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Chan G.,University Of Montrealqc | Soucisse M.,University Of Montrealqc
Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease | Year: 2016

Background: Obesity is associated with increased surgical complications and long-term cardiovascular mortality. Studies of access in kidney transplantation have found a bias against obese patients on the wait-listing. Objective: To determine the current state of clinical practice for the management of obesity in kidney transplantation. Design: A survey in two versions, PDF and traditional paper, composed of categorical questions. Setting: A pan-Canadian survey of transplant nephrologists and surgeons. Methods: The survey PDF was distributed electronically to the Kidney Group of the Canadian Society of Transplantation. A shorter, hardcopy version was distributed subsequently at a national transplant meeting. Results: There were 47 responses, including almost every Canadian adult transplant program. Most (81%) reported the use of a body mass index limit for access to the waiting list. However, only 40% reported a strict enforcement. There were several instances of intra-hospital disagreements regarding the use of a policy, among the centers with multiple responses. The body mass index limit was most commonly 40 kg/m2 (62%), followed by 35 kg/m2 (36%). Despite the body mass index limit, few centers (30%) reported having a weight management program. The reported experience with bariatric surgery was small, though nearly all replied that they would refer to a bariatric specialist in the future. Limitations: This national survey provides a broad assessment of clinical practice. The distinction between an official policy and informal clinical tendencies is difficult. The results cannot be used to support any specific limit or policy. Conclusions: This survey found that the body mass index limit for access to the kidney transplant waiting list was common in Canada. Several inconsistencies suggest a lack of official policy. To achieve equity in access, clear guidelines for obesity should be established and enforced. Bariatric surgery has the promise of rapid weight loss. Resource allocation to study obesity in transplant patients will be essential. © The Author(s) 2016.

Zendel B.R.,Music and Sound Research BRAMS | Zendel B.R.,Institute University Of Geriatrie Of Montrealqc | Zendel B.R.,Center for Research on Brain | Zendel B.R.,University Of Montrealqc | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience | Year: 2015

Musicians have enhanced auditory processing abilities. In some studies, these abilities are paralleled by an improved understanding of speech in noisy environments, partially due to more robust encoding of speech signals in noise at the level of the brainstem. Little is known about the impact of musicianship on attention-dependent cortical activity related to lexical access during a speech-in-noise task. To address this issue, we presented musicians and nonmusicians with single words mixed with three levels of background noise, across two conditions, while monitoring electrical brain activity. In the active condition, listeners repeated the words aloud, and in the passive condition, they ignored the words and watched a silent film. When background noise was most intense, musicians repeated more words correctly compared with nonmusicians. Auditory evoked responses were attenuated and delayed with the addition of background noise. In musicians, P1 amplitude was marginally enhanced during active listening and was related to task performance in the most difficult listening condition. By comparing ERPs from the active and passive conditions, we isolated an N400 related to lexical access. The amplitude of the N400 was not influenced by the level of background noise in musicians, whereas N400 amplitude increased with the level of background noise in nonmusicians. In nonmusicians, the increase in N400 amplitude was related to a reduction in task performance. In musicians only, there was a rightward shift of the sources contributing to the N400 as the level of background noise increased. This pattern of results supports the hypothesis that encoding of speech in noise is more robust in musicians and suggests that this facilitates lexical access. Moreover, the shift in sources suggests that musicians, to a greater extent than nonmusicians, may increasingly rely on acoustic cues to understand speech in noise. © 2015 Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Glorioso J.M.,Mayo Medical School | Mao S.A.,Mayo Medical School | Rodysill B.,Mayo Medical School | Mounajjed T.,Mayo Medical School | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Hepatology | Year: 2015

Background & Aims: The neuroprotective effect of the spheroid reservoir bioartificial liver (SRBAL) was evaluated in a porcine model of drug-overdose acute liver failure (ALF). Methods: Healthy pigs were randomized into three groups (standard therapy (ST) alone, ST + No-cell device, ST + SRBAL device) before placement of an implantable intracranial pressure (ICP) monitor and a tunneled central venous catheter. One week later, pigs received bolus infusion of the hepatotoxin D-galactosamine and were followed for up to 90 h. Results: At 48 h, all animals had developed encephalopathy and biochemical changes confirming ALF; extracorporeal treatment was initiated and pigs were observed up to 90 h after drug infusion. Pigs treated with the SRBAL, loaded with porcine hepatocyte spheroids, had improved survival (83%, n = 6) compared to ST alone (0%, n = 6, p = 0.003) and No-cell device therapy (17%, n = 6, p = 0.02). Ammonia detoxification, peak levels of serum ammonia and peak ICP, and pig survival were influenced by hepatocyte cell dose, membrane pore size and duration of SRBAL treatment. Hepatocyte spheroids remained highly functional with no decline in mean oxygen consumption from initiation to completion of treatment. Conclusions: The SRBAL improved survival in an allogeneic model of drug-overdose ALF. Survival correlated with ammonia detoxification and ICP lowering indicating that hepatocyte spheroids prevented the cerebral manifestations of ALF (brain swelling, herniation, death). Further investigation of SRBAL therapy in a clinical setting is warranted. © 2015 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Grandvaux N.,Center Hospitalier Of Luniversite Of Montreal | Grandvaux N.,University Of Montrealqc | Mariani M.,Center Hospitalier Of Luniversite Of Montreal | Fink K.,Center Hospitalier Of Luniversite Of Montreal | Fink K.,University Of Montrealqc
Clinical Science | Year: 2015

Determining the role of NADPH oxidases in the context of virus infection is an emerging area of research and our knowledge is still sparse. The expression of various isoforms of NOX/DUOX (NADPH oxidase/dual oxidase) in the epithelial cells (ECs) lining the respiratory tract renders them primary sites from which to orchestrate the host defence against respiratory viruses. Accumulating evidence reveals distinct facets of the involvement of NOX/DUOX in host antiviral and pro-inflammatory responses and in the control of the epithelial barrier integrity, with individual isoforms mediating co-operative, but surprisingly also opposing, functions. Although in vivo studies in mice are in line with some of these observations, a complete understanding of the specific functions of epithelial NOX/DUOX awaits lung epithelial-specific conditional knockout mice. The goal of the present review is to summarize our current knowledge of the role of individual NOX/DUOX isoforms expressed in the lung epithelium in the context of respiratory virus infections so as to highlight potential opportunities for therapeutic intervention. © 2015 Biochemical Society.

Cortoni F.,University Of Montrealqc | Sandler J.C.,New York State Office of Mental Health | Freeman N.J.,New York State Office of Mental Health
Sexual Abuse: Journal of Research and Treatment | Year: 2015

Some jurisdictions have legally decreed that certain nonsexual offenses (e.g., promoting prostitution of a minor, arson, burglary) can be considered sexual offenses. Offenders convicted of these crimes can be subjected to sexual offender–specific social control policies such as registration, as well as be included in sexual offender research such as recidivism studies. No studies, however, have systematically examined differences and similarities between this new class of sexual offenders and more traditional sexual offenders. The current study used a sample of 94 women convicted of sexual offenses to investigate whether women convicted of promoting prostitution of a minor differed on demographic and criminogenic features from those convicted of more traditional sexual offenses. Results show that women convicted of promoting prostitution offenses have criminal histories more consistent with general criminality and exhibit more general antisocial features than women convicted of traditional sexual offenses. These results support the notion that the inclusion of legally defined sexual offenders with traditional ones obscures important differences in criminogenic features among these women. © The Author(s) 2014

Lavallee V.-P.,University of Montréal | Lavallee V.-P.,Maisonneuve Rosemont Hospital | Gendron P.,University of Montréal | Lemieux S.,University of Montréal | And 7 more authors.
Blood | Year: 2015

The genetic and transcriptional signature of EVI1 (ecotropic viral integration site 1)-rearranged (EVI1-r) acute myeloid leukemias (AMLs) remains poorly defined. We performed RNA sequencing of 12 EVI1-r AMLs and compared the results with those of other AML subtypes (n = 139) and normal CD34+ cells (n = 17). Results confirm high frequencies of RAS and other activated signaling mutations (10/12 AMLs) and identify new recurrent mutations in splicing factors (5/12 AMLs in SF3B1 and 2/12 AMLs in U2AF1), IKZF1 (3/12 AMLs), and TP53 (3/12 AMLs). Mutations in IKZF1, a gene located on chromosome 7, and monosomy 7 are mutually exclusive in this disease. Moreover IKZF1 expression is halved in monosomy 7 leukemias. EVI-r AMLs are also characterized by a unique transcriptional signature with high expression levels of MECOM, PREX2, VIP, MYCT1, and PAWR. Our results suggest that EVI1-rAMLs could be molecularly defined by specific transcriptomic anomalies and a hitherto unseen mutational pattern. Larger patient cohorts will better determine the frequency of these events. © 2015 by The American Society of Hematology.

Muhammad L.A.,Luniversite Of Montrealqc | Saad F.,Luniversite Of Montrealqc | Saad F.,University Of Montrealqc
Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy | Year: 2015

Resistance to cancer treatment can arise through multiple mechanisms and negatively impacts on progression rates and survival times. New therapies targeting pathways underlying resistance would improve treatment outcomes and be of particular value in the treatment of prostate cancer, many of whom develop tumors refractory to radiation, hormonal therapy and chemotherapy regimens. The improved understanding of metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer progression mechanisms has broadened the therapeutic window by unveiling multiple molecular targets. Several approaches are being investigated to overcome resistance in prostate cancer, including the use of novel taxanes and tubulin inhibitors, and the inhibition of cell survival pathways. This review focuses on clusterin, a small heat-shock-like protein that is overexpressed in many types of solid tumors; we summarize the preclinical and clinical evidence supporting the rationale for targeting clusterin as a means to resensitize prostate tumors to radiation and chemotherapy agents. © 2015 Informa UK, Ltd.

Sandoval Y.-H.G.,University Of Montrealqc | Atef M.E.,University Of Montrealqc | Levesque L.-O.,University Of Montrealqc | Li Y.,University Of Montrealqc | Anand-Srivastava M.B.,University Of Montrealqc
Current Vascular Pharmacology | Year: 2014

The discovery of endothelin (ET) in 1988 has led to considerable effort to unravel its implication in health and disease and the mechanisms evoked by ET. ET-1 and related signaling aberrancies are believed to be implicated in the pathogenesis of diverse cardiovascular diseases, such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, hypertrophy and diabetes. The endothelin system consists of three potent vasoconstrictive isopeptides, ET-1, ET-2 and ET-3, signaling through two G protein coupled receptors, ETA and ETB, which are linked to multiple signaling pathways. Activated signaling transduction pathways include the modulation of the adenylyl cyclase/cAMP pathway through stimulatory (Gs) and inhibitory (Gi) G proteins, activation of the phosphoinositide pathway through the activation of proteins Gq/11, generation of oxidative stress, growth factor receptor-related mitogenic events, such as the activation of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase pathway, phosphoinositide pathway and activation of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascade. The levels of ETA and ETB receptors as well as the signaling pathways activated by these receptors are altered in several cardiovascular diseases including hypertension, hypertrophy, atherosclerosis, diabetes, etc. In this review, we provide an overview of the signaling events modulated by ET-1 in vascular smooth muscle cells in both physiological and pathological conditions. © 2014 Bentham Science Publishers.

Ridout D.,Australian National University | Saint-Aubin Y.,University Of Montrealqc
Advances in Theoretical and Mathematical Physics | Year: 2014

The basic properties of the Temperley-Lieb algebra TLn with parameter β = q + q-1, q ∈ C\{0}, are reviewed in a pedagogical way. The link and standard (cell) modules that appear in numerous physical applications are defined and a natural bilinear form on the standard modules is used to characterise their maximal submodules. When this bilinear form has a non-trivial radical, some of the standard modules are reducible and TLn is non-semisimple. This happens only when q is a root of unity. Use of restriction and induction allows for a finer description of the structure of the standard modules. Finally, a particular central element Fn ∈ TLn is studied; its action is shown to be non-diagonalisable on certain indecomposable modules and this leads to a proof that the radicals of the standard modules are irreducible. Moreover, the space of homomorphisms between standard modules is completely determined. The principal indecomposable modules are then computed concretely in terms of standard modules and their inductions. Examples are provided throughout and the delicate case β = 0, that plays an important role in physical models, is studied systematically. © 2014 International Press.

Bosoi C.R.,University Of Montrealqc | Tremblay M.,University Of Montrealqc | Rose C.F.,University Of Montrealqc
Liver International | Year: 2014

Background & Aims: The pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is multifactorial and often associated with the development of brain oedema. In addition to ammonia playing a central role, systemic oxidative stress is believed to aggravate the neuropsychological effects of ammonia in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD). The aim of this study was to (i) induce systemic oxidative stress in hyperammonaemic portacaval anastomosed (PCA) rats by inhibiting the antioxidant glutathione using Dimethyl maleate (DEM) and (ii) investigate whether a synergistic relationship between ammonia and oxidative stress contributes to the pathogenesis of brain oedema in CLD. Methods: Four-week PCA and sham-operated rats received DEM (0.4-4 mg/kg/day) for the last 10 days before sacrifice when oxidative stress markers [reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA)] were assessed in blood and frontal cortex. Brain water content was measured using a specific gravimetric technique. Results: Dimethyl maleate induced an increase in ROS and MDA in the blood, but not in the brain, of the PCA rats, compared with non-treated PCA rats. This was accompanied with an increase in brain water content (PCA+DEM: 78.45 ± 0.13% vs. PCA: 77.38 ± 0.11%, P < 0.001). Higher doses of DEM induced systemic oxidative stress in sham-operated controls, but brain oedema did not develop. Conclusions: Dimethyl maleate provoked systemic, not central, oxidative stress in PCA rats, resulting in the development of brain oedema. Independently, hyperammonaemia and systemic oxidative stress do not precipitate brain oedema; therefore, our findings sustain that a synergistic effect between hyperammonaemia and systemic oxidative stress is responsible for the development of brain oedema in HE. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

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