Mauthe M.,University of Tübingen |
Yu W.,University of Tbingen |
Krut O.,University of Cologne |
Kronke M.,University of Cologne |
And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Cell Biology | Year: 2012
Invading pathogens provoke the autophagic machinery and, in a process termed xenophagy, the host cell survives because autophagy is employed as a safeguard for pathogens that escaped phagosomes. However, some pathogens can manipulate the autophagic pathway and replicate within the niche of generated autophagosome-like vesicles. By automated fluorescence-based high content analyses, we demonstrate that Staphylococcus aureus strains (USA300, HG001, SA113) stimulate autophagy and become entrapped in intracellular PtdIns(3)P-enriched vesicles that are decorated with human WIPI-1, an essential PtdIns(3)P effector of canonical autophagy and membrane protein of both phagophores and autophagosomes. Further, agr-positive S. aureus (USA300, HG001) strains were more efficiently entrapped in WIPI-1 positive autophagosome-like vesicles when compared to agr-negative cells (SA113). By confocal and electron microscopy we provide evidence that single- and multiple-Staphylococci entrapped undergo cell division. Moreover, the number of WIPI-1 positive autophagosome-like vesicles entrapping Staphylococci significantly increased upon (i) lysosomal inhibition by bafilomycin A1 and (ii) blocking PIKfyve-mediated PtdIns(3,5)P2 generation by YM201636. In summary, our results provide evidence that the PtdIns(3)P effector function of WIPI-1 is utilized during xenophagy of Staphylococcus aureus. We suggest that invading S. aureus cells become entrapped in autophagosome-like WIPI-1 positive vesicles targeted for lysosomal degradation in nonprofessional host cells. Copyright © 2012 Mario Mauthe et al.
Michez D.,University of Mons |
Eardley C.,Agricultural Research Council |
Eardley C.,University of KwaZulu - Natal |
Kuhlmann M.,Natural History Museum in London |
And 2 more authors.
Invertebrate Systematics | Year: 2010
Recent molecular phylogenetic data showed the Melittidae as the likely sister group to all other bees and indicated that proto-melittids could have been host-plant specialists originating in Africa. However, robust phylogenetic data at generic and species level are now needed for all melittid clades to test these hypotheses and investigate early melittid and bee evolution in general. The bee genera Haplomelitta and Samba, which comprise the former tribe Sambini (Hymenoptera:Melittidae), are revised here. The genera are endemic to the Afrotropical region, occurring in eastern and southern Africa. Previous studies hypothesised that Samba rendered Haplomelitta paraphyletic but a conclusive taxonomic decision was not proposed. By performing a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis based on five nuclear genes (28S, CAD, EF-1 (F2 copy), long-wavelength rhodopsin (opsin) and RNA polymerase II (RNAp); total 4179bp) and morphological characters (34 characters), we here synonymise Haplomelitta with Samba. The genus is now subdivided into six subgenera containing 10 species, four of which are here described as new, namely: S. ascheri, S. gessorum, S. spinosa and S. rubigoinis. Moreover, we also considered biogeography, phenology and floral visitation data. Samba seems to have originated in southern Africa and later colonised eastern Africa. The ancestral host-plant foraging strategy was probably specialisation on one plant family (e.g. oligolectism). This result supports the hypothesis that the ancestor of bees arose in Africa and was a host-plant specialist. © CSIRO.
Fiebig J.,University of Mnster |
Divinski S.,University of Mnster |
Rsner H.,University of Mnster |
Estrin Y.,Monash University |
Wilde G.,University of Mnster
Journal of Applied Physics | Year: 2011
Grain boundary diffusion of Co and Ag was investigated in coarse-grained and ultrafine-grained (UFG) -Ti. Ultrafine grained Ti was produced by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) and diffusion measurements were performed in a temperature interval where no significant grain growth occurred. Grain boundary diffusion of Co was found to be 1-2 orders of magnitude slower in UFG Ti, despite the attendant activation enthalpy being similar to that in coarse-grained α-Ti. By contrast, grain boundary diffusion of Ag occurred at a significantly higher rate in the ECAP-modified UFG Ti. This behaviour is associated with the specific diffusion mechanisms of Ag and Co: while Ag diffuses preferentially via substitutional sites, diffusion of Co is dominated by interstitial jumps. The existence of so-called non-equilibrium interfaces in UFG Ti, providing an increased density of traps for the interstitially diffusing Co and simultaneously enhancing substitutionally diffusion of Ag, is confirmed by the diffusion measurements. © 2011 American Institute of Physics.
Bittner A.,Hospital of the University of Mnster |
Bittner A.,University of Chile |
Mnnig G.,Hospital of the University of Mnster |
Vagt A.J.,Hospital of the University of Mnster |
And 8 more authors.
Europace | Year: 2011
Aims: : Pulmonary veins (PV) play a pivotal role in atrial fibrillation (AF). Anatomical variants of PV have been described and related to a higher arrhythmogenic potential. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of PV variants and diameters of PV ostia in AF patients and controls. Methods and results: : Variants of PV were defined as right or left common ostia (RCO, LCO), a right middle or right top PV. A long common trunk (LCT) was defined as an LCO with a distance to the first branching <10 mm. Multislice contrast-enhanced thoracic computed tomography was performed prior to AF ablation in 166 consecutive patients, 47.6 with paroxysmal, 52.4 with persistent AF, as well as in a sex- and age-matched control group without AF, for non-cardiological indications. Images were evaluated by two independent observers. The mean age was 59 ± 10 years, 108 were men (65.1). A higher prevalence of LCO was found in the AF group: 33.7 vs. 19.9 (P 0.004), odds ratio (OR) 2.1; 15.4 in patients vs. 10.2 in controls had an LCT (P 0.14). No differences in other PV variants were found. The ostial diameters were greater in AF-patients (P< 0.001). Conclusion: s: To the best of our knowledge, the present study shows for the first time a higher prevalence of an LCO in patients with AF as compared with controls, with an OR of 2.1. This suggests a pre-disposing role of LCO in the development of AF. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © 2011 The Author.
Impellizzeri G.,CNR Institute for Microelectronics and Microsystems |
Boninelli S.,CNR Institute for Microelectronics and Microsystems |
Priolo F.,CNR Institute for Microelectronics and Microsystems |
Napolitani E.,CNR Institute for Microelectronics and Microsystems |
And 3 more authors.
Journal of Applied Physics | Year: 2011
The enhanced diffusion of donor atoms, via a vacancy (V)-mechanism, severely affects the realization of ultrahigh doped regions in miniaturized germanium (Ge) based devices. In this work, we report a study about the effect of fluorine (F) on the diffusion of arsenic (As) in Ge and give insights on the physical mechanisms involved. With these aims we employed experiments in Ge co-implanted with F and As and density functional theory calculations. We demonstrate that the implantation of F enriches the Ge matrix in V, causing an enhanced diffusion of As within the layer amorphized by F and As implantation and subsequently regrown by solid phase epitaxy. Next to the end-of-range damaged region F forms complexes with Ge interstitials, that act as sinks for V and induce an abrupt suppression of As diffusion. The interaction of Ge interstitials with fluorine interstitials is confirmed by theoretical calculations. Finally, we prove that a possible F-As chemical interaction does not play any significant role on dopant diffusion. These results can be applied to realize abrupt ultra-shallow n-type doped regions in future generation of Ge-based devices. © 2011 American Institute of Physics.
Yang S.,CAS Hefei Institutes of Physical Science |
Yang S.,University of Mnster |
Zeng H.,CAS Hefei Institutes of Physical Science |
Zhao H.,University of Mnster |
And 2 more authors.
Journal of Materials Chemistry | Year: 2011
Hollow carbon shells and fullerene-like carbon spheres are prepared by laser ablation with toluene molecules as a carbon precursor. The liquid carbon precursor is superior to the gaseous carbon precursors conventionally used, such as C2H2, due to its safety and ease of handling. The formation mechanism of these carbon nanostructures is discussed. The laser irradiation-induced high temperature results in the decomposition of toluene molecules to carbon atoms. Consequently, these carbon atoms nucleate and grow to novel carbon nanostructures as the temperature drops. The graphene-like hollow carbon shells show strong and excitation wavelength-dependent light emission, which has potential optical applications. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.
Eildermann K.,Leibniz Institute for Primate Research |
Gromoll J.,University of Mnster |
Behr R.,Leibniz Institute for Primate Research
Human Reproduction | Year: 2012
Background: Several studies have reported the generation of spermatogonia-derived pluripotent stem cells from human testes. The initial aim of the present study was the derivation of equivalent stem cells from an established and experimentally accessible non-human primate model, the common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus). However, an essential prerequisite in the absence of transgenic reporters in primates and man is the availability of validated endogenous markers for the identification of specific cell types in vitro. Methods AND Results We cultured marmoset testicular cells in a similar way to that described for human testis-derived pluripotent cells and set out to characterize these cultures under different conditions and in differentiation assays applying established marker panels. Importantly, the cells emerged as testicular multipotent stromal cells (TMSCs) instead of (pluripotent) germ cell-derived cells. TMSCs expressed many markers such as GFR-α, GPR125, THY-1 (CD90), ITGA6, SSEA4 and TRA-1-81, which were considered as spermatogonia specific and were previously used for the enrichment or characterization of spermatogonia. Proliferation of TMSCs was highly dependent on basic fibroblast growth factor, a growth factor routinely present in germ cell culture media. As reliable markers for the distinction between spermatogonia and TMSCs, we established VASA, in combination with the spermatogonia-expressed factors, MAGEA4, PLZF and SALL4. Conclusions Marmoset monkey TMSCs and spermatogonia exhibit an overlap of markers, which may cause erroneous interpretations of experiments with testis-derived stem cells in vitro. We provide a marker panel for the unequivocal identification of spermatogonia providing a better basis for future studies on primate, including human, testis-derived stem cells. © 2012 The Author.
Schmeing M.,University of Mnster |
Jiang X.,University of Mnster
3DTV Conference: The True Vision - Capture, Transmission and Display of 3D Video, 3DTV-CON 2011 - Proceedings | Year: 2011
Depth Image Based Rendering (DIBR) is a technique to render virtual views from the video-plus-depth 3D scene representation. A common phenomenon in DIBR are disocclusions, i.e., unfilled areas that occur in the rendered views. The performance of disocclusion filling algorithms is usually only tested in terms of their ability of finding plausible fillings frame-by-frame. Time-consistency, however, is a crucial property in video processing. Missing time-consistency results in disturbing flicker artifacts. With our work, we want to point out the existence of this problem. We also introduce a measure to quantify the amount of flicker for a first study of this phenomenon. © 2011 IEEE.
Neeraja C.,University of Hyderabad |
Anil K.,University of Hyderabad |
Purushotham P.,University of Hyderabad |
Suma K.,University of Hyderabad |
And 3 more authors.
Critical Reviews in Biotechnology | Year: 2010
Fungal diseases of plants continue to contribute to heavy crop losses in spite of the best control efforts of plant pathologists. Breeding for disease-resistant varieties and the application of synthetic chemical fungicides are the most widely accepted approaches in plant disease management. An alternative approach to avoid the undesired effects of chemical control could be biological control using antifungal bacteria that exhibit a direct action against fungal pathogens. Several biocontrol agents, with specific fungal targets, have been registered and released in the commercial market with different fungal pathogens as targets. However, these have not yet achieved their full commercial potential due to the inherent limitations in the use of living organisms, such as relatively short shelf life of the products and inconsistent performance in the field. Different mechanisms of action have been identified in microbial biocontrol of fungal plant diseases including competition for space or nutrients, production of antifungal metabolites, and secretion of hydrolytic enzymes such as chitinases and glucanases. This review focuses on the bacterial chitinases that hydrolyze the chitinous fungal cell wall, which is the most important targeted structural component of fungal pathogens. The application of the hydrolytic enzyme preparations, devoid of live bacteria, could be more efficacious in fungal control strategies. This approach, however, is still in its infancy, due to prohibitive production costs. Here, we critically examine available sources of bacterial chitinases and the approaches to improve enzymatic properties using biotechnological tools. We project that the combination of microbial and recombinant DNA technologies will yield more effective environment-friendly products of bacterial chitinases to control fungal diseases of crops. © 2010 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.
Prall M.,University of Mnster
Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics | Year: 2011
The KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino experiment, KATRIN will determine the mass of the ν̄e with a sensitivity of 0.2 eV (90% C.L.) via a measurement of the β-spectrum of gaseous tritium near its endpoint of 18.57 keV. An ultra-low background of a few mHz and an energy resolution of 0.93 eV are among the requirements to reach the sensitivity. These demands are fulfilled with the main spectrometer being of the MAC-E filter type and which is equipped with a 650m2, two-layered and quasi-massless wire electrode presented in this article. We also report on a recent background related test experiment: the investigation of the possibility to reduce the retarding voltage of the pre-spectrometer in order to diminish a Penning trap leading to increased background. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.