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Alliance, OH, United States

The University of Mount Union is a 4-year private, coeducational, liberal arts college in Alliance, Ohio. For more than a century the college has been officially connected with the Methodist Church. It is now affiliated with the East Ohio, West Ohio and Western Pennsylvania Conferences of the United Methodist Church. Mount Union has been ranked for 14 consecutive years as a top college in the Midwest and is also ranked as a "Best Buy" for regional liberal arts colleges in the Midwest.Mount Union has an enrollment of 2,209 undergraduate students, divided approximately equally between men and women. Students represent more than 22 states and 13 countries. Mount Union has an alumni base of more than 13,000 graduates located around the world. Wikipedia.

Potkanowicz E.S.,Ohio Northern University | Mendel R.W.,University of Mount Union
Sports Medicine

When discussing sports and the athletes who participate in them, it has long been recognized that fitness is a prerequisite for optimal performance. The goal of training to improve fitness levels in athletes is ultimately to minimize the stress that the body experiences during competition. When it comes to the topic of racecar drivers, however, drivers and their trainers have largely been left to their own devices to figure out the stressors and the areas of specific training focus. Unfortunately, racecar drivers have battled the stereotype that they are not athletes, and with little regard for them as athletes, drivers are seldom the focus of scientific research related to their performance. Like the cars they drive, driver-athletes are complex, but from a physiological perspective. However, unlike the cars they drive, driver-athletes have not been examined, evaluated, and tweaked to the same degree. The purpose of this review is two-fold: first, by examining the available literature, to make the case for new research into the driver's role in the driver-car system (i.e. driver science) and the stresses experienced; second, to make the case for more extensive use of microtechnology in the real-time monitoring of driver-athletes. With the miniaturization of sensors and the advent of portable data storage devices, the prospect of quantifying the stresses unique to the driver are no longer as daunting, and the relative impossibility and difficulties associated with measuring the driver-athlete in real-time no longer need to be as challenging. Using microtechnology in the assessment of the driver-athlete and with a more public discussion and dissemination of information on the topic of driver science, the scientific community has the opportunity to quantify that which has been largely assumed and speculated. The current article will offer the following recommendations: first, rather than examining a singular physiological stressor, to examine the interaction of stressors; second, to examine variables/stressors that are more representative of the changing driver demographics; third, to measure drivers in real-time during actual race events; lastly, to work to develop training programs that more accurately apply to the driver and the stresses experienced. In uncovering this information, there is an opportunity to contribute to racing becoming that much safer, that much more competitive, and that much more comprehensive for the driver, the team, and the sport. © 2013 Springer International Publishing Switzerland. Source

Thoden J.B.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Reinhardt L.A.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Cook P.D.,University of Mount Union | Menden P.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | And 2 more authors.

N-Acetylperosamine is an unusual dideoxysugar found in the O-antigens of some Gram-negative bacteria, including the pathogenic Escherichia coli strain O157:H7. The last step in its biosynthesis is catalyzed by PerB, an N-acetyltransferase belonging to the left-handed β-helix superfamily of proteins. Here we describe a combined structural and functional investigation of PerB from Caulobacter crescentus. For this study, three structures were determined to 1.0 Å resolution or better: the enzyme in complex with CoA and GDP-perosamine, the protein with bound CoA and GDP-N-acetylperosamine, and the enzyme containing a tetrahedral transition state mimic bound in the active site. Each subunit of the trimeric enzyme folds into two distinct regions. The N-terminal domain is globular and dominated by a six-stranded mainly parallel β-sheet. It provides most of the interactions between the protein and GDP-perosamine. The C-terminal domain consists of a left-handed β-helix, which has nearly seven turns. This region provides the scaffold for CoA binding. On the basis of these high-resolution structures, site-directed mutant proteins were constructed to test the roles of His 141 and Asp 142 in the catalytic mechanism. Kinetic data and pH-rate profiles are indicative of His 141 serving as a general base. In addition, the backbone amide group of Gly 159 provides an oxyanion hole for stabilization of the tetrahedral transition state. The pH-rate profiles are also consistent with the GDP-linked amino sugar substrate entering the active site in its unprotonated form. Finally, for this investigation, we show that PerB can accept GDP-3-deoxyperosamine as an alternative substrate, thus representing the production of a novel trideoxysugar. © 2012 American Chemical Society. Source

Ekey R.C.,University of Mount Union | McCormack E.F.,Bryn Mawr College
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics

Frequency-resolved observations of heavy Rydberg states in molecular hydrogen are reported in the ungerade manifold of states. Double-resonance spectroscopy via the E,F 1Σg+, v′=6 state has been used to probe the energy region above the H(1s) + H(3l) dissociation threshold. Resonances are observed by ionizing H(3l) to produce H+, which is then detected by using a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The kinetic energy of the H+ ion confirms that the observed signal is due to the photoionization of neutral H(3l) atoms, indicating that dissociation is a significant decay channel for the ion-pair states. The pattern of energies of the resonances agree well with the predictions of a mass-scaled Rydberg formula for bound quantum states of the H+H- ion pair. Energies and quantum defects have been determined for principal quantum numbers in the range of n=130 to 207. © 2011 American Physical Society. Source

Yeliana Y.,Michigan Technological University | Cooney C.,Michigan Technological University | Worm J.,Michigan Technological University | Michalek D.J.,University of Mount Union | Naber J.D.,Michigan Technological University
Applied Thermal Engineering

Phasing and duration are two of the most important aspects of combustion in Spark Ignition (SI) engines. They impact efficiency, emissions, and overall engine performance. These aspects of combustion can be represented by the mass fraction burn (MFB) profile. Having an accurate mathematical model of the MFB profile leads to an ability to model the combustion process and, thus, properly model the overall engine in 1D engine simulation tools. The Wiebe function is widely used in engine simulation to estimate the MFB profile as a function of crankshaft position. In this work, for the purpose of validating a sub-process, the Wiebe function parameters were calculated using an analytical solution and a least squares method by fitting MFB locations, as determined from analysis of measured cylinder pressure, to both single and double-Wiebe functions. To determine the accuracy of the respective Wiebe function, a single-zone pressure model was applied to reconstruct the pressure trace. Once the pressure trace is recovered, the reconstructed pressure trace is then compared with the experimentally measured cylinder pressure trace. Results showed that the double-Wiebe function model fit better than the single-Wiebe function model. The root mean square error (RMSE) of the reconstructed pressure trace using the double-Wiebe estimation is 7.9 kPa. In comparison, the RMSEs of the reconstructed pressure traces using the single-Wiebe analytical solution and single-Wiebe least squares methods were 70.0 kPa and 75.9 kPa, respectively, demonstrating a significant improvement. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Ocean acidification refers to the process by which seawater absorbs carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, producing aqueous carbonic acid. Acidic conditions increase the solubility of calcium carbonate, threatening corals and other calcareous organisms that depend on it for protective structures. The global nature of ocean acidification and the magnitude of its potential impact on marine ecosystems and the industries they support make it an important and engaging topic to explore in the undergraduate laboratory. In this multiweek experiment, designed for second year analytical and environmental chemistry courses, artificial seawater samples containing pieces of seashell or coral were prepared. One sample was pressurized with carbon dioxide and stirred for 1 week, while the other was stirred without carbonation. Mass and pH measurements and carbonate, bicarbonate, calcium(II), and magnesium(II) titrations were performed on samples before and after treatment. Through data analysis and a rigorous consideration of the acid-base and solubility equilibria involved, students concluded that carbonation significantly decreased seawater pH and caused appreciable seashell and coral dissolution, which raised the bicarbonate and calcium(II) concentrations. Minimal change in the seawater chemistry or carbonaceous material was observed for the noncarbonated sample. Overall, the experience provided a meaningful experimental context for titration analyses and a practical application of the conceptual treatment of a multiequilibrium system. In addition to the experiment, a corresponding oral presentation assignment is presented, in which students produced a video designed to educate a general audience on the topic of ocean acidification by using their experimental results as support. Through this assignment, students reflected on the broader ecological and societal ramifications of ocean acidification and developed the ability to communicate scientific knowledge to a nonscientific audience, a critical collaborative skill for addressing such multifaceted issues. © 2016 The American Chemical Society and Division of Chemical Education, Inc. Source

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