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Montreal, Canada

The Université de Montréal is a public research university in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. The francophone institution comprises thirteen faculties, more than sixty departments and two affiliated schools: the École Polytechnique and HEC Montréal . It offers more than 650 undergraduate programmes and graduate programmes, including 71 doctoral programmes. The Times Higher Education World University Rankings of 2012-2013 ranks the Université de Montréal at 84th place globally.The university has Quebec's largest sponsored research income and the third largest in Canada, allocating close to $524.1 million to research conducted in more than 150 research centres as of 2011. It is also part of the U15 universities. More than 55,000 students are enrolled in undergraduate and graduate programs, making it the second-largest university in Canada in terms of student enrolment. Wikipedia.


Charbonneau P.,University of Montreal
Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2014

The Sun's magnetic field is the engine and energy source driving all phenomena collectively defining solar activity, which in turn structures the whole heliosphere and significantly impacts Earth's atmosphere down at least to the stratosphere. The solar magnetic field is believed to originate through the action of a hydromagnetic dynamo process operating in the Sun's interior, where the strongly turbulent environment of the convection zone leads to flow-field interactions taking place on an extremely wide range of spatial and temporal scales. Following a necessarily brief observational overview of the solar magnetic field and its cycle, this review on solar dynamo theory is structured around three areas in which significant advances have been made in recent years: (a) global magnetohydrodynamical simulations of convection and magnetic cycles, (b) the turbulent electromotive force and the dynamo saturation problem, and (c) flux transport dynamos, and their application to model cycle fluctuations and grand minima and to carry out cycle prediction. Copyright © 2014 by Annual Reviews. Source


Audet M.,University of Montreal
Cell | Year: 2012

G-protein-coupled receptors serve as key signal transduction conduits, linking extracellular inputs with diverse cellular responses. These receptors eluded structural characterization for decades following their identification. A landmark structure of rhodopsin provided a basis for structure-function studies and homology modeling, but advances in receptor biology suffered from a lack of receptor-specific structural insights. The recent explosion in GPCR structures confirms some features predicted by rhodopsin-based models, and more importantly, it reveals unexpected ligand-binding modes and critical aspects of the receptor activation process. The new structures also promise to foster studies testing emerging models for GPCR function such as receptor dimerization and ligand-biased signaling. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source


Baron C.,University of Montreal
Current Opinion in Microbiology | Year: 2010

The rise of resistance of pathogenic bacteria to antibiotics constitutes an increasing risk to public health. Environmental bacteria constitute a large reservoir of resistance determinants and it is predictable that resistance to more antibiotics will be acquired by even more pathogens in future. Innovative strategies are therefore needed to discover novel antibiotic targets as well as alternatives to classical antibiotics. This review will discuss recent advances toward the development of an alternative to classical antibiotics, antivirulence drugs targeting bacterial secretion systems that would disarm rather than kill bacteria. Important progress has been made especially targeting type III secretion systems that are used by many different Gram-negative pathogens. Antivirulence drugs that disarm bacterial pathogens have the potential to be an important alternative or addition to classical antibiotics in future. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Mousseau J.J.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Charette A.B.,University of Montreal
Accounts of Chemical Research | Year: 2013

The possibility of finding novel disconnections for the efficient synthesis of organic molecules has driven the interest in developing technologies to directly functionalize C-H bonds. The ubiquity of these bonds makes such transformations attractive, while also posing several challenges. The first, and perhaps most important, is the selective functionalization of one C-H bond over another. Another key problem is inducing reactivity at sites that have been historically unreactive and difficult to access without prior inefficient prefunctionalization.Although remarkable advances have been made over the past decade toward solving these and other problems, several difficult tasks remain as researchers attempt to bring C-H functionalization reactions into common use. The functionalization of sp3 centers continues to be challenging relative to their sp and sp2 counterparts. Directing groups are often needed to increase the effective concentration of the catalyst at the targeted reaction site, forming thermodynamically stable coordination complexes. As such, the development of removable or convertible directing groups is desirable. Finally, the replacement of expensive rare earth reagents with less expensive and more sustainable catalysts or abandoning the use of catalysts entirely is essential for future practicality.This Account describes our efforts toward solving some of these quandaries. We began our work in this area with the direct arylation of N-iminopyridinium ylides as a universal means to derivatize the germane six-membered heterocycle. We found that the Lewis basic benzoyl group of the pyridinium ylide could direct a palladium catalyst toward insertion at the 2-position of the pyridinium ring, forming a thermodynamically stable six-membered metallocycle. Subsequently we discovered the arylation of the benzylic site of 2-picolonium ylides. The same N-benzoyl group could direct a number of inexpensive copper salts to the 2-position of the pyridinium ylide, which led to the first description of a direct copper-catalyzed alkenylation onto an electron-deficient arene. This particular directing group offers two advantages: (1) it can be easily appended and removed to reveal the desired pyridine target, and (2) it can be incorporated in a cascade process in the preparation of pharmacologically relevant 2-pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridines.This work has solved some of the challenges in the direct arylation of nonheterocyclic arenes, including reversing the reactivity often observed with such transformations. Readily convertible directing groups were applied to facilitate the transformation. We also demonstrated that iron can promote intermolecular arylations effectively and that the omission of any metal still permits intramolecular arylation reactions. Lastly, we recently discovered a nickel-catalyzed intramolecular arylation of sp3 C-H bonds. Our mechanistic investigations of these processes have elucidated radical pathways, opening new avenues in future direct C-H functionalization reactions. © 2012 American Chemical Society. Source


Chapais B.,University of Montreal
Science | Year: 2011

Primatology and anthropology converge on the uniqueness of human society. Source

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