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Missoula, MT, United States

The University of Montana is a public research university located in Missoula, Montana, in the United States. Founded in 1893, the university is the flagship campus of the four-campus University of Montana System and is its largest institution. The main campus is located at the foot of Mount Sentinel, the mountain bearing Missoula's most recognizable landmark, a large hillside letter "M." It is a major source of research, continuing education, economic development and fine arts, as well as a driving force in strengthening Montana's ties with countries throughout the world.The university calls itself a "city within a city," and contains its own restaurants, medical facilities, banking, postal services, police department, and ZIP code. The University of Montana ranks 17th in the nation and fifth among public universities in producing Rhodes Scholars, with a total of 28 such scholars. The University of Montana has 11 Truman Scholars, 14 Goldwater Scholars and 37 Udall Scholars to its name.The University of Montana's Maureen and Mike Mansfield Library houses the earliest authorized edition of the Lewis and Clark journals. Rolling Stone labelled the university the "most scenic campus in America" and Outside magazine called it "among the top 10 colleges nationally for combining academic quality and outdoor recreation". Wikipedia.

McCullough E.L.,University of Montana
Proceedings. Biological sciences / The Royal Society | Year: 2013

Sexually selected ornaments and weapons are among nature's most extravagant morphologies. Both ornaments and weapons improve a male's reproductive success; yet, unlike ornaments that need only attract females, weapons must be robust and functional structures because they are frequently tested during male-male combat. Consequently, weapons are expected to be particularly costly to bear. Here, we tested the aerodynamic costs of horns in the giant rhinoceros beetle, Trypoxylus dichotomus. We predicted that the long, forked head horn would have three main effects on flight performance: increased body mass, an anterior shift in the centre of mass and increased body drag. We found that the horns were surprisingly lightweight, and therefore had a trivial effect on the male beetles' total mass and mass distribution. Furthermore, because beetles typically fly at slow speeds and high body angles, horns had little effect on total body drag. Together, the weight and the drag of horns increased the overall force required to fly by less than 3 per cent, even in the largest males. Because low-cost structures are expected to be highly evolutionarily labile, the fact that horns incur very minor flight costs may have permitted both the elaboration and diversification of rhinoceros beetle horns.

Preston C.J.,University of Montana
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change | Year: 2013

After two decades of failure by the international community to respond adequately to the threat of global climate change, discussions of the possibility of geoengineering a cooler climate have recently proliferated. Alongside the considerable optimism that these technologies have generated, there has also been wide acknowledgement of significant ethical concerns. Ethicists, social scientists, and experts in governance have begun the work of addressing these concerns. The plethora of ethical issues raised by geoengineering creates challenges for those who wish to survey them. The issues are here separated out according to the temporal spaces in which they first arise. Some crop up when merely contemplating the prospect of geoengineering. Others appear as research gets underway. Another set of issues attend the actual implementation of the technologies. A further set occurs when planning for the cessation of climate engineering. Two cautions about this organizational schema are in order. First, even if the issues first arise in the temporal spaces identified, they do not stay completely contained within them. A good reason to object to the prospect of geoengineering, for example, will likely remain a good reason to object to its implementation. Second, the ethical concerns intensify or weaken depending on the technology under consideration. The wide range of geoengineering technologies currently being discussed makes it prudent that each technique should be evaluated individually for its ethical merit. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Woods H.A.,University of Montana
Functional Ecology | Year: 2013

Over ontogeny, many insect larvae grow substantially, through at least several orders of magnitude in body size. Increasing size can profoundly change how individuals interact with their environments, by altering the opportunities for, and constraints on, feeding, changing the relative risk and sources of predation and shifting the relative importance of physical factors in the environment. Here I use eggs and larvae of Manduca sexta, which are herbivores on solanaceous plants in the south-western US, to examine how body size affects body temperature. Larvae grow in excess of 10 000-fold by mass in a few weeks, from 0·001-g hatchlings to 12-15-g fifth-instar larvae. Using infrared thermography, I show that increasing body size leads to large changes in body temperature: over ontogeny, average larval temperature increased by 3-7 °C. The temperatures of eggs, hatchlings and early larval instars were coupled to leaf temperatures (Datura wrightii), which were much cooler than ambient air temperatures. The temperatures of larger larvae, by contrast, were similar to air temperatures, or somewhat higher. Changing body temperatures reflect that small and large larvae were immersed differentially in leaf boundary layers, received different amounts of incoming solar radiation, and used thermal heterogeneity on leaf surfaces in different ways. I develop a simple species distribution model that links maximum observed air temperatures in the south-western US with known thermal tolerances of eggs and larvae. This model predicts that eggs of M. sexta can occupy significantly larger fractions of the landscape than can large larvae. Large differences among stage-specific microclimates, such as those observed for M. sexta, are likely to be general features for insects and other organisms whose body sizes span large ranges, and stage-specific microclimates pose general and largely unrecognized problems for species distribution models. © 2013 British Ecological Society.

Lowe W.H.,University of Montana | McPeek M.A.,Dartmouth College
Trends in Ecology and Evolution | Year: 2014

Dispersal is difficult to quantify and often treated as purely stochastic and extrinsically controlled. Consequently, there remains uncertainty about how individual traits mediate dispersal and its ecological effects. Addressing this uncertainty is crucial for distinguishing neutral versus non-neutral drivers of community assembly. Neutral theory assumes that dispersal is stochastic and equivalent among species. This assumption can be rejected on principle, but common research approaches tacitly support the 'neutral dispersal' assumption. Theory and empirical evidence that dispersal traits are under selection should be broadly integrated in community-level research, stimulating greater scrutiny of this assumption. A tighter empirical connection between the ecological and evolutionary forces that shape dispersal will enable richer understanding of this fundamental process and its role in community assembly. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Bowler B.E.,University of Montana
Current Opinion in Structural Biology | Year: 2012

The denatured state ensemble (DSE) of unfolded proteins, once considered to be well-modeled by an energetically featureless random coil, is now well-known to contain flickering elements of residual structure. The position and nature of DSE residual structure may provide clues toward deciphering the protein folding code. This review focuses on recent advances in our understanding of the nature of DSE collapse under folding conditions, the quantification of the stability of residual structure in the DSE, the determination of the location and types of residues involved in thermodynamically significant residual structure and advances in detection of long-range interactions in the DSE. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

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