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Muhammad L.A.,Luniversite Of Montrealqc | Saad F.,Luniversite Of Montrealqc | Saad F.,University Of Montrealqc
Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy | Year: 2015

Resistance to cancer treatment can arise through multiple mechanisms and negatively impacts on progression rates and survival times. New therapies targeting pathways underlying resistance would improve treatment outcomes and be of particular value in the treatment of prostate cancer, many of whom develop tumors refractory to radiation, hormonal therapy and chemotherapy regimens. The improved understanding of metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer progression mechanisms has broadened the therapeutic window by unveiling multiple molecular targets. Several approaches are being investigated to overcome resistance in prostate cancer, including the use of novel taxanes and tubulin inhibitors, and the inhibition of cell survival pathways. This review focuses on clusterin, a small heat-shock-like protein that is overexpressed in many types of solid tumors; we summarize the preclinical and clinical evidence supporting the rationale for targeting clusterin as a means to resensitize prostate tumors to radiation and chemotherapy agents. © 2015 Informa UK, Ltd.

Ridout D.,Australian National University | Saint-Aubin Y.,University Of Montrealqc
Advances in Theoretical and Mathematical Physics | Year: 2014

The basic properties of the Temperley-Lieb algebra TLn with parameter β = q + q-1, q ∈ C\{0}, are reviewed in a pedagogical way. The link and standard (cell) modules that appear in numerous physical applications are defined and a natural bilinear form on the standard modules is used to characterise their maximal submodules. When this bilinear form has a non-trivial radical, some of the standard modules are reducible and TLn is non-semisimple. This happens only when q is a root of unity. Use of restriction and induction allows for a finer description of the structure of the standard modules. Finally, a particular central element Fn ∈ TLn is studied; its action is shown to be non-diagonalisable on certain indecomposable modules and this leads to a proof that the radicals of the standard modules are irreducible. Moreover, the space of homomorphisms between standard modules is completely determined. The principal indecomposable modules are then computed concretely in terms of standard modules and their inductions. Examples are provided throughout and the delicate case β = 0, that plays an important role in physical models, is studied systematically. © 2014 International Press.

Mikkola T.M.,University of Jyvaskyla | Portegijs E.,University of Jyvaskyla | Rantakokko M.,University of Jyvaskyla | Gagne J.-P.,University Of Montrealqc | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Aging and Health | Year: 2015

Objective: To investigate whether hearing difficulty is associated with objective and perceived participation in social and leisure activities outside the home in older adults. Method: Self-reported hearing difficulty, frequency of participation, perceived participation and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) were obtained from 848 community-dwelling men and women aged 75 to 90. Results: Among persons with MMSE ≥â€24, hearing was not associated with participation. In persons with MMSE > 24, relative to persons who reported no difficulty hearing, participants with major hearing difficulty had a higher odds ratio [OR] for infrequent participation in group activities (OR 2.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.2, 3.6]) and more restricted perceived participation (OR 2.1, 95% CI [1.2, 3.7]). Participants with and without hearing difficulty did not differ in their frequency of attending non-group activities or meeting (grand)children or acquaintances. Discussion: Hearing difficulty may restrict older adults with normal cognition from participating in social and leisure activities and living their life as they would like to outside the home. © The Author(s) 2014.

Glorioso J.M.,Mayo Medical School | Mao S.A.,Mayo Medical School | Rodysill B.,Mayo Medical School | Mounajjed T.,Mayo Medical School | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Hepatology | Year: 2015

Background & Aims: The neuroprotective effect of the spheroid reservoir bioartificial liver (SRBAL) was evaluated in a porcine model of drug-overdose acute liver failure (ALF). Methods: Healthy pigs were randomized into three groups (standard therapy (ST) alone, ST + No-cell device, ST + SRBAL device) before placement of an implantable intracranial pressure (ICP) monitor and a tunneled central venous catheter. One week later, pigs received bolus infusion of the hepatotoxin D-galactosamine and were followed for up to 90 h. Results: At 48 h, all animals had developed encephalopathy and biochemical changes confirming ALF; extracorporeal treatment was initiated and pigs were observed up to 90 h after drug infusion. Pigs treated with the SRBAL, loaded with porcine hepatocyte spheroids, had improved survival (83%, n = 6) compared to ST alone (0%, n = 6, p = 0.003) and No-cell device therapy (17%, n = 6, p = 0.02). Ammonia detoxification, peak levels of serum ammonia and peak ICP, and pig survival were influenced by hepatocyte cell dose, membrane pore size and duration of SRBAL treatment. Hepatocyte spheroids remained highly functional with no decline in mean oxygen consumption from initiation to completion of treatment. Conclusions: The SRBAL improved survival in an allogeneic model of drug-overdose ALF. Survival correlated with ammonia detoxification and ICP lowering indicating that hepatocyte spheroids prevented the cerebral manifestations of ALF (brain swelling, herniation, death). Further investigation of SRBAL therapy in a clinical setting is warranted. © 2015 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Cortoni F.,University Of Montrealqc | Sandler J.C.,New York State Office of Mental Health | Freeman N.J.,New York State Office of Mental Health
Sexual Abuse: Journal of Research and Treatment | Year: 2015

Some jurisdictions have legally decreed that certain nonsexual offenses (e.g., promoting prostitution of a minor, arson, burglary) can be considered sexual offenses. Offenders convicted of these crimes can be subjected to sexual offender–specific social control policies such as registration, as well as be included in sexual offender research such as recidivism studies. No studies, however, have systematically examined differences and similarities between this new class of sexual offenders and more traditional sexual offenders. The current study used a sample of 94 women convicted of sexual offenses to investigate whether women convicted of promoting prostitution of a minor differed on demographic and criminogenic features from those convicted of more traditional sexual offenses. Results show that women convicted of promoting prostitution offenses have criminal histories more consistent with general criminality and exhibit more general antisocial features than women convicted of traditional sexual offenses. These results support the notion that the inclusion of legally defined sexual offenders with traditional ones obscures important differences in criminogenic features among these women. © The Author(s) 2014

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