Moncton, Canada
Moncton, Canada

The Université de Moncton is a French language university located in Edmundston, Moncton and Shippagan, New Brunswick, Canada serving the Acadian community of Atlantic Canada. It is the only francophone university in New Brunswick and is one of only two such universities in the Maritimes, the other being the Université Sainte-Anne in Pointe-de-l'Église, Nova Scotia, Canada. It is also the largest French language university in Canada that is outside of Québec. Wikipedia.

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Tatoutchoup F.D.,University of Moncton
Forest Policy and Economics | Year: 2017

This article exploits first-price sealed-bid auctions data from the U.S. Forest Service to find through a semi-parametric estimation evidence of interdependent values in the bidding behavior in the Forestry. Under this assumption, a theoretical model is developed for forest land auctions such that management of the forest is released to the winning firm. I characterize in the first-price auctions the optimal rotation as well as the reservation price. A calibration of the model is then proposed using the estimated parameters as well as the estimation of the underlying distribution of signals. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.

Forshaw J.R.,University of Manchester | Sandapen R.,University of Moncton
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2012

We show that anti-de Sitter/quantum chromodynamics generates predictions for the rate of diffractive ρ-meson electroproduction that are in agreement with data collected at the Hadron Electron Ring Accelerator electron-proton collider. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Villard M.-A.,University of Moncton | Hache S.,University of Alberta
Biological Conservation | Year: 2012

Many authors have concluded that habitat loss has a greater influence on biodiversity than habitat fragmentation . per se. Yet, several animal species have been shown to be reluctant to move across inhospitable landscape matrices, a phenomenon that would be expected to exacerbate fragmentation effects. In this study, we tested the ability of a forest songbird (Ovenbird, . Seiurus aurocapilla) to move across two contrasting landscapes whose matrix (intensively managed forest) would be expected to be relatively permeable compared to agricultural or urban matrices. We hypothesized that males would be less likely to return to their territory in a landscape dominated by forest generally unsuitable for breeding (spruce plantations) than in another dominated by potential breeding habitat (deciduous forest). The probability of resighting translocated males (. n=. 48) on their territory was significantly lower in the plantation landscape and this relationship was consistent over two successive years. Neither translocation time nor body mass, time of capture, or structural size were significant predictors of probability of resighting. Although this species is sufficiently vagile to return quickly to its territory (e.g. one male returning in less than 2. h), these results indicate that even a forested matrix may impose a resistance to the movements of a forest bird species when its structure or composition differs from that of breeding habitat. Matrix resistance to movements potentially restricts the ability of individuals to detect and colonize suitable habitat fragments. Less vagile species would be even more affected and, therefore, we submit that a more inclusive perspective on effects of landscape change is warranted. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Bourgoin L.-H.,University of Moncton | Tremblay L.,University of Moncton
Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta | Year: 2010

Amino acids and the bacterial biomarkers muramic acid and d-amino acids were quantified in the ultrafiltered dissolved, particulate and sedimentary organic matter (UDOM, POM and SOM) of the St. Lawrence system (Canada). The main objectives were to better describe the fate of terrigenous and marine organic matter (OM) in coastal zones and to quantify the bacterial contributions to OM composition and diagenesis. Regardless of their origin, the carbon (C) content of the particles substantially decreased with depth, especially near the water-sediment interface. Major diagenetic transformations of organic nitrogen (N) were revealed and important differences were observed between terrigenous and marine OM. Amino acid contents of particles decreased by 66-93% with depth and accounted for 12-30% of the particulate C losses in marine locations. These percentages were respectively 18-56% and 7-11% in the Saguenay Fjord where terrigenous input is important. A preferential removal of particulate N and amino acids with depth or during transport was measured, but only in marine locations and for N-rich particles. This leads to very low amino acid yields in deep marine POM. However, these yields then increased to a level up to three times higher after deposition on sediments, where SOM showed lower C:N ratios than deep POM. The associated increase of bacterial biomarker yields suggests an active in situ resynthesis of amino acids by benthic bacteria. The N content of the substrate most likely determines whether a preferential degradation or an enrichment of N and amino acid are observed. For N-poor OM, such as terrigenous or deep marine POM, the incorporation of exogenous N by attached bacteria can be measured, while the organic N is preferentially used or degraded in N-rich OM. Compared to the POM from the same water samples, the extracted UDOM was poor in N and amino acids and appeared to be mostly made of altered plant and bacterial fragments. Signs of in situ marine production of UDOM were observed in the most marine location. The POM entering the St. Lawrence Upper Estuary and the Saguenay Fjord appeared made of relatively fresh vascular plant OM mixed with highly altered bacterial debris from soils. In contrast, the POM samples from the more marine sites appeared mostly made of fresh planktonic and bacterial OM, although they were rapidly degraded during sinking. Based on biomarker yields, bacterial OM represented on average ∼20% of bulk C and approximately 40-70% of bulk N in POM and SOM, with the exception of deep marine POM exhibiting approximately two times lower bacterial contributions. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

The daily consumption of dietary omega-3 PUFA is recommended by governmental agencies in several countries and by a number of health organizations. The molecular mechanisms by which these dietary PUFA affect health involve the enrichment of cellular membranes with long-chain 20- and 22-carbon omega-3 PUFA that impacts tissues by altering membrane protein functions, cell signaling, and gene expression profiles. These changes are recognized to have health benefits in humans, especially relating to cardiovascular outcomes. Cellular membrane enrichment and health benefits are associated with the consumption of long-chain omega-3 PUFA found in marine oils, but are not generally linked with the consumption of alpha-linolenic acid, the 18-carbon omega-3 PUFA found in plant seed oils. However, the supply of omega-3 PUFA from marine sources is limited and may not be sustainable. New plant-derived sources of omega-3 PUFA like stearidonic acid-soy oil from genetically modified soybeans and Ahiflower oil from Buglossoides arvensis seeds that are enriched in the 18-carbon omega-3 PUFA stearidonic acid are being developed and show promise to become effective as well as sustainable sources of omega-3 PUFA. An example of changes in tissue lipid profiles associated with the consumption of Ahiflower oil is presented in a mouse feeding study. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Martin L.J.,University of Moncton
Endocrine | Year: 2014

Obesity is a major health problem, contributing to the development of various diseases with aging. In humans, obesity has been associated with reduced testosterone production and subfertility. Adipose tissue is an important source of hormones having influences on both metabolism and reproduction. Among them, the production and secretion of adiponectin is inversely correlated to the severity of obesity. The purpose of this review of literature is to present the current state of knowledge on adiponectin research to determine whether this hormone affects reproduction in men. Surprisingly, evidences show negative influences of adiponectin on GnRH secretion from the hypothalamus, LH and FSH secretion from the pituitary and testosterone at the testicular level. Thus far, the involvement of adiponectin in the influence of metabolism on reproduction in men is limited. However, adiponectin and its receptors are expressed by different cell types of the male gonad, including Leydig cells, spermatozoa, and epididymis. In addition, actions of adiponectin at the testicular level have been shown to promote spermatogenesis and sperm maturation. Therefore, autocrine/paracrine actions of adiponectin in the testis may contribute to support male reproductive function. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013.

Vallee R.,University of Moncton
Journal of Pragmatics | Year: 2014

Ethnic slurs have recently raised interest in philosophy of language. Consider (1) Yao is Chinese and (2) Yao is a chink. A theory of meaning should take into account the fact that sentence (2) has the property of containing a slur, a feature plausibly motivating an utterance of (2) rather than (1), and conveys contempt because it contains that word. According to multipropositionalism, two utterances can have the same official truth conditions and the same truth-value but differ in cognitive significance (Korta and Perry, 2011). I contend that (1) and (2) have the same official content, and say the same thing, but differ in cognitive significance. I argue that slurs have linguistic meaning as type conveying that the designated group (Chinese for example) is despicable because it is that very group. Knowing the use of a slur is knowing the group it targets and that that group is despicable because it is that group. The idea that that group, Chinese for example, is despicable because of being Chinese is conventionally implicated. Specific prejudices slurs convey are not semantically carried, and cannot be identified by using semantic competence only. My view account for slurs in propositional attitudes, and for the fact that 'Yao is not a chink, he is Chinese' is not a contradiction. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Downing-Doucet F.,University of Moncton | Guerard K.,University of Moncton
Psychonomic Bulletin and Review | Year: 2014

In line with theories of embodied cognition (e.g., Versace et al. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 21, 522-560, 2009), several studies have suggested that the motor system used to interact with objects in our environment is involved in object recognition (e.g., Helbig, Graf, & Kiefer Experimental Brain Research, 174, 221-228, 2006). However, the role of the motor system in immediate memory for objects is more controversial. The objective of the present study was to investigate the role of the motor system in object memory by manipulating the similarity between the actions associated to series of objects to be retained in memory. In Experiment 1, we showed that lists of objects associated to dissimilar actions were better recalled than lists associated to similar actions. We then showed that this effect was abolished when participants were required to perform a concurrent motor suppression task (Experiment 2) and when the objects to be memorized were unmanipulable (Experiment 3). The motor similarity effect provides evidence for the role of motor affordances in object memory. © 2014 Psychonomic Society, Inc.

Couture T.,University of Moncton | Gagnon Y.,University of Moncton
Energy Policy | Year: 2010

Recent experience from around the world suggests that feed-in tariffs (FITs) are the most effective policy to encourage the rapid and sustained deployment of renewable energy. There are several different ways to structure a FIT policy, each with its own strengths and weaknesses. This paper presents an overview of seven different ways to structure the remuneration of a FIT policy, divided into two broad categories: those in which remuneration is dependent on the electricity price, and those that remain independent from it. This paper examines the advantages and disadvantages of these different FIT models, and concludes with an analysis of these design options, with a focus on their implications both for investors and for society. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Hache S.,University of Moncton | Villard M.-A.,University of Moncton
Journal of Animal Ecology | Year: 2010

1. Recruitment, i.e. the influx of new breeding individuals into a population, is an important demographic parameter, especially in species with a short life span. Few studies have measured this parameter in solitary-breeding animal populations even though it may yield critical information on habitat suitability and functional connectivity. 2. Using a before-after, control-impact pairs (BACIP) experimental design, we measured: (i) the return rate and apparent survival rate of individually marked territorial males of a neotropical migrant bird species, the Ovenbird Seiurus aurocapilla Linnaeus and (ii) the age-specific recruitment rate. Study plots (n = 10) were paired: one was treated through single-tree selection harvesting (30-40% basal area removal) and the other acted as a control. We hypothesized that experienced males would out-compete inexperienced ones and tend to avoid settling in lowerquality, treated stands. 3. In the first year post-harvest, the mean density of territorial males was significantly lower in treated plots ()41%) than in controls and the difference remained relatively stable thereafter. This lower density mainly reflected a lower recruitment rate compared to controls (17 9 vs. 49 0% of males present), itself driven by a lower recruitment rate of experienced males (2 8 vs. 22 8%). Return rate was similar between controls and treated plots in the first year post-harvest (59 vs. 55%, respectively) but it decreased in treated plots during the second ()15 8% relative to controls) and third ()12 7%) year post-harvest. The trend was even stronger when considering only experienced males. The treatment was followed by a major expansion in mean territory size in treated plots (+49% relative to controls, 3rd year post-treatment). 4. Neither apparent survival rate nor recruitment rate varied as predicted. There was a strong year effect but no treatment effect on apparent survival rate, whereas male recruitment patterns were both year- and age-specific. Three years post-harvest, recruitment rate was sufficient to fill most territory vacancies in treated plots, due mainly to first-time breeders. 5. To our knowledge, this is the first study documenting the effects of experimental habitat alteration on recruitment rate in a songbird species using a BACI design. The response of this male subpopulation highlights the influence of recruitment on the density of open populations of solitary-nesting birds and age-specific patterns in the response of individuals to habitat alterations. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 British Ecological Society.

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