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Modena, Italy

The University of Modena and Reggio Emilia , located in Modena and Reggio Emilia, Emilia-Romagna, Italy, is one of the oldest universities in Italy, founded in 1175, with a population of more than 20,000 students.The medieval university disappeared by 1338 and was replaced by "three public lectureships" which did not award degrees and were suspended in the 1590s "for lack of money". The university was not reestablished in Modena until the 1680s and did not receive an imperial charter until 1685. Wikipedia.

A novel approach for computationally efficient clustering of chemically reacting environments with similar reactive conditions is presented, and applied to internal combustion engine simulations. The methodology relies on a high-dimensional representation of the chemical state space, where the independent variables (i.e. temperature and species mass fractions) are normalized over the whole data-set space. An efficient bounding-box-constrained k-means algorithm has been developed and used for obtaining optimal clustering of the dataset points in the high-dimensional domain box with maximum computational accuracy, and with no need to iterate the algorithm in order to identify the desired number of clusters. The procedure has been applied to diesel engine simulations carried out with a custom version the KIVA4 code, provided with detailed chemistry capability. Here, the cells of the computational grid are clustered at each time step, in order to reduce the computational time needed by the integration of the chemistry ODE system. After the integration, the changes in species mass fractions of the clusters are redistributed to the cells accordingly. The numerical results, tested over a variety of engine conditions featuring both single- and multiple-pulse injection operation with fuel being injected at 50° BTDC allowed significant computational time savings of the order of 3-4 times, showing the accuracy of the high-dimensional clustering approach in catching the variety of reactive conditions within the combustion chamber. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Seguin S.J.,University of Modena and Reggio Emilia
Cell Death and Differentiation | Year: 2014

Stress granules (SGs) are mRNA-protein aggregates induced during stress, which accumulate in many neurodegenerative diseases. Previously, the autophagy-lysosome pathway and valosin-containing protein (VCP), key players of the protein quality control (PQC), were shown to regulate SG degradation. This is consistent with the idea that PQC may survey and/or assist SG dynamics. However, despite these observations, it is currently unknown whether the PQC actively participates in SG assembly. Here, we describe that inhibition of autophagy, lysosomes and VCP causes defective SG formation after induction. Silencing the VCP co-factors UFD1L and PLAA, which degrade defective ribosomal products (DRIPs) and 60S ribosomes, also impaired SG assembly. Intriguingly, DRIPs and 60S, which are released from disassembling polysomes and are normally excluded from SGs, were significantly retained within SGs in cells with impaired autophagy, lysosome or VCP function. Our results suggest that deregulated autophagy, lysosomal or VCP activities, which occur in several neurodegenerative (VCP-associated) diseases, may alter SG morphology and composition.Cell Death and Differentiation advance online publication, 18 July 2014; doi:10.1038/cdd.2014.103. Source

La Marca A.,University of Modena and Reggio Emilia | Sunkara S.K.,Kings College London
Human Reproduction Update | Year: 2014

Background: The main objective of individualization of treatment in IVF is to offer every single woman the best treatment tailored to her own unique characteristics, thus maximizing the chances of pregnancy and eliminating the iatrogenic and avoidable risks resulting from ovarian stimulation. Personalization of treatment in IVF should be based on the prediction of ovarian response for every individual. The starting point is to identify if a woman is likely to have a normal, poor or a hyper response and choose the ideal treatment protocol tailored to this prediction. The objective of this review is to summarize the predictive ability of ovarian reserve markers, such as antral follicle count (AFC) and anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH), and the therapeutic strategies that have been proposed in IVF after this prediction. methods: Asystematic review of the existing literaturewas performed by searching Medline, EMBASE,Cochrane library andWeb of Science for publications in the English language related to AFC, AMH and their incorporation into controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) protocols in IVF. Literature available to May 2013 was included. results: The search generated 305 citations of which 41 and 25 studies, respectively, reporting the ability of AMH and AFC to predict response to COS were included in this review. The literature review demonstrated that AFC and AMH, the most sensitive markers of ovarian reserve identified to date, are ideal in planning personalized COS protocols. These sensitive markers permit prediction of the whole spectrum of ovarian response with reliable accuracy and clinicians may use either of the two markers as they can be considered interchangeable. Following the categorization of expected ovarian response to stimulation clinicians can adopt tailored therapeutic strategies for each patient. Current scientific trend suggests the elective use of theGnRHantagonist based regimen for hyper-responders, and probably also poor responders, as likely to be beneficial. The selection of the appropriate and individualized gonadotrophin dose is also of paramount importance for effective COS and subsequent IVF outcomes. conclusion: Personalized IVF offers several benefits; it enables clinicians to give women more accurate information on their prognosis thus facilitating counselling especially in cases of extremes of ovarian response. The deployment of therapeutic strategies based on selective use ofGnRH analogues and the fine tuning of the gonadotrophin dose on the basis of potential ovarian response in every single woman can allow for a safer and more effective IVF practice. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. Source

Pietrangelo A.,University of Modena and Reggio Emilia
Gastroenterology | Year: 2010

In the late 1800s, hemochromatosis was considered an odd autoptic finding. More than a century later, it was finally recognized as a hereditary, multi-organ disorder associated with a polymorphism that is common among white people: a 845G→A change in HFE that results in C282Y in the gene product. Hemochromatosis is now a well-defined syndrome characterized by normal iron-driven erythropoiesis and the toxic accumulation of iron in parenchymal cells of liver, heart, and endocrine glands. It can be caused by mutations that affect any of the proteins that limit the entry of iron into the blood. In mice, deletion of the iron hormone hepcidin and any of 8 genes that regulate its biology, including Hfe, transferrin receptor 2 (Tfr2), and hemojuvelin (Hjv) (which all sense the accumulation of iron that hepcidin corrects) or ferroportin (Fpn) (the cellular iron exporter down-regulated by hepcidin), cause iron overload but not organ disease. In humans, loss of TfR2, HJV, and hepcidin itself or FPN mutations result in full-blown hemochromatosis. Unlike these rare instances, in white people, homozygotes for C282Y polymorphism in HFE are numerous, but they are only predisposed to hemochromatosis; complete organ disease develops in a minority, when these individuals abuse alcohol or from other unidentified modifying factors. HFE gene testing can be used to diagnose hemochromatosis, but analyses of liver histology and clinical features are still required to identify patients with rare, non-HFE forms of the disease. The role of hepcidin in the pathogenesis of hemochromatosis reveals its similarities to endocrine diseases such as diabetes and indicates new approaches to diagnosis and management of this common disorder in iron metabolism. © 2010 AGA Institute. Source

Solieri L.,University of Modena and Reggio Emilia
Trends in Microbiology | Year: 2010

Recent advances in yeast mitogenomics have significantly contributed to our understanding of the diversity of organization, structure and topology in the mitochondrial genome of budding yeasts. In parallel, new insights on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) inheritance in the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae highlighted an integrated scenario where recombination, replication and segregation of mtDNA are intricately linked to mitochondrial nucleoid (mt-nucleoid) structure and organelle sorting. In addition to this, recent discoveries of bifunctional roles of some mitochondrial proteins have interesting implications on mito-nuclear genome interactions and the relationship between mtDNA inheritance, yeast fitness and speciation. This review summarizes the current knowledge on yeast mitogenomics, mtDNA inheritance with regard to mt-nucleoid structure and organelle dynamics, and mito-nuclear genome interactions. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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