), glass (Schott) and steel (APERAM) producers, and high-technology SMEs (Rockfield, IGEM, GMuG, MP Strumenti, Geospatial Research, Reykjavik Geothermal). CREEP will provide training to 16 early stage researchers (among which 2 will be self-funded by partner ETH) via a structured program of cross-disciplinary collaborative research, specialized short courses, and workshops. This experience-based training is centered on research projects leading to a PhD that focus on the complex mechanical behavior of Earth materials and its implications for geodynamic and industrial processes. These research projects cover a large spectra of applications from the study of the deformation of the Earth surface (earthquakes) and deep layers to geothermal and petroleum exploration and industrial processes. Through them, the ESRs will acquire skills in experimentation, modelling of deformation at various space and time scales, and seismology. CREEP will also provide the ESRs: (1) essential career-management skills via courses and practical activities aimed to develop their organizational, management and networking skills and (2) experience and understanding of the impact of research for the private sector via secondments in the industrial partners.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: PEOPLE-2007-1-1-ITN | Award Amount: 2.60M | Year: 2008

Geological time is inextricably linked with Earth Sciences and the Geological Time Scale (GTS) is the yardstick to measure it. As such the GTS is the key to reconstruct Earth history. Recent developments in numerical dating now permit to build a much improved next generation GTS for the last 100 million years by integrating independent state-of-the-art techniques; this time scale will have an unprecedented accuracy, precision, resolution and stability. Within GTSnext a consortium of world leading European experts will be brought together for the first time to integrate their expertise and provide young scientists with a top training in all these methods. This training is the prime objective of GTSnext, and crucial to its success. Together this team of newly trained scientists is well equipped to construct the new GTS. GTSnext is part of a broader international initiative - EARTHTIME - a community-based scientific effort aimed at sequencing Earth history through an integrated geochronologic and stratigraphic approach. It is our ambition to broaden the Earthtime platform in Europe with GTSnext, which combined with an ESF funded Research Network run in parallel, will also serve as the basis for wider outreach towards the Earth Science community. The expected scientific contributions and breakthroughs are 1) a full integration and intercalibration of different numerical dating techniques, leading to 2) a significant improvement in the consistency of these same techniques; 3) progress towards a fully integrated and astronomical-tuned GTS over the last 100 million years; 4) an essentially stable time scale that is highly beneficial for both academia and industry, and 5) new insights in key geological processes including climate change, catastrophic impacts, and volcanic hazards. Finally, a more fundamental comprehension of geological time and the time scales at which key processes occur in Earth history is highly relevant in view of the impact we have on System Earth.

Ruiz-Agudo E.,University of Granada | Putnis C.V.,University of Munster | Putnis A.,University of Munster
Chemical Geology | Year: 2014

Reactions occurring at mineral-fluid interfaces are important in all geochemical processes and essential for the cycling of elements within the Earth. Understanding the mechanism of the transformation of one solid phase to another and the role of fluids is fundamental to many natural and industrial processes. Problems such as the interaction of minerals with CO2-saturated water, the durability of nuclear waste materials, the remediation of polluted water, and mineral reactions that can destroy our stone-based cultural heritage, are related by the common feature that a mineral assemblage in contact with a fluid may be replaced by a more stable assemblage. © 2014.

Jacob C.R.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology | Neugebauer J.,University of Munster
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Computational Molecular Science | Year: 2014

Subsystem density-functional theory (subsystem DFT) has developed into a powerful alternative to Kohn-Sham DFT for quantum chemical calculations of complex systems. It exploits the idea of representing the total electron density as a sum of subsystem densities. The optimum total density is found by minimizing the total energy with respect to each of the subsystem densities, which breaks down the electronic-structure problem into effective subsystem problems. This enables calculations on large molecular aggregates and even (bio-)polymers without system-specific parameterizations. We provide a concise review of the underlying theory, typical approximations, and embedding approaches related to subsystem DFT such as frozen-density embedding (FDE). Moreover, we discuss extensions and applications of subsystem DFT and FDE to molecular property calculations, excited states, and wave function in DFT embedding methods. Furthermore, we outline recent developments for reconstruction techniques of embedding potentials arising in subsystem DFT, and for using subsystem DFT to incorporate constraints into DFT calculations. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Jacobi A.M.,University of Munster | Dorner T.,Charite University Medicine Berlin and Deutsches Rheumaforschungszentrum Berlin
Current Opinion in Pharmacology | Year: 2010

Although B cells represent major contributors to rheumatoid arthritis (RA) pathogenesis, their precise roles in the induction and maintenance of abnormal immune activation in this entity remains poorly understood. As proof of principle, rituximab, a chimeric B cell depleting anti-CD20-antibody, has demonstrated that depletion of B cells can substantially improve signs and symptoms as well as physical function and inhibit radiologic progression that led to the approval of this agent to treat patients with moderate to severe RA lacking response to TNF-alpha blocking agents in 2006. Placebo-controlled clinical trials as well as subsequent studies and experiences further contributed to our understanding of the mechanism of action of rituximab, but a number of open questions remain. This review summarizes some lessons learned from B cell depletion in RA including particular safety aspects. Of importance using this therapy is that it apparently provides the highest likelihood of response in seropositive RA patients. This observation differentiates it from other currently available therapies and closes the conceptual loop that the underlying immunopathogenesis involves B cells requiring 'targeted' therapy. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Greb L.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology | Greb L.,University of Toronto | Ona-Burgos P.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology | Schirmer B.,University of Munster | And 3 more authors.
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2012

Weak nucleophiles for strong activation: The reversible activation of dihydrogen by an electron-deficient phosphine, (C 6F 5)PPh 2, in combination with the Lewis acid B(C 6F 5) 3 at -80 °C was accomplished. The catalytic hydrogenation of olefins proceeds through protonation and subsequent hydride attack. Electron-deficient phosphines and diarlyamines were demonstrated to be viable Lewis bases for the reaction, thus allowing catalyst loadings of 10 to 5 mol %. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Biermann U.,Carl von Ossietzky University | Bornscheuer U.,University of Greifswald | Meier M.A.R.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology | Metzger J.O.,Carl von Ossietzky University | Schafer H.J.,University of Munster
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2011

Oils and fats of vegetable and animal origin have been the most important renewable feedstock of the chemical industry in the past and in the present. A tremendous geographical and feedstock shift of oleochemical production has taken place from North America and Europe to southeast Asia and from tallow to palm oil. It will be important to introduce and to cultivate more and new oil plants containing fatty acids with interesting and desired properties for chemical utilization while simultaneously increasing the agricultural biodiversity. The problem of the industrial utilization of food plant oils has become more urgent with the development of the global biodiesel production. The remarkable advances made during the last decade in organic synthesis, catalysis, and biotechnology using plant oils and the basic oleochemicals derived from them will be reported, including, for example, w-functionalization of fatty acids containing internal double bonds, application of the olefin metathesis reaction, and de novo synthesis of fatty acids from abundantly available renewable carbon sources. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Drexlin G.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology | Hannen V.,University of Munster | Mertens S.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology | Weinheimer C.,University of Munster
Advances in High Energy Physics | Year: 2013

In this contribution, we review the status and perspectives of direct neutrino mass experiments, which investigate the kinematics of β -decays of specific isotopes (3H, 187Re, 163Ho) to derive model-independent information on the averaged electron (anti)neutrino mass. After discussing the kinematics of β -decay and the determination of the neutrino mass, we give a brief overview of past neutrino mass measurements (SN1987a-ToF studies, Mainz and Troitsk experiments for 3H, cryobolometers for 187Re). We then describe the Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino (KATRIN) experiment currently under construction at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, which will use the MAC-E-Filter principle to push the sensitivity down to a value of 200 meV (90% C.L.). To do so, many technological challenges have to be solved related to source intensity and stability, as well as precision energy analysis and low background rate close to the kinematic endpoint of tritium β -decay at 18.6 keV. We then review new approaches such as the MARE, ECHO, and Project8 experiments, which offer the promise to perform an independent measurement of the neutrino mass in the sub-eV region. Altogether, the novel methods developed in direct neutrino mass experiments will provide vital information on the absolute mass scale of neutrinos. © 2013 G. Drexlin et al.

Foulkes W.D.,McGill University | Clarke B.A.,University of Toronto | Hasselblatt M.,University of Munster | Majewski J.,McGill University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Pathology | Year: 2014

Whole-exome sequencing (WES) is revolutionizing medical diagnostics and taxonomy. In less than 5 years since its first use, WES has revealed unexpected molecular drivers of numerous cancers. Here, we describe our use of WES to uncover the true nature of an enigmatic pathological entity, small-cell carcinoma of the ovary, hypercalcaemic type (SCCOHT), which has resisted definitive characterisation since it was first described in 1979. We conducted WES using three families with SCCOHT and identified deleterious mutations in the chromatin-remodelling gene SMARCA4 (encoding BRG1) in all cases. Follow-up of these findings, using both Sanger sequencing and WES of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumours, showed that virtually all SCCOHTs we studied lacked functional SMARCA4/BRG1. Notably, this gene, and the related SMARCB1 gene, is mutated in most, if not all, atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumours and malignant rhabdoid tumours. Other groups have similar findings. We review the relationship between these three neoplasms, discuss how they were distinguished from morphologically similar neoplasms, consider their similarities and show how WES has revealed that SCCOHTs are in fact rhabdoid tumours. We propose that SCCOHT be renamed 'malignant rhabdoid tumour of the ovary' (MRTO) to reflect these observations. Copyright © 2014 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Greb L.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology | Daniliuc C.-G.,University of Munster | Bergander K.,University of Munster | Paradies J.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2013

Weak Lewis acid for high nucleophilicity: Hydridoborate derived from B(2,6-F2C6H3)3 shows significant hydride character. Solid-state and solution structure analysis revealed a dihydrogen-bonded aggregate. The new frustrated Lewis pair was applied in the hydrogenation of nitroolefins and acrylates (see scheme; EWG=electron- withdrawing group). The decreased Lewis acidity provides higher reactivity and functional-group tolerance. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Lindemann F.,University of Munster | Ropinski T.,Linköping University
IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics | Year: 2011

In this paper, we present a user study in which we have investigated the influence of seven state-of-the-art volumetric illumination models on the spatial perception of volume rendered images. Within the study, we have compared gradient-based shading with half angle slicing, directional occlusion shading, multidirectional occlusion shading, shadow volume propagation, spherical harmonic lighting as well as dynamic ambient occlusion. To evaluate these models, users had to solve three tasks relying on correct depth as well as size perception. Our motivation for these three tasks was to find relations between the used illumination model, user accuracy and the elapsed time. In an additional task, users had to subjectively judge the output of the tested models. After first reviewing the models and their features, we will introduce the individual tasks and discuss their results. We discovered statistically significant differences in the testing performance of the techniques. Based on these findings, we have analyzed the models and extracted those features which are possibly relevant for the improved spatial comprehension in a relational task. We believe that a combination of these distinctive features could pave the way for a novel illumination model, which would be optimized based on our findings. © 2011 IEEE.

Jansen L.,University of Munster | Holscher H.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology | Fuchs H.,University of Munster | Schirmeisen A.,University of Munster
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2010

We report experiments of atomic stick-slip friction on graphite as an explicit function of surface temperature between 100 and 300 K under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. A statistical analysis of the individual stick-slip events as a function of the velocity reveals an agreement with the thermally activated Prandtl-Tomlinson model at all temperatures. Taking into account an explicit temperature-dependence of the attempt frequency all data points collapse onto one single master curve. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

Putnis C.V.,University of Munster | Ruiz-Agudo E.,University of Granada
Elements | Year: 2013

The reactions that occur at the mineral-water interface are central to all geochemical processes. They affect a wide range of important Earth processes, all of which involve geochemical element cycling. Examples include weathering and soil formation, nutrient availability, biomineralization, acid mine drainage, the fate of contaminants, nuclear waste disposal, and minor element incorporation and partitioning during mineral growth. Each of these processes, and its reaction rates, is ultimately controlled by reactions that occur at mineral surfaces. Through the development of advanced analytical methods, direct observations of mineral reactions at the nanoscale have enabled exciting new possibilities for clarifying the mechanisms governing mineral-fluid reactions. Copyright © 2013 by the Mineralogical Society of America.

Hiesinger H.,University of Munster | Helbert J.,German Aerospace Center
Planetary and Space Science | Year: 2010

Scheduled for launch on board the BepiColombo Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO) in 2014, the Mercury Radiometer and Thermal Infrared Spectrometer (MERTIS) is an innovative instrument for studying the surface composition and mineralogy of planet Mercury. MERTIS combines an uncooled grating push broom IR-spectrometer (TIS) with a radiometer (TIR), which will operate in the wavelength region of 7-14 and 7-40 μm, respectively. The spatial resolution of the MERTIS observations will be about 500 m globally and better than 500 m for approximately 5-10% of the surface. The thermal infrared range offers unique diagnostic capabilities to study the surface composition of Mercury. In particular, feldspars can easily be detected and characterized, because they show several diagnostic spectral signatures in the 7-14 μm range: the Christiansen feature, reststrahlen bands, and the transparency feature. In addition, MERTIS will allow the identification and mapping of elemental sulfur, pyroxenes, olivines, and other complex minerals. The scientific objectives of MERTIS include: (1) characterization of Mercury's surface composition, (2) identification of rock-forming minerals, (3) mapping of the surface mineralogy, and (4) study of surface temperature variations and the thermal inertia. In preparation for the MERTIS data interpretation, we are performing spectral measurements of appropriate analogue materials in the Planetary Emissivity Laboratory (PEL) and are building a spectral library (Berlin Emissivity Database (BED)) of these materials for a variety of grain sizes. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Wencel-Delord J.,University of Strasbourg | Glorius F.,University of Munster
Nature Chemistry | Year: 2013

The beginning of the twenty-first century has witnessed significant advances in the field of C-H bond activation, and this transformation is now an established piece in the synthetic chemists' toolbox. This methodology has the potential to be used in many different areas of chemistry, for example it provides a perfect opportunity for the late-stage diversification of various kinds of organic scaffolds, ranging from relatively small molecules like drug candidates, to complex polydisperse organic compounds such as polymers. In this way, C-H activation approaches enable relatively straightforward access to a plethora of analogues or can help to streamline the lead-optimization phase. Furthermore, synthetic pathways for the construction of complex organic materials can now be designed that are more atom- and step-economical than previous methods and, in some cases, can be based on synthetic disconnections that are just not possible without C-H activation. This Perspective highlights the potential of metal-catalysed C-H bond activation reactions, which now extend beyond the field of traditional synthetic organic chemistry. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

Raccichini R.,University of Munster | Raccichini R.,Helmholtz Institute Ulm | Raccichini R.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology | Varzi A.,Helmholtz Institute Ulm | And 5 more authors.
Nature Materials | Year: 2015

Since its first isolation in 2004, graphene has become one of the hottest topics in the field of materials science, and its highly appealing properties have led to a plethora of scientific papers. Among the many affected areas of materials science, this 'graphene fever' has influenced particularly the world of electrochemical energy-storage devices. Despite widespread enthusiasm, it is not yet clear whether graphene could really lead to progress in the field. Here we discuss the most recent applications of graphene-both as an active material and as an inactive component-from lithium-ion batteries and electrochemical capacitors to emerging technologies such as metal-air and magnesium-ion batteries. By critically analysing state-of-the-art technologies, we aim to address the benefits and issues of graphene-based materials, as well as outline the most promising results and applications so far. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Demidov V.E.,University of Munster | Urazhdin S.,Emory University | Ulrichs H.,University of Munster | Tiberkevich V.,Oakland University | And 4 more authors.
Nature Materials | Year: 2012

With the advent of pure-spin-current sources, spin-based electronic (spintronic) devices no longer require electrical charge transfer, opening new possibilities for both conducting and insulating spintronic systems. Pure spin currents have been used to suppress noise caused by thermal fluctuations in magnetic nanodevices, amplify propagating magnetization waves, and to reduce the dynamic damping in magnetic films. However, generation of coherent auto-oscillations by pure spin currents has not been achieved so far. Here we demonstrate the generation of single-mode coherent auto-oscillations in a device that combines local injection of a pure spin current with enhanced spin-wave radiation losses. Counterintuitively, radiation losses enable excitation of auto-oscillation, suppressing the nonlinear processes that prevent auto-oscillation by redistributing the energy between different modes. Our devices exhibit auto-oscillations at moderate current densities, at a microwave frequency tunable over a wide range. These findings suggest a new route for the implementation of nanoscale microwave sources for next-generation integrated electronics. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Fustero S.,University of Valencia | Fustero S.,Research Center Principe Felipe | Simon-Fuentes A.,University of Valencia | Barrio P.,University of Valencia | Haufe G.,University of Munster
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2015

Olefin metathesis and organofluorine chemistry, have witnessed an impressive development. The discovery of well-defined ruthenium and molybdenum-based alkylidene complexes has made such catalysts much more available while greatly increasing the functional group tolerance, among other virtues. the synthesis of fluorine-containing heterocycles, including cyclic amino acid derivatives, saccharide analogues, and other biologically relevant skeletons, has undergone the impact of olefin metathesis in organofluorine chemistry. Cross metathesis has enabled the synthesis of natural product analogues and vicinal fluoroalkanes, otherwise inaccessible by current methodologies. The search for increasingly sophisticated materials has redoubled efforts in the field of metathesis polymerization fluorinated substrates playing a major role due to the unique properties exhibited by fluorine-containing polymers. In addition to the great applicability that fluorinated substrates have found in olefin metathesis reactions, the introduction of fluorine atoms in the catalysts' ligand framework has also proven beneficial in many cases.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: KBBE-2009-3-2-02 | Award Amount: 4.37M | Year: 2010

SUNBIOPATH - towards a better sunlight to biomass conversion efficiency in microalgae - is an integrated program of research aimed at improving biomass yields and valorisation of biomass for two Chlorophycean photosynthetic microalgae, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Dunaliella salina. Biomass yields will be improved at the level of primary processes that occur in the chloroplasts (photochemistry and sunlight capture by the light harvesting complexes) and in the cell (biochemical pathways and signalling mechanisms that influence ATP synthesis). Optimal growth of the engineered microalgae will be determined in photobioreactors, and biomass yields will be tested using a scale up approach in photobioreactors of different sizes (up to 250 L), some of which being designed and built during SUNBIOPATH. Biomethane production will be evaluated. Compared to other biofuels, biomethane is attractive because the yield of biomass to fuel conversion is higher. Valorisation of biomass will also be achieved through the production of biologicals. Significant progress has been made in the development of chloroplast genetic engineering in microalgae such as Chlamydomonas, however the commercial exploitation of this technology still requires additional research. SUNBIOPATH will address the problem of maximising transgenic expression in the chloroplast and will develop a robust system for chloroplast metabolic engineering by developing methodologies such as inducible expression and trans-operon expression. A techno economic analysis will be made to evaluate the feasibility of using these algae for the purposes proposed (biologicals production in the chloroplast and/or biomethane production) taking into account their role in CO2 mitigation.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-RISE | Phase: MSCA-RISE-2016 | Award Amount: 1.07M | Year: 2017

Space is the foundational characteristic of visual perception and we generally perceive it as continuous and uniform. Behavioural measurements and the properties of our sensory systems however, demonstrate that this is an illusory situation and our percept is constructed by the brain. One example is our lack of awareness of the blind spot that exists in each eye. Space is non-uniformly represented in the visual brain and this representation is dynamically influenced by motor behaviour, in particular by eye movements. The PLATYPUS consortium will investigate the dynamic nature of spatial sensation and perception, focussing on the continuous mutual interaction of motor behaviour and perception. Our research objectives integrate human behavioural and cutting edge non-human primate electrophysiological research techniques and focus on translation of basic into applied research. Focussing on the adaptive nature of vision and action, strategies to perturb and probe perceptual space and geometry will allow measurement of spatial and geometrical perception in humans and the representation of such in non-human primates. This research will extend to applications for people wearing progressive lenses which distort action and space perception, patients with a blind area in their visual field and for virtual reality technology development. PLATYPUS researchers will grow existing and establish new collaborative teams, sharing research techniques, knowledge and mentoring between established and with upcoming researchers in academia and industry. Individuals will benefit from intense scientific and career development training while institutions will benefit from the exchange of state-of-the-art techniques. The ultimate outcome will be increased understanding of the continuously updating neural construction of space and the production of assistive technologies for people needing corrective lenses, with ocular or visual discontinuity and for the growing virtual reality industry.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: YOUNG-3-2015 | Award Amount: 2.50M | Year: 2016

Most European Lifelong Learning (LLL) policies have been designed to create economic growth and, at the same time, guarantee social inclusion (EC 2010). First, we will study how different LLL policies are compatible with each other in terms of their orientations and objectives and how each policy considers the needs of young adults. Second, we will research the intended and unintended effects of policies on young adults. In this regard, we will look into relevant social developments such as life course de-standardisation processes and into an emerging new political economy of skills. Third, we will generate new knowledge about regional and local policymaking, with particular attention to actors, dynamics, and trends. By focusing on their regional/local context, we will elucidate the interaction and complementarity of LLL policies with other sectors of society, thus contributing to a better understanding of current fragmentation and discrepancies, in order to set parameters for future decision-making support systems. The project will first contribute new knowledge of the impact of LLL policies on young adults life courses, yielding insights on the conditions, strategies, and necessities for policies to become effective. In addition, it will provide insights on the innovations and potentials they unlock, in particular with view to informal and non-formal learning to better address vulnerable groups. Second, the project contributes to a better understanding of the structural relationships and functional match between education/training and the labour market sectors. Third, the project will provide a thorough review of regional policies and initiatives in the countries studied, laying bare distinct dynamics and trends, but also mismatches and redundancies. In particular, the project aims at identifying successful programmes in terms of sustainable solutions in integrating labour market with, social inclusion as well as their transferability to other contexts.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: HEALTH.2010.2.4.2-3 | Award Amount: 15.68M | Year: 2010

The initiation and perpetuation of atrial fibrillation (AF) can be regarded as a complication of a progressive transformation of the structure and functional properties of the atria. This transformation is the result of complex and multiple changes at the molecular, cellular and organ levels which interact to form the basis for proarrhythmic mechanisms in AF. Numerous individual and environmental factors are probably involved in this profound transformation process in the atria. Therefore, we believe that progress in the diagnostics, prevention and treatment of AF requires highly integrative research from the molecule to bedside and from specific signaling pathways and electrophysiological mechanisms to population based studies. A consortium was formed providing this variety of expertises and has identified central research objectives for improvements in AF prevention and therapy. In 5 work packages focusing on basic research, new biomarkers for AF and therapeutic targets will be identified. We will study mechanisms of conduction disturbances in the atria, explore new ion channel targets for treatment of AF, identify specific alterations in the atria depending on the underlying heart disease, and evaluate beneficial effects of organ-protective compounds. Within two clinically oriented work packages the clinical application of these findings will be tested. The predictive value of diagnostic tools like serum biomarkers, 3D reconstruction of atrial conduction patterns based on high resolution body surface ECGs, and echocardiographic markers will be studied in large scale population studies. The new therapeutic targets will be explored in smaller prove-of-principle clinical trials (substrate oriented ablation, new pharmacological targets, and local gene delivery).

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: Fission-2008-3.3.1 | Award Amount: 712.93K | Year: 2009

The Call for this project proposal describes the objective as to develop a methodology for optimising the design of monitoring systems for timely and effective decision making in an emergency. This objective together with the expected impact (A tool for making more efficient use of monitoring resources and improving the bases for decision making in emergencies, in particular in the context of the need to upgrade/replace during the next decade many of the monitoring systems installed post-Chernobyl) can be seen so that the project shall provide all relevant information needed in design of monitoring strategies and show how this information can be used in planning of monitoring systems in an optimised way.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-ITN-ETN | Phase: MSCA-ITN-2015-ETN | Award Amount: 3.46M | Year: 2016

Deictic communication is fundamental to understanding communication in both typical and atypical populations, and forms the key connection between language and objects/locations in the world. It is therefore critical to understanding human-human interaction, and human-system interaction in a range of technology applications from mobile phones to cognitive robotics and to the enhancement of clinical and educational interventions with typical and atypical populations. This ETN will train the next generation of scientists in the full range of multidisciplinary and cross-sectorial methods necessary to make significant progress in understanding deictic communication, with direct synergies between basic research and application. Training is structured around two interdisciplinary research themes Understanding Deictic Communication and Deictic Communication in Application both involving extensive and systematic co-supervision and collaboration across sites with key interplay between academic and nonacademic beneficiaries and partners. In turn we expect that a range of applications will be enhanced with increased usability, with associated societal and economic benefit. The training of the cohort of ESR fellows is based on innovative PhD training approaches, providing not only training in interdisciplinary methods, but also employing peer-assisted methods and the latest in educational innovation. This will produce a cohort of highly skilled researchers who will be highly employable given the potential contribution they will make to future research and innovation in the public and private sectors.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-TP | Phase: HEALTH-2007-1.1-4 | Award Amount: 3.59M | Year: 2008

Schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder are a major burden to affected individuals and their families and to society at large. These two severe mental illnesses affect at least 2% of the population worldwide, and whilst 50% of sufferers do not receive adequate treatment, they cost hundreds of billions in healthcare provision, treatments and lost earnings. The current diagnosis of schizophrenia (and bipolar disorder etc.) is rather subjective, not only because of the complex spectrum of symptoms and their similarity to other mental disorders, but also due to the lack of empirical disease markers. This result in long delays (up to 1-3 years) before appropriate therapeutics is prescribed to first episode schizophrenics. Early treatment is associated with greatly improved patient outcomes. There is therefore a major unmet clinical need for empirical diagnostic tests for high throughput screening of biological fluids that would enable early and accurate diagnosis of schizophrenia and related disorders. The identification of specific biomarkers for mental disorders would revolutionise the clinical management of affected individuals. Biomarkers will help in the identification of disease sub-types, aid in predicting and monitoring treatment response and compliance, and identify novel drug targets. If such biomarkers can be found in readily accessible body fluids they open up the possibility of developing new early or pre-symptomatic diagnostics and/or treatments to improve outcomes or even prevent disease. The objective of our project is to identify biomarkers of disease and develop a diagnostic assay panel/tool for the high throughput screening of biological samples for clinical research. Moreover this platform will be utilised by SMEs for drug design and development for mental disorders research into new animal models for mental dirders and identifying biomarkers for other mental disorders

Friedrich R.,University of Munster | Peinke J.,Carl von Ossietzky University | Sahimi M.,University of Southern California | Reza Rahimi Tabar M.,Carl von Ossietzky University | And 2 more authors.
Physics Reports | Year: 2011

This review addresses a central question in the field of complex systems: given a fluctuating (in time or space), sequentially measured set of experimental data, how should one analyze the data, assess their underlying trends, and discover the characteristics of the fluctuations that generate the experimental traces? In recent years, significant progress has been made in addressing this question for a class of stochastic processes that can be modeled by Langevin equations, including additive as well as multiplicative fluctuations or noise. Important results have emerged from the analysis of temporal data for such diverse fields as neuroscience, cardiology, finance, economy, surface science, turbulence, seismic time series and epileptic brain dynamics, to name but a few. Furthermore, it has been recognized that a similar approach can be applied to the data that depend on a length scale, such as velocity increments in fully developed turbulent flow, or height increments that characterize rough surfaces. A basic ingredient of the approach to the analysis of fluctuating data is the presence of a Markovian property, which can be detected in real systems above a certain time or length scale. This scale is referred to as the Markov-Einstein (ME) scale, and has turned out to be a useful characteristic of complex systems. We provide a review of the operational methods that have been developed for analyzing stochastic data in time and scale. We address in detail the following issues: (i) reconstruction of stochastic evolution equations from data in terms of the Langevin equations or the corresponding Fokker-Planck equations and (ii) intermittency, cascades, and multiscale correlation functions. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENERGY.2013.7.3.3 | Award Amount: 3.50M | Year: 2013

The project proposal InFluENCE aims at improving the fundamental understanding and control of interfaces of a battery type based on Li-ion and Na-ion active materials: semi solid flow batteries (SSFB). The fact that the case study will be a SSFB set-up instead of classic lithium ion batteries is an asset, given that the methods and techniques developed are generic and could as well be implemented for conventional Li- and Na-ion systems for the techniques that are not concentrated on flow aspects. A main objective is the investigation and optimization of the interfaces developing between the electrolyte and the electrochemically active material particles in fluid electrodes. The acquired knowledge would allow the chemical and morphological optimization of active materials as well as the design of optimized interfacial layers (also called artificial Solid Electrolyte Interfaces, art-SEI) capable of warrant stable interfaces. A second main objective is the understanding and control the mechanical and conductive behaviours of the slurries. For this, it is necessary to determine the role of shape anisotropy and the overall nature (attractive or repulsive) of the short ranged interactions of the active materials besides the strength of the attractive forces for conductive nano-particles. The cross interaction should allow intimate contact between active material and the conductive particles. The experimental work is accompanied by thorough modelling to understand the physical phenomena occurring at the microscopic scale, to derive scaling rules towards macro-scale and to enable design recommendations leading to optimal interface behaviour (size of anodic and cathodic compartments, geometry of collectors, etc.).

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-IRSES | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2010-IRSES | Award Amount: 170.10K | Year: 2012

Climate change, soil degradation and the need of alternative energy sources are main challenges at the beginning of the 21st century. Exotic plant species are introduced on purpose for wood production, CO2 sequestration and soil amelioration. Some of these exotics spread out without control and are able to facilitate their invasion into native ecosystems by altering habitat properties. These so-called invasive ecosystem engineers can become a threat to biodiversity, ecosystem function and human health. The processes of biological invasions, their impacts on native ecosystems on different temporal and spatial scales, and the invasibility of different ecosystems are still not well understood. The aim of the INvasive SPecies Evaluation, ConTrol & EDucation.NETwork (INSPECTED.NET) is to set up a multi-skilled, international group of experts in biological invasions that will add on to existing programmes like the European-based DAISIE or the global invasive species programme (GISP). As a model, we will examine the invasion by the ecosystem engineer Acacia longifolia applying the latest methods in vegetation ecology including stable isotope analysis and remote sensing. Studies will be carried out at multiple spatial scales and at different stages of invasions in Portugal and Brazil. As a result, we want to develop a set of tools to evaluate and control biological invasions, and to contribute to current methods of risk assessment. We will extend our network with more experts in Acacia longifolia invasions worldwide. We will integrate the results of our research in our teaching to increase knowledge and raise awareness of exotic species and their risk assessment together with active multipliers such as public and educational bodies, institutions of nature conservation and forestry, and people involved in habitat restoration and sustainable land use, especially considering global change and the challenges of fertile land loss, soil degradation and desertification.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: HEALTH.2013.2.4.1-3 | Award Amount: 7.81M | Year: 2013

Survival rates after childhood cancer now reach nearly 80% in developed European countries as a result of more effective therapies and better supportive care, leading to a steady increase in the number of survivors in the population. However, the treatments that have improved survival are harsh and cause serious side-effects that can greatly impact survivors quality of life in the long term. The goal of PanCareLIFE is that survivors of cancer diagnosed before age 25 should enjoy the same quality of life and opportunities as their peers who have not had cancer. Using observational studies and molecular genetic investigations PanCareLIFE will investigate late effects that impact fertility and hearing impairment (ototoxicity), and will assess health-related quality of life. Information from PanCareLIFEs studies will be incorporated into new guidelines for fertility preservation. As the number of survivors with late effects in any one country is small, large cohorts are required for accurate estimation of risk. PanCareLIFE has assembled a team of prominent investigators from 8 European countries who will contribute in total over 12,000 well-characterised research subjects to identify risk factors, both genetic and non-genetic, linked to decrements in fertility and ototoxicity. Quality-of-life studies will evaluate the impact of fertility and ototoxicity. PanCareLIFE will advance the state-of-the-art in survivorship studies by evaluation of large cohorts with observational and genetic tools that will provide better knowledge of individual risk factors. Survivors can then be stratified into groups benefitting from personalized, evidence-based, care; future patients may expect effective therapies to have less severe side effects, and plans for a seamless transition to long-term follow-up care can be made. These approaches will result in better quality of life for survivors of cancer diagnosed at a young age.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: NMP-2007-4.0-4 | Award Amount: 15.90M | Year: 2008

The demographic changes in Europe towards an aging society will coincide with increasing morbidity of the population. European citizens need improved access to state-of-the-art medical care especially in oncology and cardiology, while keeping expenditures on healthcare affordable. New therapeutic options such as externally triggered local drug release at the diseased area hold promise to solve urgent medical needs: improved treatment with reduced side effects, fewer burdens to the patient and faster recovery after intervention. Nanomedicine, the application of nanomaterials and nanotechnology to healthcare, will enable breakthroughs in clinical practice. SONODRUGS addresses clinical needs by developing novel drug delivery technologies for localised treatment of cardiovascular disease and cancer. SONODRUGS develops drug delivery concepts where drug release can be triggered by focused ultrasound induced pressure or temperature stimuli within the diseased tissue. New drug loaded nanocarriers will be designed for tailored drug delivery systems that respond to either of the two stimuli. Medical imaging, i.e. magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound imaging, will be used to guide, follow and quantify the drug delivery process. Therapy efficacy using different drug delivery systems will be assessed in vitro and subsequently in preclinical studies. Starting form research on a broad range of materials and drugs, two nanocarriers will be finally selected, optimized and produced on a pilot scale in combination with image-guided delivery tools and methods. SONODRUGS binds expertise in materials research (Philips, TUE, GhentRGN, HBBG); material production (Nanobiotix, Lipoid); clinical knowledge in oncology (UTours, HBBG) and cardiology (UKB); in vitro and preclinical validation (UTours, ErasmusMC, UKB); research on imaging techniques (UCY, Philips, IMF); pharmacokinetics, toxicology and biodistribution (ULSOP, IPT).

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-ITN-ETN | Phase: MSCA-ITN-2015-ETN | Award Amount: 3.65M | Year: 2016

The ETN has two aims: to a) train ESRs; b) investigate the The History of Human Freedom and Dignity in Western Civilization. a) The ETN will establish an innovative training programme which allows the ESRs to obtain specialist knowledge of a specific research topic and to obtain transferable skills enabling the students to apply their knowledge in non-academic institutions, e.g. dealing with social welfare, human resources, or legal /political institutes. The training program includes acquiring transferable skills via courses and via secondments in non-academic partner organisations. b) The thesis of the research is that the concept of the ideal modern Western European human being has its roots far back in the history of philosophy and theology. This ideal human being has the right to think, believe, and express itself freely about all matters without fearing retribution, and to be treated as an autonomous and dignified individual. But such a conception is not shared by all and never was. Its long history has been formed through a continuous battle between two theological and philosophical traditions going back to Origen from Alexandria and Augustine of Hippo respectively. Origen saw humans as free, valuable and dignified beings, while Augustine saw them as predestined, sinful and bound to servitude. The network will investigate the reception and use of Origens ideas in order to provide a comprehensive and historically based understanding of these fundamental values, their origins, development and the fights they have gone through. Only then can we argue for their continued place in modern society. Such a project is highly relevant today, since the modern conception of humans is a fundamental pillar of Western democracies which is under pressure from both political and fundamentalist religious groups that question the societal structures building on ideas of humans freedom and dignity, and by global crises and structures that limit the individuals autonomy.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2009.4.1 | Award Amount: 11.55M | Year: 2011

The digital preservation problem is well-understood for query-centric information scenarios but has been less explored for scenarios where the important digital information to be preserved is the execution context within which data is processed, analysed, transformed and rendered. Furthermore, preservation is often considered as a set of activities carried out in the isolation of a single domain, without considering the dependencies on third-party services, information and capabilities that will be necessary to validate digital information in a future usage context.TIMBUS will endeavour to enlarge the understanding of DP to include the set of activities, processes and tools that ensure continued access to services and software necessary to produce the context within which information can be accessed, properly rendered, validated and transformed into knowledge. One of the fundamental requirements is to preserve the functional and non-functional specifications of services and software, along with their dependencies.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2007.5.3 | Award Amount: 5.18M | Year: 2008

Heart failure accounts for almost a quarter of all admissions to hospital for cardiovascular events, has a high mortality (median survival around 18 months), and places a great burden on all healthcare systems, with estimated direct costs of 905m (1350m) in the United Kingdom in 2000, 2% of total NHS expenditure. VPH2 aims to develop a patient-specific computational modelling and simulation of the human heart to assist the cardiologist and the cardiac surgeon in defining the severity and extent of disease in patients with post-ischemic Left Ventricular Dysfunction (LVD), with or without ischemic mitral regurgitation (IMR). Specific computational methods will allow clinical decision making and planning of the optimal treatment for left ventricle-valve repair. The goal is not only to deploy a fully validated technology to partner clinical institutions, but also to develop a sustainable business model associated to it. The associated technological aim of the project is to deliver the most advanced software application framework for the development of computer-aided medicine in cardiology and cardiac surgery available in the world, going beyond the state of the art of available models. This goal will be achieved by integrating some of the leading Open Source software in the area of computer-aided medicine and of computational bioengineering. This framework will be used by VPH2 to realise its objectives, but also by any other future project (academic or industrial) aiming to improve or extend VPH2 objectives.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2013.9.1 | Award Amount: 2.23M | Year: 2013

Photonic technologies enable today to generate, manipulate and detect photons by means of miniaturized devices integrated onto the same optical chip. However, compared to electronics, photonics still lacks essential tools enabling the aggregation of hundreds of functionalities into large scale circuits, this hindering its full exploitation in many applicative domains. The BBOI project aims to break this limitation, boosting the complexity of photonic architectures well beyond the state of the art, but without increasing power consumption in proportion.\n\nA full-optioned multifunctional silicon photonic platform will be developed integrating on board novel sensor and actuator technologies for a reliable real-time monitoring, tuning and reconfiguration of the circuit behaviour. Lighpaths will be inspected in strategic points of the circuit through novel non-perturbative probes capable to sense the light inside optical waveguides without wasting any single photon. Photon routing will be achieved by using power-saving actuators exploiting resistive switching materials used in electronic non-volatile memories, but never explored in the optical domain. The vast technology equipment of the BBOI platform will be harnessed and controlled by a never conceptualized algorithmic intelligence, enabling a multitude of devices to be concurrently steered to the desired working point.\n\nBBOI success will make photonics to penetrate deeply in various ICT areas where conventional technologies are approaching their performance limits. For instance, the huge scaling of information transmitted and routed through data centres and super computing architectures is pushing multi-core electronic parallelization to collide against unsustainable power consumption. Large scale photonic circuits will also enable demonstrations of quantum processors, solving an important class of problems that are more efficiently solved using quantum processors than even the fastest class of modern supercomputer.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2012-ITN | Award Amount: 3.66M | Year: 2012

By the middle of the year, experts announced 2011 to be the most expensive year in counts of global disaster damages ever. The EU has articulated its ambition to become an effective player in crisis management as part of the European Security Strategy (Stockholm Programme 2010-2014, Lisbon Treaty). The Hyogo Framework stipulates that a substantial reduction of disaster losses is only possible through advanced governance and management. NITIMesr has been designed as a practice-inspired research initiative that addresses research and conceptualization of new modes and competencies for coordination and collaboration in heterogeneous actor networks including involvement of individuals, advanced practices of vertically integrating governance of crisis management, strategic and operative management, with a special focus on involvement and engagement of self-motivated individuals - actors, agents, volunteer, citizens or, as we call them - entrepreneurs. NITIMesr brings together an interdisciplinary group of researchers and industry partners including the two leading European security clusters around the international court of justice in Den Haag and the Bavarian Security Cluster around the International Campus Aerospace and Security, BICAS, at the German EADS headquarters in Munich. The aim is to explore new frontiers of safety and security with the institutional, governance, organizational and managerial challenges of crisis networks, to develop and test innovative approaches for coordination in real world settings and to build Europe-wide connected clusters for crisis management and implement integrated solutions. Both clusters expect universities to provide the key success factor talent through leadership for joint research, education, development and career development. The role of this ITN is to provide initial resources to establish European-level leadership to build research and training capacities in the security clusters on advanced crises management.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: HEALTH.2012.1.2-1 | Award Amount: 6.35M | Year: 2012

Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a devastating disease of the central nervous system affecting 2.5 million worldwide. MS is a field of constant therapeutic innovation, a fact which brings hope to young adults since MS is one of the most frequent causes of severe handicap. A major unmet need is to rationalize treatment decisions. To date, there is no way of predicting which patients will best respond to one of the 15 drugs expected on the market by 2014 and which patients are at risk of severe adverse effects. Recent technical advances (the omics revolution) have brought the dream of personalized medicine (PM) closer to reality. Therefore the main objective of this project is to design a composite test (using genome based biomarkers associated with clinical and radiological information) in order to predict which patients are associated with the best benefit to risk ratio in MS treatment, using Natalizumab (NTZ) as the paradigm. For this purpose, we have already built up a unique cohort of 1500 Europeans MS patients with. We will address 5 secondary objectives: #1 determine a qualitative definition of response to NTZ with clinical and radiological parameters; #2 determine a quantitative biological response test based on an in vitro assay; #3 determine DNA-based biomarkers associated with NTZ response; #4 determine genetic susceptibility to progressive multifocal encephalopathy and NTZ-related severe adverse events; and #5 determine RNA-based biomarkers associated with NTZ response. When this work is completed, we will use the data generated to build our composite test with a multivariate approach. We postulate that our predictive test for choosing the best patients to treat with NTZ will be a paradigm for all MS treatment and, beyond MS, for biotherapies in general. This project should have a positive impact on patients quality of life and on the MS market, and will involve a network of 5 teams (4 academic and 1 SME) that will work in perfect synergy.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: PHC-03-2015 | Award Amount: 6.00M | Year: 2016

Stroke and dementia rank among the most pressing health issues in Europe. Cerebral small vessel diseases (SVDs) have emerged as a central link between these two major co-morbidities. SVDs account for more than 30% of strokes and at least 40% of dementia cases. They encounter multiple distinct diseases that can be separated based on their underlying genetic defects, risk factors, and clinical presentations. Despite this profound impact on human health, there are no treatments with proven efficacy against SVDs. The applicants have made major progress in identifying key mechanisms involved in SVDs and their co-morbidities. We recently identified blood pressure variability as a major independent risk factor for multiple SVDs, stroke, and dementia and illuminated the roles of the blood brain barrier and the extracellular matrix in small vessel function. We further identified novel molecular pathways (TIMP3, LTBP1, TGF) that are shared between different SVDs and thus point towards common mechanisms. This EU network, which brings together basic scientists and academic clinicians, will make use of novel animal models and expertly phenotyped patient cohorts to identify key mechanisms common to multiple SVDs and determine how these mechanisms contribute to individual SVDs. We will: i) identify common molecular, cellular, and physiological mechanisms that compromise the function of microvessels in different SVDs; ii) determine how these common mechanistic defects intersect to drive brain damage; and iii) validate the relevance of mechanisms through interventions in experimental systems (isolated microvessels and in vivo) and in patients (exploratory proof of concept trials). Our resources including novel animal models and state-of-the art technologies (e.g. proteomics & ultra-high field MRI) as well as expertise in clinical trials support the feasibility of the approach. In fact, studies by the applicants already revealed novel attractive targets for therapeutic intervention.

WINNIPEG, MB--(Marketwired - October 27, 2016) - 3D Signatures Inc. (TSX VENTURE: DXD) (the "Company" or "3DS") is pleased to introduce the following internationally renowned senior biotech executives as members of the Company's Business Advisory Board. Mr. Goodman is the founder and CEO of Knight Therapeutics Inc. (TSX: GUD) ("Knight" or "Knight Therapeutics"), a specialty pharmaceutical company headquartered in Quebec, Canada. Knight was established by Mr. Goodman in 2014, and has a current market cap of approximately $1.2 billion. Prior to Knight, Mr. Goodman was a co-founder, President and CEO of Paladin Labs Inc. ("Paladin Labs") which was acquired by Endo International plc (TSX: ENL) in February 2014 for $3.2 billion. Mr. Goodman was formerly a consultant with Bain & Company and also worked in brand management for Procter & Gamble. Mr. Goodman holds a B.A. from McGill University (Great Distinction) and the London School of Economics (1st Class Honours). Additionally, he holds an LL.B. and an M.B.A. from McGill University. Bringing proven international success with Paladin Labs and Knight Therapeutics, 3DS will greatly benefit from Mr. Goodman's entrepreneurial experience and global networks, both in the pharmaceutical industry and in healthcare capital markets. Knight Therapeutics is a strategic investor in 3DS. Dr. Dreismann is a seasoned executive with more than 24 years of experience in the healthcare industry, and is regarded as a pioneer in the early adoption of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique, one of the most ubiquitous technologies in molecular biology and genetics research today. He had a successful career at the Roche Group from 1985 to 2006 where he held several senior positions, including President and CEO, Roche Molecular Systems, Head of Global Business Development, Roche Diagnostics, and Member of Roche's Global Diagnostic Executive Committee. At the time of his departure, Dr. Dreismann had grown Roche Molecular Systems to approximately $1.2 billion USD in annual revenue. He currently serves on the boards of several public and private health care companies. Dr. Dreismann earned a MSc degree in biology and his Ph.D in microbiology/molecular biology (summa cum laude) from Westfaelische Wilhelms University (The University of Munster) in Germany. Dr. Dreismann brings proven strategic vision and world-class diagnostics expertise to 3DS. The Company expects to benefit greatly from his substantial commercial networks and unparalleled global perspective on the medical diagnostics market. Mr. Lindsay began his career at Millipore Corporation, Merck KGaA, and quickly advanced to become the youngest Vice President in the history of the company. He was promoted to Executive Vice President of several divisions, including the Analytical Group and Milligen Biosearch Divisions. In 2000, he founded SciPartners, with the objective of building a platform for development of early stage European and North American firms. His focus is the life sciences market, and over the past 14 years he has successfully built up sales and marketing that led to rapid growth and increased revenues for many companies, and the acquisition of ProXeon by ThermoFisher as well as the acquisition of Halo Genomics by Agilent. Mr. Lindsay's history of repeated commercial success, working with major healthcare companies, as well as small and emerging life sciences companies, will greatly aid 3DS as it endeavors to become a leading diagnostic and prognostic company for cancer and Alzheimer's disease. "In a very short time, we have built an exceptional Business Advisory Board," said John Swift, Chairman, 3DS. "This speaks to the strength of our technology and to the magnitude of our business opportunity. As the Company advances its first-in-class minimally invasive tests for major diseases such as prostate cancer and Alzheimer's disease, independent guidance from the Business Advisory Board will be of tremendous assistance in making the right decisions at the right time." To celebrate the recent September 13, 2016 listing on TSX Venture Exchange (TSXV), members of 3DS' senior management and directors will open trading at Toronto Stock Exchange (TSX) on Wednesday, November 2 at 9:30 a.m. EDT. 3DS (TSX VENTURE: DXD) is a personalized medicine company with a proprietary software platform based on the three-dimensional analysis chromosomal signatures. The technology is well developed and supported by 16 clinical studies on over 1,500 patients on 13 different cancers and Alzheimer's disease. Depending on the desired application, the technology can measure the stage of disease, rate of progression of disease, drug efficacy, and drug toxicity. The technology is designed to predict the course of disease and to personalize treatment for the individual patient. For more information, visit the Company's new website at This news release includes forward-looking statements that are subject to risks and uncertainties. Forward-looking statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties, and other factors that could cause the actual results of the Company to be materially different from the historical results or from any future results expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. All statements within, other than statements of historical fact, are to be considered forward looking. In particular, the Company's statements that it expects to benefit greatly from its association with the individuals named in this news release is forward-looking information. Although 3DS believes the expectations expressed in such forward-looking statements are based on reasonable assumptions, such statements are not guarantees of future performance and actual results or developments may differ materially from those in forward-looking statements. Risk factors that could cause actual results or outcomes to differ materially from the results expressed or implied by forward-looking information include, among other things: market demand; technological changes that could impact the Company's existing products or the Company's ability to develop and commercialize future products; competition; existing governmental legislation and regulations and changes in, or the failure to comply with, governmental legislation and regulations; the ability to manage operating expenses, which may adversely affect the Company's financial condition; the Company's ability to successfully maintain and enforce its intellectual property rights and defend third-party claims of infringement of their intellectual property rights; adverse results or unexpected delays in clinical trials; changes in laws, general economic and business conditions; and changes in the regulatory regime. There can be no assurances that such statements will prove accurate and, therefore, readers are advised to rely on their own evaluation of such uncertainties. We do not assume any obligation to update any forward-looking statements. Neither the TSX Venture Exchange nor its Regulation Service Provider (as that term is defined in the policies of the TSX Venture Exchange) accepts responsibility for the adequacy or accuracy of this release.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: EURO-3-2014 | Award Amount: 2.38M | Year: 2015

There is growing consensus in Europe that an active set of approaches to welfare known as Social Investment will improve human capital, enable more people to participate in society, and reduce intergenerational deprivation, yet implementation has been uneven across member states and much remains to be learned, especially with regard to regional and local realities of Social Investment. This proposal is for EURO-3-2014: European societies after the crisis. Within that call its focus is on Innovative social investment approaches for the modernisation of social policies and services. We will deploy multidisciplinary research on innovative ways of implementing and financing social welfare that promise lasting benefits. Our aims are threefold: -Identify and evaluate existing innovative and strategic approaches to social welfare reform at a regional and local level; -Explore social and psychological impact of these innovations on individuals and communities; -Collate useful, practical learning from this new body of evidence and mobilise it to inform policy and practice across the EU. We will deliver on our first two aims through: Macro and micro-level research on social investment policies and initiatives; Mixed method case studies in ten member states, taking account of local and regional networks, institutions and assets, as well as national and European policies; A distinct understanding of Social Investment utilizing social innovation as a key concept; A strong user voice, ensured throughout the project by recruiting and training Community Reporters Approximately a third of the resource on this project is devoted to impact generation (Aim 3). Results from the research will be assimilated in a Foresight Analysis where we will work with policy makers, user-led organizations and social entrepreneurs to consider options for innovative ways of implementing and financing social welfare systems in the future. 10 impact partners will assist us.

Martineau M.,University of Munster | Parpura V.,University of Alabama at Birmingham | Parpura V.,University of Rijeka | Mothet J.-P.,Aix - Marseille University
Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience | Year: 2014

Accumulating evidence during the last decade established that D-serine is a key signaling molecule utilized by neurons and astroglia in the mammalian central nervous system. D-serine is increasingly appreciated as the main physiological endogenous coagonist for synaptic NMDA receptors at central excitatory synapses; it is mandatory for long-term changes in synaptic strength, memory, learning, and social interactions. Alterations in the extracellular levels of D-serine leading to disrupted cell-cell signaling are a trademark of many chronic or acute neurological (i.e., Alzheimer disease, epilepsy, stroke) and psychiatric (i.e., schizophrenia) disorders, and are associated with addictive behavior (i.e., cocaine addiction). Indeed, fine tuning of the extracellular levels of D-serine, achieved by various molecular machineries and signaling pathways, is necessary for maintenance of accurate NMDA receptor functions. Here, we review the experimental data supporting the notion that astroglia and neurons use different pathways to regulate levels of extracellular D-serine. © 2014 Martineau, Parpura and Mothet.

Sun T.,Wuhan University of Technology | Sun T.,University of Munster | Qing G.,Wuhan University of Technology | Qing G.,University of Munster | And 2 more authors.
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2011

Controlling the interfacial chemical and physical properties, and thus modulating the behaviours of cells and biomolecules on material surfaces, form an important foundation for the development of high-performance biomaterials and devices. Biological systems in nature exhibit unique features in this aspect. The first one is that the superior properties of natural biomaterials are normally not determined by their bulk properties, but more related to the multi-scale micro- and nanostructures on the surface; the second is that biological systems usually utilize highly specific weak interactions (e.g. hydrogen bonding interaction, hydrophobic interaction, etc.) to solve the problems of biomolecule interactions; the third is that the biomolecules in nature are often chiral molecules and show high preference for one specific enantiomorphous configuration, suggesting a distinctive chiral recognition mechanism in biological systems. These features bring much inspiration to design novel biointerface materials with special functionalities, e.g. structural biointerface materials, smart biointerface materials and chiral biointerface materials. The purpose of this critical review is to give a brief introduction of recent advances in these aspects (90 references). © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Chattoraj J.,University Paris Est Creteil | Chattoraj J.,University of Munster | Lemaitre A.,University Paris Est Creteil
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2013

Using numerical simulation of a 2D Lennard-Jones system, we study the crossover from shear thinning to Newtonian flow. We find that the short-time elastic response of our system essentially does not change through this crossover, and show that, in the Newtonian regime, thermal activation triggers shear transformations, i.e., local irreversible shear events that produce Eshelby (long-ranged, anisotropic) deformation fields as previously seen in low-T glasses. Quite surprisingly, these Eshelby fields are found to persist much beyond the α-relaxation time, and shear thinning to coincide with the emergence of correlations between shear relaxation centers. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Groll A.H.,University of Munster | Castagnola E.,Instituto Giannina Gaslini | Cesaro S.,Pediatric Hematology Oncology | Dalle J.-H.,University Paris Diderot | And 6 more authors.
The Lancet Oncology | Year: 2014

Invasive opportunistic fungal diseases (IFDs) are important causes of morbidity and mortality in paediatric patients with cancer and those who have had an allogeneic haemopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT). Apart from differences in underlying disorders and comorbidities relative to those of adults, IFDs in infants, children, and adolescents are unique with respect to their epidemiology, the usefulness of diagnostic methods, the pharmacology and dosing of antifungal agents, and the absence of interventional phase 3 clinical trials for guidance of evidence-based decisions. To better define the state of knowledge on IFDs in paediatric patients with cancer and allogeneic HSCT and to improve IFD diagnosis, prevention, and management, the Fourth European Conference on Infections in Leukaemia (ECIL-4) in 2011 convened a group that reviewed the scientific literature on IFDs and graded the available quality of evidence according to the Infectious Diseases Society of America grading system. The final considerations and recommendations of the group are summarised in this manuscript. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Langelage J.,Bielefeld University | Philipsen O.,University of Munster
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2010

In this paper we calculate the pressure of pure lattice Yang-Mills theories and lattice QCD with heavy quarks by means of strong coupling expansions. Dynamical fermions are introduced with a hopping parameter expansion, which also allows for the incorporation of finite quark chemical potential. We show that in leading orders the results are in full agreement with expectations from the hadron resonance gas model, thus validating it with a first principles calculation. For pure Yang-Mills theories we obtain the corresponding ideal glueball gas, in QCD with heavy quarks our result equals that of an ideal gas of mesons and baryons. Another finding is that the Yang-Mills pressure in the large N limit is of order ̃ N 0 to the calculated orders, when the inverse 't Hooft coupling is used as expansion parameter. This property is expected in the confined phase, where our calculations take place. © SISSA 2010.

Smiatek J.,University of Munster | Schmid F.,Bielefeld University
Computer Physics Communications | Year: 2011

We review recent dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulations of electrolyte flow in nanochannels. A method is presented by which the slip length δB at the channel boundaries can be tuned systematically from negative to infinity by introducing suitably adjusted wall-fluid friction forces. Using this method, we study electroosmotic flow (EOF) in nanochannels for varying surface slip conditions and fluids of different ionic strength. Analytic expressions for the flow profiles are derived from the Stokes equation, which are in good agreement with the numerical results. Finally, we investigate the influence of EOF on the effective mobility of polyelectrolytes in nanochannels. The relevant quantity characterizing the effect of slippage is found to be the dimensionless quantity κδB, where 1/κ is an effective electrostatic screening length at the channel boundaries. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Hoppener C.,University of Munster | Novotny L.,University of Rochester
Quarterly Reviews of Biophysics | Year: 2012

The ability of metal surfaces and nanostructures to localize and enhance optical fields is the primary reason for their application in biosensing and imaging. Local field enhancement boosts the signal-to-noise ratio in measurements and provides the possibility of imaging with resolutions significantly better than the diffraction limit. In fluorescence imaging, local field enhancement leads to improved brightness of molecular emission and to higher detection sensitivity and better discrimination. We review the principles of plasmonic fluorescence enhancement and discuss applications ranging from biosensing to bioimaging. © 2012 Cambridge University Press.

King E.M.,University of California at Berkeley | Stellmach S.,University of Munster | Aurnou J.M.,University of California at Los Angeles
Journal of Fluid Mechanics | Year: 2012

Turbulent, rapidly rotating convection has been of interest for decades, yet there exists no generally accepted scaling law for heat transfer behaviour in this system. Here, we develop an exact scaling law for heat transfer by geostrophic convection, Nu= (Ra/Ra c) 3 = 0. 0023 Ra 3 E 4, by considering the stability of the thermal boundary layers, where Nu, Ra and E are the Nusselt, Rayleigh and Ekman numbers, respectively, and Ra c is the critical Rayleigh number for the onset of convection. Furthermore, we use the scaling behaviour of the thermal and Ekman boundary layer thicknesses to quantify the necessary conditions for geostrophic convection: Ra ≈ E -3/2. Interestingly, the predictions of both heat flux and regime transition do not depend on the total height of the fluid layer. We test these scaling arguments with data from laboratory and numerical experiments. Adequate agreement is found between theory and experiment, although there is a paucity of convection data for low Ra E 3/2. © 2011 Cambridge University Press.

Xu H.,Tsinghua University | Schonhoff M.,University of Munster | Zhang X.,Tsinghua University
Small | Year: 2012

Layer-by-layer assembly (LbL) is a rich, versatile, and powerful technique for fabricating multilayer thin films with controlled architecture and functions. Singly charged, uncharged, or water-repellent molecules cannot be used directly in conventional LbL assembly. This problem can be solved with unconventional LbL methods, by employing the preassembly of building blocks in solution and the use of these assemblies for LbL formation at the interface. This Concept summarizes different methods of unconventional LbL assembly, including electrostatic complex formation, hydrogen-bonded complexes, block-copolymer micelles, and π-π interaction complexes. These preassembly treatments endow the building blocks with enhanced abilities for advanced functionality, in particular, surface molecular imprinting, a new concept emerging from unconventional LbL. Molecular imprinting approaches are thus conceptually described based on different types of interactions and their great potential in applications is demonstrated by examples such as selective surface patterning and selective filtration. Preassembling singly charged, uncharged, or water-repellent building blocks in an unconventional layer-by-layer fashion enhances the ability for advanced functionality, in particular, surface molecular imprinting, of the resulting multilayer film. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Divinski S.V.,University of Munster | Edelhoff H.,University of Munster | Prokofjev S.,RAS Institute of Solid State Physics
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2012

Grain boundary diffusion of 110mAg in Cu Σ5(310) bicrystal is measured along and perpendicular to the [001] tilt axis in both C and B kinetic regimes after the common Harrison's classification. The grain boundary diffusion coefficients, D gb, of the single grain boundary in a true dilute limit of solute concentration are determined in the C kinetic regime and the values of the triple products P=s•δ•D gb are measured in the B regime (here s and δ are the segregation factor and the diffusional grain boundary width, respectively). A strong anisotropy of the grain boundary diffusion is established, which disappears above 826 K. It is the point at which the triple product P demonstrates a downward deviation from the otherwise linear Arrhenius dependence at lower temperatures. These results substantiate a temperature-induced disordering transition of the grain boundary structure. The anisotropy of the product s•δ for the Σ5(310) grain boundary is estimated. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Reiter J.,University of Munster | Nadherna M.,Charles University
Electrochimica Acta | Year: 2012

An ionic liquid, N-allyl-N-methylpiperidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide PP13 *TFSI has been successfully tested as a solid electrolyte interface (SEI) forming agent for graphite composite anode at elevated temperature of 55 °C in a purely ionic liquid-based electrolyte: 0.5 m LiTFSI in a mixture of PP 13 *TFSI-PP 13TFSI (20-80wt.%) The reversible discharge capacity was 340-350mAhg -1 with only a small irreversible capacity loss per cycle. The electrochemical polymerisation of the allylic double bond participates on the SEI formation on the graphite surface. In the absence of unsaturated ionic liquid, the piperidinium cation is co-intercalated into graphite and causes its exfoliation with permanent loss of capacity. The electrolyte is thermally stable up to 320 °C and reasonably conductive (2.4mScm -1 at 55°C). © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Jiang L.,Soochow University of China | Chen X.,Nanyang Technological University | Lu N.,Jilin University | Chi L.,Soochow University of China | Chi L.,University of Munster
Accounts of Chemical Research | Year: 2014

ConspectusThe ability to assemble NPs into ordered structures that are expected to yield collective physical or chemical properties has afforded new and exciting opportunities in the field of nanotechnology. Among the various configurations of nanoparticle assemblies, two-dimensional (2D) NP patterns and one-dimensional (1D) NP arrays on surfaces are regarded as the ideal assembly configurations for many technological devices, for example, solar cells, magnetic memory, switching devices, and sensing devices, due to their unique transport phenomena and the cooperative properties of NPs in assemblies. To realize the potential applications of NP assemblies, especially in nanodevice-related applications, certain key issues must still be resolved, for example, ordering and alignment, manipulating and positioning in nanodevices, and multicomponent or hierarchical structures of NP assemblies for device integration. Additionally, the assembly of NPs with high precision and high levels of integration and uniformity for devices with scaled-down dimensions has become a key and challenging issue.Two-dimensional NP patterns and 1D NP arrays are obtained using traditional lithography techniques (top-down strategies) or interfacial assembly techniques (bottom-up strategies). However, a formidable challenge that persists is the controllable assembly of NPs in desired locations over large areas with high precision and high levels of integration. The difficulty of this assembly is due to the low efficiency of small features over large areas in lithography techniques or the inevitable structural defects that occur during the assembly process. The combination of self-assembly strategies with existing nanofabrication techniques could potentially provide effective and distinctive solutions for fabricating NPs with precise position control and high resolution. Furthermore, the synergistic combination of spatially mediated interactions between nanoparticles and prestructures on surfaces may play an increasingly important role in the controllable assembly of NPs.In this Account, we summarize our approaches and progress in fabricating spatially confined assemblies of NPs that allow for the positioning of NPs with high resolution and considerable throughput. The spatially selective assembly of NPs at the desired location can be achieved by various mechanisms, such as, a controlled dewetting process, electrostatically mediated assembly of particles, and confined deposition and growth of NPs. Three nanofabrication techniques used to produce prepatterns on a substrate are summarized: the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) patterning technique, e-beam lithography (EBL), and nanoimprint lithography (NPL). The particle density, particle size, or interparticle distance in NP assemblies strongly depends on the geometric parameters of the template structure due to spatial confinement. In addition, with smart design template structures, multiplexed NPs can be assembled into a defined structure, thus demonstrating the structural and functional complexity required for highly integrated and multifunction applications. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

Zhang M.,Wuhan University of Technology | Qing G.,Wuhan University of Technology | Sun T.,Wuhan University of Technology | Sun T.,University of Munster
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2012

Chiral phenomena are ubiquitous in nature from macroscopic to microscopic, including the high chirality preference of small biomolecules, special steric conformations of biomacromolecules induced by it, as well as chirality-triggered biological and physiological processes. The introduction of chirality into the study of interface interactions between materials and biological systems leads to the generation of chiral biointerface materials, which provides a new platform for understanding the chiral phenomena in biological system, as well as the development of novel biomaterials and devices. This critical review gives a brief introduction to the recent advances in this field. We start from the fabrication of chiral biointerface materials, and further investigate the stereo-selective interaction between biological systems and chiral interface materials to find out key factors governing the performance of such materials in given conditions, then introduce some special functionalities and potential applications of chiral biointerface materials, and finally present our own thinking about the future development of this area (108 references). © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Qing G.,Wuhan University of Technology | Qing G.,University of Munster | Sun T.,Wuhan University of Technology | Sun T.,University of Munster
Advanced Materials | Year: 2011

Chiral recognition of monosaccharide enantiomers is translated into large-extent wettability switching and other macroscopic surface properties, e.g., volume, on a smart copolymer film containing dipeptide units by a cooperative hydrogen-bonding interaction. This work points to a promising direction for developing novel chirality-responsive materials, which find broad applications in controllable chiral separation, chiral medicine, smart biodevices, etc. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: HEALTH-2007-2.4.2-3 | Award Amount: 13.01M | Year: 2008

The European Stroke Research Network (EUSTROKE) will be a collaborative effort that brings together researchers, government, industry, the non-profit sector and patient group associations. This network will put Europe at the forefront of stroke research through its multi-disciplinary research program, high-quality training for European scientists and clinicians, and national and global partnerships. A primary focus of the EUSTROKE research programme is to improve our understanding of the neurovascular unit to enable better prevention and treatment of stroke. This involves elucidation of dynamic interactions of vascular, cellular and matrix signalling in both the grey and white matter of the brain. Our research strategy looks beyond the single cell for a more integrative answer to ischemic brain damage. The goals of EUSTROKE will be addressed by a wide variety of multidisciplinary European research teams working on various aspects of the neurovascular unit. Thus EUSTROKE will promote integration of both clinical and experimental research teams in cerebrovascular biology, imaging, prevention, and reperfusion with a common focus upon the NVU. The project will aim at developing new approaches for targeting the NVU to improve potential combination or multi-targeted treatments for stroke. Combination therapies that target the entire neurovascular unit, promote cell survival mechanisms and extend the therapeutic time-window for reperfusion therapy will provide new opportunities to meet the challenges of stroke. Moreover, developing therapies that maintain proper NVU function or prevent age-associated alterations in the NVU may find use in the prevention or treatment of cerebrovascular disease. Thus, the collaborative project will integrate its vast multidisciplinary capacities to generate new hypotheses and conduct exploratory work on microvesselneuron communication.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: GC.NMP.2010-1 | Award Amount: 4.49M | Year: 2011

LABOHR aims to develop Ultra High-Energy battery systems for automotive applications making use of lithium or novel alloy anodes, innovative O2 cathode operating in the liquid phase and a novel system for harvesting O2 from air, which can be regenerated during their operative life without need of disassembling. LABOHR has 5 key objectives: (i) development of a green and safe electrolyte chemistry based on non-volatile, non-flammable ionic liquids (ILs); (ii) use of novel nanostructured high capacity anodes in combination with ionic liquid-based electrolytes; (iii) use of novel 3-D nanostructured O2 cathodes making use of IL-based O2 carriers/electrolytes with the goal to understand and improve the electrode and electrolyte properties and thus their interactions; (iv) development of an innovative device capable of harvesting dry O2 from air; and (v) construction of fully integrated rechargeable lithium-Air cells with optimized electrodes, electrolytes, O2-harvesting system and other ancillaries. Accordingly, LABOHR aims to overcome the energy limitation for the application of the present Li-ion technology in electric vehicles with the goal to: 1- perform frontier research and breakthrough work to position Europe as a leader in the developing field of high energy, environmentally benign and safe batteries and to maintain the leadership in the field of ILs; 2- develop appropriate electrolytes and nanostructured electrodes which combination allows to realize ultra-high energy batteries; 3- develop a battery system concept as well as prototypes of the key components (cell and O2-harvesting device) to verify the feasibility of automotive systems with: A) specific energy and power higher than 500 Wh/kg and 200 W/kg; B) coulombic efficiency higher than 99% during cycling; C) cycle life of 1,000 cycles with 40% maximum loss of capacity, cycling between 90% and 10% SOC; and D) evaluate their integration in electric cars and renewable energy systems.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-RISE | Phase: MSCA-RISE-2015 | Award Amount: 288.00K | Year: 2016

The Project aims to make significant advances to the field of noncommutative geometry by developing new methods through substantial interaction within sub-fields of noncommutative geometry and two other areas of pure mathematics. The main focus will be to determine the topological non-triviality of new types of quantum fibrations. Also, we aim to construct quantum metric geometries of crossed products and graph algebras relating the Lipschitz-norm and Dirac-operator approaches. The Project will combine various areas, which although interacting on the fundamental level, have had their concrete and usable connections mostly unexplored. The success of the Project depends on connecting centres of excellence in relevant topics for the exchange of ideas and and production of high-quality collaborative results. The network has been carefully chosen to include the worlds leading experts as well as promising early career researchers. Not only does this guarantee the participants access to an enormous knowledge base, it will also ensure that new and innovative lines of research will continue to be developed long after the Project has finished. In particular, the collaborative nature of the project will be of great benefit to the early career researchers involved. In pure mathematics, fields often become so specialised that only a small number of people around the world might be actively researching a particular topic. This can make career progression very difficult. The interdisciplinary nature of the Project will expose the participants to a host of new mathematics and new collaborations. Consequently, this diversification will result in significantly more career opportunities than would otherwise be available.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2011-ITN | Award Amount: 3.35M | Year: 2011

All over the world, stable concepts of home and belonging have, for a variety of reasons, become the exception rather than the rule. This has led to dramatic cultural, social and political changes and challenges. The study of diaspora and migration has therefore evolved into a burgeoning field of research with an urgent practical relevance. In a wide and sometimes confusing array of approaches it is mainly covered by the humanities and the social sciences. The CoHaB Network unites world-leading institutions in this field in the conviction that interdisciplinary training as well as international and inter-sectoral co-operation are key to any productive study of diasporas. CoHaB gains scope and momentum by its Network of Networks rationale, binding together already existing cooperations. It is based on the resolve to strengthen interdisciplinary research in the field with a view to establishing diaspora studies as a transdisciplinary research area in its own right. Training young researchers on the basis of this conviction means to provide them with the opportunity to conduct their work in a variety of disciplinary environments as well as outside a purely academic context. Specifically, CoHaB aims at stimulating and facilitating cooperation by negotiating core concepts between the various disciplines involved among the partner institutions. Each of these disciplines has developed its own, highly sophisticated understanding of diaspora studies, and it is high time that these diverse understandings entered into a sustained dialogue. For this purpose, early stage researchers from various disciplinary backgrounds, but with similar interests in the field of diaspora studies, will join forces to develop their projects on a shared platform. This will assist them in opening their projects to a strong, interdisciplinary research environment and in producing tangible results for their own research careers, for the scientific community, and for the general public at large.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-ITN-ETN | Phase: MSCA-ITN-2015-ETN | Award Amount: 3.91M | Year: 2016

The drug development strategy currently pursued by the pharmaceutical industry worldwide is inefficient and unsustainable for the health care system. To keep the latter affordable, drug development should become more efficient and drug treatment should become more personalized and rationalized. Molecular imaging can play a pivotal role in changing the landscape of drug design/development and improving the health care system. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging, in particular, is the technology that has the potential to lead this fundamental innovation by providing at a much earlier stage reliable answers to key questions emerging during the care cycle: what and where is the disease? Is the disease accurately targeted by the therapy? Is the treatment effective? By answering the questions above, PET imaging has the capacity to render much more effectively the transition from pre-clinical to clinical phase, and to strongly facilitate the development of better drugs at an earlier stage and in a much more sustainable manner. The main obstacle to this change of paradigm in drug design and development is the lack of suitably trained translational scientists directly involved in PET imaging and imaging scientists with high-profile training in chemistry and PET-radiochemistry, which is particularly dramatic in Europe. This consortium is ideally suited to fill this gap, by providing top-quality training to the next generation of translational PET imaging scientists who will play a key role in shaping the future of drug design and development. The PET3D ETN will focus on 15 cutting-edge research projects in the 3 main therapeutic areas (oncology, cardiovascular, central nervous system) that will be conducted by 15 ESRs at 8 European beneficiary Institutions, 6 academic (all having a PET center on site) and 2 non-academic (one with a PET center on site and one big pharmaceutical company) representing the drug design and development terminus of the project.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-ITN-2008 | Award Amount: 4.33M | Year: 2009

Mathematical logic is a rapidly-developing subject with sophisticated techniques and many applications in algebra, geometry, number theory, analysis, and computer science. Even though the branches of logic share vital concepts and techniques, in recent years increased specialism has meant that most researchers are trained in just one branch of logic, and there is a need in Europe for researchers who have an overview of techniques from logic. To meet this need, this project will provide a broad training for early stage researchers across the main areas of mathematical logic and its many applications. 18 early-stage researchers (ESRs) will be trained for 36 months each, and a further 20 ESRs, undertaking doctoral studies elsewhere, will be appointed for 3--6 months each. Doctoral research projects for ESRs have been prepared in model theory, aspects of complexity theory (proof complexity, finite model theory), proof theory, computability theory, set theory, and real valued logics. Network-wide training will be provided through three 7-day training workshops, two 3-day and one 5-day research workshops, and a 5-day final conference. Some secondments of ESRs, and short ESR appointments, will be coordinated around a special semester in model theory in Lyon, and a later one in logical aspects of complexity theory in Prague. Complementary training is provided by the hosts, and through the training workshops. The network consists of 8 full partners, each a major logic group with strength in more than one branch of logic and experience in the training of early stage researchers, and each based in a major European university. The partners have been chosen to complement each other in strengths, and together to cover most branches of mathematical logic. In addition to the 8 full partners, training is provided by an academic Associated Partner (University of East Anglia) and two industrial Associated Partners (Onera and BT Group, each at Level 2).

Mata J.A.,Jaume I University | Hahn F.E.,University of Munster | Peris E.,Jaume I University
Chemical Science | Year: 2014

This minireview reports the most recent advances in the use of heterometallic catalysts based on single-frame N-heterocyclic carbene ligands. The article describes the synthetic strategies for the preparation of heterometallic catalysts, and their applications in the design of tandem processes by combining the catalytic properties associated with the two (or more) different metal centers. Several examples are discussed in which the use of heterometallic complexes results in a clear enhancement of the catalytic outcome compared to the results provided by mixtures of related homometallic complexes. The field constitutes a research area that is full of potential and is at its very earliest stage. © 2014 the Partner Organisations.

Kaese S.,University of Munster | Verheule S.,Maastricht University
Frontiers in Physiology | Year: 2012

Over the last decade, mouse models have become a popular instrument for studying cardiac arrhythmias. This review assesses in which respects a mouse heart is a miniature human heart, a suitable model for studying mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmias in humans and in which respects human and murine hearts differ. Section I considers the issue of scaling of mammalian cardiac (electro) physiology to body mass. Then, we summarize differences between mice and humans in cardiac activation (section II) and the currents underlying the action potential in the murine working myocardium (section III). Changes in cardiac electrophysiology in mouse models of heart disease are briefly outlined in section IV, while section V discusses technical considerations pertaining to recording cardiac electrical activity in mice. Finally, section VI offers general considerations on the influence of cardiac size on the mechanisms of tachy-arrhythmias. © 2012 Kaese and Verheule.

Verheule S.,Maastricht University | Kaese S.,University of Munster
Frontiers in Pharmacology | Year: 2013

Cardiac conduction is mediated by gap junction channels that are formed by connexin (Cx) protein subunits. The connexin family of proteins consists of more than 20 members varying in their biophysical properties and ability to combine with other connexins into heteromeric gap junction channels. The mammalian heart shows regional differences both in connexin expression profile and in degree of electrical coupling. The latter reflects functional requirements for conduction velocity which needs to be low in the sinoatrial and atrioventricular nodes and high in the ventricular conduction system. Over the past 20 years knowledge of the biology of gap junction channels and their role in the genesis of cardiac arrhythmias has increased enormously. This review focuses on the insights gained from transgenic mouse models. The mouse heart expresses Cx30, 30.2, 37, 40, 43, 45, and 46. For these connexins a variety of knock-outs, heart-specific knock-outs, conditional knock-outs, double knock-outs, knock-ins and overexpressors has been studied. We discuss the cardiac phenotype in these models and compare Cx expression between mice and men. Mouse models have enhanced our understanding of (patho)-physiological implications of Cx diversity in the heart. In principle connexin-specific modulation of electrical coupling in the heart represents an interesting treatment strategy for cardiac arrhythmias and conduction disorders. © 2013 Verheule and Kaese.

Paluch E.K.,University College London | Paluch E.K.,International Institute of Molecular Cell Biology | Raz E.,University of Munster
Current Opinion in Cell Biology | Year: 2013

Blebs are cellular protrusions that have been shown to be instrumental for cell migration in development and disease. Bleb expansion is driven by hydrostatic pressure generated in the cytoplasm by the contractile actomyosin cortex. The mechanisms of bleb formation thus fundamentally differ from the actin polymerization-based mechanisms responsible for lamellipodia expansion. In this review, we summarize recent findings relevant for the mechanics of bleb formation and the underlying molecular pathways. We then review the processes involved in determining the type of protrusion formed by migrating cells, in particular in vivo, in the context of embryonic development. Finally, we discuss how cells utilize blebs for their forward movement in the presence or absence of strong substrate attachment. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Schiffer B.,University of Duisburg - Essen | Vonlaufen C.,University of Munster
Journal of Sexual Medicine | Year: 2011

Introduction. There is some evidence that child molesters show neuropsychological abnormalities which might reflect specific structural and/or functional brain alterations, but there are also inconsistencies in the existing findings which need to be clarified. Most of the different outcomes can either be explained by the fact that different types of child molesters were examined or by not having accounted for basically confounding factors such as age, education/intelligence, or criminality. Aim. The present study therefore sought to determine whether pedophilic and nonpedophilic child molesters, compared to relevant control groups, show different profiles of executive dysfunction when accounting for potentially confounding factors. Methods. The performance of 30 child molesters (15 pedophilic and 15 nonpedophilic) and 33 age- and education-matched controls (16 nonsexual offenders and 17 healthy controls) was assessed regarding several neuropsychological functions. Main Outcome Measures. Scores on different neurocognitive tests and semistructured diagnostical interviews. Results. Results indicate that pedophilic child molesters exhibited less performance deficits in cognitive functioning than nonpedophilic child molesters. Compared to healthy controls and nonsexual offenders, the pedophilic child molesters only showed executive dysfunction concerning response inhibition, whereas the nonpedophilic child molesters revealed more severe dysfunction, especially on tasks associated with cognitive flexibility and verbal memory. Conclusions. These results enhance our knowledge about executive dysfunction associated with criminality and/or pedophilia, as they suggest different profiles of impairment between groups. In summary, data suggest that nonpedophilic child molesters showed more severe cognitive deficits than pedophilic child molesters. However, as response inhibition is associated with prefrontal (i.e., orbitofrontal) functioning, the deficits observed in both child molester groups indicate dysfunction in the orbitofrontal cortex. This has to be further examined with functional imaging approaches in larger samples and a full-factorial approach which allows for a clear distinction between criminality and pedophilia in a factorial manner. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

Nahrstedt A.,University of Munster | Butterweck V.,University of Florida
Journal of Natural Products | Year: 2010

The example of St. John's wort offers convincing evidence for the concept that modern methods of pharmacological and phytochemical research are effective in advancing the development of traditional herbal remedies. As a consequence of these efforts, it is known today that several compounds from different structural groups and with different mechanisms of action seem to be responsible for the observed antidepressant efficacy of St. John's Wort. Co-effectors in the extract improve the bioavailability of active constituents such as hypericin (1) (pharmacokinetic synergy). Unwanted side effects are preventable without remarkable loss of activity when the responsible constituent(s) are carefully removed during the extraction process, as demonstrated for hyperforin (3), which is responsible for the induction of cytochrome P450 (CYP)-metabolizing enzymes (CYP3A4, in particular). On the basis of our findings, it is likely that positive interactions between single compounds occur more frequently in traditionally used herbal preparations than is known presently. © 2010 The American Chemical Society and American Society of Pharmacognosy.

Enormous phylogenetic variation exists in the number and sizes of introns in protein-coding genes. Although some consideration has been given to the underlying role of the population-genetic environment in defining such patterns, the influence of the intracellular environment remains virtually unexplored. Drawing from observations on interactions between co-transcriptional processes involved in splicing and mRNA 3′-end formation, a mechanistic model is proposed for splice-site recognition that challenges the commonly accepted intron- and exon-definition models. Under the suggested model, splicing factors that outcompete 3′-end processing factors for access to intronic binding sites concurrently favor the recruitment of 3′-end processing factors at the pre-mRNA tail. This hypothesis sheds new light on observations such as the intron-mediated enhancement of gene expression and the negative correlation between intron length and levels of gene expression. © 2013 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

Haferkamp N.,University of Munster | Kramer N.C.,University of Duisburg - Essen
Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking | Year: 2011

Through their features-such as profile photographs or the personal vita-online profiles on social-networking sites offer a perfect basis for social comparison processes. By looking at the profile photograph, the user gains an impression of a person's physical attractiveness, and the user's vita shows which career path the person is pursuing. Against the background of Festinger's Social Comparison Theory, the focus of this research is on the effects of online profiles on their recipients. Therefore, qualitative interviews (N=12) and two online experiments were conducted in which virtual online profiles of either physically attractive or unattractive persons (N=93) and profiles of users with either high or low occupational attainment (N=103) were presented to the participants. Although qualitative interviews did not initially give reason to expect online profiles to constitute a basis for comparison processes, results of the experiments proved otherwise. The first study indicates that recipients have a more negative body image after looking at beautiful users than persons who were shown the less attractive profile pictures. Male participants of the second study, who were confronted with profiles of successful males, showed a higher perceived discrepancy between their current career status and an ideal vita than male participants who looked at profiles of less successful persons. © Copyright 2011, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

Langenhorst F.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Deutsch A.,University of Munster
Elements | Year: 2012

The hypervelocity impact of extraterrestrial objects causes unequivocal changes in the target due to extreme deformation rates, pressures up to hundreds of gigapascals, and postshock temperatures that may even vaporize silicates. This article introduces the basic principles of shock compression, as required to understand the formation and geological significance of shock-metamorphic effects in minerals. Special emphasis is placed on the formation of high-pressure phases such as stishovite and diamond as well as on the decomposition of carbonates.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2007.2.1 | Award Amount: 3.17M | Year: 2008

The research intends to investigate the interplay existing between vision and motion control, and to study how to exploit this interaction to achieve a knowledge of the surrounding environment that allows a robot to act properly. Robot perception can be flexibly integrated with its own actions and the understanding of planned actions of humans in a shared workspace. The research relies upon the assumption that a complete and operative cognition of visual space can be achieved only through active exploration of it: the natural effectors of this cognition are the eyes and the arms.\nCrucial but yet unsolved issues we address are object recognition, dynamic shifts of attention, 3D space perception including eye and arm movements including action selection in unstructured environments. We propose a flexible solution based on the concept of visual fragments, which avoids a central representation of the environment and rather uses specialized components that interact with each other and tune themselves on the task at hand. \nIn addition to a high standard in engineering solutions the development and application of novel learning rules enables our system to acquire the necessary information directly from the environment.\nThe study and models of human/primate behavior, based on specific experiments, guide many of our envisaged solutions.\nThree main objectives will be addressed:\n- a robotic system for interactive visual stereopsis {composed of: an anthropomorphic mechatronic binocular system; and software vision modules based on cortical-like population, to be used as an experimental platform}.\n- a model of a multisensory egocentric representation of the 3D space {constructed on binocular visual cues, signals from the oculomotor systems, signals about reaching movements performed by the arm}.\n- a model of human-robot cooperative actions in a shared workspace {relaying on the concept of shared attention to understand the intention or goal of the communicating partner}.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2009.6.4 | Award Amount: 3.71M | Year: 2010

UncertWeb will create the Uncertainty enabled Model Web by allowing interoperability between data and models with quantified uncertainty, building on existing open, international standards. In particular UncertWeb will develop encoding standards, service interface profiles, discovery and chaining mechanisms and open source implementations, and generic tools to realize a model Web that takes uncertainty in data and models fully into account.\n\nThe developments in UncertWeb will be validated by scenarios from four environmental application domains: biodiversity and habitat change, land use and policy modelling, local air quality forecasting, and individual activity in the environment. In each application domain prototype service chains will be built using UncertWeb technology. To further evaluate the discovery and chaining mechanisms UncertWeb will integrate the air quality and activity modelling to produce novel service chains that quantify individual exposure and the effects of individuals activity choices on emissions with quantified uncertainty.\n\nThe project will deliver encoding standards, interface profiles and open source software implementations to allow continued development of the Uncertainty enabled model Web beyond the funding.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: HEALTH-2007-2.4.4-1 | Award Amount: 3.89M | Year: 2008

Disorders of Sex Development (DSD) constitute a group of rare to very rare mostly heritable disorders affecting the genito-urinary tract and in most instances also the endocrine-reproductive system. We hypothesize that stringent and stepwise analysis of cases with DSD will result in a systematic and reliable discovery of DSD-relevant biochemical, genetic and functional profiles, allowing for the detection of new diagnostic markers, both in steroid biosynthesis as well as in genetics to provide the basis for explaining the nature of these disorders. Characterization of the functional aspects of androgen action as the main basis for sex-related phenotype will improve the understanding of the pathophysiology of DSD phenotypes. This will allow for better decision-making in gender assignment and therapeutic approaches to DSD as well as improve gender medicine in general.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-IRSES | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2010-IRSES | Award Amount: 121.80K | Year: 2011

With a life-time prevalence of 25%, anxiety disorders are the most frequent psychiatric disorders and alone accounted for 147 billion Euros EU health care costs in 2004. The aim of this Marie Curie collaborative research project is to combine and share scientific expertise and shed more light on the dysfunctional neurocircuitry of anxiety disorders. Our current understanding has largely benefited from research on fear and fear learning. Indeed, it has been proposed that disturbed prefrontal cortex (PFC) functions as consequence upon a hyperresponsive amygdala (bottom-up) or/and a lack of PFC-amygdala top-down control are main reasons for affective disorders. In the present project we plan to further identify and disentangle underlying structures and temporal dynamics of both mechanisms using the integration of peripheral and central psychophysiological measures that allow for a millisecond resolution. Firstly, we will concentrate on the role of the PFC in early sensory processing of fear-relevant stimuli using an implicit fear learning paradigm. We propose that the PFC does not only play a part in late, but also in very early modulation of the neuronal fear response. Secondly, we will study how contingency awareness influences the strength of the CS-UCS association in fear conditioning. Using an explicit learning paradigm, both psychophysiological and neuronal correlates of fear learning will be investigated. At last, we will explore the biological basis of extinction learning and reappraisal, two approaches that play a major role in cognitive-behavioral therapy of anxiety disorders. We will study correlates of these processes in implicit and explicit learning tasks in order to study short- and long-term effects of therapeutic interventions. The basic hypothesis is that apart from an impaired top-down control also alterations in bottom-up affective regulation are important for the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders and a successful therapy thereof.

Klasen M.,University of Munster | Pohl M.,German Electron Synchrotron | Pohl M.,University of Potsdam | Sigl G.,University of Hamburg
Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics | Year: 2015

The majority of the matter in the universe is still unidentified and under investigation by both direct and indirect means. Many experiments searching for the recoil of dark-matter particles off target nuclei in underground laboratories have established increasingly strong constraints on the mass and scattering cross sections of weakly interacting particles, and some have even seen hints at a possible signal. Other experiments search for a possible mixing of photons with light scalar or pseudo-scalar particles that could also constitute dark matter. Furthermore, annihilation or decay of dark matter can contribute to charged cosmic rays, photons at all energies, and neutrinos. Many existing and future ground-based and satellite experiments are sensitive to such signals. Finally, data from the Large Hadron Collider at CERN are scrutinized for missing energy as a signature of new weakly interacting particles that may be related to dark matter. In this review article we summarize the status of the field with an emphasis on the complementarity between direct detection in dedicated laboratory experiments, indirect detection in the cosmic radiation, and searches at particle accelerators. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.All rights reserved.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: HEALTH-2007-4.2-1 | Award Amount: 2.58M | Year: 2009

Cancer chemotherapy has a key role in the successful treatment of a number of childhood cancers. Nevertheless, at least 20% of patients are not cured by current therapies and a significant number experience debilitating toxicities. Given the high cure rates and potential life-span of survivors of childhood cancer, it is particularly important to minimize the impact of potential chronic toxicities. For several of the most widely-used drugs, little is known about their pharmacokinetics and metabolism in children, particularly very young children (<3 years). There are many examples where such knowledge has been used to optimize the use of chemotherapeutic drugs, both to avoid toxicity and to maximize the therapeutic effect. The need for further research to investigate these drugs in children is acknowledged in the Priority List for Studies into Paediatric Medicinal Products, issued by the EMEA. Doxorubicin is on this list and is one of the most important drugs used in the treatment of childhood cancers. Several national groups have been successful in studying the pharmacology of drugs used in paediatric oncology. However, in order to recruit sufficient patient numbers for meaningful studies it is necessary to establish a wider group, bringing together the successful elements of established national organizations. The EPOC group combines leading pharmacologists, paediatric oncologists, regulatory organizations and a management structure which will successfully deliver data of appropriate quality on which to base future clinical use of this drug and to meet the demands of the EMEA priority list. Such data will form the basis of future applications for Paediatric Usage Marketing Authorization for doxorubicin. The overall aim of the consortium is to provide data that will guide the optimal use of this drug in the clinic, and also meet the regulatory requirements of the EMA.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: NMP-2007-2.2-2 | Award Amount: 2.67M | Year: 2008

The intended aim of this project is to explore the application potential of novel Spin-Transfer Oscillators (STO) as tunable and ultra-narrow band microwave radiation sources for mobile and wireless telecommunication technology. The main technological interest of STO devices, which correspond to nano-structured magnetic multilayer pumped by a spin-polarized electrical current and emitting microwave radiation, is their compatibility with monolithic integration. Our proposal specifically addresses the bottleneck issue of power conversion efficiency between dc current pumping and microwave emission of radiation. We propose to take advantage of the phase-locking mechanisms between coupled oscillators to increase significantly the device performance. Our primary objective is to engineer large arrays of coherently coupled oscillators. To achieve this goal, we shall investigate in detail 4 different types of coupling mechanism between neighboring oscillators which may induce phase-locking of the ensemble: 1) coupling through the self-generated microwave current, 2) coupling through the dipolar magnetic field, 3) coupling through the spin-diffusion of the conduction electrons, 4) coupling mediated by spin-waves. Achieving phase-locking between neighboring oscillators also requires substantial progress in our understanding of the fundamental mechanisms that are involved during momentum-transfer from spin-polarized current to the magnetic moments. Our secondary objective is to address both experimentally and theoretically 3 knowledge gaps: identifying (spatio-temporal profile and relaxation times) the fundamental spin-wave eigen-modes excited by a dc current in nano-structured magnetic heterojunctions; understanding the fundamental mechanism underlying non-local effects associated with the diffusion of spin-polarized electrons and its action on the dynamics of the whole system; investigating the magnetization dynamics of a nano-structure in the non-linear regime.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-ITN-EJD | Phase: MSCA-ITN-2014-EJD | Award Amount: 3.68M | Year: 2015

Urbanisation has been a key trend for centuries and is expected to continue throughout the 21st century as well. Cities have to continuously strive to provide a sustainable, safe and liveable environment for their ever-increasing populations. In recent years, the term smart cities has been coined for initiatives that monitor and analyse different aspects of urban life, and manage service provision intelligently. A key gap in this area relates to how people can understand the processes driving smart cities and their services, and how they can gain a sense of control rather than being controlled by the services provided by a smart city. GEO-C aims to contribute methods and tools to realise smart and open cities, in which all groups of society can participate on all levels and benefit in many ways. The complementary strands of research in GEO-C will lead to an improved understanding of how to build open cities and will produce a prototypical open city toolkit. The toolkit will contain software, libraries, apps and frameworks that enable cities to easily set up or adapt key services, processes and analyses. This research area provides challenging and rewarding topics for early-stage researchers to carry out a PhD. These topics include, for example, participation across all ages and groups of society, the assessment of the quality of life, and fundamental urban services. As the 15 PhD researchers will become experts in the toolkit, their career perspectives will benefit greatly from the toolkits public and open release. To further increase the impact of GEO-C and to also optimise career perspectives of the PhD researchers, the city councils of Mnster, Castelln, and Lisbon and several companies across Europe will be closely involved as associated partners. They provide input to the toolkit, host early-stage researchers, and drive the use of the toolkit and the realisation of open cities as envisioned by GEO-C.

Ramot Y.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem | Paus R.,University of Manchester | Paus R.,University of Munster
BioEssays | Year: 2014

Human skin produces numerous neurohormones and neuropeptides. Recent evidence has shown that the neuroendocrine regulation of human skin biology also extends to keratins, the major structural components of epithelial cells. For example, thyrotropin-releasing hormone, thyrotropin, opioids, prolactin, and cannabinoid receptor 1-ligands profoundly modulate human keratin gene and protein expression in human epidermis and/or hair follicle epithelium in situ. Since selected keratins are now understood to exert important regulatory functions beyond mechanical stability, we argue that neuroendocrine pathways of keratin regulation are important for maintaining skin and hair follicle homeostasis. This invites innovative neuroendocrine therapeutic interventions for skin disorders characterized by abnormal keratin expression, ranging from psoriasis to genodermatoses, and for promoting skin wound healing and hair growth. This strategy can be probed in simple, but instructive and readily available human skin and hair follicle organ culture assays as ideal models for exploring this new neuroendocrine frontier in translational epithelial biology. © 2014 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

Dhermain F.G.,CNRS Gustave Roussy Institute | Hau P.,University of Regensburg | Lanfermann H.,Hannover Medical School | Jacobs A.H.,University of Munster | And 2 more authors.
The Lancet Neurology | Year: 2010

Imaging techniques are important for accurate diagnosis and follow-up of patients with gliomas. T1-weighted MRI, with or without gadolinium, is the gold standard method. However, this technique only reflects biological activity of the tumour indirectly by detecting the breakdown of the blood-brain barrier. Therefore, especially for low-grade glioma or after treatment, T1-weighted MRI enhanced with gadolinium has substantial limitations. Development of more advanced imaging methods to improve outcomes for individual patients is needed. New imaging methods based on MRI and PET can be employed in various stages of disease to target the biological activity of the tumour cells (eg, increased uptake of aminoacids or nucleoside analogues), the changes in diffusivity through the interstitial space (diffusion-weighted MRI), the tumour-induced neovascularisation (perfusion-weighted MRI or contrast-enhanced MRI, or increased uptake of aminoacids in endothelial wall), and the changes in concentrations of metabolites (magnetic resonance spectroscopy). These techniques have advantages and disadvantages, and should be used in conjunction to best help individual patients. Advanced imaging techniques need to be validated in clinical trials to ensure standardisation and evidence-based implementation in routine clinical practice. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Milutinovic B.,AM Technology | Kurtz J.,University of Munster
Seminars in Immunology | Year: 2016

Evidence for innate immune memory (or ‘priming’) in invertebrates has been accumulating over the last years. We here provide an in-depth review of the current state of evidence for immune memory in invertebrates, and in particular take a phylogenetic viewpoint. Invertebrates are a very heterogeneous group of animals and accordingly, evidence for the phenomenon of immune memory as well as the hypothesized molecular underpinnings differ largely for the diverse invertebrate taxa. The majority of research currently focuses on Arthropods, while evidence from many other groups of invertebrates is fragmentary or even lacking. We here concentrate on immune memory that is induced by pathogenic challenges, but also extent our view to a non-pathogenic context, i.e. allograft rejection, which can also show forms of memory and can inform us about general principles of specific self-nonself recognition. We discuss definitions of immune memory and a number of relevant aspects such as the type of antigens used, the route of exposure, and the kinetics of reactions following priming. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

Zarbock A.,University of Munster | Milles K.,Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf
Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology | Year: 2015

Purpose of review Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common and serious complication that significantly increases morbidity, mortality, and cost of care after surgery. In this article, we review recent studies that deal with strategies for renal protection and the prevention of AKI after surgery. Recent findings A prerequisite for any prophylactic intervention is the identification of patients at risk for AKI or those with acute kidney damage before kidney function deteriorates. In this context, new biomarkers can help to detect cellular injury early. This way, a window for interventions can be opened. Several studies demonstrated the tissue-protective effect of remote ischemic preconditioning in various organs. There is clear evidence that use of balanced crystalloid fluids and the avoidance of hyperchloremic solutions for infusion therapy can reduce the incidence of AKI. Preliminary data show a protective effect if dexmedetomidine is used as a sedative agent following cardiac surgery. The most important intervention with proven efficacy to protect from AKI is aggressive hemodynamic stabilization. Summary Early identification of patients at risk for AKI is crucial to apply any protective intervention. An improved perioperative management is required to prevent AKI. Although pharmacological therapies aiming to protect AKI are under evaluation, hemodynamic optimization and avoidance of nephrotoxic drugs are critical for perioperative patient. © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

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