The University of Missouri is a public research university located in the state of Missouri. In 1839, the university was founded in Columbia, Missouri as the first public institution of higher education west of the Mississippi River. As the largest university in Missouri, MU enrolls 35,441 students offering over 300 degree programs in 19 academic colleges in the 2014–15 year. The university is the flagship of the University of Missouri System, which maintains campuses in Rolla, Kansas City and St. Louis.MU is one of the nation's top-tier R1 institutions and one of the 34 public universities to be members of the Association of American Universities. There are more than 270,000 MU alumni living worldwide with almost one half continuing to reside in Missouri. The University of Missouri was ranked 99 in the 2015 U.S. News & World Report among the national universities.The campus of the University of Missouri is 1,262 acres just south of Downtown Columbia and is maintained as a botanical garden. The historical campus is centered on Francis Quadrangle, a historic district that is listed on the National Register of Historic Places, and a number of buildings on the National Register of Historic Places. In 1908, the world's first school of journalism was founded by Walter Williams as the Missouri School of Journalism.The University of Missouri Research Reactor Center is the world's most powerful university research reactor. It is one of only six public universities in the United States with a school of medicine, veterinary medicine, engineering, agriculture, and law all on one campus. The university also owns the University of Missouri Health Care system, which operates four hospitals in Mid-Missouri.Missouri's only athletic program that operates a Division I FBS football team is known as the Missouri Tigers and competes as a member of the Southeastern Conference. The school's mascot, Truman the Tiger, is named after Missourian and former U.S. president Harry S. Truman. According to the NCAA, the American tradition of homecoming was established at the University in 1911; the tradition has since been adopted nationwide. Wikipedia.
Clark G.F.,University of Missouri
Human Reproduction | Year: 2013
Study Question: What is the role of carbohydrates in the binding of human sperm to the zona pellucida (ZP) and what are potential implications for pathogenesis? Summary Answer: Both lectin-like and protein-protein interactions play an essential role in human gamete interactions. What is Known Already: Studies in the mouse and human indicate a role for both lectin-like and protein-protein interactions during sperm binding to the ZP. Study Design , Size, Duration Non-systematic literature review. Main Results and the Role of Chance: Ultrasensitive analysis by mass spectrometry of glycans linked to the human ZP has confirmed that this matrix is coated with a high density of complex type N-glycans terminated with the sialyl-Lewisx (sLex) sequence, the universal selectin ligand. Selectins are essential for lymphocyte homing, and they participate in the initial binding of circulating leukocytes to activated endothelium at the sites of infection and tissue injury. Subsequent inhibition studies confirmed that either the sLex tetrasaccharide or neoglycoproteins terminated with this sequence inhibited human sperm-ZP binding by 70% in the hemizona assay. These results support the hypothesis that both lectin-like and protein-protein interactions play an essential role in human gamete interactions. The sLex sequence is also a ligand for siglec-9, a lectin-bearing immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif that transmits inhibitory signals. This siglec is expressed on a wide variety of different types of human leukocytes and lymphocytes. This result is consistent with the hypothesis that human ZP glycans are also being employed for immune recognition of the egg and the histoincompatible embryo prior to blastocyst hatching. Limitations, Reasons For Caution This field of study is complex and more experimental work is needed to reveal fully the mechanism of sperm-ZP binding and how it varies between species. Wider Implications of the Finding: s: Knowledge about the glycans involved in sperm-egg binding may be relevant to infertility due to fertilization failure and also to the mother's immune tolerance of the preimplantation embryo. Study Funding/Competing Interes: T(S)Studies focused on human sperm-egg interactions carried out by the author and coworkers have been supported by the Life Sciences Mission Enhancement Reproductive Biology Program funded by the State of Missouri, a Research Board Grant (CB000500) supported by the University of Missouri System and a grant from the Jeffress Memorial Trust of Virginia. Support from the Breeden-Adams Foundation has also been obtained to investigate potential linkages to tumor evasion. The author has no conflict of interest to declare. © 2013 The Author.
Sheldon K.M.,University of Missouri
Personality and Social Psychology Review | Year: 2014
Pursuing personal goals is an important way that people organize their behavior and mature as individuals. However, because people are typically unaware of their own implicit motivations and potentials, they may pick goals that do not serve them well. This article suggests that “self-concordant” goal selection is a difficult self-perceptual skill, with important ramifications for thriving. Various means of conceptualizing and measuring goal self-concordance are considered. Then, relevant literature is reviewed to show that goal self-concordance, as assessed by a self-determination theory methodology, is predicted by goal/motive fit; that goal self-concordance in turn predicts more persistent goal effort and, thus, better goal attainment over time; and that self-concordant goal selection is enhanced by personality variables and interpersonal contexts that promote accurate self-insight and personal autonomy. Implications for the nature of the self, the causes of personality thriving and growth, and the free will question are considered. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.
Qin P.,University of Missouri
EMBO reports | Year: 2014
During protein synthesis, mRNA and tRNA are moved through the ribosome by the process of translocation. The small diameter of the mRNA entrance tunnel only permits unstructured mRNA to pass through. However, there are structured elements within mRNA that present a barrier for translocation that must be unwound. The ribosome has been shown to unwind RNA in the absence of additional factors, but the mechanism remains unclear. Here, we show using single molecule Förster resonance energy transfer and small angle X-ray scattering experiments a new global conformational state of the ribosome. In the presence of the frameshift inducing dnaX hairpin, the ribosomal subunits are driven into a hyper-rotated state and the L1 stalk is predominantly in an open conformation. This previously unobserved conformational state provides structural insight into the helicase activity of the ribosome and may have important implications for understanding the mechanism of reading frame maintenance.
Ho K.C.,University of Missouri
IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing | Year: 2012
This paper proposes two methods to reduce the bias of the well-known algebraic explicit solution (Chan and Ho, "A simple and efficient estimator for hyperbolic location," IEEE Trans. Signal Process., vol. 42, pp. 1905-1915, Aug. 1994) for source localization using TDOA. Bias of a source location estimate is significant when the measurement noise is large and the geolocation geometry is poor. Bias also dominates performance when multiple times of independent measurements are available such as in UWB localization or in target tracking. The paper starts by deriving the bias of the source location estimate from Chan and Ho. The bias is found to be considerably larger than that of the Maximum Likelihood Estimator. Two methods, called BiasSub and BiasRed, are developed to reduce the bias. The BiasSub method subtracts the expected bias from the solution of Chan and Ho's work, where the expected bias is approximated by the theoretical bias using the estimated source location and noisy data measurements. The BiasRed method augments the equation error formulation and imposes a constraint to improve the source location estimate. The BiasSub method requires the exact knowledge of the noise covariance matrix and BiasRed only needs the structure of it. Analysis shows that both methods reduce the bias considerably and achieve the CRLB performance for distant source when the noise is Gaussian and small. The BiasSub method can nearly eliminate the bias and the BiasRed method is able to lower the bias to the same level as the Maximum Likelihood Estimator. The BiasRed method is extended for TDOA and FDOA positioning. Simulations corroborate the performance of the proposed methods. © 1991-2012 IEEE.
Kim D.J.,University of Missouri
Blood | Year: 2013
Vascular tube morphogenesis requires the establishment of endothelial cell (EC) apical-basal polarity in three-dimensional (3D) extracellular matrices. To date, there is little understanding of how EC polarity is controlled during these highly dynamic and rapid morphogenic events. We show that the microtubule tip complex proteins, end binding 1 (EB1), p150(Glued), and Clasp1, control human EC tube formation by (1) inducing microtubule assembly and asymmetric cytoskeletal polarization, whereby acetylated and detyrosinated tubulins distribute in a subapical membrane location and filamentous actin distributes basally; (2) increasing tubulin posttranslational modifications, including required acetylation events; and (3) regulating an EC lumen signaling cascade that involves membrane type 1 matrix metallopatrinase (MT1-MMP)-dependent proteolysis as well as Pak, Raf, and Erk kinases. Another regulator of this process is the microtubule stabilizing protein, tau, which binds p150(Glued) and similarly affects EC lumen formation by controlling the levels of acetylated and detyrosinated tubulins. Increased expression of the tubulin deacetylases, sirtuin 2, and histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6), blocks EC tube formation and cytoskeletal polarization, while siRNA suppression of these deacetylases stimulates these events. Overall, this work reveals a fundamental role for microtubule tip complex proteins in coordinating microtubule assembly, posttranslational modifications including acetylation, and apical-basal cytoskeletal polarization to control the developing apical membrane surface during blood vessel tubulogenesis in 3D matrix environments.