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Smiths Station, AL, United States

The University of Montevallo is a four-year public university located in Montevallo, Alabama, United States. Founded in 1896, it is Alabama's only public liberal arts college and a member of the prestigious Council of Public Liberal Arts Colleges. The University of Montevallo continues to receive accolades through the rankings of "America’s Best Colleges", published by U.S. News & World Report. According to rankings for the 2013 edition, UM is once again ranked as the No. 1 public master’s-level university in Alabama, a distinction it has held each year since 2008. For 2013, Montevallo is listed as the 14th best public university in the South in its division and 37th overall in the South, up 22 spots from its 2007 ranking. Schools in 12 states make up the South geographic region. Montevallo is also recognized in the 2013 edition as one of the top four Southern universities that graduates students with the lowest average debt loads. It earned high marks for academic reputation, freshman retention rate, graduation rate, entering freshmen test scores and class rank, small class sizes and low student-faculty ratio. Wikipedia.

Davis J.-K.,University of Montevallo | Bishop P.A.,University of Alabama
Sports Medicine

Clothing targeting the exercise enthusiast has been advertised to keep individuals drier, cooler, and more comfortable during exercise in the heat. The marketing of such clothing has increased dramatically within the last decade. In hot environments, clothing acts as a barrier to thermal balance by inhibiting evaporative and convective cooling. Clothing construction, fit, and fabric are all critical influences on the amount of sweat absorbed from the skin and transported throughout the clothing. The majority of the research analyzing advertised synthetic fabrics has shown no difference in thermoregulation or clothing comfort while exercising in those fabrics in the heat compared to natural fabrics. The influence of clothing construction on thermal balance has received minimal research in regards to exercise. Further research is needed in this area, since it is poorly understood from ecologically valid human testing. Future research should also consider examining the effects of clothing characteristics on comfort during exercise and recovery. The incorporation of protocols that more closely mirror sporting and recreational activity lasting >60 min as well as simulated work-related protocols lasting >120 min is warranted. © 2013 Springer International Publishing Switzerland. Source

Wiegand J.R.,University of Georgia | Mathews L.D.,University of Georgia | Mathews L.D.,University of Montevallo | Smith G.D.,University of Georgia
Analytical Chemistry

A novel photoacoustic spectrophotometer (PAS) for the measurement of gas-phase and aerosol absorption over the UV-visible region of the spectrum is described. Light from a broadband Hg arc lamp is filtered in eight separate bands from 300 to 700 nm using bandpass interference filters (centered at 301 nm, 314 nm, 364 nm, 405 nm, 436 nm, 546 nm, 578 and 687 nm) and modulated with an optical chopper before entering the photoacoustic cell. All wavelength bands feature a 20-s detection limit of better than 3.0 Mm-1 with the exception of the lower-intensity 687 nm band for which it is 10.2 Mm -1. Validation measurements of gas-phase acetone and nigrosin aerosol absorption cross sections at several wavelengths demonstrate agreement to within 10% with those measured previously (for acetone) and those predicted by Mie theory (for nigrosin). The PAS instrument is used to measure the UV-visible absorption spectrum of ambient aerosol demonstrating a dramatic increase in the UV region with absorption increasing by 300% from 405 to 301 nm. This type of measurement throughout the UV-visible region and free from artifacts associated with filter-based methods has not been possible previously, and we demonstrate its promise for classifying and quantifying different types of light-absorbing ambient particles. © 2014 American Chemical Society. Source

Snelgrove R.J.,University of Alabama at Birmingham | Snelgrove R.J.,Imperial College London | Jackson P.L.,University of Alabama at Birmingham | Hardison M.T.,University of Alabama at Birmingham | And 9 more authors.

Leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H) is a proinflammatory enzyme that generates the inflammatory mediator leukotriene B4 (LTB4). LTA4H also possesses aminopeptidase activity with unknown substrate and physiological importance; we identified the neutrophil chemoattractant proline-glycine-proline (PGP) as this physiological substrate. PGP is a biomarker for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and is implicated in neutrophil persistence in the lung. In acute neutrophil-driven inflammation, PGP was degraded by LTA4H, which facilitated the resolution of inflammation. In contrast, cigarette smoke, a major risk factor for the development of COPD, selectively inhibited LTA4H aminopeptidase activity, which led to the accumulation of PGP and neutrophils. These studies imply that therapeutic strategies inhibiting LTA4H to prevent LTB4 generation may not reduce neutrophil recruitment because of elevated levels of PGP. Source

Hermalin A.I.,University of Michigan | Lowry D.S.,University of Montevallo
Population Research and Policy Review

The smoking prevalence by age of women in China is distinct from most other countries in showing more frequent smoking among older women than younger. Using newly developed birth cohort histories of smoking, the authors demonstrate that although over one quarter of women born 1908-1912 smoked, levels of smoking declined across successive cohorts. This occurred despite high rates of smoking by men and the wide availability of cigarettes. The analysis shows how this pattern is counter to that predicted by the leading theoretical perspectives on the diffusion of smoking and suggests that it arose out of a mix of Confucian traditions relating to gender and the socio-economic and political events early in the twentieth century which placed emerging women's identities in conflict with national identities. That a similar pattern of smoking is evident in Japan and Korea, two countries with strong cultural affinities to China, is used to buttress the argument. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

Cotten S.R.,Michigan State University | Ford G.,Phoenix Center for Advanced Legal and Economic Public Policy Studies | Ford S.,University of Montevallo | Hale T.M.,Harvard University
Journals of Gerontology - Series B Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences

Objectives. The purpose of this study is to examine the association between Internet use among retired older adults in the United States and changes in a commonly used predictor of depression (the CES-D). Method. Analyzing data from four waves (2002-2008) of the Health and Retirement Survey, we assess whether an available and commonly used index of a depression state was affected by prior values of the index and Internet use. The sample includes 3,075 respondents observed over 4 waves of data, yielding a total of 12,300 observations. We analyzed the effect on depression of Internet use and past depression in a full sample and a matched sample. We also conducted informal tests for confounders. Finally, we tested a basic mediation model to determine whether Internet use affected depression through its relationship with loneliness and social isolation. Results. Across methods, we found a positive contribution of Internet use to mental well-being of retired older adults in the United States, where Internet use reduced the probability of a depression state by one third. We found no evidence of confounding. Some evidence of mediation was found. Discussion. Our dynamic probit model indicates that for retired older adults in the United States, Internet use was found to reduce the probability of a depressed state by about 33%. Number of people in the household partially mediates this relationship, with the reduction in depression largest for people living alone. This provides some evidence that the mechanism linking Internet use to depression is the remediation of social isolation and loneliness. Encouraging older adults to use the Internet may help decrease isolation and depression. © The Author 2014. Source

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