Bordeaux, France

University of Montesquieu
Bordeaux, France

Montesquieu University – Bordeaux IV is a French university, based in Pessac, the suburbs of Bordeaux, in the domaine universitaire. It is under the Academy of Bordeaux.The University of Montesquieu - Bordeaux IV is the successor of the former Law and Economics Faculty, whose origins go back as far as the 15th century. It incorporates long-standing teaching programmes and institutes which have an established reputation in the academic specialities of the University, notably law, political science, and economics and management.It is organised into 6 departments in the areas of economics and management, law, and economic and social administration , as well as an Institute of Business Administration , 2 University Institutes of Technology . In addition, the Bordeaux Institute of Political Studies is also annexed to the University.The University boasts 14,000 students and has a staff of 400 teachers and researchers with a non-academic staff of 300. It awards 4,100 diplomas each year at the various sites in Bordeaux itself as well as at the satellite sites of Agen and Périgueux. The increasingly evident research potential of the University can be measured in figures: 3 Doctoral Schools and 57 masters. Individual research projects come together to make up the 12 government-recognised research centres, some of which are attached to large research organisations such as the CNRS and the National Foundation of Political Science. It would be impossible in a few words to cover the diversity and the quality of the research; let us simply stress that the University of Montesquieu - Bordeaux IV has an open approach to the local economy, a fact much appreciated by researchers, and it has acquired an unquestionable reputation, nationally and internationally, in a number of academic areas where it is regarded as a centre of excellence. Without presenting an exhaustive list, the following areas are just a few examples of this: international finance; comparative foreign law and politics ; regional economic development, local management and administration and town and country planning; social and health legislation; community law; public administration and company management.The University of Montesquieu - Bordeaux IV is well-established within its region and open to the world outside. It is committed to diversification and modernisation and with this in mind has recently increased its range of vocational training programmes available to students. The University is proud if its rich past and perfectly equipped to provide teaching of quality while remaining at the leading edge of academic research. Wikipedia.

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Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SSH-2007-1.2-03 | Award Amount: 1.90M | Year: 2009

The long-term economic performance of Europe depends on its ability to generate new knowledge and inventions, and, to translate invention into innovation and innovation into economic adaptation and growth.This ability is central to achieving the objectives of the Lisbon Agenda and the new industrial policy in an enlarged EU.However, innovation involves more than invention, more than the funding of science and technology and R&D.It is in relation to the exploration, manufacturing and commercialisation of novelty that the analysis financial markets is of the first importance.Their dependence on effective arrangements to supply finance and monitor and redistribute the returns to innovation is our central concern.We approach these issues from different angles: analysis of different modes of bank and venture funding, operation of equity markets and innovation, effects of finance on the selection dynamics of market growth and evolution, and study of consequences of modes of financing innovation for the distribution of income and employment generation.This last point is key since different modes of financing of innovation, investment and corporate growth are likely also to entail far reaching consequences in terms of employment dynamics across different types of firms.FINNOV tackles these priorities by bringing together the expertise of scholars from the fields of economics of innovation, applied industrial economists, political economists and business historians to investigate the interconnections and implications between recent changes in the patterns of financing, innovation and industrial evolution, and the ensuing dynamics in corporate growth employment and income distribution.By exploring the interactions between financial structure, productivity, profitability, investment, growth and employment, FINNOV offers direct insights on the scope for European innovation policy and tries to identify the technological and market conditions which foster innovation and growth.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SSH-2007-2.1-01 | Award Amount: 1.57M | Year: 2009

The aim of the project is to analyse, within a comparative institutionalist analytical framework, the trajectories of socio-economic development models. Comparative analyses of forms of capitalism have underlined the diversity in institutional configurations. Within the EU, it is assumed that four types of socio-economic models exist: market-oriented, continental, Nordic, and Southern, with the position of transitional CEEC under discussion. The project will reconstitute the historical trajectories of these socio-economic models, in order to understand how their institutional configuration mediates the synergies and trade-offs between the economic, social and environmental dimensions of development. By focusing on complementarities and conflicts as well as changes in socio-political compromises, by contesting the hypothesis of convergence towards a specific European model and by analysing the impacts of globalisation and structural reforms, the possible future for these models will be discussed. The project will combine three approaches Firstly, a quantitative analysis of the trajectories of socio-economic models. Using long-term data bases for industrialized countries, statistical and econometrical analyses will allow for a quantitative historical analysis of trajectories for the period 1975-2005. The analysis will be completed with analysis of CEEC and emerging countries for the period 1990-2010. Secondly, a comparative analysis of socio-political dynamics and institutional changes. Twelve European and four non-European countries will be examined in order to identify, from an historical perspective, the evolution of socio-political compromises and their influence on the dynamics of institutional changes. Thirdly, sectoral analyses of institutional configurations and industrial dynamics, which will combine statistical and socio-political approaches in order to analyse the long term dynamics of four industries within different socio-economic models.

Sterzi V.,University of Montesquieu | Sterzi V.,Bocconi University
Research Policy | Year: 2013

The relationship between ownership structure and the quality of academic inventions has not been deeply analysed, despite its relevance for the literature on IPR and university-industry knowledge transfer. This paper fills the gap by using a novel dataset of academic patents in the UK, both university-owned and corporate-owned for the period 1990-2001. The main results may be summarized as follows. (1) Controlling for observable inventor and patent characteristics, academic patents owned by business companies receive more citations in the first years after the filing date than those owned by universities or other public research organizations, but this difference diminishes when considering a longer time window, and it disappears when considering only later citations. Interestingly, (2) change of ownership is an indicator of patent quality: academic patents owned by companies but originally assigned to universities or other public research organizations show a noticebly higher quality premium. Finally, (3) professor's scientific quality appears slightly correlated with patent quality. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Senaha M.L.H.,University of Montesquieu | De Mattos Pimenta Parente M.A.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul
Behavioural Neurology | Year: 2012

The Japanese language is represented by two different codes: syllabic and logographic while Portuguese employs an alphabetic writing system. Studies on bilingual Portuguese-Japanese individuals with acquired dyslexia therefore allow an investigation of the interaction between reading strategies and characteristics of three different writing codes. The aim of this study was to examine the differential impact of an acquired brain lesion on the reading of the logographic, syllabic and alphabetic writing systems of a bilingual Portuguese-Japanese aphasic patient (PF). Results showed impaired reading in the logographic system and when reading irregularly spelled Portuguese words but no effects on reading regular words and nonwords in syllabic and alphabetic writing systems. These dissociations are interpreted according to a multi-route cognitive model of reading assuming selective damage in the lexical route can result in acquired dyslexia across at least three different writing codes. © 2012 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved.

Epicoco M.,University of Montesquieu | Epicoco M.,University of Milan
Research Policy | Year: 2013

This article examines the technological capabilities that national organizations generated and accumulated throughout the long-term evolution of the miniaturization trajectory, the main direction of technological change in the semiconductor industry. Having built an original dataset of patents granted between 1976 and 2008, and using three algorithms for the analysis of citation networks, we first map the pattern of technological knowledge underlying the advancement of the miniaturization trajectory. We identify three different dimensions of that pattern and characterize them in terms of distinctive knowledge properties. Second, we analyse the geographical and organizational distribution of the knowledge pattern. The results provide evidence of significant differences in the technological capabilities of national organizations, as revealed by the magnitude and properties of the technological knowledge that those organizations generated over time. We find, inter alia, that while US organizations remained strong throughout the whole time period, the capabilities of European organizations were considerably eroded in the most recent years by the emergence of latecomer Asian countries like South Korea and Taiwan. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Roussel S.,University of Montesquieu
ReCALL | Year: 2011

Many studies about listening strategies are based on what learners report while listening to an oral message in the second language (Vandergrift, 2003; Graham, 2006). By recording a video of the computer screen while L2 learners (L1 French) were listening to an MP3-track in German, this study uses a novel approach and recent developments in computer technology to examine objectively what learners do while listening. The videos of the participants' screens show the movements of the mouse and its time-course, and therefore the pauses and the backward or forward movements learners do in order to master their listening task. In this study, "self-regulation" indicates the capacity of the listener to exercise physical control over the listening input by using the mouse. Our point is that the recorded physical movements of the mouse during the listening task are a good indicator of metacognitive activity. This is independent of what the learner reports. The data and the time-courses of the mouse were then analyzed, from both a psycholinguistic and a linguistic point of view. This enabled us, on the one hand, to define a typology of listening strategies depending on the initial level of the participants and to show that, on the whole, the opportunity to have personal control over information input/intake does improve all the learners' information processing. On the other hand, tracking the movements of the mouse while a learner individually listens to an oral text on a computer also has a methodological interest and equally allowed us to verify some precise research hypotheses about the links between linguistic features, for example, place of German compounds and final position of the verb in a subordinate clause, self-regulation strategies and comprehension. © Copyright European Association for Computer Assisted Language Learning 2011.

Unlike many international standards in Europe and elsewhere, the French law of 11 February 2005 refers expressly to psychic disability. The term acknowledges the existence of a particular category of disability and population. However, few provisions exist to address this kind of disability. Often, the mechanisms devised for physical handicap are simply transposed to this kind of disability. In addition, there is a trend today towards entitlement to certain benefits being made conditional on the recipient showing a willingness to be integrated socially and professionally. A requirement of this kind can come into sharp conflict with the handling of psychic disability. Finally, the economic context of competition between companies and workers, combined with the very characteristics of psychic disability (unstable, evolutive, invisible), is hardly conducive to the activity or employment of those with a psychic disability or to keeping them in work, although "traditional" legal mechanisms do exist (State-aided contracts, suspensions of contract, transfers to a more suitable position or adaptation of the workstation to requirements). The discrimination suffered by people with a psychic disability is likely to continue as long as specific responses are not implemented. © 2012 Association ALTER. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

Berge L.,University of Montesquieu | Bouveyron C.,Paris-Sorbonne University | Girard S.,French Institute for Research in Computer Science and Automation
Journal of Statistical Software | Year: 2012

This paper presents the R package HDclassif which is devoted to the clustering and the discriminant analysis of high-dimensional data. The classification methods proposed in the package result from a new parametrization of the Gaussian mixture model which combines the idea of dimension reduction and model constraints on the covariance matrices. The supervised classification method using this parametrization is called high dimensional discriminant analysis (HDDA). In a similar manner, the associated clustering method is called high dimensional data clustering (HDDC) and uses the expectation-maximization algorithm for inference. In order to correctly fit the data, both methods estimate the specific subspace and the intrinsic dimension of the groups. Due to the constraints on the covariance matrices, the number of parameters to estimate is significantly lower than other model-based methods and this allows the methods to be stable and eficient in high dimensions. Two introductory examples illustrated with R codes allow the user to discover the hdda and hddc functions. Experiments on simulated and real datasets also compare HDDC and HDDA with existing classification methods on high-dimensional datasets. HDclassif is a free software and distributed under the general public license, as part of the R software project.

Caparros A.,Institute for Public Goods and Policies IPP | Pereau J.-C.,University of Montesquieu
Environment and Development Economics | Year: 2013

This paper analyzes North-South negotiations over climate change abatement. We consider that northern countries have an incentive to negotiate over a transfer to the southern countries in exchange for their abatement efforts rather than reducing their emissions at home. We study the incentives for northern and southern countries to form negotiation-coalitions at each side of the bargaining table and the impact of these negotiation-coalitions on the final outcome. We show that the incentives can be separated into direct efficiency gains, as fixed costs savings, and indirect bargaining power gains. Depending on the relative values of these gains, we determine the equilibrium of the game. We also show that bargaining power gains encourage southern countries to negotiate separately while they encourage northern countries to unite, and that this hinders the formation of the grand coalition. © 2012 Cambridge University Press.

Bouet A.,University of Montesquieu | Bouet A.,International Food Policy Research Institute | Laborde Debucquet D.,International Food Policy Research Institute
Review of World Economics | Year: 2012

This paper aims to assess the rationales for export taxes in the context of a food crisis. First, we summarize the effects of export taxes using both partial and general equilibrium theoretical models. When large countries aim to maintain constant domestic food prices, in the event of an increase in world agricultural prices, the optimal response is to decrease import tariffs in net food-importing countries and to increase export tariffs in net food-exporting countries. The latter decision improves national welfare, while the former reduces national welfare: this is the price that must be paid to keep domestic food prices constant. Small net food-importing countries are harmed by both decisions, while small net food-exporting countries gain from both. Second, we illustrate the costs of a lack of regulation and cooperation surrounding such policies in a time of crisis using a global computable general equilibrium (CGE) model, mimicking the mechanisms that appeared during the recent food price surge (2006-2008). This model illustrates the interdependence of trade policies, as well as how a process of retaliation and counter-retaliation (increased export taxes in large net food-exporting countries and reduced import tariffs in large net food-importing countries) can contribute to successive augmentations of world agricultural prices and harm small net food-importing countries. We conclude with a call for international regulation, in particular because small net food-importing countries may be substantially harmed by those policies that amplify the already negative impact of a food crisis. © 2011 Kiel Institute.

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