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Columbia, MO, United States

The University of Missouri is a public research university located in the state of Missouri. In 1839, the university was founded in Columbia, Missouri as the first public institution of higher education west of the Mississippi River. As the largest university in Missouri, MU enrolls 35,441 students offering over 300 degree programs in 19 academic colleges in the 2014–15 year. The university is the flagship of the University of Missouri System, which maintains campuses in Rolla, Kansas City and St. Louis.MU is one of the nation's top-tier R1 institutions and one of the 34 public universities to be members of the Association of American Universities. There are more than 270,000 MU alumni living worldwide with almost one half continuing to reside in Missouri. The University of Missouri was ranked 99 in the 2015 U.S. News & World Report among the national universities.The campus of the University of Missouri is 1,262 acres just south of Downtown Columbia and is maintained as a botanical garden. The historical campus is centered on Francis Quadrangle, a historic district that is listed on the National Register of Historic Places, and a number of buildings on the National Register of Historic Places. In 1908, the world's first school of journalism was founded by Walter Williams as the Missouri School of Journalism.The University of Missouri Research Reactor Center is the world's most powerful university research reactor. It is one of only six public universities in the United States with a school of medicine, veterinary medicine, engineering, agriculture, and law all on one campus. The university also owns the University of Missouri Health Care system, which operates four hospitals in Mid-Missouri.Missouri's only athletic program that operates a Division I FBS football team is known as the Missouri Tigers and competes as a member of the Southeastern Conference. The school's mascot, Truman the Tiger, is named after Missourian and former U.S. president Harry S. Truman. According to the NCAA, the American tradition of homecoming was established at the University in 1911; the tradition has since been adopted nationwide. Wikipedia.


Jose S.,University of Missouri
Agroforestry Systems | Year: 2012

The intricate relationship between biodiversity loss and human well-being is increasingly being understood in ecological and economic terms. Despite the knowledge of the multiple dimensions of this relationship and its importance, species and ecosystems are still disappearing at an alarming rate. Anthropogenic pressures are the prime reason for this trend, yet attempts to reduce such pressures and conserve species in protected areas have only achieved limited success. This has led to the realization that sustainable consumptive use approaches that can combine production and conservation functions are also important in conserving biodiversity in human-dominated landscapes. Agroforestry, as part of a multifunctional working landscape, can play a major role in conserving and even enhancing biodiversity from farms to the landscape level in both tropical and temperate regions of the world. This special issue is an attempt to bring together a collection of articles that not only explore and demonstrate the biodiversity benefits of agroforestry, but also the mechanisms by which agroforestry systems sustain such high floristic and faunal diversity. While it is important to conserve biodiversity in protected areas, the articles in the special issue reiterate the importance of agroforestry as a critical tool in conserving biodiversity in human-dominated landscapes. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source


Birchler J.A.,University of Missouri
Biochemical Journal | Year: 2010

Aneuploidy involves changes in chromosomal copy number compared with normal euploid genotypes. Studies of gene expression in aneuploids in a variety of species have claimed many different types of responses. Studies of individual genes suggest that there are both structural gene dosage effects and compensation in aneuploids, and that subtle trans-acting effects across the genome are quite prevalent. A discussion is presented concerning the normalization procedures for studying gene expression in aneuploids. A careful documentation of the modulations of gene expression in aneuploids should provide insight into the nature of cancerous cells and the basis of aneuploid syndromes. © The Authors Journal compilation © 2010 Biochemical Society. Source


Bossaller J.S.,University of Missouri
Reference and User Services Quarterly | Year: 2014

Many online publications offer space for the public to comment on articles. These sections are a window to see readers' reactions to the article and the subject matter. This paper provides an analysis of comment sections from readers on articles about vaccination. The purpose of the paper is to demonstrate reactions to authority, which leads to recommendations on how libraries might remain credible and trustworthy places to seek information about contested subjects. Vaccination is a contested practice that has received widespread public attention. This study demonstrates an atmosphere of distrust toward government, media, scientific funding, and drug companies. Librarians working with the public should be aware of this charged atmosphere. Locally created portals that include multiple points of view on contentious subjects will help people make important decisions and will demonstrate independence that will increase trust. This research seeks to answer the following questions framed within the context of online conversation about vaccinations: • What do people say that they trust and do not trust? • How do they speak of authority? • What sources do they say they use to make decisions about health care? • What can librarians learn about observing talk about authority? Section 1 provides an introduction to the problem from historical and philosophical angles. Section 2 describes the method, 3, the findings, and 4, recommendations. © 2014 American Library Association. Source


Asthma is a common inflammatory disease of the lower airways and is believed to be of allergic etiology in cats. As little progress has been made in establishing rigorous criteria to differentiate it from other inflammatory lower airway diseases such as chronic bronchitis, descriptions of 'asthma' in the literature have often been inaccurate, grouping this syndrome with other feline airway diseases. With the development of more sensitive and specific diagnostics, it will become easier to distinguish asthma as a disease entity. Pulmonary function testing with bronchoprovocation/bronchodilator responsiveness trials and biomarkers hold particular promise. Discrimination is of critical importance as targeted therapies for the allergic inflammatory cascade are developed and become available for therapeutic trials in pet cats. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source


This review addresses new concepts related to the importance of how cells within the cardiovascular system respond to matricryptic sites generated from the extracellular matrix (ECM) following tissue injury. A model is presented whereby matricryptic sites exposed from the ECM result in activation of multiple cell surface receptors including integrins, scavenger receptors, and toll-like receptors which together are hypothesized to coactivate downstream signaling pathways which alter cell behaviors following tissue injury. Of great interest are the relationships between matricryptic fragments of ECM called matricryptins and other stimuli that activate cells during injury states such as released components from cells (DNA, RNA, cytoskeletal components such as actin) or products from infectious agents in innate immunity responses. These types of cell activating molecules, which are composed of repeating molecular elements, are known to interact with pattern recognition receptors that (i) are expressed from cell surfaces, (ii) are released from cells following tissue injury, or (iii) circulate as components of plasma. Thus, cell recognition of matricryptic sites from the ECM appears to be an important component of a broad cell and tissue sensory system to detect and respond to environmental cues generated following varied types of tissue injury. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Gan Y.,Zhejiang University | Chen J.K.,University of Missouri
Optics Letters | Year: 2012

Ultrafast laser-induced melting in a gold thin film is simulated by an integrated continuum-atomistic method with the extended Drude model for dynamic optical properties. The local order parameter of atoms is used to identify solid and liquid regions. It is shown that the film is superheated in the early nonequilibrium stage and the melted region grows very quickly with a very high rate of melting up to ̃13; 300 m/s. It is also found that the continuum approach could significantly underestimate the ultrafast phase-change response, and temperaturedependent optical properties should be considered in atomic-level modeling for ultrafast laser heating. © 2012 Optical Society of America. Source


Helfer A.D.,University of Missouri
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | Year: 2013

One might expect light to be scattered when it passes through a gravitational wave, and might hope that in favourable circumstances these scatterings could be observed on Earth even if the interaction occurs far away. Damour and Esposito-Farèse, and Kopeikin, Schäfer, Gwinn and Eubanks, found that there were cancellations making such effects disappointingly small. Here, I show that those cancellations depend on the emission of the light occurring far behind the gravity-wave source; for light emissions near that source, larger effects are possible. I first develop a covariant treatment of the problem in exact general relativity (the propagation of light being modelled by geometric optics), and then specialize to linearized gravity. The most promising candidates identified here for detection in the not-too-distant future would involve sufficiently tight binaries as sources of gravitational radiation, and pulsars near them as light sources. In some favourable but not extreme cases, I find offsets in the pulses' times of arrival at Earth by ~10-10-10-9 s, with periods half the binaries' periods. © 2013 The Author Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society. Source


Finfgeld-Connett D.,University of Missouri
Issues in Mental Health Nursing | Year: 2010

The purpose of this investigation was to more comprehensively articulate the experiences of homeless women and make evidence-based inferences regarding optimal social services. This study was conducted using qualitative meta-synthesis methods. As youth, homeless women experience challenging circumstances that leave them ill-prepared to prevent and resolve homelessness in adulthood. Resolution of homelessness occurs in iterative stages: crisis, assessment, and sustained action. To enhance forward progression through these stages, nurses are encouraged to promote empowerment in concordance with the Transtheoretical and Harm Reduction Models. Services that are highly valued include physical and mental health care and child care assistance. Copyright © 2010 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. Source


Conn V.S.,University of Missouri
American journal of public health | Year: 2011

We conducted a meta-analysis summarizing the effects of interventions designed to increase physical activity among healthy adults. Our comprehensive searches located 358 reports eligible for inclusion. We used random-effects analyses to synthesize data, and we used meta-analytic analogues of regression and analysis of variance to examine potential moderator variables. We also explored moderator variable robustness and publication bias. We computed meta-analytic results from studies comprising 99 011 participants. The overall mean effect size for comparisons of treatment groups versus control groups was 0.19 (higher mean for treatment participants than for control participants). This effect size is consistent with a mean difference of 496 ambulatory steps per day between treatment and control participants. Exploratory moderator analyses suggested that the characteristics of the most effective interventions were behavioral interventions instead of cognitive interventions, face-to-face delivery versus mediated interventions (e.g., via telephone or mail), and targeting individuals instead of communities. Participant characteristics were unrelated to physical activity effect sizes. Substantial between-studies heterogeneity remained beyond individual moderators. Interventions designed to increase physical activity were modestly effective. Interventions to increase activity should emphasize behavioral strategies over cognitive strategies. Source


Xu J.,Zhejiang University | Zhang S.,Zhejiang University | Zhang S.,University of Missouri
Trends in Plant Science | Year: 2015

Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are ubiquitous signaling modules in eukaryotes. Early research of plant MAPKs has been focused on their functions in immunity and stress responses. Recent studies reveal that they also play essential roles in plant growth and development downstream of receptor-like protein kinases (RLKs). With only a limited number of MAPK components, multiple functional pathways initiated from different receptors often share the same MAPK components or even a complete MAPK cascade. In this review, we discuss how MAPK cascades function as molecular switches in response to spatiotemporal-specific ligand-receptor interactions and the availability of downstream substrates. In addition, we discuss other possible mechanisms governing the functional specificity of plant MAPK cascades, a question central to our understanding of MAPK functions. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Krisher R.L.,National Foundation for Fertility Research | Prather R.S.,University of Missouri
Molecular Reproduction and Development | Year: 2012

In this essay, we propose that embryos express a metabolic phenotype necessarily different from that of differentiated somatic cells and more like that of rapidly proliferating cancer cells. This metabolic adaptation, known as the Warburg effect, supports rapid cell proliferation. One of the hallmarks of the Warburg effect is that pyruvate is directed away from the tri-carboxylic acid cycle and metabolized to lactate, resulting in a buildup of glycolytic intermediates. Although this is a comparatively inefficient way to generate ATP, this adaptation allows the cell to meet other critical metabolic requirements, including biomass production and redox regulation. Thus, utilization of WE gives proliferating cells a selective growth advantage. This model represents a completely new understanding of embryo metabolism in the context of a broad, interconnected network of metabolic mechanisms that influence viability, versus the current dogma of carbohydrate metabolism via oxidative phosphorylation. A more complete understanding of embryo metabolism is critical to better support embryo viability in vitro, and to avoid forcing embryos to adapt to suboptimal culture conditions at a significant cost to future growth and development. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source


Braun D.M.,University of Missouri | Wang L.,University of Newcastle | Ruan Y.-L.,University of Newcastle
Journal of Experimental Botany | Year: 2014

Sucrose is produced in, and translocated from, photosynthetically active leaves (sources) to support non-photosynthetic tissues (sinks), such as developing seeds, fruits, and tubers. Different plants can utilize distinct mechanisms to transport sucrose into the phloem sieve tubes in source leaves. While phloem loading mechanisms have been extensively studied in dicot plants, there is less information about phloem loading in monocots. Maize and rice are major dietary staples, which have previously been proposed to use different cellular routes to transport sucrose from photosynthetic cells into the translocation stream. The anatomical, physiological, and genetic evidence supporting these conflicting hypotheses is examined. Upon entering sink cells, sucrose often is degraded into hexoses for a wide range of metabolic and storage processes, including biosynthesis of starch, protein, and cellulose, which are all major constituents for food, fibre, and fuel. Sucrose, glucose, fructose, and their derivate, trehalose-6-phosphate, also serve as signalling molecules to regulate gene expression either directly or through cross-talk with other signalling pathways. As such, sugar transport and metabolism play pivotal roles in plant development and realization of crop yield that needs to be increased substantially to meet the projected population demand in the foreseeable future. This review will discuss the current understanding of the control of carbon partitioning from the cellular to whole-plant levels, focusing on (i) the pathways employed for phloem loading in source leaves, particularly in grasses, and the routes used in sink organs for phloem unloading; (ii) the transporter proteins responsible for sugar efflux and influx across plasma membranes; and (iii) the key enzymes regulating sucrose metabolism, signalling, and utilization. Examples of how sugar transport and metabolism can be manipulated to improve crop productivity and stress tolerance are discussed. © 2013 The Author. Source


Fortier S.,University of California at Santa Barbara | Walensky J.R.,University of Missouri | Wu G.,University of California at Santa Barbara | Hayton T.W.,University of California at Santa Barbara
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2011

Oxidation of [Li(DME)3][U(CH2SiMe3) 5] with 0.5 equiv of I2, followed by immediate addition of LiCH2SiMe3, affords the high-valent homoleptic U(V) alkyl complex [Li(THF)4][U(CH2SiMe3)6] (1) in 82% yield. In the solid-state, 1 adopts an octahedral geometry as shown by X-ray crystallographic analysis. Addition of 2 equiv of tert-butanol to [Li(DME)3][U(CH2SiMe3)5] generates the heteroleptic U(IV) complex [Li(DME)3][U(OtBu) 2(CH2SiMe3)3] (2) in high yield. Treatment of 2 with AgOTf fails to produce a U(V) derivative, but instead affords the U(IV) complex (Me3SiCH2)Ag(μ-CH 2SiMe3)U(CH2SiMe3)(O tBu)2(DME) (3) in 64% yield. Complex 3 has been characterized by X-ray crystallography and is marked by a uranium-silver bond. In contrast, oxidation of 2 can be achieved via reaction with 0.5 equiv of Me3NO, producing the heteroleptic U(V) complex [Li(DME) 3][U(OtBu)2(CH2SiMe 3)4] (4) in moderate yield. We have also attempted the one-electron oxidation of complex 1. Thus, oxidation of 1 with U(O tBu)6 results in formation of a rare U(VI) alkyl complex, U(CH2SiMe3)6 (6), which is only stable below -25 °C. Additionally, the electronic properties of 1-4 have been assessed by SQUID magnetometry, while a DFT analysis of complexes 1 and 6 is also provided. © 2011 American Chemical Society. Source


Fortier S.,University of California at Santa Barbara | Walensky J.R.,University of Missouri | Wu G.,University of California at Santa Barbara | Hayton T.W.,University of California at Santa Barbara
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2011

Addition of the Wittig reagent Ph3P=CH2 to the U(III) tris(amide) U(NR2)3 (R = SiMe3) generates a mixture of products from which the U(IV) complex U=CHPPh3(NR 2)3 (2) can be obtained. Complex 2 features a short UdC bond and represents a rare example of a uranium carbene. In solution, 2 exists in equilibrium with the U(IV) metallacycle U(CH2SiMe 2NR)(NR2)2 and free Ph3P=CH 2. Measurement of this equilibrium as a function of temperature provides ΔHrxn = 11 kcal/mol and ΔSrxn = 31 eu. Additionally, the electronic structure of the U=C bond was investigated using DFT analysis. © 2011 American Chemical Society. Source


A mandible identified as noble marten (Martes americana nobilis) recovered from sediments dating to 11,800. cal yr BP and a humerus identified as M. a. cf. nobilis recovered from sediments dating from 13,100 to 12,500. cal yr BP at the Marmes Rockshelter archaeological site in southeastern Washington represent the first record of this taxon in the state. Mammalian taxa associated with the Marmes Rockshelter noble marten represent a diversity of open mesic habitats corroborating earlier analyses of other records of the noble marten in the western United States and exemplify how paleozoologists determine the ecology and environmental predilections of extinct taxa. The recovery site represents the topographically lowest record of this species in western North America and the farthest north record in the United States. Future research should examine known late-Quaternary Martes spp. remains from British Columbia and Alberta to fill in the 2200-km geographic gap in the known distribution of this taxon between a record in the northern Yukon and those in the western United States, and to refine our knowledge of noble marten paleoecology. © 2010 University of Washington. Source


Sherman M.P.,University of Missouri
Clinics in Perinatology | Year: 2010

Bacterial translocation from the gastrointestinal tract is an important pathway initiating late-onset sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis in very low-birth-weight infants. The emerging intestinal microbiota, nascent intestinal epithelia, naive immunity, and suboptimal nutrition (lack of breast milk) have roles in facilitating bacterial translocation. Feeding lactoferrin, probiotics, or prebiotics has presented exciting possibilities to prevent bacterial translocation in preterm infants, and clinical trials will identify the most safe and efficacious prevention and treatment strategies. © Elsevier Inc. Source


Sowa G.,University of Missouri
Frontiers in Physiology | Year: 2012

Caveolae are cholesterol and glycosphingolipid-rich flask-shaped invaginations of the plasma membrane which are particularly abundant in vascular endothelium and present in all other cell types of the cardiovascular system, including vascular smooth-muscle cells, macrophages, cardiac myocytes, and fibroblasts. Caveolins and the more recently discovered cavins are the major protein components of caveolae. When caveolae were discovered, their functional role was believed to be limited to transport across the endothelial cell barrier. Since then, however, a large body of evidence has accumulated, suggesting that these microdomains are very important in regulating many other important endothe-lial cell functions, mostly due to their ability to concentrate and compartmentalize various signaling molecules. Over the course of several years, multiple studies involving knockout mouse and small interfering RNA approaches have considerably enhanced our understanding of the role of caveolae and caveolin-1 in regulating many cardiovascular functions. New findings have been reported implicating other caveolar protein components in endothelial cell signaling and function, such as the understudied caveolin-2 and newly discovered cavin proteins. The aim of this review is to focus primarily on molecular and cellular aspects of the role of caveolae, caveolins, and cavins in endothelial cell signaling and function. In addition, where appropriate, the possible implications for the cardiovascular and pulmonary physiology and pathophysiology will be discussed. © 2012 Sowa. Source


Ganong L.,University of Missouri
Journal of Family Nursing | Year: 2011

This article reviews family nursing research published from 1996 to 2011. This is a follow-up to a review published in the Journal of Family Nursing in 1995. Findings from the first review are compared with this one, trends in family nursing scholarship are identified, and predictions and suggestions for future directions are offered. The latest generation of family nursing scholarship is conceptually and methodologically sound, and there is evidence of more multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary research conducted by family nursing researchers. Scholars are paying more attention to issues of diversity and family context at present than in the past, although there are still aspects of diversity that need more attention. Strong research programs in family nursing exist worldwide; an international synergism has helped promote rapid expansion of family nursing research and theory development. A vigorous movement to promote research to practice initiatives and greater attention to family interventions are exciting developments. © The Author(s) 2011. Source


Roseguini B.T.,University of Missouri
Microcirculation (New York, N.Y. : 1994) | Year: 2010

We tested the hypothesis that segmental differences in the responsiveness and time course of vasodilation to metabolic signals putatively involved in rapid onset vasodilation (ROV) at the start of exercise exist within the skeletal muscle vasculature. Cannulated first-order (1As) and third-order arterioles (3As) of the rat gastrocnemius (G) muscle were exposed to cumulative doses of KCl, acetylcholine (Ach), or adenosine (Ado). In addition, time course and magnitude of vasodilation to localized application of these agonists were determined. 1As and 3As dilated similarly to incremental doses of the agonists. Continuous monitoring of internal diameter revealed a fast and transient dilatory response to microinjections of the agonists, with an average time delay (TD) before the onset of vasodilation of 2.8 +/- 0.2 seconds (1As: 3.0 +/- 0.3 seconds and 3As: 2.6 +/- 0.3 seconds) and time-to-peak (TP) of 8.2 +/- 0.7 seconds (1As: 10.3 +/- 1 seconds and 3As:5.7 +/- 0.5 seconds). No significant differences were detected for all parameters between 1As and 3As for KCl or Ado application, while 1As had a significantly longer TP and greater peak dilation than 3As to Ach. These findings demonstrate that 1As and 3As from the rat G muscle appear to have similar responsiveness to vasoactive agonists. Furthermore, the average TD before vasodilation supports a role for metabolic signals as contributors to the ROV. Source


Eastwood J.L.,Oakland University | Sadler T.D.,University of Missouri
Computers and Education | Year: 2013

Research in education suggests that computer games can serve as powerful learning environments, however, teachers perceive many obstacles to using games as teaching tools. In this study, we examine three science teachers' implementation and perceptions of a curriculum unit incorporating the game, Mission Biotech (MBt) and a set of supporting curriculum materials. The curriculum unit was designed to provide multiple avenues for teachers to adjust and modify materials and implementation plans based on their unique classroom goals and environments. To understand how individual teachers use, conceptualize, and reflect upon the MBt unit and its implementation, we conducted three case studies, including classroom observations and teacher interviews. Findings include many similarities among teachers including adaptation of activities to classroom norms and practices, high value placed on quality curricular resources and support, advantage of the game to provide experiences that are normally out of reach for students, and concerns about effective use of time. Unique features of different teachers revealed implications for design and professional development for game-based curricula. For example, the study revealed that teachers need support to integrate and make explicit connections between the game and supporting curriculum materials. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Stoker A.,University of Missouri
The journal of knee surgery | Year: 2012

Fresh osteochondral allografts (OCAs) have been used clinically to treat cartilage focal defects of the knee for over 30 years. Over the last decade, significant research has been performed to develop and improve protocols for preservation of osteochondral tissue before transplantation into patients for treatment of cartilage defects. This work has resulted in preservation protocols that allow for maintenance of OCA tissues for time periods sufficient for clinical use based on disease testing requirements in the United States. However, graft quality and the window for clinical use of these tissues could be greatly enhanced from current levels. Femoral condyles from 14 dogs were harvested and stored in one of the three proprietary media composition (M-1, M-2, M-3) and container condition (C-1, C-2, C-3) at 25 degrees C for 63 days. Viability of the OCA was determined using a proprietary media metabolic assay and live cell fluorescent microscopy. Media biomarker concentrations were analyzed to determine the metabolic activity of tissue. Media protein biomarkers were detected throughout the culture period, indicating OCAs remain metabolically active at 25 degrees C, and biomarker levels correlated with tissue viability. Viable chondrocyte density was maintained at day 0 levels throughout the depth of the tissue in the M-3 media using container condition C-3 after 63 days in storage. The media metabolic assay correlated strongly to cell viability of the OCA tissue. These data indicate that near day 0 tissue viability can be maintained for up to 63 days when OCAs are stored at 25 degrees C in the correct conditions. Further, tissue viability could be assessed nondestructively using media biomarkers and the media metabolic assay. If the preservation protocol reported here can be validated for safety and functional outcome, it could then be employed in tissue banks throughout the world, decreasing the number of grafts discarded and improving quality of life for thousands of patients affected by cartilage defects. Source


Thermodynamic properties for aqueous alkyl sulfides have been compiled and/or estimated through established methods. These properties are used to investigate reactions among various sulfur compounds in a variety of geological environments, ranging from sea floor hydrothermal systems to organic-rich sludge. Using thermodynamic data and the revised Helgeson-Kirkham-Flowers (HKF) equations of state, along with geochemical constraints imposed by the environment, it is possible to estimate the abiotic production of this class of organic sulfur compounds. For example, in hydrothermal systems in which H 2 and H 2S concentrations are buffered by the pyrite-pyrrhotite-magnetite (PPM) mineral assemblage, calculated equilibrium activities of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) are as high as 10 -3 through formation reactions in which the environment contains millimolal concentrations of CO 2. Higher activities are obtained when DMS formation from CO is considered and when more reducing mineral assemblages are present. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source


Padilla J.,University of Missouri
Physiology (Bethesda, Md.) | Year: 2011

Endothelial adaptations to exercise training are not exclusively conferred within the active muscle beds. Herein, we summarize key studies that have evaluated the impact of chronic exercise on the endothelium of vasculatures perfusing nonworking skeletal muscle, brain, viscera, and skin, concluding with discussion of potential mechanisms driving these endothelial adaptations. Source


Considerable attention has been devoted to understanding phalangeal curvature in primates, particularly with regard to locomotion. Previous work has found that increased phalangeal curvature may be indicative of increased grasping during suspensory and climbing behaviors, but the details of this relationship, particularly as regards feet, is still unclear. Using behavioral studies to predict an interspecific gradient of variation in pedal phalangeal curvature, I collected digital data from the third and fifth digit proximal pedal phalanges in adult Gorilla gorilla, Pan troglodytes, and Pongo pygmaeus and calculated included angles of phalangeal curvature to assess the appropriateness of pooling digits within taxa and evaluate the association between variation in pedal phalangeal curvature and frequency of climbing behavior. I also used an ontogenetic sample of Pan troglodytes to evaluate the postnatal relationship between variation in phalangeal curvature and grasping behaviors. I found intraspecific variation in phalangeal curvature suggesting among-digit variation in grasping behaviors. Curvature of Pongo was significantly greater than of both Pan and Gorilla. In contrast, Pan was significantly more curved than Gorilla only in comparison of third digits. Ontogenetic decreases in pedal phalangeal curvature among Pan troglodytes accorded well with postnatal decreases in documented climbing frequency. These findings largely support earlier work regarding the association between arboreal grasping and phalangeal curvature, and provide a unique intraspecific analysis that illuminates a number of areas where our knowledge of the behavioral and biomechanical determinants of phalangeal curvature should be explored further, particularly with respect to the role of among-digit variation in phalangeal curvature. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source


In 1968, remains of what were reported to be a larger-than-modern elk (Cervus elaphus) were recovered from terminal Pleistocene sediments associated with the Marmes Rockshelter archaeological site in southeastern Washington State. Originally thought to have been butchered by humans, it is associated with radiocarbon dates suggesting an age of about 9800 14C years B.P. Taphonomic analysis in 2009 indicates the elk likely died of natural causes during winter months; it was lightly scavenged by carnivores prior to burial from silt-rich spring runoff. The elk suffered from two pathological conditions: one resulting in fusion of the fourth and fifth cervical vertebrae, and the other resulting in excessive bone tissue on the proximal ends of the first ribs, seventh cervical, and first and second thoracic vertebrae. The Marmes elk is larger than modern Rocky Mountain elk (C. e. nelsoni) and is on the large end of the size range of modern Roosevelt elk (C. e. roosevelti). It is also larger than the similarly aged elk skeleton from Three Hills, Alberta. A single elk bone from the Sentinel Gap archaeological site in central Washington State, dated to about 10 200 14C years BP and located 130 km west of Marmes Rockshelter, is the same size as the same bone of the Marmes elk. Terminal Pleistocene elk in eastern Washington likely grew to exceptionally large size as a result of abundant grass at the time, forage that decreased in abundance as Holocene climatic conditions developed. Source


Chakraborty S.,University of Missouri
Computational Statistics and Data Analysis | Year: 2012

Non-linear regression based on reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS) has recently become very popular in fitting high-dimensional data. The RKHS formulation provides an automatic dimension reduction of the covariates. This is particularly helpful when the number of covariates (p) far exceed the number of data points. In this paper, we introduce a Bayesian nonlinear multivariate regression model for high-dimensional problems. Our model is suitable when we have multiple correlated observed response corresponding to same set of covariates. We introduce a robust Bayesian support vector regression model based on a multivariate version of Vapnik's -insensitive loss function. The likelihood corresponding to the multivariate Vapnik's -insensitive loss function is constructed as a scale mixture of truncated normal and gamma distribution. The regression function is constructed using the finite representation of a function in the reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS). The kernel parameter is estimated adaptively by assigning a prior on it and using the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) techniques for computation. Practical applications of our model are demonstrated via applications in near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and simulation studies. Our Bayesian kernel models are highly accurate in predicting composition of materials based on its near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy signature. We have compared our method with popularly used methodologies in NIR spectroscopy, like partial least square (PLS), principal component regression (PCA), support vector machine (SVM), Gaussian process regression (GPR), and random forest (RF). In all the simulation and real case studies, our multivariate Bayesian RKHS regression model outperforms the standard methods by a substantially large margin. The implementation of our models based on MCMC is fairly fast and straight forward. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Barbosa F.,University of Missouri
Behavioral Ecology | Year: 2012

Sperm competition has been demonstrated to be an important force shaping male behavior in a number of species. For example, males may prolong copulation duration when they perceive sperm competition to be high. Although male behavioral responses to sperm competition have been shown in several species, their effects on reproductive success have rarely been demonstrated. In the soldier fly Merosargus cingulatus, males prolong copulations when sperm competition is high and when mating with more fecund females. Here, I tested the hypothesis that this behavioral response results in higher reproductive success for males. I exposed males to different simulated levels of sperm competition (high or low male density at the oviposition site) then introduced a female. I allowed the pair to mate and the female to oviposit. I determined the percentage of offspring sired by the male using amplified fragment length polymorphism profiles. Sperm competition did not affect clutch size, but it did affect fertilization success: males under higher simulated sperm competition increased copulation duration and fertilized a higher percentage of a female's egg clutch than did males under lower sperm competition. © 2012 The Author. Source


Koldobsky A.,University of Missouri
Discrete and Computational Geometry | Year: 2012

Let 2≤n≤4. We show that for an arbitrary measure μ with even continuous density in ℝ n and any origin-symmetric convex body K in ℝ n, where ξ ⊥ is the central hyperplane in ℝ n perpendicular to ξ, and is the volume of the unit Euclidean ball in ℝ n. This inequality is sharp, and it generalizes the hyperplane inequality in dimensions up to four to the setting of arbitrary measures in place of volume. In order to prove this inequality, we first establish stability in the affirmative case of the Busemann-Petty problem for arbitrary measures in the following sense: if ε>0, K and L are origin-symmetric convex bodies in ℝ n, n≤4, and then.© 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source


Smith P.A.,University of Missouri
American Journal of Sports Medicine | Year: 2015

Background: Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections have become an intriguing treatment option for osteoarthritis (OA), particularly OA of the knee. Despite the plethora of PRP-related citations, there is a paucity of high-level evidence that is comparable, cohort specific, dose controlled, injection protocol controlled, and double-blinded. Purpose: To determine the safety and efficacy of leukocyte-poor PRP autologous conditioned plasma (ACP) for knee OA treatment through a feasibility trial regulated by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Study Design: Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. Methods: In accordance with FDA protocol, patient selection was based on strict inclusion/exclusion criteria; 114 patients were screened, and 30 were ultimately included in the study. These patients were randomized to receive either ACP (n = 15) or saline placebo (n = 15) for a series of 3 weekly injections. Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) scores served as the primary efficacy outcome measure. Patients were followed for 1 year. Results: No adverse events were reported for ACP administration. Furthermore, the results demonstrated no statistically significant difference in baseline WOMAC scores between the 2 groups. However, in the ACP group, WOMAC scores at 1 week were significantly decreased compared with baseline scores, and the scores for this group remained significantly lower throughout the study duration. At the study conclusion (12 months), subjects in the ACP group had improved their overall WOMAC scores by 78% from their baseline score, compared with 7% for the placebo group. Conclusion: ACP is safe and provides quantifiable benefits for pain relief and functional improvement with regard to knee OA. No adverse events were reported for ACP administration. After 1 year, WOMAC scores for the ACP subjects had improved by 78% from their baseline score, whereas scores for the placebo control group had improved by only 7%. Other joints affected with OA may also benefit from this treatment. © 2016 The Author(s). Source


Sowa G.,University of Missouri
Biochemistry Research International | Year: 2011

Caveolin-2 is one of the major protein components of cholesterol- and glycosphingolipid-rich flask-shaped invaginations of plasma membrane caveolae. A new body of evidence suggests that caveolin-2 plays an important, and often more direct, role than caveolin-1 in regulating signaling and function in a cell- and tissue type-specific manner. The purpose of this paper is to primarily focus on discussing how these recent discoveries may help better understand the specific contribution of caveolin-2 to lipid raft- and caveolae-regulated cell/tissue-specific signaling and functions. Copyright © 2011 Grzegorz Sowa. Source


Lubowitz J.H.,Taos Orthopaedic Institute | Smith P.A.,University of Missouri
Arthroscopy - Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery | Year: 2012

In 2011, postsurgical patient outcome data may be compiled in a research registry, allowing comparative-effectiveness research and cost-effectiveness analysis by use of Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Actcompliant, institutional review boardapproved, Food and Drug Administrationapproved, remote, Web-based data collection systems. Computerized automation minimizes cost and minimizes surgeon time demand. A research registry can be a powerful tool to observe and understand variations in treatment and outcomes, to examine factors that influence prognosis and quality of life, to describe care patterns, to assess effectiveness, to monitor safety, and to change provider practice through feedback of data. Registry of validated, prospective outcome data is required for arthroscopic and related researchers and the public to advocate with governments and health payers. The goal is to develop evidence-based data to determine the best methods for treating patients. © 2012 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Source


Dickter C.L.,College of William and Mary | Bartholow B.D.,University of Missouri
Psychophysiology | Year: 2010

Three largely independent lines of research have investigated experimental manipulations that influence the amplitude of the N2 component of the event-related brain potential (ERP), one linking heightened N2 amplitude to response conflict, another showing that N2 is sensitive to stimulus infrequency, and the third showing larger N2 amplitude during categorization of racial ingroup relative to racial outgroup targets. The purpose of this research was to investigate potential interactions between these three features on the amplitude of the N2. ERPs were recorded while participants completed a modified flanker task using pictures of ingroup and outgroup faces. Results showed a 3-way interaction, indicating that the N2 was largest for ingroup targets on high-conflict trials but only when such trials were relatively infrequent. Implications of these findings for theories of both conflict monitoring and person perception are discussed. © 2010 Society for Psychophysiological Research. Source


Chase J.-A.D.,University of Missouri
Gerontologist | Year: 2015

Purpose of the Study: To determine the overall effectiveness of interventions designed to increase physical activity (PA) behavior among community-dwelling older adults. Design and Methods: Comprehensive literature searching identified eligible PA intervention studies among community-dwelling adults aged 65 and older, or sample mean age of 70. Diverse study characteristics were extracted and outcome data were duplicate coded. Overall mean effect sizes (ESs) were synthesized using a random-effects model. Heterogeneity of effects was analyzed using Q and I 2 statistics. Moderator analyses were conducted using meta-analytic analogues of ANOVA and regression for dichotomous and continuous moderators, respectively. Results: ESs were calculated from 13,829 primary study subjects. The overall mean ES for two-group posttest comparisons was 0.18 (95% CI 0.10-0.26, p <. 001). This represents a difference of 620 steps/day or 73min of PA/week between treatment and control groups. Significant moderators included the use of theory, how interventions were delivered, and cognitive plus behavioral-type intervention components. Non-significant moderators include the type of interventionist, delivery setting, and various measures of intervention dose. Implications: PA interventions significantly improved PA behavior among community-dwelling older adults. Effective PA interventions may be efficiently delivered using already available resources and personnel. Future PA intervention research should be theoretically based, incorporate more diverse subjects, and compare intervention delivery methods. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. Source


Kline D.D.,University of Missouri
Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology | Year: 2010

The autonomic nervous and respiratory systems, as well as their coupling, adapt over a wide range of conditions. Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) is a model for recurrent apneas and induces alterations in breathing and increases in sympathetic nerve activity which may ultimately result in hypertension if left untreated. These alterations are believed to be due to increases in the carotid body chemoreflex pathway. Here we present evidence that the nucleus tractus solitarii (nTS), the central brainstem termination site of chemoreceptor afferents, expresses a form of synaptic plasticity that increases overall nTS activity following intermittent hypoxia. Following CIH, an increase in presynaptic spontaneous neurotransmitter release occurs under baseline conditions. Furthermore, during and following afferent stimulation there is an augmentation of spontaneous transmitter release that occurs out of synchrony with sensory stimulation. On the other hand, afferent evoked synchronous transmitter release is attenuated. Overall, this shift from synchronous to asynchronous transmitter release enhances nTS cellular discharge. The role of the neurotransmitter dopamine in CIH-induced plasticity is also discussed. Dopamine attenuates synaptic transmission in nTS cells by blockade of N-type calcium channels, and this mechanism occurs tonically following normoxia and CIH. This dopaminergic pathway, however, is not altered in CIH. Taken together, alterations in nTS synaptic activity may play a role in the changes of chemoreflex function and cardiorespiratory activity in the CIH apnea model. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source


Fetal microchimerism is the co-existence of small numbers of cells from genetically distinct individuals living within a mother’s body following pregnancy. During pregnancy, bi-directional exchange of cells occurs resulting in maternal microchimerism and even sibling microchimerism in offspring. The presence of fetal microchimerism has been identified with lower frequency in patients with cancers such as breast and lymphoma and with higher frequency in patients with colon cancer and autoimmune diseases. Microchimeric cells have been identified in healing and healed tissues as well as normal and tumor tissues. This has led to the hypothesis that fetal microchimerism may play a protective role in some cancers and may provoke other cancers or autoimmune disease. The long periods of risk for these diseases make it a challenge to prospectively study this phenomenon in human populations. Dogs get similar cancers as humans, share our homes and environmental exposures, and live compressed life-spans, allowing easier prospective study of disease development. This review describes the current state of understanding of fetal microchimerism in humans and dogs and highlights the similarities of the common cancers mammary carcinoma, lymphoma, and colon cancer between the two species. Study of fetal microchimerism in dogs might hold the key to characterization of the type and function of microchimeric cells and their role in health and disease. Such an understanding could then be applied to preventing and treating disease in humans. © 2015, American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists. Source


Della Rocca G.J.,University of Missouri
Journal of orthopaedic trauma | Year: 2014

The United Nations has identified road traffic safety as an important objective for the decade 2011-2020. It has implemented a 5-tiered program: improving health care services, improving management of road safety, improving road network safety, improving vehicular safety, and improving road safety legislation. A small body of practical research has been generated by the medical and surgical (including orthopaedic) communities regarding the road traffic safety, but a substantial amount of work remains to be performed. This article will review published research in each of the 5 tiers of the Decade of Action for Road Traffic Safety and will identify areas where research is insufficient or absent, such that new research programming and funding can be developed. Source


Chase J.-A.D.,University of Missouri
Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing | Year: 2011

Coronary heart disease significantly impacts the morbidity, mortality, and health care economy of our population. Enrollment into cardiac rehabilitation (CR) after cardiac events improves patient outcomes; however, physical activity (PA) behavior decreases significantly in the years following completion of CR. This article reviews the literature regarding interventions to maintain or increase PA after CR. Fourteen interventions studies from North America, Europe, Asia, and Australia used variations of cognitive and/or behavioral strategies. Women and older adults were underrepresented in the reviewed studies. Measurement of PA varied between studies and included self-report, objective pedometer or accelerometer data, or questionnaire format. Common cognitive interventions included self-efficacy enhancement measures, barrier management, and problem solving. Behavioral interventions included self-monitoring, prompting, goal setting, and feedback. Cognitive intervention studies reported inconsistent results, whereas behavioral studies and studies that used combinations of interventions reported more consistent, positive findings. More intervention studies, using rigorous designs and reliable measures of PA on larger, more diverse populations, are needed to improve the understanding of PA-related behavior change after completion of CR. © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source


West R.,Iowa State University | Bailey K.,University of Missouri
Psychophysiology | Year: 2012

Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were used to examine the neural correlates of proactive and reactive cognitive control within the context of the Dual Mechanisms of Control theory. Individuals performed the counting Stroop task and the proportion of congruent and incongruent trials was varied across blocks. The Stroop effect was smaller in the mostly incongruent block than in the mostly congruent block. The ERP data revealed a double dissociation between the medial frontal negativity (MFN) and the medial posterior negativity (MPN), where the amplitude of the MFN was greater in the mostly incongruent block and the amplitude of the MPN was greater in the mostly congruent block. The ERP data also revealed slow wave activity that distinguished the mostly incongruent and mostly congruent blocks. These findings support the idea that different regions of the cingulate and anterior frontal cortex underpin proactive and reactive control. © 2012 Society for Psychophysiological Research. Source


Mason A.S.,University of Queensland | Pires J.C.,University of Missouri
Trends in Genetics | Year: 2015

Unreduced gametes (gametes with the somatic chromosome number) are known to facilitate polyploid formation. Unreduced gametes result from a plethora of different mechanisms across different taxa, suggesting that the ability to produce unreduced gametes has evolutionary utility. Heritable genetic variation for unreduced gamete production has been observed, thereby providing an evolutionary substrate. Unreduced gametes are also frequently involved in interspecific hybridisation events as well as being produced by interspecific hybrids, facilitating allopolyploidisation. Environmental stress often triggers unreduced gamete production, suggesting that unreduced gametes may facilitate polyploid speciation in response to changing environments. Thus, although unreduced gamete formation may be a meiotic mishap, we suggest that unreduced gametes can be more explicitly considered as a mechanism for evolutionary speciation that should be measured and tested across and within lineages for exaptive evolution (a feature with evolutionary utility that has not arisen under conventional selective pressure) and evolvability (the capacity to generate adaptive genetic variation). © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Prato T.,University of Missouri
Environmental Management | Year: 2011

Wildlife managers have little or no control over climate change. However, they may be able to alleviate potential adverse impacts of future climate change by adaptively managing wildlife for climate change. In particular, wildlife managers can evaluate the efficacy of compensatory management actions (CMAs) in alleviating potential adverse impacts of future climate change on wildlife species using probability-based or fuzzy decision rules. Application of probability-based decision rules requires managers to specify certain probabilities, which is not possible when they are uncertain about the relationships between observed and true ecological conditions for a species. Under such uncertainty, the efficacy of CMAs can be evaluated and the best CMA selected using fuzzy decision rules. The latter are described and demonstrated using three constructed cases that assume: (1) a single ecological indicator (e.g., population size for a species) in a single time period; (2) multiple ecological indicators for a species in a single time period; and (3) multiple ecological conditions for a species in multiple time periods. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source


Hwang T.-C.,University of Missouri | Kirk K.L.,University of Alabama at Birmingham
Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine | Year: 2013

Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is an ATP-gated anion channel with two remarkable distinctions. First, it is the only ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter that is known to be an ion channel-almost all others function as transport ATPases. Second, CFTR is the only ligand-gated channel that consumes its ligand (ATP) during the gating cycle-a consequence of its enzymatic activity as an ABC transporter. We discuss these special properties of CFTR in the context of its evolutionary history as an ABC transporter. Other topics include the mechanisms by which CFTR gating is regulated by phosphorylation of its unique regulatory domain and our current view of the CFTR permeation pathway (or pore). Understanding these basic operating principles of the CFTR channel is central to defining the mechanisms of action of prospective cystic fibrosis drugs and to the development of new, rational treatment strategies. © 2013 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved. Source


Jhawar M.,University of Missouri
Missouri medicine | Year: 2013

Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is underutilized across the United States. Reported national average varies from 14-35% after acute myocardial infraction and 31% after coronary artery bypass grafting surgery. No study to date has examined the utilization of CR in eligible veteran population. In this retrospective study, computerized veteran medical records at a single Veterans Administration (VA) hospital were screened between January 1, 2006 and December 31, 2009. Patients who met the inclusion and exclusion criteria were surveyed telephonically and asked a series of questions relating to delivery and utilization of phase II CR. Data was collected using a pre-printed questionnaire and patient responses were number coded. Utilization rate of phase II CR in veterans was noted to be 21%. Common reasons reported for underutilization of CR included time and distance problems, orthopedic- and stroke-related muscle weakness and lack of motivation. Participation in Phase II CR led to better adherence to exercise long term. Also, 65-70% of the veterans expressed interest in a tailored home based CR program. CR is underutilized in eligible veterans. Compliance could possibly be improved if the veterans were offered a tailored CR program. Source


Evidence that some executed prisoners suffered excruciating pain has reinvigorated the ethical debate about physician participation in executions. In widely publicized litigation, death row inmates argue that participation of anesthesiologists in their execution is constitutionally required to minimize the risk of unnecessary suffering. For many years, commentators supported the ethical ban on physician participation reflected in codes of professional medical organizations. However, a recent wave of scholarship concurs with inmate advocates, urging the law to require or permit physician participation. Both the anti- and pro-physician-participation literature share a common premise: the ethics of physician participation should be analyzed independently from the moral status of capital punishment. This considerable literature implausibly divorces the ethics of physician participation from the moral status of the death penalty. Any ethical position on physician involvement requires some judgment about the moral status of capital punishment. The article examines anti- and pro-participation arguments to show that each one either is unpersuasive without discussion of the death penalty's moral status or implicitly assumes a view on the social worth of the death penalty. The article then articulates the practical implications of its arguments for both lawmakers and professional medical organizations. © 2013 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc. Source


Sutovsky P.,University of Missouri
Society of Reproduction and Fertility supplement | Year: 2010

Light microscopic semen evaluation provides useful information about a given sperm sample, but due to its subjective nature has limited prognostic value for the reproductive performance of males or the outcome of assisted fertilization. Cryptic sperm abnormalities (occurring at the molecular level) are not easily detectable by light microscopy, but can be revealed by an array of biomarkers. The latter include fluorescent markers of acrosomal status, fluorochromes detecting altered sperm chromatin or DNA integrity, vital dyes revealing sperm mitochondrial activity, probes detecting apoptotic events, and antibodies detecting proteins that are either up- or down-regulated in defective spermatozoa. Many of the above biomarkers are best tested by flow cytometry, permitting rapid, automated, high throughput, objective measurement of the relative abundance of these biomarkers in semen. This review summarizes a strategy for the identification of novel male fertility/sperm quality biomarkers based on proteomic, biochemical and immunocytochemical analyses of defective spermatozoa. This approach identifies proteins or ligands uniquely associated with defective spermatozoa, regardless of whether they carry gross morphological defects or subtle, but critical hidden defects (e.g. DNA strand breaks) not detected with conventional, light microscopic analysis. Such markers, including ubiquitin, sperm thioredoxin SPTRX3/TXNDC8, 15LOX, and Lewis(y)-terminated N-glycans, are associated with poor semen quality and reduced fertility, warranting a designation of "negative" markers of fertility. The significance of sperm cytoplasmic droplet, a structure that accumulates several of the discussed biomarker proteins, is also discussed with regard to sperm quality and fertility. Source


Frank Pai P.,University of Missouri
Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing | Year: 2013

This paper points out the differences between linear and nonlinear system identification tasks, shows that time-frequency analysis is most appropriate for nonlinearity identification, and presents advanced signal processing techniques that combine time-frequency decomposition and perturbation methods for parametric and non-parametric identification of nonlinear dynamical systems. Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) is a recent data-driven adaptive time-frequency analysis technique that combines the use of empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and Hilbert transform (HT). Because EMD does not use predetermined basis functions and function orthogonality for component extraction, HHT provides more concise component decomposition and more accurate time-frequency analysis than the short-time Fourier transform and wavelet transform for extraction of system characteristics and nonlinearities. However, HHT's accuracy seriously suffers from the end effect caused by the discontinuity-induced Gibbs' phenomenon. Moreover, because HHT requires a long set of data obtained by high-frequency sampling, it is not appropriate for online frequency tracking. This paper presents a conjugate-pair decomposition (CPD) method that requires only a few recent data points sampled at a low-frequency for sliding-window point-by-point adaptive time-frequency analysis and can be used for online frequency tracking. To improve adaptive time-frequency analysis, a methodology is developed by combining EMD and CPD for noise filtering in the time domain, reducing the end effect, and dissolving other mathematical and numerical problems in time-frequency analysis. For parametric identification of a nonlinear system, the methodology processes one steady-state response and/or one free damped transient response and uses amplitude-dependent dynamic characteristics derived from perturbation analysis to determine the type and order of nonlinearity and system parameters. For non-parametric identification, the methodology uses the maximum displacement states to determine the displacement-stiffness curve and the maximum velocity states to determine the velocity-damping curve. Numerical simulations and experimental verifications of several nonlinear discrete and continuous systems show that the proposed methodology can provide accurate parametric and non-parametric identifications of different nonlinear dynamical systems. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Adedeji A.O.,University of Missouri
PloS one | Year: 2012

The non-structural protein 13 (nsp13) of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) is a helicase that separates double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) or DNA (dsDNA) with a 5' → 3' polarity, using the energy of nucleotide hydrolysis. We determined the minimal mechanism of helicase function by nsp13. We showed a clear unwinding lag with increasing length of the double-stranded region of the nucleic acid, suggesting the presence of intermediates in the unwinding process. To elucidate the nature of the intermediates we carried out transient kinetic analysis of the nsp13 helicase activity. We demonstrated that the enzyme unwinds nucleic acid in discrete steps of 9.3 base-pairs (bp) each, with a catalytic rate of 30 steps per second. Therefore the net unwinding rate is ~280 base-pairs per second. We also showed that nsp12, the SARS-CoV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), enhances (2-fold) the catalytic efficiency of nsp13 by increasing the step size of nucleic acid (RNA/RNA or DNA/DNA) unwinding. This effect is specific for SARS-CoV nsp12, as no change in nsp13 activity was observed when foot-and-mouth-disease virus RdRp was used in place of nsp12. Our data provide experimental evidence that nsp13 and nsp12 can function in a concerted manner to improve the efficiency of viral replication and enhance our understanding of nsp13 function during SARS-CoV RNA synthesis. Source


Wei Y.,CAS Institute of Zoology | Schatten H.,University of Missouri | Sun Q.-Y.,CAS Institute of Zoology
Human Reproduction Update | Year: 2015

Background: Traditional studies focused onDNAas the heritable information carrier that passes the phenotype fromparents to offspring. However, increasing evidence suggests that information, that is independent of theDNAsequence, termed epigenetic information, can be inherited between generations. Recently, in our lab, we found that prediabetes in fathers increases the susceptibility to diabetes in offspring through gametic cytosine methylation changes. Paternal prediabetes changed overall methylation patterns in sperm, and a large portion of differentially methylated loci can be transmitted to pancreatic islets of offspring up to the second generation. In this review, we survey the extensive examples of environmentally induced epigenetic inheritance in various species, ranging from Caenorhabditis elegans to humans. We focus mainly on elucidating the molecular basis of environmental epigenetic inheritance through gametes, which is an emerging theme and has important implications for explaining the prevalence of obesity, type 2 diabetes and other chronic non-genetic diseases, which is also important for understanding the influence of environmental exposures on reproductive and overall health in offspring. Methods: For this review, we included relevant data and information obtained through a PubMed database search for all English language articles published up to August 2014 which included the term 'environmental epigenetic inheritance' and 'transgenerational epigenetic inheritance'. We focused on research papers using animal models including Drosophila, C. elegans, mouse and rat. Human data were also included. Results: Evidence fromanimal models suggests that environmental epigenetic inheritance through gametes exists in various species. Extensive molecular evidence suggests that epigenetic information carriers including DNA methylation, non-coding RNAs and chromatin proteins in gametes play important roles in the transmission of phenotypes from parents to offspring. Conclusions: Given the large number of experimental evidence fromvarious organisms, it is clear that parental environmental alterations can affect the phenotypes of offspring through gametic epigenetic alterations. This more recent thinking based on new data may have implications in explaining the prevalence of obesity, type 2 diabetes and other chronic non-genetic diseases. This also implies that, in the near future, epigenetic factors which are heritable should be regarded important in determining the risk of certain diseases. Moreover, identification of epigenetic markers in gametes (polar body or sperm) may hold great promise for predicting susceptibility to and preventing certain non-genetic diseases in offspring, as well as providing indications on parental environmental exposures. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. Source


Dhand R.,University of Missouri
Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery | Year: 2012

In selected patients, noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) with a facemask is now commonly employed as the first choice for providing mechanical ventilation in the intensive care unit (ICU). Aerosol therapy for treatment of acute or acute-on-chronic respiratory failure in this setting may be delivered by pressurized metered-dose inhaler (pMDI) with a chamber spacer and facemask or nebulizer and facemask. This article reviews the host of factors influencing aerosol delivery with these devices during NIPPV. These factors include (1) the type of ventilator, (2) mode of ventilation, (3) circuit conditions, (4) type of interface, (5) type of aerosol generator, (6) drug-related factors, (7) breathing parameters, and (8) patient-related factors. Despite the impediments to efficient aerosol delivery because of continuous gas flow, high inspiratory flow rates, air leaks, circuit humidity, and patient-ventilator asynchrony, significant therapeutic effects are achieved after inhaled bronchodilator administration to patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Similarly to invasive mechanical ventilation, careful attention to the technique of drug administration is required to optimize therapeutic effects of inhaled therapies during NIPPV. Assessment of the patient's ability to tolerate a facemask, the level of respiratory distress, hemodynamic status, and synchronization of aerosol generation with inspiratory airflow are important factors contributing to the success of aerosol delivery during NIPPV. Further research into novel delivery methods, such as the use of NIPPV with nasal cannulae, could enhance the efficiency, ease of use, and reproducibility of inhalation therapy during noninvasive ventilation. © 2012 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Source


Magoulas P.L.,Baylor College of Medicine | El-Hattab A.W.,University of Missouri
Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases | Year: 2012

Chromosome 15q24 microdeletion syndrome is a recently described rare microdeletion syndrome that has been reported in 19 individuals. It is characterized by growth retardation, intellectual disability, and distinct facial features including long face with high anterior hairline, hypertelorism, epicanthal folds, downslanting palpebral fissures, sparse and broad medial eyebrows, broad and/or depressed nasal bridge, small mouth, long smooth philtrum, and full lower lip. Other common findings include skeletal and digital abnormalities, genital abnormalities in males, hypotonia, behavior problems, recurrent infections, and eye problems. Other less frequent findings include hearing loss, growth hormone deficiency, hernias, and obesity. Congenital malformations, while rare, can be severe and include structural brain anomalies, cardiovascular malformations, congenital diaphragmatic hernia, intestinal atresia, imperforate anus, and myelomeningocele. Karyotypes are typically normal, and the deletions were detected in these individuals by array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). The deletions range in size from 1.7-6.1 Mb and usually result from nonallelic homologous recombination (NAHR) between paralogous low-copy repeats (LCRs). The majority of 15q24 deletions have breakpoints that localize to one of five LCR clusters labeled LCR15q24A, -B, -C, -D, and -E. The smallest region of overlap (SRO) spans a 1.2 Mb region between LCR15q24B to LCR15q24C. There are several candidate genes within the SRO, including CYP11A1, SEMA7A, CPLX3, ARID3B, STRA6, SIN3A and CSK, that may predispose to many of the clinical features observed in individuals with 15q24 deletion syndrome. The deletion occurred as a de novo event in all of the individuals when parents were available for testing. Parental aCGH and/or FISH studies are recommended to provide accurate genetic counseling and guidance regarding prognosis, recurrence risk, and reproductive options. Management involves a multi-disciplinary approach to care with the primary care physician and clinical geneticist playing a crucial role in providing appropriate screening, surveillance, and care for individuals with this syndrome. At the time of diagnosis, individuals should receive baseline echocardiograms, audiologic, ophthalmologic, and developmental assessments. Growth and feeding should be closely monitored. Other specialists that may be involved in the care of individuals with 15q24 deletion syndrome include immunology, endocrine, orthopedics, neurology, and urology. Chromosome 15q24 microdeletion syndrome should be differentiated from other genetic syndromes, particularly velo-cardio-facial syndrome (22q11.2 deletion syndrome), Prader-Willi syndrome, and Noonan syndrome. These conditions share some phenotypic similarity to 15q24 deletion syndrome yet have characteristic features specific to each of them that allows the clinician to distinguish between them. Molecular genetic testing and/or aCGH will be able to diagnose these conditions in the majority of individuals. Disease name and synonyms. Chromosome 15q24 deletion syndrome. 15q24 deletion syndrome. 15q24 microdeletion syndrome. © 2012 Magoulas and El-Hattab. Source


Finfgeld-Connett D.,University of Missouri
Qualitative Health Research | Year: 2014

Early on, qualitative researchers predicted that metasynthesis research had the potential to significantly push knowledge development forward. More recently, scholars have questioned whether this is actually occurring. To examine this concern, a randomly selected sample of metasynthesis articles was systematically reviewed to identify the types of findings that have been produced. Based on this systematic examination, it appears that findings from metasynthesis investigations might not be reaching their full potential. Metasynthesis investigations frequently result in isolated findings rather than findings in relationship, and opportunities to generate research hypotheses and theoretical models are not always fully realized. With this in mind, methods for moving metasynthesis findings into relationship are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014. Source


Pai P.F.,University of Missouri
Advances in Adaptive Data Analysis | Year: 2010

This work defines the unique instantaneous frequency (IF) of an arbitrary time signal to be the circular instantaneous frequency (cIF) of the curvature radius of the signal's trajectory on the phase plane, where the signal's conjugate part is obtained from Hilbert transform (HT). Because a general signal of a dynamical system of multiple degrees of freedom contains multiple modal vibrations, its cIF varies dramatically and is not useful for system identification and other applications. If the signal is decomposed into modal vibration components without moving average, each component has no local extrema within each fundamental period and no local loops on the phase plane, each component's referred instantaneous frequency (rIF) with respect to the origin on the phase plane may be non-circular but is always non-negative, and the time-varying rIF and referred instantaneous amplitude (rIA) are convenient for combining the use of perturbation analysis for system identification. The empirical mode decomposition (EMD) of Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) is valuable for decomposing a general nonlinear nonstationary signal into zero-mean intrinsic mode functions (IMFs), and HT enables accurate calculation of rIF and rIA of each IMF. Although the concept of circular frequency cannot be used for signal decomposition, it enables the development of time-domain-only techniques for online frequency tracking. A 5-point frequency tracking method is developed to eliminate the incapability of the original 4-point TeagerKaiser algorithm (TKA) for frequency tracking of signals with moving averages. Moreover, a 3-point conjugate-pair decomposition (CPD) method is derived based on circle-fitting using a pair of conjugate harmonic functions. It is shown that both CPD and TKA are based on the concept of circle fitting, but TKA uses finite difference and CPD uses curve fitting in numerical implementation. However, the accuracy of TKA is easily destroyed by noise because of the use of finite difference. On the other hand, because CPD is based on curve fitting, noise filtering is an implicit capability and its accuracy increases with the number of processed data points. The rIF from HHT and the cIF from CPD and TKA are different by definition. Moreover, because the instantaneous frequency and amplitude are assumed to be constant in CPD and TKA, the cIF from CPD and TKA also deviates from the exact cIF. © 2010 World Scientific Publishing Company. Source


Axiak S.M.,University of Missouri
International journal of nanomedicine | Year: 2011

Paclitaxel is highly effective in the treatment of many cancers in humans, but cannot be routinely used in dogs as currently formulated due to the exquisite sensitivity of this species to surfactant-solubilizing agents. CTI 52010 is a formulation of nanoparticulate paclitaxel consisting of drug and normal saline. Our objectives were to determine the maximally tolerated dose, dose-limiting toxicities, and pharmacokinetics of CTI 52010 administered intravenously to normal dogs. Three normal adult hound dogs were evaluated by physical examination, complete blood count, chemistry profile, and urinalysis. Dogs were treated with staggered escalating dosages of CTI 52010 with a 28-day washout. All dogs were treated with a starting dosage of 40 mg/m(2), and subsequent dosages were escalated at 50% (dog 1), 100% (dog 2), or 200% (dog 3) with each cycle, to a maximum of 240 mg/m(2). Dogs were monitored by daily physical assessment and weekly laboratory evaluation. Standard criteria were used to grade adverse events. Plasma was collected at regular intervals to determine pharmacokinetics. Dogs were euthanized humanely, and necropsy was performed one week after the last treatment. The dose-limiting toxicity was grade 4 neutropenia and the maximum tolerated dosage was 120 mg/m(2). Grade 1-2 gastrointestinal toxicity was noted at higher dosages. Upon post mortem evaluation, no evidence of organ (liver, kidney, spleen) toxicity was noted. CTI 52010 was well tolerated when administered intravenously to normal dogs. A starting dosage for a Phase I/II trial in tumor-bearing dogs is 80 mg/m(2). Source


Della Rocca G.J.,University of Missouri
The journal of knee surgery | Year: 2013

Several factors are conspiring to cause a dramatic increase in the incidence of periprosthetic fractures. First, the incidence of arthroplasty is increasing as the population ages. Second, arthroplasty is being performed in younger, more active patients, who live longer after their arthroplasty and are more likely to have subsequent trauma to their previously operated limb. Third, following lower extremity surgery, disuse osteopenia of the limb often occurs, increasing the risk of subsequent fracture in that same limb. This increased risk of later fracture is further aggravated by the implant placed at the previous surgery, which often functions as a mechanical stress riser. Careful attention to detail during knee arthroplasty or during fracture repair in which fixation is placed close to the knee is beneficial for minimizing the risk of subsequent periprosthetic fracture. Intraoperative vigilance, judicious use of force when inserting implants, and meticulous technical execution of the procedure may all reduce fracture complications postoperatively. This article reviews the prevalence of periprosthetic fractures about knee arthroplasties and fracture fixation constructs, and also provides a description of common recommendations intended to reduce the risk of periprosthetic fracture. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA. Source


Singh D.J.,University of Missouri
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2016

Calculations of the electronic and magnetic properties of the nonmagnetic metallic compound YFe2Si2 are reported. These predict at the density functional level a magnetic state involving ordering along the c axis. This predicted ground state contrasts with experiment, which does not show magnetic order. The electronic structure is three dimensional, and is similar to that of the unconventional superconductor YFe2Ge2 as well as that of the high-pressure collapsed tetragonal phase of KFe2As2, which is also a superconductor. Based on the results in relation to experiment, we infer that properties of YFe2Si2 are strongly influenced by a nearby antiferromagnetic quantum critical point. © 2016 American Physical Society. Source


Clark G.F.,University of Missouri
Human Reproduction | Year: 2013

Study Question: What is the role of carbohydrates in the binding of human sperm to the zona pellucida (ZP) and what are potential implications for pathogenesis? Summary Answer: Both lectin-like and protein-protein interactions play an essential role in human gamete interactions. What is Known Already: Studies in the mouse and human indicate a role for both lectin-like and protein-protein interactions during sperm binding to the ZP. Study Design , Size, Duration Non-systematic literature review. Main Results and the Role of Chance: Ultrasensitive analysis by mass spectrometry of glycans linked to the human ZP has confirmed that this matrix is coated with a high density of complex type N-glycans terminated with the sialyl-Lewisx (sLex) sequence, the universal selectin ligand. Selectins are essential for lymphocyte homing, and they participate in the initial binding of circulating leukocytes to activated endothelium at the sites of infection and tissue injury. Subsequent inhibition studies confirmed that either the sLex tetrasaccharide or neoglycoproteins terminated with this sequence inhibited human sperm-ZP binding by 70% in the hemizona assay. These results support the hypothesis that both lectin-like and protein-protein interactions play an essential role in human gamete interactions. The sLex sequence is also a ligand for siglec-9, a lectin-bearing immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif that transmits inhibitory signals. This siglec is expressed on a wide variety of different types of human leukocytes and lymphocytes. This result is consistent with the hypothesis that human ZP glycans are also being employed for immune recognition of the egg and the histoincompatible embryo prior to blastocyst hatching. Limitations, Reasons For Caution This field of study is complex and more experimental work is needed to reveal fully the mechanism of sperm-ZP binding and how it varies between species. Wider Implications of the Finding: s: Knowledge about the glycans involved in sperm-egg binding may be relevant to infertility due to fertilization failure and also to the mother's immune tolerance of the preimplantation embryo. Study Funding/Competing Interes: T(S)Studies focused on human sperm-egg interactions carried out by the author and coworkers have been supported by the Life Sciences Mission Enhancement Reproductive Biology Program funded by the State of Missouri, a Research Board Grant (CB000500) supported by the University of Missouri System and a grant from the Jeffress Memorial Trust of Virginia. Support from the Breeden-Adams Foundation has also been obtained to investigate potential linkages to tumor evasion. The author has no conflict of interest to declare. © 2013 The Author. Source


Chaddad F.R.,University of Missouri
International Food and Agribusiness Management Review | Year: 2010

After a successful career at the University of São Paulo, Marcos Jank became the President and CEO of the Brazilian Sugarcane Industry Association (UNICA) in July 2007. He was hired with a mandate to establish ethanol as a global commodity and to open new markets for the industry's sugar, ethanol and bioelectricity output. But he faced complex challenges. The main challenge related to the role of UNICA in leading industry-wide sustainability initiatives. This required coordination of 70,000 sugarcane producers and 430 processors; engagement with outside stakeholders in Brazil and abroad; and implementing programs that balanced economic, social and environmental outcomes. A second set of challenges emanated from the rapid growth and dramatic structural changes occurring in the industry. This case study describes UNICA's unique approach to sustainability and how it is changing the industry, allowing the reader to analyze the effectiveness of this approach in delivering sustainability. © 2010 International Food and Agribusiness Management Association (IFAMA). Source


Chakraborty S.,Texas A&M University | Davis M.J.,University of Missouri | Muthuchamy M.,Texas A&M University
Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology | Year: 2015

Lymphatic contractile dysfunction is central to a number of pathologies that affect millions of people worldwide. Due to its critical role in the process of inflammation, a dysfunctional lymphatic system also compromises the immune response, further exacerbating a number of inflammation related diseases. Despite the critical physiological functions accomplished by the transport of lymph, a complete understanding of the contractile machinery of the lymphatic system lags far behind that of the blood vasculature. However, there has been a surge of recent research focusing on different mechanisms that underlie both physiological and pathophysiological aspects of lymphatic contractile function. This review summarizes those emerging paradigms that shed some novel insights into the contractile physiology of the lymphatics in normal as well as different disease states. In addition, this review emphasizes the recent progress made in our understanding of various contractile parameters and regulatory elements that contribute to the normal functioning of the lymphatics. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Durante W.,University of Missouri
Current Drug Targets | Year: 2010

Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) metabolizes heme to generate carbon monoxide (CO), biliverdin, and iron. Biliverdin is subsequently metabolized to bilirubin by biliverdin reductase. HO-1 has recently emerged as a promising therapeutic target in the treatment of vascular disease. Pharmacological induction or gene transfer of HO-1 ameliorates vascular dysfunction in animal models of atherosclerosis, post-angioplasty restenosis, vein graft stenosis, thrombosis, myocardial infarction, and hypertension, while inhibition of HO-1 activity or gene deletion exacerbates these disorders. The vasoprotection afforded by HO-1 is largely attributable to its end products: CO and the bile pigments, biliverdin and bilirubin. These end products exert potent anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-apoptotic, and anti-thrombotic actions. In addition, CO and bile pigments act to preserve vascular homeostasis at sites of arterial injury by influencing the proliferation, migration, and adhesion of vascular smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, endothelial progenitor cells, or leukocytes. Several strategies are currently being developed to target HO-1 in vascular disease. Pharmacological induction of HO-1 by heme derivatives, dietary antioxidants, or currently available drugs, is a promising near-term approach, while HO-1 gene delivery is a long-term therapeutic goal. Direct administration of CO via inhalation or through the use of CO-releasing molecules and/or CO-sensitizing agents provides an attractive alternative approach in targeting HO-1. Furthermore, delivery of bile pigments, either alone or in combination with CO, presents another avenue for protecting against vascular disease. Since HO-1 and its products are potentially toxic, a major challenge will be to devise clinically effective therapeutic modalities that target HO-1 without causing any adverse effects. © 2010 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd. Source


Frank Pai P.,University of Missouri
Thin-Walled Structures | Year: 2013

This paper presents an energy-consistent beam theory and uses it to show the order deficiency, shear locking, and other problems of shear-deformable beam theories. The order of spatial differentiation of both Timoshenko's first-order shear-deformable beam theory and the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory is four, but Timoshenko's theory can account for shear deformation but the other cannot. However, Timoshenko's beam theory is shown to be order-deficient by two, and this order deficiency causes the shear locking problem in finite-element analysis of thin beams. Moreover, the use of one shear correction factor alone cannot fully account for the influence of shear warping on the total strain energy of composite beams. The Cosserat rod theory with Green-Lagrange strains is often used to model highly flexible beams because it can account for geometric nonlinearity and first-order shear deformation. Unfortunately, the use of first-order shear theory makes it order-deficient and is prone to shear locking problems. Moreover, it requires the use of three Rodrigues parameters or four Euler parameters for modeling large rotations, but these math-based variables may experience soft singularity (due to discontinuous spatial derivatives) and artificial strains. Furthermore, the use of Green-Lagrange strains to account for geometric nonlinearity is well known to be problematic. It is also shown that shearing- and bending-induced displacements are relative quantities and they cannot be used as nodal degrees of freedom in finite-element analysis. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source


vanMarle K.,University of Missouri
Journal of Experimental Child Psychology | Year: 2013

Previous research has shown indirectly that infants may use two different mechanisms-an object tracking system and an analog magnitude mechanism-to represent small (<4) and large (≥4) numbers of objects, respectively. The current study directly tested this hypothesis in an ordinal choice task by presenting 10- to 12-month-olds with a choice between different numbers of hidden food items. Infants reliably chose the larger amount when choosing between two exclusively small (1 vs. 2) or large (4 vs. 8) sets, but they performed at chance when one set was small and the other was large (2 vs. 4) even when the ratio between the sets was very favorable (2 vs. 8). The current findings support the two-mechanism hypothesis and, furthermore, suggest that the representations from the object tracking system and the analog magnitude mechanism are incommensurable. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. Source


Birchler J.A.,University of Missouri
Trends in Biotechnology | Year: 2015

This review summarizes synthetic chromosome construction in plants and speculates on how they might be applied to various uses in the future, as well as the possible impact for synthetic biology. The procedures to construct foundational platforms for synthetic chromosomes in plants are described, together with some challenges to be overcome in growing such chromosomes and expanding their applications. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Trull T.J.,University of Missouri | Ebner-Priemer U.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology | Ebner-Priemer U.,Central Institute of Mental Health
Annual Review of Clinical Psychology | Year: 2013

Ambulatory assessment (AA) covers a wide range of assessment methods to study people in their natural environment, including self-report, observational, and biological/physiological/behavioral. AA methods minimize retrospective biases while gathering ecologically valid data from patients' everyday life in real time or near real time. Here, we report on the major characteristics of AA, and we provide examples of applications of AA in clinical psychology (a) to investigate mechanisms and dynamics of symptoms, (b) to predict the future recurrence or onset of symptoms, (c) to monitor treatment effects, (d) to predict treatment success, (e) to prevent relapse, and (f) as interventions. In addition, we present and discuss the most pressing and compelling future AA applications: technological developments (the smartphone), improved ecological validity of laboratory results by combined lab-field studies, and investigating gene-environment interactions. We conclude with a discussion of acceptability, compliance, privacy, and ethical issues. Copyright © 2013 by Annual Reviews. Source


Buford T.W.,University of Florida | Roberts M.D.,University of Missouri | Church T.S.,Louisiana State University
Sports Medicine | Year: 2013

The early 21st century has witnessed a steady push by scientists, industry leaders, and government officials to make medicine more personalized. To date, the concept of personalized medicine has referred largely to the field of pharmacogenomics. In contrast, relatively few data exist regarding the application of preventive strategies such as physical exercise in the context of personalized medicine. Within this review, we highlight the extant literature and propose five strategies for scientists that may propel the exercise and sports science fields toward this global goal. Notably, these approaches are in addition to methods to maintain adherence to training - a well-known factor in determining exercise responsiveness. Briefly, these strategies include (1) evaluating participant responses to training at the individual as well as group level; (2) identifying sources of variability in responsiveness to training; (3) optimizing exercise dosing strategies to maximize benefits while minimizing barriers to participation; (4) evaluating the efficacy of multimodal interventions for relevant population subgroups; and (5) increasing the clinical relevance of study populations and outcomes in exercise trials. We look forward to seeing these strategies considered in trials of preventive health interventions such as exercise. Extensive future research in this area is needed for the vision of exercise as a personalized form of medicine to become a reality. © 2013 Springer International Publishing Switzerland. Source


Vogel T.R.,University of Missouri
Surgical Infections | Year: 2012

Background: Sepsis is an excessive systemic inflammatory response activated by invasive infection. There has been substantial epidemiologic literature addressing perceived disparities in sepsis by demographic factors such as gender and race. There also have been multiple examinations of the disparities of sepsis with regard to environmental and socioeconomic factors. This paper reviews the current epidemiologic literature evaluating the association of race with the development of sepsis and its associated outcomes. Methods: Review of pertinent English-language literature. Results: Race is a marker of poverty, preexisting conditions, increased allostatic loads, and decreased access to health systems. Racial disparities and the incidence of sepsis likely are explained by a multiplicity of environmental factors that are not captured by administrative data. Conclusion: Race is a surrogate for many intangible factors that lead to the development of sepsis and inferior outcomes. © 2012, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Source


Sheldon K.M.,University of Missouri
Personality and Social Psychology Review | Year: 2014

Pursuing personal goals is an important way that people organize their behavior and mature as individuals. However, because people are typically unaware of their own implicit motivations and potentials, they may pick goals that do not serve them well. This article suggests that “self-concordant” goal selection is a difficult self-perceptual skill, with important ramifications for thriving. Various means of conceptualizing and measuring goal self-concordance are considered. Then, relevant literature is reviewed to show that goal self-concordance, as assessed by a self-determination theory methodology, is predicted by goal/motive fit; that goal self-concordance in turn predicts more persistent goal effort and, thus, better goal attainment over time; and that self-concordant goal selection is enhanced by personality variables and interpersonal contexts that promote accurate self-insight and personal autonomy. Implications for the nature of the self, the causes of personality thriving and growth, and the free will question are considered. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc. Source


Kar S.,University of Missouri
Missouri medicine | Year: 2012

Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been shown to decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease. They reduce fatal and non-fatal myocardial infarction, stroke, coronary artery disease (CAD), sudden cardiac death, and all-cause mortality. They are well tolerated and cause minimal adverse effects. In this review, we sought to provide an overview of the current literature on the use of Omega-3 fatty acids for the treatment of CAD and discuss the possible benefits. Source


Rosenfeld C.S.,University of Missouri
Endocrinology | Year: 2015

The placenta is an ephemeral but critical organ for the survival of all eutherian mammals and marsupials. It is the primary messenger system between the mother and fetus, where communicational signals, nutrients, waste, gases, and extrinsic factors are exchanged. Although the placenta may buffer the fetus from various environmental insults, placental dysfunction might also contribute to detrimental developmental origins of adult health and disease effects. The placenta ofonesex over the other might possess greater ability to respondandbuffer against environmental insults. Given the potential role of the placenta in effecting the lifetime health of the offspring, it is not surprising that there has been a resurging interest in this organ, including the Human Placental Project launched by the National Institutes of Child Health and Human Development. In this review, we will compare embryological development of the laboratory mouse and human chorioallantoic placentae. Next, evidence that various species, including humans, exhibit normal sex-dependent structural and functional placental differences will be examined followed by how in utero environmental changes (nutritional state, stress, and exposure to environmental chemicals) might interact with fetal sex to affect this organ. Recent data also suggest that paternal state impacts placental function in a sex-dependent manner. The research to date linking placental maladaptive responses and later developmental origins of adult health and disease effects will be explored. Finally, we will focus on how sex chromosomes and epimutations may contribute to sex-dependent differences in placental function, the unanswered questions, and future directions that warrant further consideration. © 2015 by the Endocrine Society. Source


Cannon J.F.,University of Missouri
Advances in Applied Microbiology | Year: 2010

Budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and its close relatives are unique among eukaryotes in having a single gene, GLC7, encoding protein phosphatase-1 (PP1). This enzyme with a highly conserved amino acid sequence controls many processes in all eukaryotic cells. Therefore, the study of Glc7 function offers a unique opportunity to gain a comprehensive understanding of this critical regulatory enzyme. This review summarizes our current knowledge of how Glc7 function modulates processes in the cytoplasm and nucleus. Additionally, global Glc7 regulation is described. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. Source


Neurological outcomes of preterm infants with posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus are among the worst in newborn medicine. There remains no consensus regarding the diagnosis or treatment of posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus, and the pathological pathways leading to the adverse neurological sequelae are poorly understood. In the current study, we developed an innovative approach to simultaneously identify potential diagnostic markers of posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus and investigate novel pathways of posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus-related neurological disability. Tandem multi-affinity fractionation for specific removal of plasma proteins from the hemorrhagic cerebrospinal fluid samples was combined with high resolution label-free quantitative proteomics. Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid obtained from infants with posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus demonstrated marked differences in the levels of 438 proteins when compared with cerebrospinal fluid from age-matched control infants. Amyloid precursor protein, neural cell adhesion molecule-L1, neural cell adhesion molecule-1, brevican and other proteins with important roles in neurodevelopment showed profound elevations in posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus cerebrospinal fluid compared with control. Initiation of neurosurgical treatment of posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus resulted in resolution of these elevations. The results from this foundational study demonstrate the significant promise of tandem multi-affinity fractionation-proteomics in the identification and quantitation of protein mediators of neurodevelopment and neurological injury. More specifically, our results suggest that cerebrospinal fluid levels of proteins such as amyloid precursor protein or neural cell adhesion molecule-L1 should be investigated as potential diagnostic markers of posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus. Notably, dysregulation of the levels these and other proteins may directly affect ongoing neurodevelopmental processes in these preterm infants, providing an entirely new hypothesis for the developmental disability associated with posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus. Source


Durante W.,University of Missouri
Frontiers in Bioscience | Year: 2011

Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) catalyzes the first and rate-limiting step in the metabolism of free heme into equimolar amounts of ferrous iron, carbon monoxide (CO), and biliverdin. Biliverdin is subsequently converted to bilirubin by biliverdin reductase. HO-1 has recently been identified as a promising therapeutic target in the treatment of vascular inflammatory disease, including atherosclerosis. HO-1 represses inflammation by removing the proinflammatory molecule heme and by generating CO and the bile pigments, biliverdin and bilirubin. These HO-1 reaction products are capable of blocking innate and adaptive immune responses by modifying the activation, differentiation, maturation, and/or polarization of numerous immune cells, including endothelial cells, monocytes/macrophages, dendritic cells, T lymphocytes, mast cells, and platelets. These cellular actions by CO and bile pigments result in diminished leukocyte recruitment and infiltration, and pro-inflammatory mediator production within atherosclerotic lesions. This review highlights the mechanisms by which HO-1 suppresses vascular inflammation in atherosclerosis, and explores possible therapeutic modalities by which HO-1 and its reaction products can be employed to ameliorate vascular inflammatory disease. Source


Schnitzer P.G.,University of Missouri | Covington T.M.,Review Centre | Dykstra H.K.,Review Centre
American Journal of Public Health | Year: 2012

Objectives. We sought to describe the characteristics and sleep circumstances of infants who die suddenly and unexpectedly and to examine similarities and differences in risk factors among infants whose deaths are classified as resulting from sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), suffocation, or undetermined causes. Methods. We used 2005 to 2008 data from 9 US states to assess 3136 sleep-related sudden unexpected infant deaths (SUIDs). Results. Only 25% of infants were sleeping in a crib or on their back when found; 70% were on a surface not intended for infant sleep (e.g., adult bed). Importantly, 64% of infants were sharing a sleep surface, and almost half of these infants were sleeping with an adult. Infants whose deaths were classified as suffocation or undetermined cause were significantly more likely than were infants whose deaths were classified as SIDS to be found on a surface not intended for infant sleep and to be sharing that sleep surface. Conclusions. We identified modifiable sleep environment risk factors in a large proportion of the SUIDs assessed in this study. Our results make an important contribution to the mounting evidence that sleep environment hazards contribute to SUIDs. Source


Reichert M.S.,University of Missouri
Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology | Year: 2010

Males in many chorusing anuran species use aggressive calls during defense of calling spaces from other males. The minimal intensity of another male's vocalizations that elicits an aggressive call response has been termed the aggressive threshold. Previous studies of aggressive thresholds have shown that they are plastic: males habituated (increased their aggressive thresholds) in response to repeated presentation of stimuli above initial threshold levels. Habituation likely contributes to the stable chorus structure of these species, in which aggressive calling is rare compared to advertisement calls. I have observed high levels of aggressive calling in the treefrog Dendropsophus ebraccatus, suggesting that males of this species do not habituate. In this study, I investigated the plasticity of aggressive thresholds in D. ebraccatus. I measured the aggressive thresholds of males before and after suprathreshold stimulation by both advertisement and aggressive calls. I found that the different call types had different effects: males habituated to advertisement calls but lowered their aggressive thresholds in response to aggressive calls. I consider the latter response to be an example of sensitization, a behavior that has been documented infrequently in vocalizing anurans. Sensitization is a plausible mechanism responsible for the high levels of aggressive calling observed in this species. Given the high costs of aggressive calling, however, it is unclear why a mechanism that increases aggressive call output would be maintained. © 2009 Springer-Verlag. Source


Qin P.,University of Missouri
EMBO reports | Year: 2014

During protein synthesis, mRNA and tRNA are moved through the ribosome by the process of translocation. The small diameter of the mRNA entrance tunnel only permits unstructured mRNA to pass through. However, there are structured elements within mRNA that present a barrier for translocation that must be unwound. The ribosome has been shown to unwind RNA in the absence of additional factors, but the mechanism remains unclear. Here, we show using single molecule Förster resonance energy transfer and small angle X-ray scattering experiments a new global conformational state of the ribosome. In the presence of the frameshift inducing dnaX hairpin, the ribosomal subunits are driven into a hyper-rotated state and the L1 stalk is predominantly in an open conformation. This previously unobserved conformational state provides structural insight into the helicase activity of the ribosome and may have important implications for understanding the mechanism of reading frame maintenance. Source


Al-Dadah A.,University of Missouri
Advances in peritoneal dialysis. Conference on Peritoneal Dialysis | Year: 2012

In their broad spectrum, cardiovascular diseases are, collectively, the major cause of death in patients on dialysis. The population of patients treated with peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis are not only subject to the traditional risk factors for heart disease, but also to certain uremia-associated risk factors that are unique in this population. In the dialysis population, data regarding the effectiveness of routine pharmacologic and procedural interventions on cardiovascular outcomes are limited. Most dialysis patients are excluded from clinical trials, and so data from randomized controlled trials investigating outcomes in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis or hemodialysis are almost absent. In this review, we discuss some of the major cardiovascular problems in the dialysis population, the impact of those problems on survival, and when data are available, the impact of therapeutic strategies. Source


Holliday C.M.,University of Missouri | Gardner N.M.,Marshall University
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Crocodyliforms were one of the most successful groups of Mesozoic tetrapods, radiating into terrestrial, semiaquatic and marine environments, while occupying numerous trophic niches, including carnivorous, insectivorous, herbivorous, and piscivorous species. Among these taxa were the enigmatic, poorly represented flat-headed crocodyliforms from the late Cretaceous of northern Africa. Here we report a new, giant crocodyliform from the early Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian) Kem Kem Formation of Morocco. Represented by a partial braincase, the taxon has an extremely long, flat skull with large jaw and craniocervical muscles. The skull roof is ridged and ornamented with a broad, rough boss surrounded by significant vascular impressions, likely forming an integumentary structure unique among crocodyliforms. Size estimates using endocranial volume indicate the specimen was very large. The taxon possesses robust laterosphenoids with laterally oriented capitate processes and isolated epipterygoids, features allying it with derived eusuchians. Phylogenetic analysis finds the taxon to be a derived eusuchian and sister taxon to Aegyptosuchus, a poorly understood, early Late Cretaceous taxon from the Bahariya formation. This clade forms the sister clade of crown-group Crocodylia, making these taxa the earliest eusuchian crocodyliforms known from Africa. These results shift phylogenetic and biogeographical hypotheses on the origin of modern crocodylians towards the circum-Tethyean region and provide important new data on eusuchian morphology and evolution. © 2012 Holliday, Gardner. Source


Pai P.F.,University of Missouri
Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing | Year: 2011

Presented here is a new timefrequency signal processing methodology based on HilbertHuang transform (HHT) and a new conjugate-pair decomposition (CPD) method for characterization of nonlinear normal modes and parametric identification of nonlinear multiple-degree-of-freedom dynamical systems. Different from short-time Fourier transform and wavelet transform, HHT uses the apparent time scales revealed by the signals local maxima and minima to sequentially sift components of different time scales. Because HHT does not use pre-determined basis functions and function orthogonality for component extraction, it provides more accurate time-varying amplitudes and frequencies of extracted components for accurate estimation of system characteristics and nonlinearities. CPD uses adaptive local harmonics and function orthogonality to extract and track time-localized nonlinearity-distorted harmonics without the end effect that destroys the accuracy of HHT at the two data ends. For parametric identification, the method only needs to process one steady-state response (a free undamped modal vibration or a steady-state response to a harmonic excitation) and uses amplitude-dependent dynamic characteristics derived from perturbation analysis to determine the type and order of nonlinearity and system parameters. A nonlinear two-degree-of-freedom system is used to illustrate the concepts and characterization of nonlinear normal modes, vibration localization, and nonlinear modal coupling. Numerical simulations show that the proposed method can provide accurate timefrequency characterization of nonlinear normal modes and parametric identification of nonlinear dynamical systems. Moreover, results show that nonlinear modal coupling makes it impossible to decompose a general nonlinear response of a highly nonlinear system into nonlinear normal modes even if nonlinear normal modes exist in the system. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Gable S.,University of Missouri | Krull J.L.,University of California at Los Angeles | Chang Y.,University of Vermont
Child Development | Year: 2012

This study tests a mediated model of boys' and girls' weight status and math performance with 6,250 children from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study. Five data points spanning kindergarten entry (mean age=68.46months) through fifth grade (mean age=134.60months) were analyzed. Three weight status groups were identified: persistent obesity, later onset obesity, and never obese. Multilevel models tested relations between weight status and math performance, weight status and interpersonal skills and internalizing behaviors, and interpersonal skills and internalizing behaviors and math performance. Interpersonal skills mediated the association between weight status and math performance for girls, and internalizing behaviors mediated the association between weight status and math performance for both sexes, with effects varying by group and time. © 2012 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc. Source


Hanberry B.B.,University of Missouri
Forest Ecology and Management | Year: 2013

Recognition of changes in forests provides greater perspective about current trajectories of forests. I compared the newest USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) surveys to the oldest available surveys in the eastern United States to detect increasing and decreasing species and groups over large spatial extents. Species appeared to be increasing at the expense of decreasing species within each of the major forest ecosystems of the eastern United States. In eastern broadleaf forests, oaks and Virginia pine are decreasing and maples and eastern redcedar are increasing. In southern mixed forests, planted loblolly and slash pine are replacing shortleaf and longleaf pines, and longleaf pine wetland associates of swamp tupelo, pond cypress, and pond pine. In northern mixed forests of the Great Lake states, quaking aspen and paper birch are decreasing whereas red pine, later successional black spruce and northern white-cedar, and maples of eastern broadleaf forests are increasing. Indeed, red maple now is more frequent than aspen in northern mixed forests. The historical legacy of fire continues to affect forest composition. Without fire, fire-tolerant oaks and pines (that are not planted) still are decreasing, whereas fire-sensitive tree species are increasing. Forestry practices benefit planted pines but are not as effective at supporting quaking aspen against competition from red maple and species of the eastern broadleaf forest as in the past. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source


Hosaka M.,University of Missouri
European Journal of Engineering Education | Year: 2014

This qualitative study aims to examine Japanese women undergraduate engineering students' experiences of interacting with departmental peers of the same year in the laboratory setting by using interview data of 32 final-year students at two modestly selective national universities in Japan. Expectation state theory that explains unequal relationship between men and women is used as a framework. Findings suggest that women generally had a discouraging experience while working with their male peers. Specifically, women participated less and lost confidence by comparing with the men who appeared to be confident and competent. © 2014 SEFI. Source


Frey S.H.,University of Missouri | Povinelli D.J.,University of Louisiana at Lafayette
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2012

The ability to adjust one's ongoing actions in the anticipation of forthcoming task demands is considered as strong evidence for the existence of internal action representations. Studies of action selection in tool use reveal that the behaviours that we choose in the present moment differ depending on what we intend to do next. Further, they point to a specialized role for mechanisms within the human cerebellum and dominant left cerebral hemisphere in representing the likely sensory costs of intended future actions. Recently, the question of whether similar mechanisms exist in other primates has received growing, but still limited, attention. Here, we present data that bear on this issue from a species that is a natural user of tools, our nearest living relative, the chimpanzee. In experiment 1, a subset of chimpanzees showed a non-significant tendency for their grip preferences to be affected by anticipation of the demands associated with bringing a tool's baited end to their mouths. In experiment 2, chimpanzees' initial grip preferences were consistently affected by anticipation of the forthcoming movements in a task that involves using a tool to extract a food reward. The partial discrepancy between the results of these two studies is attributed to the ability to accurately represent differences between the motor costs associated with executing the two response alternatives available within each task. These findings suggest that chimpanzees are capable of accurately representing the costs of intended future actions, and using those predictions to select movements in the present even in the context of externally directed tool use. © 2011 The Royal Society. Source


Evans T.J.,University of Missouri
Veterinary Clinics of North America - Food Animal Practice | Year: 2011

This article discusses reproductive toxicants as the potential, primary causes of observed reproductive abnormalities and other variables that can affect reproductive performance in ruminants. The causes of diminished reproductive performance in ruminants are often multifactorial. It is critical that producers and their veterinarians understand the potential effects of physiologic and genetic predispositions and nutritional, environmental, infectious, and toxic stressors, as well as interactions involving management. The recognition and prevention of the adverse reproductive effects of these enzootic toxic stressors are essential for optimal ruminant reproductive performance and profitability of a ruminant production system. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. Source


Stannard J.P.,University of Missouri
The journal of knee surgery | Year: 2012

Surgeons are often faced with very limited data available to make informed decisions regarding the appropriate treatment of patients with posteromedial corner (PMC) injuries of the knee. This study compared the outcomes of surgical repair versus reconstruction in knee dislocation patients who have sustained injury to the PMC of the knee. Senior author treated 113 consecutive knee dislocations with 115 PMC injuries over 7 years. A total of 71 knee dislocation patients with 73 PMC tears qualified for the study and were followed for a mean of 43 months. Patients who had a PMC repair were assigned to treatment Group A. Group B included patients who had autograft reconstruction of the PMC. Patients who had an allograft PMC were assigned to Group C. A total of 25 patients had a repair, with 5 failures (20%), whereas 48 patients had reconstruction of the PMC with 2 failures (4%). There was a significant difference between the failure rate of PMC repairs and PMC reconstructions. Reconstruction of the PMC using a technique that reestablishes the critical triangle of the medial collateral ligament, the posterior oblique ligament, and the semitendinosus yielded better stability than repair in patients with a knee dislocation that included PMC instability. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA. Source


Lucy M.C.,University of Missouri
Reproduction, Fertility and Development | Year: 2012

The somatotropic axis - consisting of growth hormone (GH), the insulin-like growth factors 1 and 2 (IGF1 and IGF2), GH binding protein (GHBP), IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs) 1 to 6, and the cell-surface receptors for GH and the IGFs - has major effects on growth, lactation and reproduction. The primary target tissues for GH are involved in growth and metabolism. The functionality of the somatotropic axis depends in part on the expression of liver GH receptor (GHR), which determines the amount of IGF1 released from the liver in response to GH. The IGF1 acts as a pleiotropic growth factor and also serves as the endocrine negative feedback signal controlling pituitary GH secretion. Growth hormone and IGF1 undergo dynamic changes throughout the life cycle, particularly when animals are either growing, early post partum or lactating. Cells within the reproductive tract can respond directly to GH but to a lesser degree than the primary target tissues. The major impact that GH has on reproduction, therefore, may be secondary to its systemic effects on metabolism (including insulin sensitivity) or secondary to the capacity for GH to control IGF1 secretion. Insulin-like growth factor 1 and IGFBP are also synthesised within the ovary and this local synthesis is a component of the collective IGF1 action on the follicle. Future studies of GH should focus on its direct effects on the follicle as well as its indirect effects mediated by shifts in nutrient metabolism, insulin sensitivity, IGF1 and IGFBP. © IETS 2012. Source


Walker R.S.,University of Missouri
Evolution and Human Behavior | Year: 2014

The relatedness of human groups has important ramifications for kin (group) selection to favor more collective action and invites the potential for more exploitation by political leaders. Endogamous marriages among kin create intensive kinship systems with high group relatedness, while exogamous marriages among nonrelatives create extensive kinship with low group relatedness. Here, a sample of 58 societies (7,565 adults living in 353 residential groups) shows that average group relatedness is higher in lowland horticulturalists than in hunter-gatherers. Higher relatedness in horticulturalists is remarkable given that village sizes are larger, harboring over twice the average number of adults than in hunter-gatherer camps. The relatedness differential between subsistence regimes increases for larger group sizes. Large and dense networks of kin may have favored an increased propensity for some forms of in-group cooperation and political inequality that emerged relatively recently in human history, after the advent of farming. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. Source


Rodent prey contained in two temporally distinct collections of Barn Owl (Tyto alba) pellets from the same roost in southeastern Washington state (USA) differ in terms of taxonomic abundances. Deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) dominate the fauna in the pellet sample deposited while much of the landscape was productive wheat field, and voles (Microtus spp.) are a distant second. The fauna in the pellet sample deposited after 20% of the surrounding landscape was placed in soil bank and converted to a grass non-producing field is dominated by voles with deer mice a close second. The coincident changes in local vegetation and in the rodent fauna are causally as well as temporally interrelated. Previous local studies have focused on the agricultural economics of coincident shifts in agricultural practices and rodent faunas. Results presented here indicate potential benefits to owl faunas of changes in agricultural practices and suggest that study of curated owl pellet faunas collected decades ago may reveal much about the long-term history of anthropogenic influences on rodent faunas. © 2012, American Midland Naturalist. Source


Ho K.C.,University of Missouri
IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing | Year: 2012

This paper proposes two methods to reduce the bias of the well-known algebraic explicit solution (Chan and Ho, "A simple and efficient estimator for hyperbolic location," IEEE Trans. Signal Process., vol. 42, pp. 1905-1915, Aug. 1994) for source localization using TDOA. Bias of a source location estimate is significant when the measurement noise is large and the geolocation geometry is poor. Bias also dominates performance when multiple times of independent measurements are available such as in UWB localization or in target tracking. The paper starts by deriving the bias of the source location estimate from Chan and Ho. The bias is found to be considerably larger than that of the Maximum Likelihood Estimator. Two methods, called BiasSub and BiasRed, are developed to reduce the bias. The BiasSub method subtracts the expected bias from the solution of Chan and Ho's work, where the expected bias is approximated by the theoretical bias using the estimated source location and noisy data measurements. The BiasRed method augments the equation error formulation and imposes a constraint to improve the source location estimate. The BiasSub method requires the exact knowledge of the noise covariance matrix and BiasRed only needs the structure of it. Analysis shows that both methods reduce the bias considerably and achieve the CRLB performance for distant source when the noise is Gaussian and small. The BiasSub method can nearly eliminate the bias and the BiasRed method is able to lower the bias to the same level as the Maximum Likelihood Estimator. The BiasRed method is extended for TDOA and FDOA positioning. Simulations corroborate the performance of the proposed methods. © 1991-2012 IEEE. Source


Baines C.P.,University of Missouri
Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics | Year: 2011

While the majority of the cardiac myocyte death that makes up the final infarct occurs during ischemia and the first few minutes of reperfusion, cell death does not stop there. In fact necrosis and apoptosis, and potentially autophagy, can continue in the previously ischemic area for up to 3 days post-reperfusion. Several mechanisms can potentially contribute to this death continuum: (1) myocytes that have already passed the point of no return despite reperfusion; (2) continued dysfunction of the coronary microvasculature; and (3) infiltration of inflammatory cells. The latter in particular leads to elevated myocardial concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS), inflammatory cytokines, activation of toll-like receptors, secretion of toxic enzymes, and activation of the complement cascade-all of which can lead to myocyte death. However, there is a considerable lack of studies that comprehensively examine the time course, nature, and mechanisms of post-reperfusion myocyte death. Moreover, cell death types (apoptosis, necrosis, and autophagy) are inextricably linked to one another. Therefore, we do not know whether specific blockade of necrosis during the acute phase of myocyte death will instead enhance apoptosis during the late phase, that is, will we be simply delaying the inevitable? Consequently, the purpose of this article is to briefly review what we do, and more importantly what we do not, know about cardiac cell death in the reperfused heart and what is needed to advance our understanding of this phenomenon. © The Author(s) 2011. Source


This ecological study compares the utility of neighborhood economic, social, and co-ethnic concentration characteristics in explaining mortality among Latinos aged 25-64 due to all causes and heart disease in Los Angeles County from 2000 to 2004. Results indicate that local economic well-being and social resources are beneficial for both outcomes to varying degrees. Economic well-being is the strongest predictor of all-cause mortality rates among Latinos aged 25-64 and was the only characteristic that significantly predicted heart disease mortality among those aged 45-64. Among social resources, results indicate collective efficacy is comparatively more important for mortality in younger adults. Social interaction was associated with lower mortality but the effect was not significant for any outcome. Co-ethnic concentration was consistently associated with increased mortality, but only achieved significance for all-cause mortality in younger adults. This effect was mediated by neighborhood income. Though social resources appear to be beneficial to a lesser extent, results suggest policy should first aim to address income disparities across local communities. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Oliver D.P.,University of Missouri
Telemedicine journal and e-health : the official journal of the American Telemedicine Association | Year: 2010

This case study compared the delivery of a psychoeducational intervention with hospice caregivers, delivered in person and via videophone. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using telehealth tools to deliver interventions in hospice and identified ways or protocols that can be adapted for telehealth delivery. The caregiver expressed satisfaction with the telehealth experience, supporting the value of video communication. The results have laid the framework for further implementation of an ongoing, randomized clinical trial examining the use of telehealth tools for delivery of psychoeducational interventions with hospice caregivers. Source


Barampuram S.,University of Missouri
Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) | Year: 2011

Plant genetic engineering has become one of the most important molecular tools in the modern molecular breeding of crops. Over the last decade, significant progress has been made in the development of new and efficient transformation methods in plants. Despite a variety of available DNA delivery methods, Agrobacterium- and biolistic-mediated transformation remain the two predominantly employed approaches. In particular, progress in Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of cereals and other recalcitrant dicot species has been quite remarkable. In the meantime, other transgenic-enabling technologies have emerged, including generation of marker-free transgenics, gene targeting, and chromosomal engineering. Although transformation of some plant species or elite germplasm remains a challenge, further advancement in transformation technology is expected because the mechanisms of governing the regeneration and transformation processes are now better understood and are being creatively applied to designing improved transformation methods or to developing new enabling technologies. Source


Hunt H.K.,University of Missouri | Armani A.M.,University of Southern California
IEEE Journal on Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics | Year: 2014

Whispering gallery mode optical microcavities have significantly impacted the field of label-free optical biodetection. By combining the evanescent field generated by the microcavity with biomimetic surface chemistries, it is now possible to use the microcavities as not only biosensors, but as analytical tools to explore fundamental chemical and physical interactions of biomolecules and biomaterials. Here, we review the recent advancements of these applications from a surface chemistry perspective. For example, surface chemistries can be generated from a standard coating perspective, where active molecules, such as laser or fluorescent dyes can be embedded in a biomaterial matrix. Alternatively, direct and reverse grafting techniques can be used to tether biomolecules of interest to the surface to tune the surface properties (hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity, protein adsorption, cell adhesion, etc.). Finally, we discuss how to apply advancements in biomimetic chemistry from other sensor approaches to these devices to continue the development of new analytical tools. All of these developments rely on a firm understanding of how proper surface chemistries can be merged with whispering gallery mode optical microcavities to achieve not just a platform, but a precisely defined tool for a given application. © 2013 IEEE. Source


McDonald K.S.,University of Missouri
Pflugers Archiv European Journal of Physiology | Year: 2011

Myocardium generates power to perform external work on the circulation; yet, many questions regarding intermolecular mechanisms regulating power output remain unresolved. Power output equals force × shortening velocity, and some interesting new observations regarding control of these two factors have arisen. While it is well established that sarcomere length tightly controls myocyte force, sarcomere length-tension relationships also appear to be markedly modulated by PKA-mediated phosphorylation of myofibrillar proteins. Concerning loaded shortening, historical models predict independent cross-bridge mechanics; however, it seems that the mechanical state of one population of cross-bridges affects the activity of other cross-bridges by, for example, recruitment of cross-bridges from the non-cycling pool to the cycling force-generating pool during submaximal Ca2+ activation. This is supported by the findings that Ca2+ activation levels, myofilament phosphorylation, and sarcomere length are all modulators of loaded shortening and power output independent of their effects on force. This fine tuning of power output probably helps optimize myocardial energetics and to match ventricular supply with peripheral demand; yet, the discernment of the chemo-mechanical signals that modulate loaded shortening needs further clarification since power output may be a key convergent point and feedback regulator of cytoskeleton and cellular signals that control myocyte growth and survival. © 2011 Springer-Verlag. Source


Birchler J.A.,University of Missouri | Presting G.G.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Genes and Development | Year: 2012

The centromeres of most eukaryotic organisms consist of highly repetitive arrays that are similar across nonhomologous chromosomes. These sequences evolve rapidly, thus posing a mystery as to how such arrays can be homogenized. Recent work in species in which centromere- enriched retrotransposons occur indicates that these elements preferentially insert into the centromeric regions. In two different Arabidopsis species, a related element was recognized in which the specificity for such targeting was altered. These observations provide a partial explanation for how homogenization of centromere DNA sequences occurs. © 2012 by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. Source


Tan Z.-J.,Wuhan University | Chen S.-J.,University of Missouri
Biophysical Journal | Year: 2010

Recent experiments pointed to the potential importance of ion correlation for multivalent ions such as Mg2+ ions in RNA folding. In this study, we develop an all-atom model to predict the ion electrostatics in RNA folding. The model can treat ion correlation effects explicitly by considering an ensemble of discrete ion distributions. In contrast to the previous coarse-grained models that can treat ion correlation, this new model is based on all-atom nucleic acid structures. Thus, unlike the previous coarse-grained models, this new model allows us to treat complex tertiary structures such as HIV-1 DIS type RNA kissing complexes. Theory-experiment comparisons for a variety of tertiary structures indicate that the model gives improved predictions over the Poisson-Boltzmann theory, which underestimates the Mg 2+ binding in the competition with Na+. Further systematic theory-experiment comparisons for a series of tertiary structures lead to a set of analytical formulas for Mg2+/Na+ ion-binding to various RNA and DNA structures over a wide range of Mg2+ and Na + concentrations. © 2010 by the Biophysical Society. Source


Fritsche K.L.,University of Missouri
Advances in Nutrition | Year: 2015

Inflammation is believed to play a central role in many of the chronic diseases that characterize modern society. In the past decade, our understanding of how dietary fats affect our immune system and subsequently our inflammatory status has grown considerably. There are compelling data showing that high-fat meals promote endotoxin [e.g., lipopolysaccharide (LPS)] translocation into the bloodstream, stimulating innate immune cells and leading to a transient postprandial inflammatory response. The nature of this effect is influenced by the amount and type of fat consumed. The role of various dietary constituents, including fats, on gut microflora and subsequent health outcomes in the host is another exciting and novel area of inquiry. The impact of specific fatty acids on inflammation may be central to how dietary fats affect health. Three key fatty acid-inflammation interactions are briefly described. First, the evidence suggests that saturated fatty acids induce inflammation in part by mimicking the actions of LPS. Second, the often-repeated claim that dietary linoleic acid promotes inflammation was not supported in a recent systematic review of the evidence. Third, an explanation is offered for why omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids are so much less anti-inflammatory in humans than in mice. The article closes with a cautionary tale from the genomic literature that illustrates why extrapolating the results from inflammation studies in mice to humans is problematic. Source


Birchler J.A.,University of Missouri
Current Opinion in Plant Biology | Year: 2014

Platforms for the development of synthetic chromosomes in plants have been produced in several species using telomere mediated chromosomal truncation with the simultaneous inclusion of sites that facilitate further additions to the newly generated minichromosome. By utilizing truncated supernumerary or B chromosomes, the output of the genes on the minichromosome can be amplified. Proof of concept experiments have been successful illustrating that minichromosome platforms can be modified in vivo. Engineered minichromosomes can likely be combined with haploid breeding if they are incorporated into inducer lines given that the observations that basically inert chromosomes from haploid inducer lines can be recovered at workable frequencies in otherwise haploid plants. Future needs of synthetic chromosome development are discussed. © 2014. Source


Birchler J.A.,University of Missouri
Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology | Year: 2013

The early principles of the impact of aneuploidy were determined in plants and Drosophila. Here we summarize the classical results and then relate them to more current studies of gene expression in these taxa. As a general rule, aneuploidy is detrimental, even to the point of lethality, compared to changes in the dosage of the whole genome. Gene expression studies demonstrate an analogous relationship, namely that changes in dosage of chromosomes or chromosomal segments will modulate many genes but changes in whole ploidy have much less of an effect. One of the most common trans-acting effects is an inverse response of a gene to the altered dosage of a chromosomal segment. This effect can produce dosage compensation when it occurs for a gene that is also present in the varied region. Some open questions in the field of aneuploidy research are discussed. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Schoelz J.E.,University of Missouri | Harries P.A.,Pittsburg State University | Nelson R.S.,Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation
Molecular Plant | Year: 2011

Plant viruses are a class of plant pathogens that specialize in movement from cell to cell. As part of their arsenal for infection of plants, every virus encodes a movement protein (MP), a protein dedicated to enlarging the pore size of plasmodesmata (PD) and actively transporting the viral nucleic acid into the adjacent cell. As our knowledge of intercellular transport has increased, it has become apparent that viruses must also use an active mechanism to target the virus from their site of replication within the cell to the PD. Just as viruses are too large to fit through an unmodified plasmodesma, they are also too large to be freely diffused through the cytoplasm of the cell. Evidence has accumulated now for the involvement of other categories of viral proteins in intracellular movement in addition to the MP, including viral proteins originally associated with replication or gene expression. In this review, we will discuss the strategies that viruses use for intracellular movement from the replication site to the PD, in particular focusing on the role of host membranes for intracellular transport and the coordinated interactions between virus proteins within cells that are necessary for successful virus spread. © 2011 The Author. Source


Stone E.E.,University of Missouri
Conference proceedings : ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Conference | Year: 2011

We present an analysis of measuring stride-to-stride gait variability passively, in a home setting using two vision based monitoring techniques: anonymized video data from a system of two web-cameras, and depth imagery from a single Microsoft Kinect. Millions of older adults fall every year. The ability to assess the fall risk of elderly individuals is essential to allowing them to continue living safely in independent settings as they age. Studies have shown that measures of stride-to-stride gait variability are predictive of falls in older adults. For this analysis, a set of participants were asked to perform a number of short walks while being monitored by the two vision based systems, along with a marker based Vicon motion capture system for ground truth. Measures of stride-to-stride gait variability were computed using each of the systems and compared against those obtained from the Vicon. Source


Guo Y.,University of Missouri
Sensors (Basel, Switzerland) | Year: 2013

While photosystem II (PSII) of plants utilizes light for photosynthesis, part of the absorbed energy may be reverted back and dissipated as long-term fluorescence (delayed fluorescence or DF). Because the generation of DF is coupled with the processes of forward photosynthetic activities, DF contains the information about plant physiological states and plant-environment interactions. This makes DF a potentially powerful biosensing mechanism to measure plant photosynthetic activities and environmental conditions. While DF has attracted the interest of many researchers, some aspects of it are still unknown because of the complexity of photosynthetic system. In order to provide a holistic picture about the usefulness of DF, it is meaningful to summarize the research on DF applications. In this short review, available literature on applications of DF from PSII is summarized. Source


Zhao H.,Savannah State University | Baker G.A.,University of Missouri | Holmes S.,Savannah State University
Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry | Year: 2011

The enzymatic preparation of biodiesel has been hampered by the lack of suitable solvents with desirable properties such as high lipase compatibility, low cost, low viscosity, high biodegradability, and ease of product separation. Recent interest in using ionic liquids (ILs) as advanced reaction media has led to fast reaction rates and high yields in the enzymatic synthesis of biodiesel. However, conventional (i.e., cation-anion paired) ILs based on imidazolium and other quaternary ammonium salts remain too expensive for wide application at industrial scales. In this study, we report on newly-synthesized eutectic ILs derived from choline acetate or choline chloride coupled with biocompatible hydrogen-bond donors, such as glycerol. These eutectic solvents have favorable properties including low viscosity, high biodegradability, and excellent compatibility with Novozym ® 435, a commercial immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B. Furthermore, in a model biodiesel synthesis system, we demonstrate high reaction rates for the enzymatic transesterification of Miglyol ® oil 812 with methanol, catalyzed by Novozym ® 435 in choline acetate/glycerol (1:1.5 molar ratio). The high conversion (97%) of the triglyceride obtained within 3 h, under optimal conditions, suggests that these novel eutectic solvents warrant further exploration as potential media in the enzymatic production of biodiesel. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source


Gheysen G.,Ghent University | Mitchum M.G.,University of Missouri
Current Opinion in Plant Biology | Year: 2011

Sedentary plant-parasitic nematodes establish long term relationships with their hosts. Root vascular cells are transformed into large multinucleate feeding cells from which the nematodes feed for more than one month. Recent transcriptome analyses suggest that feeding cells are different from other plant cell types. Their development, however, remains poorly understood, despite new evidence that appears to confirm previously proposed models, such as the important role of auxin. From the analysis of nematode effector proteins that interact with plant proteins, it has become clear that nematodes manipulate many aspects of plant development, including auxin transport and plant cell differentiation pathways. These studies are also revealing roles for effectors in the inhibition of plant stress and defense responses to establish feeding cells. In the coming years breakthroughs can be expected in our understanding of plant-nematode interactions from the functional analysis of nematode effector genes as well as the involved plant genes. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Olshansky B.,University of Iowa | Sullivan R.M.,University of Missouri
Journal of the American College of Cardiology | Year: 2013

Inappropriate sinus tachycardia (IST) is a syndrome in which the sinus heart rate is inexplicably faster than expected and associated symptoms are present. The heart rate at rest, even in a supine position, can exceed 100 beats/min; minimal activity accelerates the rate rapidly and substantially. Patients with IST may require restriction from physical activity. Mechanisms responsible for IST are understood incompletely. It is important to distinguish IST from so-called appropriate sinus tachycardia and from postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome, with which overlap may occur. Because the long-term outcome seems to be benign, treatment may be unnecessary or may be as simple as physical training. However, for patients with intolerable symptoms, therapeutic measures are warranted. Even at high doses, β-adrenergic blockers, the first-line therapy, often are ineffective; the same is true for most other medical therapies. In rare instances, catheter- or surgically- based right atrial or sinus node modification may be helpful, but even this is fraught with limited efficacy and potential complications. Overtreatment, in an attempt to reduce symptoms, can be difficult to avoid, but is discouraged. © 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Source


Dyer J.A.,University of Missouri
Seminars in Perinatology | Year: 2013

Many organ systems undergo significant and rapid changes during the transition from an intrauterine to an extrauterine environment, especially those which serve as interfaces between the infant and the external environment. Historically the skin care methods employed during and after this period of rapid physiologic change have been derived from individual anecdotal experience or cultural tradition, rather than evidence-based or pathomechanistically derived data. While research in this area has historically been limited, it is increasing in scope and volume, and recent work has shed light on the changes experienced by the cutaneous organ during this period of transition. This increased understanding has driven new recommendations in skin care protocols for newborn infants and neonates. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. Source


Rivera R.M.,University of Missouri | Ross J.W.,Iowa State University
Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology | Year: 2013

Epigenetic reprogramming of the parental genomes upon fertilization is required for proper embryonic development. It has long been appreciated that asymmetric distribution of histone modifications as well as differences in the level of DNA methylation exist between the parental pronuclei in mammalian zygotes and during preimplantation development. The speed at which the paternal genome is demethylated after entering the oocyte and the fact that rapid demethylation occurs in the absence of DNA replication have led many to hypothesize that a DNA demethylase must exist. However, such an enzyme has not been found. That the genome of mammalian preimplantation embryos undergo a wave of global demethylation was first reported 25 years ago but only in the past three years has data surfaced that can partially explain the elusive nature of this phenomenon. In addition to the global reorganization of the methylation and histone modification patterns, oocyte development prior to germinal vesicle breakdown involves the production of numerous small RNA, including miRNA. Despite their presence, miRNA functional activity is thought to be limited in the mature mouse oocyte. Additionally, molecular signatures in the 3' untranslated region of maternally expressed transcripts may impact mRNA stability during the transcriptionally quiescent period following germinal vesicle breakdown and prior to the maternal to zygote transition. In this review, we reference some of the recent works which attempt to shed light into the importance of the dynamic epigenetic landscape observed during oocyte maturation and preimplantation embryo development in mammals. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Lachin J.M.,George Washington University | White N.H.,Washington University in St. Louis | Hainsworth D.P.,University of Missouri | Sun W.,George Washington University | And 2 more authors.
Diabetes | Year: 2015

The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) demonstrated that a mean of 6.5 years of intensive therapy aimed at near-normal glucose levels reduced the risk of development and progression of retinopathy by as much as 76% compared with conventional therapy. The Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications study (EDIC) observational follow-up showed that the risk of further progression of retinopathy 4 years after the DCCT ended was also greatly reduced in the former intensive group, despite nearly equivalent levels of HbA1c, a phenomenon termed metabolic memory. Metabolic memory was shown to persist through 10 years of follow-up. We now describe the risk of further progression of retinopathy, progression to proliferative diabetic retinopathy, clinically significant macular edema, and the need for intervention (photocoagulation or anti-VEGF) over 18 years of follow-up in EDIC. The cumulative incidence of each retinal outcome continues to be lower in the former intensive group. However, the year-to-year incidence of these outcomes is now similar, owing in large part to a reduction in risk in the former conventional treatment group. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Source


Cooley J.W.,University of Missouri
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Bioenergetics | Year: 2013

Early structures of the cytochrome bc1 complex revealed heterogeneity in the position of the soluble portion of the Rieske iron sulfur protein subunit, implicating a movement of this domain during function. Subsequent biochemical and biophysical works have firmly established that the motion of this subunit acts in the capacity of a conformationally assisted electron transfer step during the already complicated catalytic mechanism described within the modified version of Peter Mitchells Q cycle. How the movement of this subunit is initiated or how the frequency of its motion is controlled as a function of other steps during the catalysis remain topics of debate within the active research communities. This review addresses the historical aspects of the discovery and description of this movement, while attempting to provide a context for the involvement of conformational motion in the catalysis and efficiency of the enzyme. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Respiratory complex III and related bc complexes. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source


Vignale G.,University of Missouri
Journal of Superconductivity and Novel Magnetism | Year: 2010

In this short review I survey the theory of the spin Hall effect in doped semiconductors and metals in the light of recent experiments on both kinds of materials. After a brief introduction to different types of spin-orbit coupling in solids, I describe in detail the three conceptually distinct mechanisms that are known to contribute to the spin Hall effect, namely "skew- scattering", "side-jump", and "intrinsic mechanism". The skew-scattering mechanism is shown to be dominant in certain clean two-dimensional semiconductors in which one component of the spin is conserved. In such systems the side-jump mechanism is sub-dominant, but universal in form, and can become dominant if the electron mobility is reduced by changing the temperature. Both skew-scattering and side-jump contributions are generally reduced by spin precession, and skew-scattering is completely suppressed in the linear Rashba model in the absence of magnetic field. Different models of spin-orbit coupling can, however, sustain an intrinsic spin Hall effect. A brief summary of the present experimental situation concludes the review. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source


Havens T.C.,Michigan State University | Bezdek J.C.,University of Missouri
IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering | Year: 2012

The VAT algorithm is a visual method for determining the possible number of clusters in, or the cluster tendency of a set of objects. The improved VAT (iVAT) algorithm uses a graph-theoretic distance transform to improve the effectiveness of the VAT algorithm for "ltough"l cases where VAT fails to accurately show the cluster tendency. In this paper, we present an efficient formulation of the iVAT algorithm which reduces the computational complexity of the iVAT algorithm from O(N 3) to O(N 2). We also prove a direct relationship between the VAT image and the iVAT image produced by our efficient formulation. We conclude with three examples displaying clustering tendencies in three of the Karypis data sets that illustrate the improvement offered by the iVAT transformation. We also provide a comparison of iVAT images to those produced by the Reverse Cuthill-Mckee (RCM) algorithm; our examples suggest that iVAT is superior to the RCM method of display. © 2012 IEEE. Source


Durante W.,University of Missouri
Frontiers in Immunology | Year: 2013

Arginase metabolizes the semi-essential amino acid L-arginine to L-ornithine and urea. There are two distinct isoforms of arginase, arginase I and II, which are encoded by separate genes and display differences in tissue distribution, subcellular localization, and molecular regulation. Blood vessels express both arginase I and II but their distribution appears to be cell-, vessel-, and species-specific. Both isoforms of arginase are induced by numerous pathologic stimuli and contribute to vascular cell dysfunction and vessel wall remodeling in several diseases. Clinical and experimental studies have documented increases in the expression and/or activity of arginase I or II in blood vessels following arterial injury and in pulmonary and arterial hypertension, aging, and atherosclerosis. Significantly, pharmacological inhibition or genetic ablation of arginase in animals ameliorates abnormalities in vascular cells and normalizes blood vessel architecture and function in all of these pathological states. The detrimental effect of arginase in vascular remodeling is attributable to its ability to stimulate vascular smooth muscle cell and endothelial cell proliferation, and collagen deposition by promoting the synthesis of polyamines and L-proline, respectively. In addition, arginase adversely impacts arterial remodeling by directing macrophages toward an inflammatory phenotype. Moreover, the proliferative, fibrotic, and inflammatory actions of arginase in the vasculature are further amplified by its capacity to inhibit nitric oxide (NO) synthesis by competing with NO synthase for substrate, L-arginine. Pharmacologic or molecular approaches targeting specific isoforms of arginase represent a promising strategy in treating obstructive fibroproliferative vascular disease. © 2013 Durante. Source


During murine fertilization, sperm bind to the specialized extracellular matrix of the egg, known as the zona pellucida (ZP). This matrix is composed of three major glycoproteins designated ZP1, ZP2, and ZP3. Three models for sperm - ZP binding Are now under consideration. The domain-specific model posits that adhesion relies primarily on interactions between N-glycans located within the C-terminal domain of ZP3 and a lectin-like egg-binding protein in the sperm plasma membrane. However, this model does not explain recent results obtained in studies with ZP2mut mice. In the supramolecular structure model, sperm bind to a three-dimensional zona matrix that depends on the cleavage status of ZP2. This paradigm does not explain the potent inhibitory effect of specific carbohydrate sequences or a C-terminal glycopeptide (gp55) derived from ZP3. Recently, O-glycans linked at Thr155 and Thr162 of ZP3 were implicated as potential ligands that mediate initial sperm - ZP binding. This novel model will be reviewed. A major challenge is to develop an alternate model for sperm - ZP binding that fits as much of the data as possible. Such a model is presented in this review. This paradigm could explain how the inability to cleave ZP2mut in ZP2mut mice could result in continued sperm binding to two-cell stage embryos without the formation of a supramolecular binding complex. These novel insights should guide future experiments that will eventually determine the molecular basis underlying gamete binding in the mouse and other eutherian mammals. © 2011 Society for Reproduction and Fertility. Source


Sherman M.P.,University of Missouri
Clinics in Perinatology | Year: 2013

Lactoferrin (LF) is a multifunctional protein and a member of the transferrin family. LF and lysozyme in breast milk kill bacteria. In the stomach, pepsin digests and releases a potent peptide antibiotic called lactoferricin from native LF. The antimicrobial characteristics of LF may facilitate a healthy intestinal microbiome. LF is the major whey in human milk; its highest concentration is in colostrum. This fact highlights early feeding of colostrum and also fresh mature milk as a way to prevent necrotizing enterocolitis. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. Source


Murtha Y.,University of Missouri
Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma | Year: 2013

Achieving a balance between one's career and personal life is a never-ending challenge. As a surgeon, add-on cases and double-booked clinics can lead to long hours at work and make availability for family time unpredictable. It may seem like the threat of interruption because of patient needs always loom. Disruptions to family time extend beyond the long hours spent in surgery and clinics. Inattentiveness at home because of the technology tethers that keep one available for constant questions and patient care issues can also distract from time spent with family. Although the practice of an orthopaedic trauma surgeon can involve unpredictable schedules and patient care issues, there are means of mitigating the chaos that can envelop one's personal life as a result of a chosen career track. Clear priorities and expectations in both personal and professional arenas can improve the work-life balance. Flexible jobs that allow for more time with family do exist. Negotiating for this flexibility and self-assurance in holding fast to personal ideals are important in achieving a successful balance. Copyright © 2013 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source


Decker J.E.,University of Missouri
Heredity | Year: 2016

Feral livestock may harbor genetic variation of commercial, scientific, historical or esthetic value. The origins and uniqueness of feral cattle on Chirikof Island, Alaska, are uncertain. The island is now part of the Alaska Maritime Wildlife Refuge and Federal wildlife managers want grazing to cease, presumably leading to demise of the cattle. Here we characterize the cattle of Chirikof Island relative to extant breeds and discern their origins. Our analyses support the inference that Yakut cattle from Russia arrived first on Chirikof Island, then ~120 years ago the first European taurine cattle were introduced to the island, and finally a large wave of Hereford cattle were introduced on average 40 years ago. In addition, this mixture of European and East-Asian cattle is unique compared with other North American breeds and we find evidence that natural selection in the relatively harsh environment of Chirikof Island has further impacted their genetic architecture. These results provide an objective basis for decisions regarding conservation of the Chirikof Island cattle.Heredity advance online publication, 10 February 2016; doi:10.1038/hdy.2016.7. © 2016 The Genetics Society Source


Layfield L.J.,University of Missouri
Cytopathology | Year: 2016

The Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology has formulated guidelines for respiratory cytology which include a classification scheme. The recommended classification scheme is based on the expertise of the committee members, extensive review of the literature and feedback from presentations at national and international meetings. Each category of the classification system is closely defined and link to a known risk for malignancy. The classification contains six categories designated as: 1) Non-diagnostic; 2) Negative for Malignancy; 3) Atypical; 4) Neoplastic (Benign and low grade cancer); 5) Suspicious for Malignancy; and 6) Malignant. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source


Birchler J.A.,University of Missouri
Frontiers in Plant Science | Year: 2014

Crosses between plants at different ploidy levels will often result in failure of endosperm development. The basis of this phenomenon has been attributed to parental gene imprinting of genes involved with endosperm development but a review of the data from maize indicates a dosage interaction between the contributions of the female gametophyte and the primary endosperm nucleus to early endosperm development. However, it is noted that parental imprinting is a non-mutational means that can alter dosage sensitive factors and therefore can contribute to this effect. Operationally, the genes determining ploidy hybridization barrier would qualify for Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities that prevent gene flow between species. © 2014 Birchler. Source


Gallivan J.P.,Queens University | Adam McLean D.,University of Western Ontario | Valyear K.F.,University of Missouri | Culham J.C.,University of Western Ontario
eLife | Year: 2013

Sophisticated tool use is a defining characteristic of the primate species but how is it supported by the brain, particularly the human brain? Here we show, using functional MRI and pattern classification methods, that tool use is subserved by multiple distributed action-centred neural representations that are both shared with and distinct from those of the hand. In areas of frontoparietal cortex we found a common representation for planned hand- and tool-related actions. In contrast, in parietal and occipitotemporal regions implicated in hand actions and body perception we found that coding remained selectively linked to upcoming actions of the hand whereas in parietal and occipitotemporal regions implicated in tool-related processing the coding remained selectively linked to upcoming actions of the tool. The highly specialized and hierarchical nature of this coding suggests that hand- and tool-related actions are represented separately at earlier levels of sensorimotor processing before becoming integrated in frontoparietal cortex. © Gallivan et al. Source


Mashhoon B.,University of Missouri
Classical and Quantum Gravity | Year: 2013

In nonlocal general relativity, linearized gravitational waves are damped as they propagate from the source to the receiver in the Minkowski vacuum. Nonlocal gravity is a generalization of Einstein's theory of gravitation in which nonlocality is due to the gravitational memory of past events. That nonlocal gravity is dissipative is demonstrated in this paper within certain approximation schemes. The gravitational memory drag leads to the decay of the amplitude of gravitational waves given by the exponential damping factor exp ( - t/τ), where τ depends on the kernel of nonlocal gravity. The damping time τ is estimated for gravitational waves of current observational interest and is found to be of the order of, or longer than, the age of the universe. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd. Source


Khusnutdinova J.R.,University of Washington | Rath N.P.,University of Missouri | Mirica L.M.,University of Washington
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2012

Oxidation of the Pd II complex (N4)Pd IIMe 2 (N4 = N,N'-di-tert-butyl-2,11-diaza[3.3](2,6)pyridinophane) with O 2 or ROOH (R = H, tert-butyl, cumyl) produces the Pd III species [(N4)Pd IIIMe 2] +, followed by selective formation of ethane and the monomethyl complex (N4)Pd IIMe(OH). Cyclic voltammetry studies and use of 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO) as a spin trap suggest an inner-sphere mechanism for (N4)Pd IIMe 2 oxidation by O 2 to generate a Pd III- superoxide intermediate. In addition, reaction of (N4)Pd IIMe 2 with cumene hydroperoxide involves a heterolytic O-O bond cleavage, implying a two-electron oxidation of the Pd II precursor and formation of a transient Pd IV intermediate. Mechanistic studies of the C-C bond formation steps and crossover experiments are consistent with a nonradical mechanism that involves methyl group transfer and transient formation of a Pd IV species. Moreover, the (N4)Pd IIMe(OH) complex formed upon ethane elimination reacts with weakly acidic C-H bonds of acetone and terminal alkynes, leading to formation of a new Pd II-C bond. Overall, this study represents the first example of C-C bond formation upon aerobic oxidation of a Pd II dimethyl complex, with implications in the development of Pd catalysts for aerobic oxidative coupling of C-H bonds. © 2011 American Chemical Society. Source


Hall L.W.,University of Missouri | Zierler B.K.,University of Washington
Journal of Interprofessional Care | Year: 2015

With the growth of interprofessional education (IPE) and practice in health professional schools, faculty members are being asked to assume new roles in leading or delivering interprofessional curriculum. Many existing faculty members feel ill-prepared to face the challenges of this curricular innovation. From 2012-2013, University of Missouri-Columbia and University of Washington partnered with six additional academic health centers to pilot a faculty development course to prepare faculty leaders for IPE. Using a variety of techniques, including didactic teaching, small group exercises, immersion participation in interprofessional education, local implementation of new IPE projects, and peer learning, the program positioned each site to successfully introduce an interprofessional innovation. Participating faculty confirmed the value of the program, and suggested that more widespread similar efforts were worthwhile. This guide briefly describes this faculty development program and identifies key lessons learned from the initiative. Peer learning arising from a faculty development community, adaptation of curricula to fit local context, experiential learning, and ongoing coaching/mentoring, especially as it related to actual participation in IPE activities, were among the key elements of this successful faculty development activity. Source


Coberly E.A.,University of Missouri
The New England journal of medicine | Year: 2014

A 39-year-old woman with a history of gestational diabetes was admitted with epigastric pain from acute pancreatitis. She had no history of hyperlipidemia, but multiple blood samples were grossly lipemic, and serum triglyceride levels were markedly increased. Source


Taliaferro L.A.,University of Missouri | Muehlenkamp J.J.,University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire
Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior | Year: 2014

Data from the 2010 Minnesota Student Survey was analyzed to identify risk and protective factors that distinguished adolescents across three groups: no suicidality, suicidal ideation only, and suicide attempt. The population-based sample included 70,022 students in grades 9 and 12. Hopelessness and depressive symptoms emerged as important risk factors to distinguish youth who reported suicidal ideation or behavior from those without a history of suicidality. However, these factors were not as important in differentiating adolescents who attempted suicidal from those who considered suicide but did not act on their thoughts. Instead, for both genders, self-injury represented the most important factor to distinguish these youth. Other risk factors that differentiated the latter groups, but not the former groups, for males were dating violence victimization and cigarette smoking, and for females was a same-sex sexual experience. Running away from home also seemed to increase the risk of a suicide attempt among youth in this study. Parent connectedness and academic achievement emerged as important protective factors to differentiate all the groups, yet neighborhood safety appeared to protect against the transition from suicidal thoughts to behavior. Findings from this study suggest risk and protective factors practitioners should target in clinical assessments and intervention programs to help prevent suicidal behavior among youth at greatest risk. © 2013 The American Association of Suicidology. Source


Dannecker E.A.,University of Missouri | Koltyn K.F.,University of Wisconsin - Madison
Sports Medicine | Year: 2014

Literature on the pain relieving effects of exercise has been reviewed several times. It is equally important to review the literature on the pain-inducing effects of exercise. Indeed, exercise professionals, health care providers, and exercisers must grapple with the fact that exercise can both induce and reduce pain. The objective of this review was to synthesize our current understanding of exercise-induced pain and inspire advanced research. We searched the PubMed database for publications since 2000 about healthy human participants. Disease-specific reviews of the effects of exercise are available elsewhere. The results of our literature review verified that many different modes, intensities, and durations of exercise can induce pain in healthy people. Another important point is that pain can occur within a few hours after eccentric contractions, which should be considered relative to the construct of delayed-onset muscle soreness. In addition, the studies supported that exercise can be painful in diverse muscle groups. Yet another point illuminated by the literature is that different pain measures do not always change in similar directions and magnitudes after exercise. Therefore, our review confirms that a wide variety of exercises can be painful - even for healthy people. We wonder how many exercise professionals and health care providers regularly and appropriately measure exercise-related pain or consider such pain in their exercise recommendations. We also question if exercise-related pain affects exercise behavior in healthy people as it has been shown to do in people with chronic illnesses. Additional research is needed to improve both exercise recommendations and exercise behavior. © 2014 Springer International Publishing Switzerland. Source


Skyberg J.A.,University of Missouri
Virulence | Year: 2013

Francisella tularensis is a gram-negative bacterium that causes the zoonotic disease tularemia. Francisella is highly infectious via the respiratory route (~10 CFUs) and pulmonary infections due to type A strains of F. tularensis are highly lethal in untreated patients (> 30%). In addition, no vaccines are licensed to prevent tularemia in humans. Due to the high infectivity and mortality of pulmonary tularemia, F. tularensis has been weaponized, including via the introduction of antibiotic resistance, by several countries. Because of the lack of efficacious vaccines, and concerns about F. tularensis acquiring resistance to antibiotics via natural or illicit means, augmentation of host immunity, and humoral immunotherapy have been investigated as countermeasures against tularemia. This manuscript will review advances made and challenges in the field of immunotherapy against tularemia. © 2013 Landes Bioscience. Source


Barrier B.F.,University of Missouri
Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology | Year: 2010

Endometriosis is a common condition with a varied phenotype. Symptomatic cases have been associated with progesterone resistance and dysregulated cytokine production in both ectopic and eutopic endometrium. In at least some cases, this seems to be associated with chronic local inflammation and antibody self-reactivity. Coexistence of endometriosis with autoimmune disease has been documented in a small number of cases, and the presence of autoreactive antibodies in the serum of some patients with endometriosis is commonly reported. This paper briefly reviews the association between endometriosis and autoimmune disease and describes the potential role of inflammation in the development of immunologic self-reactivity in these patients. © 2010, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source


Clark G.F.,University of Missouri
Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine | Year: 2010

The crucial cell adhesion events required for mammalian fertilization commence when spermatozoa bind to the specialized extracellular matrix of the oocyte, known as the zona pellucida (ZP). Bound gametes then undergo a signal transduction cascade known as acrosomal exocytosis that enables them to penetrate this matrix and fuse with the oocyte to create a new individual. The ZP is therefore the target of intense investigation in the mouse, pig, bovine, and human models. Major goals in such studies are to define the adhesion molecules, signal transduction pathways, and the molecular basis for the species-restricted binding of gametes. Evidence exists indicating that protein-carbohydrate and to a lesser extent protein-protein interactions play a role in the initial gamete binding. More recent findings in an unusual sperm-somatic cell adhesion system indicate that tri- and tetraantennary N-glycans mediate initial sperm-oocyte binding in both the murine and porcine models, but conflicting data exist. A novel paradigm designated the "domain specific model" will be presented that could explain these inconsistencies. Another potential functional role of the ZP is immune recognition. Both spermatozoa and oocytes lack major histocompatibility (MHC) class I molecules that mediate the recognition of self in the immune system. This absence makes gametes less susceptible to class I restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes, but more vulnerable to natural killer (NK) cells. Therefore a "fail safe" system for NK cell recognition should exist on both types of gametes. Another issue is that oocytes could begin to express paternal major histocompatibility antigens during the blastocyst stage prior to hatching, and thus mechanisms could also be in place to block the development of maternal adaptive immune responses. An enhanced understanding of these issues could facilitate the development of superior infertility treatments and contraceptive strategies, and define central operating principles of immune recognition in the female reproductive system. © 2010 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. Source


Hawthorne M.F.,University of Missouri
Comments on Inorganic Chemistry | Year: 2010

I first met Gordon during the autumn of 1960 when we were both located at Harvard. Gordon was an Assistant Professor of Inorganic Chemistry while I was on temporary appointment as a Visiting Lecturer teaching Paul Bartlett's graduate course on organic chemistry. My stay at Harvard was made possible by a leave of absence from the Rohm and Haas Company, Redstone Arsenal Research Division. Gordon's research at the time was concerned with the study of the NMR phenomena associated with the acid-base complexes of boranes and Lewis bases. He was just beginning to enter the emerging field of modern organometallic chemistry. My interests at that time, and since, were centered upon the exploratory chemistry of the larger boranes, polyhedral borane anions and the carboranes. I had not yet discovered metal- lacarborane chemistry, an event of 1965. Both Gordon and I interacted scientifically with Bill Lipscomb during our time at Harvard. This was a truly exciting era since Lipscomb was developing his bonding theory for boranes and rapidly determining the structures of a variety of borane derivatives made available by the research community. Early in 1961 I returned to my industrial position and in 1962 I became a Professor of Chemistry at the University of California, Riverside. Gordon returned to England as a Professor of Inorganic Chemistry at Queen Mary College, the University of London. Later, Gordon became a Professor of Inorganic Chemistry at the University of Bristol with astounding success. Throughout the years Gordon has always provided me with invitations to participate in important scientific meetings and lectures in Britain. The first instance in which Gordon entertained me occurred in 1963 when he arranged my appointment as a special lecturer at the University of London and several other universities. The number of invitations which Gordon has extended to me over the years is too large to recall, but I shall always be grateful for his friendship and help extended to me in the earliest part of my career. Consequently, I am extremely grateful for the opportunity to attend this meeting in Waco and to interact with my old friend, Gordon Stone. I wish him well even though he insists upon drawing dicarbollide-containing structures "upside-down"! © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source


Leung R.C.,University of Missouri
Health Care Management Review | Year: 2012

BACKGROUND: Health information technology (HIT) purports to increase quality and efficiency in health care organizations. However, health care organizations are situated in constantly changing environments. They need dynamic capabilities to implement HIT effectively. PURPOSES: This article builds on the dynamic capabilities perspective and generates propositions about implementing HIT in dynamic environments. Specifically, I identify the (1) the necessary resources and capabilities for organizations to implement HIT; (2) the organizational capabilities and benefits that can be enhanced by HIT; and (3) the similarities and differences between three distinct forms of HIT. APPROACH: I synthesized the literature on dynamic capabilities and HIT to identify dynamic capabilities that are associated with (1) electronic medical records, (2) telemedicine, and (3) social media. In addition, I discuss the benefits of these HITs for improving the dynamic capabilities of health care organizations. PROPOSITIONS/FINDINGS: This article generates three sets of propositions that can be tested empirically. First, I am concerned with how organizational size and human resources affect successful implementation of HIT. In addition, I argue that three technology-specific factors-hospital type, medical specialty, and socially desirable technical features-may affect the implementation of HIT. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: To cope with constantly changing environmental pressures, health administrators need to deploy, modify, and/or acquire organizational resources skillfully. Practitioners need to identify dynamic capabilities to support specific forms of HIT and understand how HIT enables health care organizations in turn. The concept of evolutionary fitness in the dynamic capabilities perspective may be developed to measure HIT implementation. Copyright © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source


This short article examines the usefulness of fast simulations of conformational transition paths in elucidating enzymatic mechanisms and guiding drug discovery for protein kinases. It applies the transition path method in the MOIL software package to simulate the paths of conformational transitions between six pairs of structures from the Protein Data Bank. The structures along the transition paths were found to resemble experimental structures that mimic transient structures believed to form during enzymatic catalysis or conformational transitions, or structures that have drug candidates bound. These findings suggest that such simulations could provide quick initial insights into the enzymatic mechanisms or pathways of conformational transitions of proteins kinases, or could provide structures useful for aiding structure-based drug design. © 2015 The Protein Society. Source


Kim N.-J.,University of Missouri
Journal of Physical Chemistry C | Year: 2010

Chemical enhancement of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy was investigated using a gold nanoparticle (AuNP)-coated polymer substrate, and an enormous b2-mode signal enhancement arose from the evaporation-induced reorientation of 4-aminobenzenethiol molecules adsorbed onto the AuNP surface. The dynamic analysis of time-dependent increases of chemically enhanced Raman signals enables us to measure the charge coupling strengths between molecules and metal at varying surface environments and to differentiate the solvent drying-mediated coupling effect with a long-term stability from photogenerated, metastable charged states showing a relatively rapid signal decay. © 2010 American Chemical Society. Source


Yoo M.-J.,University of Florida | Liu X.,University of Florida | Pires J.C.,University of Missouri | Soltis P.S.,University of Florida | Soltis D.E.,University of Florida
Annual Review of Genetics | Year: 2014

Allopolyploidy involves hybridization and duplication of divergent parental genomes and provides new avenues for gene expression. The expression levels of duplicated genes in polyploids can show deviation from parental additivity (the arithmetic average of the parental expression levels). Nonadditive expression has been widely observed in diverse polyploids and comprises at least three possible scenarios: (a) The total gene expression level in a polyploid is similar to that of one of its parents (expression-level dominance); (b) total gene expression is lower or higher than in both parents (transgressive expression); and (c) the relative contribution of the parental copies (homeologs) to the total gene expression is unequal (homeolog expression bias). Several factors may result in expression nonadditivity in polyploids, including maternal-paternal influence, gene dosage balance, cis-And/or trans-regulatory networks, and epigenetic regulation. As our understanding of nonadditive gene expression in polyploids remains limited, a new generation of investigators should explore additional phenomena (i.e., alternative splicing) and use other high-throughput "omics" technologies to measure the impact of nonadditive expression on phenotype, proteome, and metabolome. © 2014 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved. Source


Grolleau G.,ENSAM LAMETA | McCann L.M.J.,University of Missouri
Ecological Economics | Year: 2012

While preserving water quality by contracting with farmers has been examined previously, we analyze these arrangements from a different perspective. This study uses a transaction cost framework, in conjunction with detailed case studies of two water quality payment schemes, to examine factors that increase and decrease transaction costs in order to improve policy choice as well as policy design and implementation. In both the Munich and New York City cases, agreements with farmers to change land management practices resolved the water quality problems. In Munich, factors including lack of rural/urban antipathy, homogeneous land use, utilization of well-developed organic standards, and strong demand for organic products decreased transaction costs. Using existing organic institutions addressed a range of environmental issues simultaneously. Factors that decreased transaction costs in both cases included: highly sensitive land was purchased outright and the existence of one large "buyer". Adequate lead time and flexibility of water quality regulations allowed negotiation and development of the watershed programs. Tourism and eco-labels allow urban residents to become aware of the agricultural production practices that affect their water supply. We conclude with recommendations based on the experiences of these cities, both of which have been proposed as models for other schemes. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source


Fast W.,University of Texas at Austin | Tipton P.A.,University of Missouri
Trends in Biochemical Sciences | Year: 2012

N-Acyl-L-homoserine lactones (AHLs) are a major class of quorum-sensing signals used by Gram-negative bacteria to regulate gene expression in a population-dependent manner, thereby enabling group behavior. Enzymes capable of generating and catabolizing AHL signals are of significant interest for the study of microbial ecology and quorum-sensing pathways, for understanding the systems that bacteria have evolved to interact with small-molecule signals, and for their possible use in therapeutic and industrial applications. The recent structural and functional studies reviewed here provide a detailed insight into the chemistry and enzymology of bacterial communication. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source


McCann L.,University of Missouri
Ecological Economics | Year: 2013

This article synthesizes the growing empirical literature on transaction costs to identify pragmatic design recommendations for environmental and natural resource policies. The New Institutional Economics literature recognizes that appropriate policy choice and design will be a function of the specific characteristics of the problem. The physical and institutional determinants of both transaction costs and abatement costs should be considered in the policy design process due to potential interactions between them. Analysts also need to incorporate the extent to which the technologies, institutional environment, governance structures, or policy designs can be changed; some factors can only be adjusted to or "designed around" while others can be designed differently. This framework highlights the importance of property rights since transaction costs will be incurred to obtain or retain property rights and since the rights assignment may affect both the magnitudes and distribution of costs. Another implication is that education and extension programs or use of behavioral economics concepts to affect choices can be cost-effective in some circumstances. Policy design should take advantage of economies of scale and foster technical change. Appropriate sequencing of policy instruments may decrease transaction costs, particularly if there is potential for technical change. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.. Source


Hehman E.,Dartmouth College | Volpert H.I.,University of Missouri | Simons R.F.,University of Delaware
Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience | Year: 2014

The current research examined the viability of the N400, an event-related potential (ERP) related to the detection of semantic incongruity, as an index of both stereotype accessibility and interracial prejudice. Participants' EEG was recorded while they completed a sequential priming task, in which negative or positive, stereotypically black (African American) or white (Caucasian American) traits followed the presentation of either a black or white face acting as a prime. ERP examination focused on the N400, but additionally examined N100 and P200 reactivity. Replicating and extending previous N400 stereotype research, results indicated that the N400 can indeed function as an index of stereotype accessibility in an interracial domain, as greater N400 reactivity was elicited by trials in which the face prime was incongruent with the target trait than when primes and traits matched. Furthermore, N400 activity was moderated by participants' self-reported explicit bias. More explicitly biased participants demonstrated greater N400 reactivity to stereotypically white traits following black faces than black traits following black faces. P200 activity was additionally associated with participants' implicit biases, as more implicitly biased participants similarly demonstrated greater P200 reactivity to stereotypically white traits following black faces than black traits following black faces. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. Source


Triblehorn J.D.,College of Charleston | Schul J.,University of Missouri
Journal of Neurophysiology | Year: 2013

Reduced neuronal activation to repetitive stimulation is a common feature of information processing in nervous systems. Such stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA) occurs in many systems, but the underlying neural mechanisms are not well understood. The Neoconocephalus (Or-thoptera, Tettigoniidae) TN-1 auditory neuron exhibits an SSA-like process, characterized by reliably detecting deviant pulses after response cessation to common standard pulses. Therefore, TN-1 provides a model system to study the cellular mechanisms underlying SSA with an identified neuron. Here we test the hypothesis that dendritic mechanisms underlie TN-1 response cessation to fast-pulse rate repeated signals. Electrically stimulating TN-1 with either high-rate or continuous-current pulses resulted in a decreased ability in TN-1 to generate action potentials but failed to elicit cessation of spiking activity as observed with acoustic stimulation. BAPTA injection into TN-1 delayed the onset of response cessation to fast-pulse rate acoustic stimuli in TN-1 but did not eliminate it. These results indicate that calcium-mediated processes contribute to the fast cessation of spiking activity in TN-1 but are insufficient to cause spike cessation on its own. Replacing normal saline with low-Na+ saline (replacing sodium chloride with either lithium chloride or choline chloride) eliminated response cessation, and TN-1 no longer responded selectively to the deviant pulses. Sodium-mediated potassium channels are the most likely candidates underlying sodium-mediated response suppression in TN-1, triggered by Na+ influx in dendritic regions activated by acoustic stimuli. On the basis of these results, we present a model for a cellular mechanism for SSA in a single auditory neuron. © 2013 the American Physiological Society. Source


Kar S.,University of Missouri
American Journal of Therapeutics | Year: 2014

ABSTRACT: Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are found in fish oil and they have been shown to mitigate the risk of cardiovascular disease. Omega-3 fatty acids are essential fatty acids because they cannot be synthesized de novo and must be consumed from dietary sources such as marine fish. It reduces fatal and nonfatal myocardial infarction, stroke, coronary artery disease, sudden cardiac death, and all-cause mortality. It also has beneficial effects in mortality reduction after a myocardial infarction. Omacor is a highly potent form of Omega-3 fatty acids that lowers plasma triglycerides. In patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia who are refractory to statins, it helps augment triglyceride reduction. Omacor also increases high-density lipoprotein and decreases low-density lipoprotein levels. It is well tolerated with minimal adverse effects and no known interactions causing rhabdomyolysis. In high doses, Omacor has pronounced cardiovascular benefits with improvement of triglycerides and various lipid parameters. Omega-3 fatty acids have also been shown to have beneficial effects on arrhythmias, inflammation, and heart failure. It may also decrease platelet aggregation and induce vasodilation. Omega-3 fatty acids also reduce atherosclerotic plaque formation and stabilize plaques preventing plaque rupture leading to acute coronary syndrome. Moreover, omega-3 fatty acids may have antioxidant properties that improve endothelial function and may contribute to its antiatherosclerotic benefits. In this review, we sought to provide the current literature on the use of omega-3 fatty acids and the potent formulation Omacor in the treatment of coronary artery disease. © 2013 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source


Anderson D.T.,Mississippi State University | Zare A.,University of Missouri | Price S.,Mississippi State University
IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems | Year: 2013

A number of noteworthy techniques have been put forth recently in different research fields for comparing clusterings. Herein, we introduce a new method for comparing soft (fuzzy, probabilistic, and possibilistic) partitions based on the earth mover's distance (EMD) and the ordered weighted average (OWA). The proposed method is a metric, depending on the ground distance, for all but possibilistic partitions. It is extremely flexible due to its EMD formulation, OWA aggregation, and abstract concept of ground distance. In theory, our method is agnostic to the type (uncertainty) of soft partition, clustering algorithm, and distance measure used in the clustering algorithm(s), and it is applicable to the clustering of both object and relational data. Validation is performed theoretically, experimentally, as well as in terms of computational complexity. Emphasis is placed on the set of possibilistic partitions, specifically noise and coincident clusters, which are important cases that have received little to no attention to date in the comparing clustering literature. Improvements are reported in terms of metric properties and computational complexity over existing extended concordance/discordance (e.g., soft Rand and Jaccard) approaches and improved design and robustness in comparison with existing transportation problem-based approaches. © 1993-2012 IEEE. Source


Ha-Brookshire J.E.,University of Missouri
Clothing and Textiles Research Journal | Year: 2012

In response to the dominance of hybrid and multinational products in the U.S. textile and apparel marketplace, and the increasing consumer demand for product origin information, the study examined the relationship among multi-level COO displays, consumer purchase preferences, and perceived price. The results of 76 responses through a 2 × 2 randomized block, repeated measures research, using the United States and China as country of parts (COP) and country of manufacturing (COM), showed that the two-level COO impacted consumers' purchase preferences and perceived prices, based on their perceived value of sustainability. However, consumers' purchase preferences significantly decreased as a result of unusually high perceived prices. These findings have important implications for textile and apparel businesses and policy makers as adding COP along with COM to declare the product's COO would increase consumer purchase preferences and perceived values, if applied along with careful pricing strategies. © The Author(s) 2012. Source


Zapolski T.C.B.,University of Kentucky | Pedersen S.L.,University of Pittsburgh | McCarthy D.M.,University of Missouri | Smith G.T.,University of Kentucky
Psychological Bulletin | Year: 2014

Researchers have found that, compared to European Americans, African Americans report later initiation of drinking, lower rates of use, and lower levels of use across almost all age groups. Nevertheless, African Americans also have higher levels of alcohol problems than European Americans. After reviewing current data regarding these trends, we provide a theory to understand this apparent paradox as well as to understand variability in risk among African Americans. Certain factors appear to operate as both protective factors against heavy use and risk factors for negative consequences from use. For example, African American culture is characterized by norms against heavy alcohol use or intoxication, which protects against heavy use but also provides within-group social disapproval when use does occur. African Americans are more likely to encounter legal problems from drinking than European Americans, even at the same levels of consumption, perhaps thus resulting in reduced consumption but more problems from consumption. There appears to be one particular group of African Americans, low-income African American men, who are at the highest risk for alcoholism and related problems. We theorize that this effect is due to the complex interaction of residential discrimination, racism, age of drinking, and lack of available standard life reinforcers (e.g., stable employment and financial stability). Further empirical research will be needed to test our theories and otherwise move this important field forward. A focus on within-group variation in drinking patterns and problems is necessary. We suggest several new avenues of inquiry. © 2014 American Psychological Association. Source


Weirich P.,University of Missouri
Simulation and Gaming | Year: 2011

Some computer simulations have explanatory goals. In a typical case, the computer simulation exemplifies a model generating a phenomenon under investigation. For the simulation to be explanatory, the model has to be explanatory. Models that fully explain phenomena are rare, but a model may offer a partial explanation of a phenomenon. It does this if an isomorphism holds between certain features of the model and certain features of a natural system realizing the phenomenon. The first two sections elaborate this account of a simulation's explanatory power. The third section illustrates the account by applying it to Brian Skyrms's (2004) simulations of the evolution of cooperation. The final section uses the account to suggest ways of increasing those simulations' explanatory power. © 2011 SAGE Publications. Source


Completion of whole genome sequencing in many plant species including economically important crop species not only opens up new opportunities but also imposes challenges for plant science research community. Functional validation and utilization of these enormous DNA sequences necessitate new or improved tools with high accuracy and efficiency. Of various tools, small RNA-mediated gene silencing platform plays an important and unique role in functional verification of plant genes and trait improvements. Artificial trans-acting small interfering RNA (atasiRNA) has emerged as a potent and specific gene silencing platform which overcomes major limitations of other small RNA silencing approaches including double-stranded RNA, artificial microRNA (amiRNA), and microRNA-induced gene silencing. To best utilize atasiRNA platform, it is essential to be able to test candidate atasiRNAs efficiently through either in vivo or in vitro validation approach. Very recently, a breakthrough has been made in developing a new method for in vitro screen of amiRNA candidates, named "epitope-tagged protein-based amiRNA screens". Such a screen can be readily employed to validate atasiRNA candidates and thus accelerate the deployment of atasiRNA technology. Therefore, atasiRNA as an emerging tool shall accelerate both plant biology study and crop genetic improvements including trait stacking. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source


Bioluminescence is well known among white-spored species of Basidiomycota including several species of the white-rot wood decay genus Armillaria. Previous work demonstrated consistent differences among A. gallica, A. mellea, and A. tabescens in luminescence magnitude and in luminescence expression relative to environmental stimuli. In the present studies, temporal fluctuations in mycelial luminescence were quantitatively characterized using genets matched for geographical location. All genets derived from rhizomorphs or basdiomata were constitutively luminescent while six of 13 genets originating from mycelial fans were inconsistently luminescent. Using time series of 1000 consecutive measurements over 800 ms intervals, fluctuation patterns had significantly quantifiable structure and were not simply 'white noise'. Fluctuation patterns were qualitatively similar with alternating periods of rapid fluctuation and relative stability, regardless of luminescence magnitude. Anomalous spikes or shifts in luminescence were recorded for several genets suggesting further work to identify the transient stimuli which elicited these altered luminescence patterns. © 2013 The British Mycological Society. Source


Blomquist G.E.,University of Missouri
Evolutionary Ecology | Year: 2010

Heritability of fitness is an important parameter for evolutionary studies, but it is controversial and difficult to estimate this quantitative genetic statistic. I compare two single-generation proxies of individual fitness estimated from demographic information (lifetime reproductive success, LRS; and individual finite rate of increase, individual λ) and lifespan for the female members of a free-ranging population of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). All three variables have moderate heritabilities (λ = 0.36, LRS = 0.38, lifespan = 0.43) that are consistently depressed when non-reproductive individuals are censored from the analysis. This reduction suggests a large portion of the genetic variation in the fitness proxies is due to survival to reproductive age and commencement of reproduction in this population. This may be related to relatively benign, homogeneous environmental conditions. Any time gaps in modeling an animal's life cycle can introduce similar inaccuracies in heritability of fitness proxies, although the direction of error is likely to vary with environmental conditions. Genetic correlations between the three variables were all indistinguishable from +1 implying no independent genetic variation. The similarity of heritability estimates for λ and LRS and strong genetic correlations are attributed to the dominance of adult lifespan in determining fitness for female macaques which are slow-reproducing by mammalian standards. While the heritabilities of both proxies were similar in this study, they should both be estimated when possible because they may provide different information, particularly in taxa with larger broods. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source


Renner L.M.,University of Iowa | Whitney S.D.,University of Missouri
Child Abuse and Neglect | Year: 2012

Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify common and unique risk factors for intimate partner violence (IPV) among young adults in relationships. Guided by two models of IPV, the same set of risk factors was used to examine outcomes of unidirectional (perpetration or victimization) and bidirectional (reciprocal) IPV separately for males and females. Methods: The sample included 10,187 young adults, ages 18-27, from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. The respondents were drawn from Wave 3 and stated they had a romantic relationship during the time of the study. The risk factors were primarily related to violent socialization (e.g., childhood maltreatment, youth violence) and personal adjustment (e.g., alcohol use, depression). Results: Approximately 47% of the respondents experienced some form of IPV in romantic relationships, and the majority of respondents reported bidirectional violence. For males, childhood sexual abuse was associated with perpetration and bidirectional IPV, and childhood neglect was associated with bidirectional IPV. For females, childhood neglect was associated with all three IPV outcomes, and childhood physical abuse was associated with bidirectional IPV. Youth violence perpetration during adolescence increased the odds for all IPV outcomes among females, while low self-esteem increased the odds for all IPV outcomes among males. A history of suicide attempts predicted bidirectional IPV across genders. Being married and living with a partner predicted all three IPV outcomes for males and females. Conclusions: The results revealed more common risk factors for bidirectional IPV than unidirectional IPV and few common risk factors across genders. The results indicate that IPV prevention and intervention strategies should be tailored to the unique risk experiences of males and females rather than focus on a common factors approach. However, child abuse, youth violence, and suicide prevention efforts may reduce incidents of later IPV for males and females, and these strategies should continue to be an emphasis in practice and research. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Tomadin A.,Normal School of Pisa | Vignale G.,University of Missouri | Polini M.,Normal School of Pisa
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2014

The shear viscosity of a variety of strongly interacting quantum fluids, ranging from ultracold atomic Fermi gases to quark-gluon plasmas, can be accurately measured. On the contrary, no experimental data exist, to the best of our knowledge, on the shear viscosity of two-dimensional quantum electron liquids hosted in a solid-state matrix. In this work we propose a Corbino disk device, which allows a determination of the viscosity of a quantum electron liquid from the dc potential difference that arises between the inner and the outer edge of the disk in response to an oscillating magnetic flux. © 2014 American Physical Society. Source


Kuntsche E.,Swiss Institute for the Prevention of Alcohol and Drug Problems | Cooper M.L.,University of Missouri
Drug and Alcohol Dependence | Year: 2010

Most evidence on the motives-alcohol use link has come from cross-sectional research using retrospective assessments. It remains also to be demonstrated whether motives predict drinking in particular circumstances. In the present study, drinking motives assessed 2 weeks prior to a diary study were used to predict the number of drinks on weekend days as reported via short message service (SMS). Multilevel regression models were estimated based on 391 reports from 55 participants (mean age 22.7). The results revealed that enhancement motives but not gender, age, or social, coping, or conformity motives predicted weekend drinking over and above usual consumption. Consumption and motives together explained more than three-quarters of the inter-individual variance in weekend drinking. To conclude, this study points to a heavy episodic weekend drinking culture of young people who drink large quantities on Friday and Saturday nights apparently because they are seeking fun and excitement. Preventive measures should aim to counteract young people's drinking at peak times and in high-risk situations. © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source


Kallenbach R.L.,University of Missouri
Crop Science | Year: 2015

The dynamic nature of pastures makes them difficult to quantify. Understanding the nearconstant change in plant morphology and development in relation to both biotic (grazing, pathogens, and insects) and abiotic (drought,cold, and heat) events provide the scientific basis for optimizing pasture management plans. Challenges include (i) the cost, primarily for skilled labor, to measure these parameters and (ii) having a scientific team large enough and diverse enough to analyze and interpret the data. New technologies offer opportunities to inexpensively measure pasture growth dynamics. Lasers, ultrasound, drones, satellite images, global positioning systems, and radio frequency identification systems offer innovative researchers new methods to rapidly quantify important characteristics of soils, plants, animals, and even the people of pasture ecosystems. The successful research teams of tomorrow need to be as dynamic and as diverse as the pastures they hope to measure. Blending traditional soil, plant, and animal scientists with scientists from other disciplines (e.g., engineers, computer scientists, geographers, economists, human nutritionists, sociologists, and psychologists) can bring new perspectives about what makes a pasture good. Linking research teams to end users—not only farmers, but also investors, consumers, environmentalists, critics, and policymakers—provides the opportunity to use dynamic pasture measurements to build a more productive yet healthier planet. © Crop Science Society of America | 5585 Guilford Rd., Madison, WI 53711 USA All rights reserved. Source


Stannard J.P.,University of Missouri
The journal of knee surgery | Year: 2010

The purpose of this study was to document the pattern of ligament and meniscal injuries that occur during high-energy tibial plateau fractures. One hundred three patients with fractures due to high-energy mechanisms were evaluated with knee magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). All studies were read by a single musculoskeletal radiologist who was blinded to surgical and physical exam findings. Pertinent demographic information was obtained. There were 66 patients with AO/OTA type 41C fractures and 37 patients with AO/OTA type 41B fractures. Seventy-three (71%) patients tore at least one major ligament group, and 55 (53%) patients tore multiple ligaments. There were 53 torn ligaments in AO/OTA type 41C fractures (80%) compared with 20 torn ligaments in AO/OTA type 41B fractures (54%) (p < 0.001, Fisher's exact test). Using Schatzker's classification, we found the following correlation: type I, 13 fractures with 6 ligaments (46%); type II, 11 fractures with 5 ligaments (45%); type IV, 13 fractures with 9 ligaments (69%); type V, 13 fractures with 11 ligaments (85%); and type VI, 53 fractures with 42 ligaments (79%). A significant difference exists between the groups regarding the incidence of ligament injuries (p < 0.05) and also regarding high-energy (type IV, V, VI) versus low-energy (type I, II, III) fracture patterns. The incidence of knee dislocation was 32% for AO/OTA type 41B fractures and 23% for AO/OTA type 41C fractures. Knee dislocations (dislocated on presentation, bicruciate injury, or at least three ligament groups torn with a dislocatable knee) were most common in Schatzker type IV fractures (46%). Fifty patients sustained meniscus tears (49%), with 25 medial menisci and 35 lateral menisci injuries. Tibial plateau fractures frequently have important soft tissue injuries that are difficult to diagnose on physical examination. High-energy fracture patterns (AO/OTA type 41C or Schatzker type IV, V, VI) clearly have a significantly higher incidence of ligament injury, and these patients should be carefully evaluated to rule out a spontaneously reduced knee dislocation. We believe MRI scanning should be considered for tibial plateau fractures due to high-energy mechanism, allowing identification and treatment of associated soft tissue injuries. Source


Nazarov V.U.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Vignale G.,University of Missouri
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2011

We calculate the optical spectra of silicon, germanium, and zinc blende semiconductors in the adiabatic time-dependent density-functional formalism, making use of kinetic energy density-dependent [meta-generalized-gradient- approximation (GGA)] exchange-correlation functionals. We find excellent agreement between theory and experiment. The success of the theory on this notoriously difficult problem is traced to the fact that the exchange-correlation kernel of meta-GGA supports a singularity of the form α/q2 (where q is the wave vector and α is a constant), whereas previously employed approximations (e.g., local-density and generalized gradient approximations) do not. Thus, the use of the adiabatic meta-GGA opens a new path for handling the extreme nonlocality of the time-dependent exchange-correlation potential in solid-state systems. © 2011 American Physical Society. Source


Birchler J.A.,University of Missouri
Current Opinion in Plant Biology | Year: 2012

Classical studies of plant phenotypes of individuals with whole or partial genome dosage changes led to the concept of genomic balance. Subsequent studies of gene expression in ploidy and aneuploidy series showed a greater number of modulations in aneuploid plants than with whole genome changes leading to the idea that gene expression processes were modulated by stoichiometric changes of interacting regulatory factors. Recent studies of genomic sequences and copy number variants in populations reveal different fates of duplicate genes depending on whole genome or segmental duplication. Following polyploidy formation, members of macromolecular complexes persist in the evolutionary lineage longer than random genes and a complementary pattern is found for segmental duplications in that there is an underrepresentation of members of macromolecular complexes. These and other studies described suggest there are negative fitness consequences when an imbalance occurs for members of macromolecular complexes including regulatory functions. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Popejoy L.L.,University of Missouri
Journal of Family Nursing | Year: 2011

Older adults and their family caregivers face numerous decisions about hospital discharge, including where they will go and how they will receive care. Older adults who account for nearly 37% of all hospital discharges often need care and support of family members at the time of hospital discharge. This study examines decisions made by hospitalized older adults, families, and health care team members (HCTMs) about hospital discharge. The sample included older adults (n = 13, average age 84), family members (n = 12, average age 71), and HCTMs (n = 7, average age 47). Findings revealed the complexity of hospital discharge planning for older adults through five themes as follows: (a) home, (b) staying independent, (c) 'advocating for them,' (d) deciding what to tell, and (e) changing the plan. © The Author(s) 2011. Source


Vascular tube morphogenesis requires the establishment of endothelial cell (EC) apical-basal polarity in three-dimensional (3D) extracellular matrices. To date, there is little understanding of how EC polarity is controlled during these highly dynamic and rapid morphogenic events. We show that the microtubule tip complex proteins, end binding 1 (EB1), p150(Glued), and Clasp1, control human EC tube formation by (1) inducing microtubule assembly and asymmetric cytoskeletal polarization, whereby acetylated and detyrosinated tubulins distribute in a subapical membrane location and filamentous actin distributes basally; (2) increasing tubulin posttranslational modifications, including required acetylation events; and (3) regulating an EC lumen signaling cascade that involves membrane type 1 matrix metallopatrinase (MT1-MMP)-dependent proteolysis as well as Pak, Raf, and Erk kinases. Another regulator of this process is the microtubule stabilizing protein, tau, which binds p150(Glued) and similarly affects EC lumen formation by controlling the levels of acetylated and detyrosinated tubulins. Increased expression of the tubulin deacetylases, sirtuin 2, and histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6), blocks EC tube formation and cytoskeletal polarization, while siRNA suppression of these deacetylases stimulates these events. Overall, this work reveals a fundamental role for microtubule tip complex proteins in coordinating microtubule assembly, posttranslational modifications including acetylation, and apical-basal cytoskeletal polarization to control the developing apical membrane surface during blood vessel tubulogenesis in 3D matrix environments. Source


Proteolysis of ubiquitinated sperm and oocyte proteins by the 26S proteasome is necessary for the success of mammalian fertilization, including but not limited to acrosomal exocytosis and sperm-zona pellucida (ZP) penetration. The present study examined the role of PSMD4, an essential non-ATPase subunit of the proteasomal 19S regulatory complex responsible for proteasome-substrate recognition, in sperm-ZP penetration during porcine fertilization in vitro (IVF). Porcine sperm-ZP penetration, but not sperm-ZP binding, was blocked in the presence of a monoclonal anti-PSMD4 antibody during IVF. Inclusion in the fertilization medium of mutant ubiquitins (Ub+1 and Ub5+1), which are refractory to processing by the 19S regulatory complex and associated with Alzheimer's disease, also inhibited fertilization. This observation suggested that subunit PSMD4 is exposed on the sperm acrosomal surface, a notion that was further supported by the binding of non-cell permeant, biotinylated proteasomal inhibitor ZL3VS to the sperm acrosome. Immunofluorescence localized PSMD4 in the sperm acrosome. Immunoprecipitation and proteomic analysis revealed that PSMD4 co-precipitated with porcine sperm-associated acrosin inhibitor (AI). Ubiquitinated species of AI were isolated from boar sperm extracts by affinity purification of ubiquitinated proteins using the recombinant UBA domain of p62 protein. Some proteasomes appeared to be anchored to the sperm head inner acrosomal membrane, as documented by co-fractionation studies. In conclusion, the 19S regulatory complex subunit PSMD4 is involved in the sperm-ZP penetration during fertilization. The recognition of substrates on the ZP by the 19S proteasomal regulatory complex is essential for the success of porcine/mammalian fertilization in vitro. Source


Pegalis S.E.,New York Law School | Bal B.S.,University of Missouri
Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research | Year: 2012

Background: Medical liability reform is viewed by many physician groups as a means of reducing medical malpractice litigation and lowering healthcare costs. However, alternative approaches such as closed medical negligence claims data may also achieve these goals. Questions/purposes: We asked whether information gleaned from closed claims related to medical negligence could promote patient safety and reduce costs related to medical liability. Specifically, we investigated whether physician groups have examined such data to identify error patterns and to then institute specific patient treatment protocols. Methods: We searched for medical societies that have systematically examined closed medical negligence claims in their specialty to develop specific standards of physician conduct. We then searched the medical literature for published evidence of the efficacy, if any, related to the patient safety measures thus developed. Results: Anesthesia and obstetric physician societies have successfully targeted costs and related concerns arising from medical malpractice lawsuits by using data from closed claims to develop patient safety and treatment guidelines. In both specialties, after institution of safety measures derived from closed medical negligence claims, the incidence and costs related to medical malpractice decreased and physician satisfaction improved. Conclusions: Tort reform, in the form of legislatively prescribed limits on damages arising from lawsuits, is not the only means of addressing the incidence and costs related to medical malpractice litigation. As the experience of anesthesia and obstetric physicians has demonstrated, safety guidelines derived from analyzing past medical malpractice litigation can achieve the same goals while also promoting patient safety. © 2012 The Association of Bone and Joint Surgeons®. Source


Cicero D.C.,University of Missouri
Personality disorders | Year: 2013

Most theories of psychotic-like experiences posit the involvement of cognitive mechanisms. The current research examined the relations between psychotic-like experiences and two cognitive mechanisms, high aberrant salience and low self-concept clarity. In particular, we examined whether aberrant salience, or the incorrect assignment of importance to neutral stimuli, and low self-concept clarity interacted to predict psychotic-like experiences. The current research included three large samples (n = 667, 724, 744) of participants and oversampled for increased schizotypal personality traits. In all three studies, an interaction between aberrant salience and self-concept clarity was found such that participants with high aberrant salience and low self-concept clarity had the highest levels of psychotic-like experiences. In addition, aberrant salience and self-concept clarity interacted to predict a supplemental measure of delusions in Study 2. In Study 3, in contrast to low self-concept clarity, neuroticism did not interact with aberrant salience to predict psychotic-like experiences, suggesting that the relation between low self-concept clarity and psychosis may not be a result of neuroticism. Additionally, aberrant salience and self-concept clarity did not interact to predict two other SPD criteria, social anhedonia or trait paranoia, which suggests the interaction is specific to psychotic-like experiences. Overall, our results are consistent with several cognitive models of psychosis suggesting that aberrant salience and self-concept clarity might be important mechanisms in the occurrence of psychotic-like symptoms. Source


Yue Y.,University of Missouri
Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) | Year: 2011

Gene therapy of muscular dystrophy requires systemic gene delivery to all muscles in the body. Adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors have been shown to lead to body-wide muscle transduction after a single intravascular injection. Proof-of-principle has been demonstrated in mouse models of Duchenne muscular dystrophy and limb girdle muscular dystrophy. Before initiating clinical trials, it is important to validate these promising results in large animal models. More than a dozen canine muscular dystrophy models have been developed. Here, we outline a protocol for performing systemic AAV gene transfer in neonatal dogs. Implementing this technique in dystrophic dogs will accelerate translational muscular dystrophy research. Source


Fagan M.K.,University of Missouri
Cochlear Implants International | Year: 2015

Objective: The purpose of this investigation was to learn the degree to which cochlear implantation at 12 months of age could reduce gaps in performance between hearing age and chronological age – that is, whether infants with access to cochlear implants at 12 months of age would be 12 months delayed, or less, in vocabulary production one year later.Method: Baseline vocabulary production was measured by parent interview and direct observation approximately 4 months post cochlear implant (CI) activation, and again 12 months after CI activation using the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory: Words and Sentences.Results: Infants produced few if any words shortly after CI activation. Word production increased significantly during the 12 months following CI activation but scores were still significantly below age-level expectations based on chronological age. Vocabulary scores were, however, significantly better than expected based on hearing age, or duration of implant use.Conclusion: Word production was delayed at both time points; however, access to cochlear implants at 12 months of age decreased the size of anticipated delays one year later, narrowing the expected gap between hearing age and chronological age. © W. S. Maney & Son Ltd 2015. Source


Shaitelman S.F.,University of Houston | Cromwell K.D.,The Surgical Center | Rasmussen J.C.,University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston | Stout N.L.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | And 3 more authors.
CA Cancer Journal for Clinicians | Year: 2015

Answer questions and earn CME/CNE This article provides an overview of the recent developments in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of cancer-related lymphedema. Lymphedema incidence by tumor site is evaluated. Measurement techniques and trends in patient education and treatment are also summarized to include current trends in therapeutic and surgical treatment options as well as longer-term management. Finally, an overview of the policies related to insurance coverage and reimbursement will give the clinician an overview of important trends in the diagnosis, treatment, and management of cancer-related lymphedema. CA Cancer J Clin 2015;65:55-81. © 2014 American Cancer Society. © 2014 American Cancer Society. Source


George I.D.,University of Missouri
Anatomical record (Hoboken, N.J. : 2007) | Year: 2013

Modern crocodylians possess a derived sense of face touch, in which numerous trigeminal nerve-innervated dome pressure receptors speckle the face and mandible and sense mechanical stimuli. However, the morphological features of this system are not well known, and it remains unclear how the trigeminal system changes during ontogeny and how it scales with other cranial structures. Finally, when this system evolved within crocodyliforms remains a mystery. Thus, new morphological insights into the trigeminal system of extant crocodylians may offer new paleontological tools to investigate this evolutionary transformation. A cross-sectional study integrating histological, morphometric, and 3D imaging analyses was conducted to identify patterns in cranial nervous and bony structures of Alligator mississippiensis. Nine individuals from a broad size range were CT-scanned followed by histomorphometric sampling of mandibular and maxillary nerve divisions of the trigeminal nerve. Endocast volume, trigeminal fossa volume, and maxillomandibular foramen size were compared with axon counts from proximal and distal regions of the trigeminal nerves to identify scaling properties of the structures. The trigeminal fossa has a significant positive correlation with skull length and endocast volume. We also found that axon density is greater in smaller alligators and total axon count has a significant negative correlation with skull size. Six additional extant and fossil crocodyliforms were included in a supplementary scaling analysis, which found that size was not an accurate predictor of trigeminal anatomy. This suggests that phylogeny or somatosensory adaptations may be responsible for the variation in trigeminal ganglion and nerve size in crocodyliforms. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source


Cooley J.W.,University of Missouri
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Bioenergetics | Year: 2010

The two spatially distant quinone-binding sites of the ubihydroquinone: cytochrome c oxidoreductase (cyt bc1) complex have been shown to influence one another in some fashion. This transmembrane communication alters cofactor and redox partner binding interactions and could potentially influence the timing or 'concerted' steps involved in the steady-state turnover of the homodimeric enzymes. Yet, despite several lines of evidence corroborating the coupling of the quinone binding active sites to one another, little to no testable hypothesis has been offered to explain how such a "signal" might be transmitted across the presumably rigid hydrophobic domain of the enzyme. Recently, it has been shown that this interquinone binding sites communication influences the steady-state position of the mobile [2Fe-2S] cluster containing iron sulfur protein (Sarewicz M., Dutka M., Froncisz W., Osyczka A. (2009) Biochemistry 48, 5708-5720) as mediated by at least one transmembrane helix of the b-type cyt containing subunit (Cooley, J. W., Lee, D. W., and Daldal, F. (2009) Biochemistry 48, 1988-1999). Here we provide an overview of the evidence supporting the structural coupling of these sites and provide a theoretical framework for how the redox state of a quinone at one cofactor binding site might influence the cofactor-, inhibitor-, and/or protein-protein interactions at the structurally distant opposing Q binding site. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source


Parker Oliver D.,University of Missouri
Telemedicine journal and e-health : the official journal of the American Telemedicine Association | Year: 2010

The difficulty in recruiting subjects for home-based telehealth research is well documented. This article shares the recruitment statistics and experiences in the Assessment of Caregivers for Team Intervention via Videophone Encounters pilot study, a home-based telehealth intervention. The study obtained 83% of the desired sample. Challenges included issues with initial inclusion criteria, weather-related problems, timely referrals and follow-up, the enrollment process, the need for multiple visits, and unforeseen cases of multiple caregivers. Detailed monitoring and tracking of recruitment statistics and immediate response to overcome challenges were critical to the eventual recruitment success. Strategies included the reallocation of resources to add a second research site, adjustments in inclusion criteria, process improvement with the hospice admissions process, and strategies to address staff gate-keeping. Recruitment continues to be an important barrier to home-based telehealth research and the sharing of recruitment statistics, challenges, and strategies can be beneficial. Gathering of recruitment data is a critical component of pilot studies, which assists in the development of successful randomized clinical trials for future home-based telehealth research. Source


Merkle E.C.,University of Missouri | Zeileis A.,University of Innsbruck
Psychometrika | Year: 2013

The issue of measurement invariance commonly arises in factor-analytic contexts, with methods for assessment including likelihood ratio tests, Lagrange multiplier tests, and Wald tests. These tests all require advance definition of the number of groups, group membership, and offending model parameters. In this paper, we study tests of measurement invariance based on stochastic processes of casewise derivatives of the likelihood function. These tests can be viewed as generalizations of the Lagrange multiplier test, and they are especially useful for: (i) identifying subgroups of individuals that violate measurement invariance along a continuous auxiliary variable without prespecified thresholds, and (ii) identifying specific parameters impacted by measurement invariance violations. The tests are presented and illustrated in detail, including an application to a study of stereotype threat and simulations examining the tests' abilities in controlled conditions. © 2012 The Psychometric Society. Source


Some actions of agents are ambiguous in terms of goal-directedness to young infants. If given reasons why an agent performed these ambiguous actions, would infants then be able to perceive the actions as goal-directed? Prior results show that infants younger than 12 months can not encode the relationship between a human agent's looking behavior and the target of her gaze as goal-directed. In the present experiments, 8-month-olds responded in ways suggesting that they interpreted an agent's action of looking at object-A as opposed to object-B as evidence for her goal directed toward object-A, if her looking action was rational given certain situational constraints: a barrier separated her from the objects or her hands were occupied. Therefore, the infants seem to consider situational constraints when attributing goals to agents' otherwise ambiguous actions; they seem to realize that within such constraints, these actions are efficient ways for agents to achieve goals. © International Society on Infant Studies (ISIS). Source


High-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM) is being used increasingly to gain new insights into three-dimensional organization of biological structure, macromolecular complexes and interactions of cellular components as well as isolated cell organelles. Modern scanning electron microscopes (SEMs) combined with adequate sample preparation can now provide resolution comparable with that achieved using transmission electron microscopes (TEMs) down to 2-5. nm for biological material. The versatility of the instrument and new sample preparation techniques have allowed detailed analysis of chromosomes, cytoskeletal components, virus and other biological material that has not been possible with TEM. The present review addresses resolution and specific specimen preparations for HRSEM, and highlights the importance of specimen preparation and choice of methods to achieve optimal results for proteins, macromolecular complexes and subcellular structures using low voltage HRSEM (LVHRSEM). © 2010. Source


Trull T.J.,University of Missouri | Widiger T.A.,University of Kentucky
Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience | Year: 2013

It is evident that the classification of personality disorder is shifting toward a dimensional trait model and, more specifically, the five-factor model (FFM). The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the FFM of personality disorder. It will begin with a description of this dimensional model of normal and abnormal personality functioning, followed by a comparison with a proposal for future revisions to DSM-5 and a discussion of its potential advantages as an integrative hierarchical model of normal and abnormal personality structure. © 2013, AICH. Source


Miernyk J.A.,University of Missouri | Hajduch M.,Slovak Academy of Sciences
Journal of Proteomics | Year: 2011

Seeds comprise a protective covering, a small embryonic plant, and a nutrient-storage organ. Seeds are protein-rich, and have been the subject of many mass spectrometry-based analyses. Seed storage proteins (SSP), which are transient depots for reduced nitrogen, have been studied for decades by cell biologists, and many of the complicated aspects of their processing, assembly, and compartmentation are now well understood. Unfortunately, the abundance and complexity of the SSP requires that they be avoided or removed prior to gel-based analysis of non-SSP. While much of the extant data from MS-based proteomic analysis of seeds is descriptive, it has nevertheless provided a preliminary metabolic picture explaining much of their biology. Contemporary studies are moving more toward analysis of protein interactions and posttranslational modifications, and functions of metabolic networks. Many aspects of the biology of seeds make then an attractive platform for heterologous protein expression. Herein we present a broad review of the results from the proteomic studies of seeds, and speculate on a potential future research directions. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source


Rosenfeld C.S.,University of Missouri
Drug Metabolism and Disposition | Year: 2015

Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are considered a heterogenous set of neurobehavioral diseases, with the rates of diagnosis dramatically increasing in the past few decades. As genetics alone does not explain the underlying cause in many cases, attention has turned to environmental factors as potential etiological agents. Gastrointestinal disorders are a common comorbidity in ASD patients. It was thus hypothesized that a gut-brain link may account for some autistic cases. With the characterization of the human microbiome, this concept has been expanded to include the microbiota-gut-brain axis. There are mounting reports in animal models and human epidemi-ologic studies linking disruptive alterations in the gut microbiota or dysbiosis and ASD symptomology. In this review, we will explore the current evidence that gut dysbiosis in animal models and ASD patients correlates with disease risk and severity. The studies to date have surveyed how gut microbiome changes may affect these neurobehavioral disorders. However, we harbor other microbiomes in the body that might impact brain function. We will consider microbial colonies residing in the oral cavity, vagina, and the most recently discovered one in the placenta. Based on the premise that gut microbiota alterations may be causative agents in ASD, several therapeutic options have been tested, such as diet modulations, prebiotics, probiotics, synbiotics, postbiotics, antibiotics, fecal transplantation, and activated charcoal. The potential benefits of these therapies will be considered. Finally, the possible mechanisms by which changes in the gut bacterial communities may result in ASD and related neurobehavioral disorders will be examined. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Source


Davis M.J.,University of Missouri
Microcirculation | Year: 2012

The vascular myogenic response is an inherent property of VSM in the walls of small arteries and arterioles, allowing these principal resistance segments of the microcirculation to respond to changes in transmural pressure. Elevated intraluminal pressure leads to myogenic constriction, whereas reduced pressure leads to myogenic dilation. This review focuses on the physiological significance of the myogenic response in microvascular networks. First, historical concepts related to the detection of stretch by the vessel wall are reviewed, including the wall tension hypothesis, and the implications of the proposal that the arteriolar network responds to Pp changes as a system of series-coupled myogenic effectors. Next, the role of the myogenic response in the local regulation of blood flow and/or Pc is examined. Finally, the interaction of myogenic constriction and dilation with other local control mechanisms, including metabolic, neural and shear-dependent mechanisms, is discussed. Throughout the review, an attempt is made to integrate historical and current literature with an emphasis on the physiological role, rather than the underlying signaling mechanisms, of this important component of vascular control. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source


Birchler J.A.,University of Missouri
Chromosoma | Year: 2014

Studies of gene expression in aneuploids have often made the assumption that measurements of RNA abundance from the varied chromosome will establish whether there is a dosage effect or compensation. Typical procedures of RNA isolation and use of equal amounts of RNA for quantitative estimates will not measure the total transcriptome size nor the absolute expression levels per cell. Use of internal endogenous standards or averages from unvaried chromosomes for normalizations makes the assumption that there are no global modulations across the genome. However, studies that use controls to test these assumptions reveal that there are in fact often modulations on all chromosomes. The same caveats apply to gene expression studies of sex chromosomes, which also involve changes in dosage of a small portion of the genome. Here, we describe some of the pitfalls of studies of aneuploidy and sex chromosome gene expression and review methods that have been used to avoid them. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source


Thyfault J.P.,University of Missouri | Krogh-Madsen R.,Copenhagen University
Journal of Applied Physiology | Year: 2011

Physical inactivity likely plays a role in the development of insulin resistance and obesity; however, direct evidence is minimal and mechanisms of action remain unknown. Studying metabolic outcomes that occur after transitioning from higher to lower levels of physical activity is the best tool to answer these questions. Previous studies have successfully used more extreme models of inactivity, including bed rest, or the cessation of exercise in highly trained endurance athletes, to provide novel findings. However, these models do not accurately reflect the type of inactivity experienced by a large majority of the population. Recent studies have used a more applicable model in which active (ve (̃10,000 10,000 steps/day), healthy young controls are asked to transition to an inactive lifestyle (̃1,500 steps/day) for a 14-day period. The transition to inactivity resulted in reduced insulin sensitivity and increased central adiposity. This review will discuss the outcomes of these studies, their implications for the cause/effect relationship between central adiposity and insulin resistance, and provide rationale for why inactivity induces these factors. In addition, the experimental challenges of directly linking acute responses to inactivity to chronic disease will also be discussed. Copyright © 2011 the American 1150 Physiological Society. Source


Kaiser M.L.,University of Missouri
Journal of Community Practice | Year: 2011

Coupled with the obesity epidemic, food insecurity presents a public health and social crisis. The United States' industrialized food system embodies an unsustainable network of production and unequal distribution of food creating threats to both the natural environment and human development. Ecological, economic, and social systems are interdependent and their relationships to food security are complex and dynamic. Social workers have a unique set of community practice knowledge and skills that can help communities achieve greater access to affordable, healthy food. Building interdisciplinary networks to change food policies and develop sustainable and equitable food systems can address food insecurity. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source


Description: Update of the 1996 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation on aspirin prophylaxis in pregnancy. Methods: The USPSTF reviewed the evidence on the effectiveness of low-dose aspirin in preventing preeclampsia in women at increased risk and in decreasing adverse maternal and perinatal health outcomes, and assessed the maternal and fetal harms of low-dose aspirin during pregnancy. Population: This recommendation applies to asymptomatic pregnant women who are at increased risk for preeclampsia and who have no prior adverse effects with or contraindications to low-dose aspirin. Recommendation: The USPSTF recommends the use of low-dose aspirin (81 mg/d) as preventive medication after 12 weeks of gestation in women who are at high risk for preeclampsia. (B recommendation) Source


Sidhu M.S.,University of Missouri
Advances in peritoneal dialysis. Conference on Peritoneal Dialysis | Year: 2010

Cardiovascular diseases, in their broad spectrum, are collectively the major cause of death in patients on dialysis. The population of patients treated with peritoneal and hemodialysis are not only subject to the traditional risk factors for heart disease, but also to certain uremia-associated risk factors that are unique in this population. Limited data are available on the effectiveness of routine interventions on cardiovascular outcomes in dialysis patients. Because most dialysis patients are excluded from clinical trials, data from randomized controlled trials regarding outcomes in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis are almost absent. The present review discusses some of the major cardiovascular problems in the dialysis population, the impact of those problems on survival, and the available therapeutic strategies. Source


Stannard J.P.,University of Missouri
Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review | Year: 2010

Medial-sided knee ligament injuries are complex and require a thorough understanding of the anatomy and the scope of injury to successfully treat. Patients with isolated medical collateral ligament (MCL) tears can normally be treated with bracing followed by physical therapy with outstanding results. Patients with isolated Grade III injuries to the MCL are controversial. A reason for the disparity in results reported may be due to the fact that many (if not most) Grade III MCL tears have associated injuries to the anterior cruciate ligament and/or posteromedial corner injury. Patients with combination injuries should be treated surgically with repair or reconstruction in most cases. Either allograft or autograft reconstructions of both the MCL and posteromedial corner can be successful. Successful elimination of anteromedial rotary instability is the key to successfully treating posteromedial corner injuries. Copyright © 2010 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source


The haemostatic system is heavily involved in the host response to infection. A number of host haemostatic factors, notably plasminogen and fibrinogen have been reported to bind and interact with various bacterial proteins. This review summarises the roles of host haemostatic factors such as plasminogen, factor V and fibrinogen in host defence against group A streptococcus infection and discusses the potential of targeting the host haemostatic system for therapeutic intervention against infectious diseases. © 2011 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis. Source


Baines C.P.,University of Missouri
Frontiers in Physiology | Year: 2010

In contrast to the "programmed" nature of apoptosis and autophagy, necrotic cell death has always been believed to be a random, uncontrolled process that leads to the "accidental" death of the cell. This dogma, however, is being challenged and the concept of necrosis also being "programmed" is gaining ground. In particular, mitochondria appear to play a pivotal role in the mediation of programmed necrosis. The purpose of this review, therefore, is to appraise the current concepts regarding the signaling mechanisms of programmed necrosis, with specific attention to the contribution of mitochondria to this process. © 2010 Baines. Source


McElroy S.J.,University of Iowa | Underwood M.A.,University of California at Davis | Sherman M.P.,University of Missouri
Neonatology | Year: 2013

Current models of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) propose that intraluminal microbes destroy intestinal mucosa and activate an inflammatory cascade that ends in necrosis. We suggest an alternate hypothesis wherein NEC is caused by injury to Paneth cells (PCs) in the intestinal crypts. PCs are specialized epithelia that protect intestinal stem cells from pathogens, stimulate stem cell differentiation, shape the intestinal microbiota, and assist in repairing the gut. Our novel model of NEC uses neonatal mice and ablates PCs followed by enteral infection. We contrast this model with other animal examples of NEC and the clinical disease. Selective destruction of PCs using dithizone likely releases tumor necrosis factor-α and other inflammatory mediators. We propose that this event produces inflammation in the submucosa, generates platelet-activating factor, and induces a coagulopathy. The role of PCs in NEC is consistent with the onset of disease in preterm infants after a period of PC-related maturation, the central role of PCs in crypt-related homeostasis, the anatomic location of pneumatosis intestinalis close to the crypts, and the proximity of PCs to occluded blood vessels that cause coagulation necrosis of the intestinal villi. We offer this hypothesis to promote new thoughts about how NEC occurs and its potential prevention. © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel. Source


Akbulut S.,Duzce University | Stamps W.T.,University of Missouri
Forest Pathology | Year: 2012

Pine wilt disease (PWD), caused by the pinewood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner and Buhrer) Nickle 1970, is a serious threat to susceptible pine forests of the world. The PWN is primarily vectored by Monochamus species (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). The first occurrence of PWD was reported from Japan in the early 1900s. Following this report, Japanese scientists documented the community of bark- and phloem-inhabiting insects associated with the nematodes in dying trees to determine possible vectors of the nematode. Monochamus alternatus was reported to be the most effective vector in Japan. The primary vector in North America is Monochamus carolinensis, and in Europe, it is Monochamus galloprovincialis. Further studies have been expanded through the nematode-invaded countries of Korea, Taiwan, China and Portugal. There is an interspecific association between the PWN and its insect vectors, and it is an obligatory component of the disease cycle. It is crucial to understand this relationship as well as the population ecology of the beetle to aid in monitoring and control of this worldwide threat to pine forests. Studies to date indicate a remarkable similarity among beetle species around the globe for a variety of life-history traits, including lifespan, adult emergence numbers, flight capability, nematode transmission rates and attraction to pine volatiles. Wherever pines are found, there is a beetle species capable of transmitting the nematode. Although flight performance and range is generally poor for this group of beetle vectors, the cryptic nature of the species and the lack of interest in the beetles by countries in the absence of the nematode have led to the disease establishing a foothold in a variety of countries such as Portugal. In this paper, studies conducted in different countries on Monochamus vector species of the PWN are compared and discussed. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH. Source


Oliver M.J.,University of Missouri
Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) | Year: 2010

Dehydration tolerance in plants is an important but understudied component of the complex phenotype of drought tolerance. Most plants have little capacity to tolerate dehydration; most die at leaf water potentials between -5 and -10 MPa. Some of the non-vascular plants and a small percentage (0.2%) of vascular plants, however, can survive dehydration to -100 MPa and beyond, and it is from studying such plants that we are starting to understand the components of dehydration tolerance in plants. In this chapter we define what dehydration tolerance is and how it can be assessed, important prerequisites to understanding the response of a plant to water loss. The metabolic and mechanical consequences of cellular dehydration in plants prelude a discussion on the role that gene expression responses play in tolerance mechanisms. We finally discuss the key biochemical aspects of tolerance focusing on the roles of carbohydrates, late embryogenesis abundant and heat shock proteins, reactive oxygen scavenging (ROS) pathways, and novel transcription factors. It is clear that we are making significant advances in our understanding of dehydration tolerance and the added stimulus of new model systems will speed our abilities to impact the search for new strategies to improve drought tolerance in major crops. Source


Ding S.,University of Missouri
Methods in Molecular Biology | Year: 2012

Astrocytes are the predominant nonneuronal cell type in the central nervous system. Although they are electrically nonexcitable, they have been found to play an active role in modulation of neuronal function and plasticity through Ca 2+ excitability. Thus, Ca 2+ signaling in astrocytes serves as a mediator of bidirectional interactions between neurons and astrocytes. Although astrocytic Ca 2+ signaling has been extensively studied in cultured cells, the recent development of two-photon laser scanning fluorescent microscopy and astrocyte-specific dye labeling make it possible to study astrocytic Ca 2+ signaling in live animals. Here we describe a detailed protocol for in vivo Ca 2+ imaging of astrocytes in mice. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source


Davis M.J.,University of Missouri
Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology | Year: 2010

A role for integrins in mechanotransduction has been suggested because these molecules form an important mechanical link between the extracellular matrix (ECM) and the cytoskeleton. An example of mechanotransduction in blood vessels is the myogenic response-the rapid and maintained constriction of arterioles in response to pressure elevation. L-type calcium channels and large-conductance, calcium-activated potassium (BK) channels are known to play important roles in the myogenic response and in the maintenance of myogenic (pressure-induced) vascular tone. Our recent studies on isolated, cannulated arterioles and freshly-dispersed arteriolar smooth muscle cells show that both L-type calcium channels (Cav1.2) and BK channels are regulated by α5β1 integrin activation. α5β1 integrin interacts with the ECM protein fibronectin, which is distributed in basement membrane and interstitial matrices surrounding smooth muscle cells within the arteriolar wall. Truncation and site-directed mutagenesis strategies reveal that regulation of Cav1.2 by α5β1 integrin requires phosphorylation of the channel α1C subunit at C-terminal residues Ser-1901 and Tyr-2122. Likewise, BK channel potentiation by α5β1 integrin activation requires c-Src phosphorylation of the channel α-subunit at residue Tyr-766. Thus, both L-type calcium channels and BK channels can be regulated coordinately through integrin-linked phosphorylation cascades involving c-Src. We propose that these two channels are under constitutive control by α5β1 integrin-fibronectin interactions in the vessel wall such that the balance of their activity determines myogenic tone and the vascular response to vessel wall injury/remodeling. © 2010 Landes Bioscience and Springer Science+Business Media. Source


Walker R.S.,University of Missouri | Ribeiro L.A.,University Estadual Of Goia cli
Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2011

Phylogenetic inference based on language is a vital tool for tracing the dynamics of human population expansions. The timescale of agriculture-based expansions around the world provides an informative amount of linguistic change ideal for reconstructing phylogeographies. Here we investigate the expansion of Arawak, one of the most widely dispersed language families in the Americas, scattered from the Antilles to Argentina. It has been suggested that Northwest Amazonia is the Arawak homeland based on the large number of diverse languages in the region. We generate language trees by coding cognates of basic vocabulary words for 60 Arawak languages and dialects to estimate the phylogenetic relationships among Arawak societies, while simultaneously implementing a relaxed random walk model to infer phylogeographic history. Estimates of the Arawak homeland exclude Northwest Amazonia and are bi-modal, with one potential homeland on the Atlantic seaboard and another more likely origin in Western Amazonia. Bayesian phylogeography better supports a Western Amazonian origin, and consequent dispersal to the Caribbean and across the lowlands. Importantly, the Arawak expansion carried with it not only language but also a number of cultural traits that contrast Arawak societies with other lowland cultures.© 2011 The Royal Society. Source


Yu M.,University of Missouri
Nicotine and Tobacco Research | Year: 2011

Introduction: An estimated 0.5 million American Indian or Alaska Native (AI/AN) adolescents under the age of 18 years smoked cigarettes during their entire lifetime. Using a national sample of AI/AN middle- and high-school students, this study examines prevalence rates and relative impacts of individual, familial, and social predictors of different types of tobacco use. Methods: A national sample of 305 (weighted N = 142,989) AI/AN middle- and high-school students in Grades 6 through 12 were selected from the 2006 National Youth Tobacco Survey. Results: During their entire life, most of the respondents used cigarettes (54%), followed by cigars (24%), smokeless tobacco (16%), pipes (13%), and menthol cigarettes (12%). One in 3 (32%) used 2 or more forms of tobacco. High-school students reported significantly higher for all types of tobacco use than middle-school students, while the rates did not differ by gender. Multivariate analyses showed that age, family members' smoking, and refusal to smoke predicted tobacco users with one product. Family members' smoking and refusal to smoke remained significant in predicting more than 2 forms of tobacco use (polytobacco users), while age was no longer significant. School truancy and receptivity to tobacco marketing uniquely predicted polytobacco users. Conclusions: Findings underscore that tobacco control programs for AI/AN students need to address the multiple predictors of different types of tobacco use. Implications of the findings are discussed. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. Source


Geary D.C.,University of Missouri
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2016

Traits that facilitate competition for reproductive resources or that influence mate choice have evolved to signal resilience to infectious disease and other stressors. As a result, the dynamics of competition and choice can, in theory, be used to generate predictions about sex-, age-, and trait-specific vulnerabilities for any sexually reproducing species, including humans. These dynamics and associated vulnerabilities are reviewed for nonhuman species, focusing on traits that are compromised by exposure to parasites. Using the same approach, sex-, age-, and trait-specific vulnerabilities to parasitic disease are illustrated for children’s and adolescent’s physical growth and fitness. Suggestions are then provided for widening the assessment of human vulnerabilities to include age-appropriate measures of behavioral (e.g., children’s play) and cognitive (e.g., language fluency) traits. These are traits that are likely to be compromised by infection in age- and sex-specific ways. Inclusion of these types of measures in studies of neglected tropic diseases has the potential to provide a more nuanced understanding of how these diseases undermine human wellbeing and may provide a useful means to study the efficacy of associated treatments. © 2016 David C. Geary. Source


Pai P.F.,University of Missouri
International Journal of Solids and Structures | Year: 2011

Presented here are three kinematic representations of large rotations for accurate modeling of highly flexible beam-like structures undergoing arbitrarily large three-dimensional elastic deformation and/or rigid-body motion. Different methods of modeling torsional deformation result in different beam theories with different mathematical characteristics. Each of these three geometrically exact beam theories fully accounts for geometric nonlinearities and initial curvatures by using Jaumann strains, exact coordinate transformations, and orthogonal virtual rotations. The derivations are presented in detail, a finite element formulation is included, fully nonlinear governing equations and boundary conditions are presented, and the corresponding form for numerically exact analysis using multiple shooting methods is also derived. These theories are compared in terms of their appropriate application areas, possible singular problems, and easiness for use in modeling and analysis of multibody systems. Nonlinear finite element analysis of a rotating beam and nonlinear multiple shooting analysis of a torsional bar are performed to demonstrate the capability and accuracy of these beam theories. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Alphs L.,Janssen Scientific Affairs LLC | Schooler N.,New York University | Lauriello J.,University of Missouri
Schizophrenia Research | Year: 2014

This article reviews key methodological considerations for clinical trials that utilize explanatory and pragmatic trial designs and relates these contrasting approaches to the interpretation of results from comparisons of oral versus long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics in schizophrenia. Explanatory randomized controlled trials (RCTs) generally measure the efficacy of a treatment in a homogeneous population with intensive, frequent, and often clinical trial-specific assessments. In contrast, pragmatic trials measure effectiveness in routine clinical practice and frequently aim to inform choices between treatments. Comparative effectiveness outcomes with pragmatic designs in naturalistic settings for schizophrenia treatments are of increasing interest to healthcare providers because outcomes of treatment (both efficacy and safety) may vary significantly when identified in an explanatory setting compared with a naturalistic pragmatic setting. Indeed, it has been suggested that the inconsistent outcomes observed in trials comparing oral and LAI antipsychotic medications may be a function of the use of explanatory or pragmatic trial designs. In practice, clinical trial designs are seldom purely explanatory or pragmatic. To identify the predominant orientation of a trial, one must consider multiple features. This paper reviews the relative impact of these features when comparing LAI and oral antipsychotic treatments and makes recommendations for improving these comparative designs. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source


Walters E.M.,University of Missouri
Missouri medicine | Year: 2013

Swine models are relatively new kids on the block for modeling human health and diseases when compared to rodents and dogs. Because of the similarity to humans in size, physiology, and genetics, the pig has made significant strides in advancing the understanding of the human condition, and is thus an excellent choice for an animal model. Recent technological advances to genetic engineering of the swine genome enhance the utility of swine as models of human genetic diseases. Source


Johnson R.A.,University of Missouri
Missouri medicine | Year: 2013

The University of Missouri's College of Veterinary Medicine is home to the Research Center for Human-Animal Interaction. This center uniquely addresses a growing area of research that focuses on how the human-animal bond impacts health in people and animals. This article highlights the One Health basis for the center, several research projects, and future goals for the center. Source


Barbosa F.,University of Missouri
Behavioral Ecology | Year: 2011

In most animal species, females invest more in reproduction than males do and are therefore expected to be the choosier sex. However, male choice is also expected to occur whenever there is sufficient variation in female quality and male mating effort is high. Postcopulatory or "cryptic" male choice is defined as variation in the amount of resources males allocate to females of varying quality. The soldier fly Merosargus cingulatus exhibits significant variation in copulation duration. This variation in mating effort may be a consequence of cryptic male choice, although other processes such as sperm competition may also play a role. In this study, I manipulated factors associated with the risk of sperm competition (male density) and varying mate quality (female size) to determine whether these factors affected male mating effort. I found direct evidence that male M. cingulatus can control copulation duration. Copulations were longer when male density was high, which support the hypothesis that males increase copulation duration when there is a high risk of sperm competition. In addition, copulation duration was longer when males mated with larger more fecund females, which supports the hypothesis of cryptic male choice. © 2011 The Author. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology. All rights reserved. Source


Rodriquez J.,University of Missouri
Qualitative Health Research | Year: 2013

In this article, I examine how individuals diagnosed with early-onset Alzheimer's disease use illness narratives to construct community. The ability to narrate is a fundamental component of the self. Using 354 posts by 32 members of an Internet forum, I argue that people with Alzheimer's, whose ability to narrate, and thus create a self, was compromised, nonetheless managed to tell stories of redemption out of which a salvaged self emerged. Narratives are essential for the construction of self, but as I show in this article, they are also essential for the construction of community. Forum members shared stories, gave advice, offered encouragement, and commiserated about their symptoms in ways that generated solidarity. Internet forums provide a venue for people with illnesses who are unable to leave the home to construct community. © 2013 The Author(s). Source


Gan Y.,Zhejiang University | Chen J.K.,University of Missouri
Computer Physics Communications | Year: 2012

A numerical method coupling the molecular dynamics and the two-step energy transfer model is presented for simulating ultrafast responses of semiconductors irradiated by ultrashort-pulsed lasers. In this method, an additional damping force characterizing the carrier-lattice heat exchange is added to the equations of motion of atoms in the molecular dynamics. The explicit finite difference algorithms are applied for obtaining the laser energy distribution and the carrier density evolution, whereas a semi-implicit finite difference scheme is developed as for the carrier temperature field. Examples of a thin silicon film subjected to femtosecond laser heating are utilized to validate and demonstrate this hybrid method. Results show that the proposed method is able to effectively describe not only the thermal transport but also the thermal stress wave in the ultrafast laser-semiconductor interactions. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Chang Y.,University of Vermont | Gable S.,University of Missouri
Journal of Adolescent Health | Year: 2013

Purpose: The primary objective of this study was to predict weight status stability and change across the transition to adolescence using parent reports of child and household routines and teacher and child self-reports of social-emotional development. Methods: Data were from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K), a nationally representative sample of children who entered kindergarten during 1998-1999 and were followed through eighth grade. At fifth grade, parents reported on child and household routines and the study child and his/her primary classroom teacher reported on the child's social-emotional functioning. At fifth and eighth grade, children were directly weighed and measured at school. Nine mutually-exclusive weight trajectory groups were created to capture stability or change in weight status from fifth to eighth grade: (1) stable obese (ObeSta); (2) obese to overweight (ObePos1); (3) obese to healthy (ObePos2); (4) stable overweight (OverSta); (5) overweight to healthy (OverPos); (6) overweight to obese (OverNeg); (7) stable healthy (HelSta); (8) healthy to overweight (HelNeg1); and (9) healthy to obese (HelNeg2). Results: Except for breakfast consumption at home, school-provided lunches, nighttime sleep duration, household and child routines did not predict stability or change in weight status. Instead, weight status trajectory across the transition to adolescence was significantly predicted by measures of social-emotional functioning at fifth grade. Conclusions: Assessing children's social-emotional well-being in addition to their lifestyle routines during the transition to adolescence is a noteworthy direction for adolescent obesity prevention and intervention. © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved. Source


Henry C.J.,University of Missouri
Missouri medicine | Year: 2013

Practice-changing medical discovery requires preclinical and clinical assessment be carried out using appropriate disease models. There is growing awareness of companion animals with naturally-occurring disease as such models. They offer significant advantages over more traditional in vivo models of induced disease. This review describes current efforts to promote translation of discoveries between human and veterinary medicine in order to more rapidly and efficiently make progress in improving the health of all human and animal patients. Source


Stoyanov A.,University of Missouri
Electrophoresis | Year: 2012

This review focuses on the alternative isoelectrofocusing methods and IEF-related techniques in protein analysis and characterization. The main emphasis is placed on the evaluation of the resolving power of new approaches, as well as potential advantages of IEF-related techniques for multidimensional analysis. In particular, the inverse 2D gel electrophoresis where the Mw separation stage precedes IEF mode is considered. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source


Basker E.,University of Missouri
Journal of Industrial Economics | Year: 2015

Barcode scanners, introduced in the early 1970's, were a foundational process innovation in the grocery supply chain. By 1984 scanners had been installed in 10% of food stores in the U.S. Fixed-effect analysis of city-level price data shows that scanners reduced prices of groceries by at least 1.4% in their first decade. The results are consistent with prior estimates of labor saving by scanners. Early adopters and adopters in states that imposed fewer restrictions on complementary process innovations contributed disproportionately to the price decreases. © 2015 The Editorial Board of The Journal of Industrial Economics and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source


Kluever C.A.,University of Missouri
Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics | Year: 2015

A new method has been developed for obtaining approximate near-optimal low-thrust interplanetary transfers using solar electric propulsion spacecraft. The trajectory-calculation method consists of analytic curve-fit functions that have been empirically derived froma database of minimum-propellant coplanar transfers between Earth's orbit and circular target orbits. Itis assumed that the transfer begins with apowered arc, followedby a single coast arc, and ends with a second powered arc. The curve-fit functions depend on the mean thrust acceleration and target radius. A scaling technique transforms the Earth-orbit-based solutions in order to provide outward and inward trajectories between circular orbits of arbitrary radius. The inputs to the trajectory tool are the initial and final circular radii, initial spacecraft mass, input power, specific impulse, and thruster efficiency; and the computed (output) values are trip time, transfer angle, coast arc angle, and ΔV. The curve-fitting method is extremely fast, with run times of a few milliseconds. Numerical trials show that the curve-fitting technique accurately predicts trip time, with the largest errors ranging from 2 to 4%. Velocity increment or ΔV errors (and hence delivered-mass errors) are negligible. Finally, because the curve-fitting method can predict transfer angle, the trajectory tool can estimate departure and arrival dates. This curve-fitting method provides very rapid low-thrust interplanetary trajectory analysis and is therefore well suited as a preliminary mission design tool. Source


Walker R.S.,University of Missouri | Bailey D.H.,Carnegie Mellon University
Evolution and Human Behavior | Year: 2013

Violence was likely often a strong selective pressure in many traditional lowland South American societies. A compilation of 11 anthropological studies reporting cause of death shows that violence led to about 30% of adult deaths, of which about 70% were males. Here violent deaths are further itemized at the level of ethnographically-reported death events (particular duels, homicides, and raids) to provide more detailed insight into the causes and consequences of within- and between-group violence. Data for 238 death events (totaling 1145 deaths) from 44 lowland South American societies show that attacks are more deadly when treachery is used, when avenging a previous killing, and on external warfare raids between ethnolinguistic groups. That revenge raids kill more people on average than the original grievance, at least when conflicts are between ethnolinguistic groups, indicates a tendency towards increasingly vicious cycles of revenge killings. Motives of killings as noted in ethnographic sources, in order of importance, reportedly include revenge for previous killings and other wrong-doings like sorcery, jealousy over women, gain of captive women and children, fear or deterrence of impending attack, and occasionally the theft of material goods. Results may have implications for understanding the potential for multi-level selection by delineating the force of competition at varying scales of analysis within and between lowland South American societies. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. Source


Guntur V.P.,Critical Care and Environmental Medicine | Reinero C.R.,University of Missouri
Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology | Year: 2012

Purpose of review: Severe asthma comprises heterogeneous phenotypes that share in common a poor response to traditional therapies. Recent and ongoing work with tyrosine kinase inhibitors suggests a potential beneficial role in treatment of severe asthma. Recent findings: Various receptor and nonreceptor tyrosine kinase pathways contribute to aspects of airway inflammation, airway hyperresponsiveness, and remodeling of asthma. Selective and nonselective tyrosine kinase inhibitors may be useful to block pathways that are pathologically overactive or overexpressed in severe asthma. Recent in-vivo studies have demonstrated the utility of inhibitors against specific tyrosine kinases (epidermal growth factor receptor, c-kit/platelet derived growth factor receptor, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, spleen tyrosine kinase, and janus kinase) in altering key aspects of severe asthma. Summary: Asthma and even severe asthma does not consist of a single phenotype. Targeting key inflammatory and remodeling pathways engaged across subphenotypes with tyrosine kinase inhibitors appears to hold promise. © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health. Source


Fisher J.P.,University of Birmingham | Fadel P.J.,University of Missouri
Experimental Physiology | Year: 2010

The pathogenesis of hypertension and its mode of progression are complex, multifactoral and incompletely understood. However, there is accumulating evidence from humans and animal models of hypertension indicating that excessive central sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) plays a pathogenic role in triggering and sustaining the essential hypertensive state (the so-called 'neuroadrenergic hypothesis'). Importantly, augmented central sympathetic outflow has also been implicated in the initiation and progression of a plethora of pathophysiological processes independent of any increase in blood pressure, such as left ventricular hypertrophy and cardiac arrhythmias. Thus, the sympathetic nervous system constitutes an important putative drug target in hypertension. However, traditional pharmacological approaches for the management of essential hypertension appear ineffective in reducing central sympathetic outflow. Recently, several new and promising therapeutic strategies targeting neurogenic hypertension have been developed. The present report will provide a brief update of this topic with a particular emphasis on human studies examining the efficacy of novel pharmacological approaches (central sympatholytics and statins), lifestyle modification (aerobic exercise training, weight loss and stress reduction) and surgical intervention (renal denervation, chronic carotid baroreflex stimulation and deep brain stimulation) in reducing excessive central sympathetic activation in hypertension. © 2010 The Physiological Society. Source


Humfeld S.C.,University of Missouri
Behavioral Ecology | Year: 2013

Most alternative reproductive phenotypes are interpreted as alternative tactics within a conditional strategy: all individuals are predicted to choose among behavioral tactics based on some measure of their physiological condition or competitive status. The factors determining a male's tactic at any particular time are generally unknown. Thus, most researchers have measured potential correlates of competitive ability (such as male body size) rather than directly measuring fighting ability, for example, in males adopting alternative mating tactics. In species in which sexual competition primarily involves production of acoustic signals, an individual's choice of mating tactic may largely depend on physical characteristics, such as age, strength, or condition, which determine its ability to compete acoustically by producing attractive calls. Male green tree frogs (Hyla cinerea) often switch tactics (caller or satellite), but body size changes very little during the breeding season. I tested the hypothesis that mating-tactic switches are mediated via the effects of changing body condition on advertisement call characteristics. My field study shows that the switch between tactics is predicted by condition but not by size. Moreover, short-term changes in body weight result in condition-dependent changes in several properties of the advertisement call. The demonstration of condition-dependent advertisement calling and tactic adoption links a physical characteristic correlated with mating-tactic adoption with actual competitive status (calling performance). Vocal fatigue may constrain males to produce relatively unattractive advertisement calls, thus increasing the potential fitness payoffs associated with adoption of the satellite tactic. © 2013 The Author. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology. All rights reserved. Source


Zare A.,University of Missouri
International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS) | Year: 2011

Hyperspectral unmixing estimates the proportions of materials represented within a spectral signature. The overwhelming majority of hyperspectral unmixing algorithms are based entirely on the spectral signatures of each individual pixel and do not incorporate the spatial information found in a hyperspectral data cube. In this work, a spectral unmixing algorithm, the Local Information Proportion estimation (LIP) algorithm, is presented. The proposed LIP algorithm incorporates spatial information while determining the proportions of materials found within a spectral signature. Spatial information is incorporated through the addition of a spatial term that regularizes proportion value estimates based on the weighted proportion values of neighboring pixels. Results are shown in the AVIRIS Indian Pines hyperspectral data set. © 2011 IEEE. Source


Stein S.,Northwestern University | Geller R.J.,University of Tokyo | Liu M.,University of Missouri
Tectonophysics | Year: 2012

The 2011 Tohoku earthquake is another striking example - after the 2008 Wenchuan and 2010 Haiti earthquakes - of highly destructive earthquakes that occurred in areas predicted by earthquake hazard maps to be relatively safe. Here, we examine what went wrong for Tohoku, and how this failure illustrates limitations of earthquake hazard mapping. We use examples from several seismic regions to show that earthquake occurrence is typically more complicated than the models on which hazard maps are based, and that the available history of seismicity is almost always too short to reliably establish the spatiotemporal pattern of large earthquake occurrence. As a result, key aspects of hazard maps often depend on poorly constrained parameters, whose values are chosen based on the mapmakers' preconceptions. When these are incorrect, maps do poorly. This situation will improve at best slowly, owing to our limited understanding of earthquake processes. However, because hazard mapping has become widely accepted and used to make major decisions, we suggest two changes to improve current practices. First, the uncertainties in hazard map predictions should be assessed and clearly communicated to potential users. Recognizing the uncertainties would enable users to decide how much credence to place in the maps and make them more useful in formulating cost-effective hazard mitigation policies. Second, hazard maps should undergo rigorous and objective testing to compare their predictions to those of null hypotheses, including ones based on uniform regional seismicity or hazard. Such testing, which is common and useful in similar fields, will show how well maps actually work and hopefully help produce measurable improvements. There are likely, however, limits on how well hazard maps can ever be made because of the intrinsic variability of earthquake processes. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source


Clayton R.B.,University of Missouri
Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking | Year: 2014

The purpose of this study was to examine how social networking site (SNS) use, specifically Twitter use, influences negative interpersonal relationship outcomes. This study specifically examined the mediational effect of Twitter-related conflict on the relationship between active Twitter use and negative relationship outcomes, and how this mechanism may be contingent on the length of the romantic relationship. A total of 581 Twitter users aged 18 to 67 years (Mage=29, SDage=8.9) completed an online survey questionnaire. Moderation-mediation regression analyses using bootstrapping methods indicated that Twitter-related conflict mediated the relationship between active Twitter use and negative relationship outcomes. The length of the romantic relationship, however, did not moderate the indirect effect on the relationship between active Twitter use and negative relationship outcomes. The results from this study suggest that active Twitter use leads to greater amounts of Twitter-related conflict among romantic partners, which in turn leads to infidelity, breakup, and divorce. This indirect effect is not contingent on the length of the romantic relationship. The current study adds to the growing body of literature investigating SNS use and romantic relationship outcomes. © 2014, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2014. Source


Hinton P.S.,University of Missouri
Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism | Year: 2014

Iron is a trace mineral that is highly significant to endurance athletes. Iron is critical to optimal athletic performance because of its role in energy metabolism, oxygen transport, and acid-base balance. Endurance athletes are at increased risk for suboptimal iron status, with potential negative consequences on performance, because of the combination of increased iron needs and inadequate dietary intake. This review paper summarizes the role of iron in maximal and submaximal exercise and describes the effects of iron deficiency on exercise performance. Mechanisms that explain the increased risk of iron deficiency in endurance athletes, including exercise-associated inflammation and hepcidin release on iron sequestration, are described. Information on screening athletes for iron deficiency is presented, and suggestions to increase iron intake through diet modification or supplemental iron are provided. Source


Inoue Y.,Japan National Institute for Agro - Environmental Sciences | Sakaiya E.,Aomori ITC Agricultural Research Institute | Wang C.,University of Missouri
Remote Sensing of Environment | Year: 2014

High-resolution (ca. 1m) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) sensors have great potential for all-weather monitoring of crop biophysical variables in small and mosaic crop fields in Asia. Rice is the most important staple crop in monsoon Asia, and the timely monitoring of rice growth is critical for precision farming and the assessment of productivity. The objective of this study was to determine the potential capability of backscattering coefficients (σ0) from satellite C-band SAR sensors for the assessment of biophysical variables in rice. SAR images were acquired by a Radarsat-2 sensor in spotlight mode during the critical growth stages over 4years in one of the major rice-producing areas of Japan. Detailed plant biophysical measurements were made concurrently with the SAR observations. The seasonal consistency of C-band σ0 was clearly demonstrated. The baseline σ0 values (minimum σ0 for zero-biomass paddy fields) were determined to be -28.5dB in VH and -21.1dB in HH and VV, respectively. The dynamic change in σ0 during the full range of rice growth was similar (ca. 12dB) in all polarizations. A comprehensive analysis revealed the response of C-band σ0 to biophysical canopy variables. High or moderate sensitivity of σ0 to canopy height, water content, or chlorophyll content was superficial and was attributable to the change in leaf biomass and structure. Both the leaf area index (LAI) and leaf biomass were significantly and consistently correlated with σ0 throughout all growth stages. These relationships were expressed by exponential curves with high coefficients of determination, although σ0 saturates at around a LAI of 3 and a leaf biomass of 180gDWm-2. The response of σ0 to total biomass was expressed by an exponential function with a high coefficient of determination, but the sensitivity was clear only within the lower 20% range of the seasonal maximum biomass. The C-band σ0 had the highest correlation with fAPAR, and the σ0-fAPAR relationship was linear throughout the growth stages. The results suggest the suitability of C-band σ0 for the assessment of LAI or fAPAR and show promise for the timely monitoring of rice growth by C-band SAR and/or through its constellation with optical sensors. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. Source


Jose S.,University of Missouri
Agroforestry Systems | Year: 2011

Indigenous knowledge has influenced native species selection in agroforestry systems worldwide. However, scientific advancements in plant sciences, agroforestry technologies and trade have accelerated species movements and establishment beyond their native range. Managing native and non-native species is an important area of research in agroforestry and this thematic issue includes 13 papers that cover a range of topics from the role of non-native species in agroforestry to management interventions to improve yield. As evident from these papers, non-native plants are still an important component of agroforestry in many parts of the world. Whether native or non-native, management interventions can increase the economic, environmental and social values of these species and that of agroforestry. Collectively, these papers attest to the increasing body of foundational knowledge in agroforestry. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source


Haitian species of the extinct ground sloth genus Neocnus (Mammalia: Pilosa: Megalonychidae) have previously been hypothesized to have a much reduced jugal bone and a correspondingly reduced masseter musculature but a paucity of specimens has prevented further investigation of this hypothesis. Recent discovery of jugal bones belonging to Haitian specimens of Neocnus within the University of Florida Museum collections enables the element to be more accurately described. The discovery also makes it possible to explore mastication in these sloths. Osteological characters related to feeding were examined, along with comparative estimations of bite force with the extant tree sloths, Bradypus and Choloepus, and their known dietary habits as a means to infer aspects of the paleodiet of Neocnus. There is a significant difference in moment arm calculations for m. masseter between predicted and actual jugals, but the overall significance for bite force is lost and hampered by small sample size. Neocnus demonstrates a variety of characters that are similar to those of Bradypus and not to Choloepus, which is a close phylogenetic relative. The masticatory musculature of Neocnus enabled a chewing cycle emphasizing a grinding combination of mesiodistal and linguobuccal movements of the molariform dentition. The orientations of m. masseter and m. temporalis are estimated to produce relatively high bite force ratios that imply a masticatory system with stronger versus faster components. Because of the similarity of bite forces and jaw mechanics to those of Bradypus, in addition to a number of osteological adaptations indicative of herbivorous grazers (elevated mandibular condyle, large and complex masseter, and robust angular process), the Haitian forms of Neocnus are considered to have been selective feeders with a folivorous diet. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Source


Larsen S.C.,University of Missouri | Johnson J.T.,University of Kansas
Annals of the Association of American Geographers | Year: 2012

This article contributes to ongoing efforts in human geography to theorize place as a basis for progressive politics by linking recent work in phenomenology with contemporary interpretations of affinity politics. The phenomenological insight is that existence is a foundational kind of placing through which the world presents itself and that a place-based ontology can be developed by exploring the features of situatedness. Affinity politics involves creating noncoercive, cooperative, and spontaneous relationships through direct action and mutual aid. The argument presented here is that an embodied awareness of place is a kind of affinity politics aimed at possibilities for self-determination through deep relationships with other human and nonhuman beings. This open sense of place is revealed in the existential attunement to wonder and compassion, a mode of being that derives from attending to the world in utter watchfulness, without thinking, while engaging the edges of lifeworld to reveal existence as a situated connectedness of flow, orientation, and exchange. The article concludes by discussing the implications of this argument for geographical praxis. © 2012 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source


Whited J.D.,University of Missouri
Telemedicine journal and e-health : the official journal of the American Telemedicine Association | Year: 2010

Abstract Economic considerations are an important component in the planning and execution of a telemedicine program. The goal of this review is to familiarize readers with economic concepts relevant to the analysis of telemedicine programs. Economic perspectives, cost attribution, types of economic analysis, and commonly encountered problems will be discussed as they pertain to telemedicine. Societal perspectives, healthcare system perspectives, patient perspectives, fixed versus variable costs, labor costs, and distinctions between cost-effectiveness analyses and other types of economic analysis also will be examined. Examples from the teledermatology literature will be used as a paradigm to illustrate how these concepts are integrated into existing analyses of teledermatology systems. Teledermatology shows promise as a cost-saving healthcare delivery system with outcomes comparable to or better than those of conventional care processes. The literature also points out the importance of economic perspectives in the findings and interpretation of an analysis. Source


Taylor J.M.,University of Missouri | Taylor J.M.,Saint Louis University
Psychological Assessment | Year: 2015

Although the 10-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) is a popular measure, a review of the literature reveals 3 significant gaps: (a) There is some debate as to whether a 1- or a 2-factor model best describes the relationships among the PSS-10 items, (b) little information is available on the performance of the items on the scale, and (c) it is unclear whether PSS-10 scores are subject to gender bias. These gaps were addressed in this study using a sample of 1,236 adults from the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States II. Based on self-identification, participants were 56.31% female, 77% White, 17.31% Black and/or African American, and the average age was 54.48 years (SD = 11.69). Findings from an ordinal confirmatory factor analysis suggested the relationships among the items are best described by an oblique 2-factor model. Item analysis using the graded response model provided no evidence of item misfit and indicated both subscales have a wide estimation range. Although t tests revealed a significant difference between the means of males and females on the Perceived Helplessness Subscale (t = 4.001, df = 1234, p < .001), measurement invariance tests suggest that PSS-10 scores may not be substantially affected by gender bias. Overall, the findings suggest that inferences made using PSS-10 scores are valid. However, this study calls into question inferences where the multidimensionality of the PSS-10 is ignored. © 2014 American Psychological Association. Source


Inzlicht M.,University of Toronto | Bartholow B.D.,University of Missouri | Hirsh J.B.,University of Toronto
Trends in Cognitive Sciences | Year: 2015

Often seen as the paragon of higher cognition, here we suggest that cognitive control is dependent on emotion. Rather than asking whether control is influenced by emotion, we ask whether control itself can be understood as an emotional process. Reviewing converging evidence from cybernetics, animal research, cognitive neuroscience, and social and personality psychology, we suggest that cognitive control is initiated when goal conflicts evoke phasic changes to emotional primitives that both focus attention on the presence of goal conflicts and energize conflict resolution to support goal-directed behavior. Critically, we propose that emotion is not an inert byproduct of conflict but is instrumental in recruiting control. Appreciating the emotional foundations of control leads to testable predictions that can spur future research. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Kopeikin S.M.,University of Missouri
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2012

The post-Newtonian theory of motion of celestial bodies and propagation of light was instrumental in conducting the critical experimental tests of general relativity and in building the astronomical ephemerides of celestial bodies in the Solar System with unparalleled precision. The cornerstone of the theory is the postulate that the Solar System is gravitationally isolated from the rest of the Universe and the background spacetime is asymptotically flat. The present article extends this theoretical concept and formulates the principles of celestial dynamics of particles and light moving in the gravitational field of a localized astronomical system embedded to the expanding Friedmann- Lemaître-Robertson-Walker universe. We formulate the precise mathematical concept of the Newtonian limit of Einstein's field equations in the conformally flat Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker spacetime and analyze the geodesic motion of massive particles and light in this limit. We prove that by doing conformal spacetime transformations, one can reduce the equations of motion of particles and light to the classical form of the Newtonian theory. However, the time arguments in the equations of motion of particles and light differ from each other in terms being proportional to the Hubble constant H. This leads to the important conclusion that the equations of light propagation used currently by space navigation centers for fitting range and Doppler-tracking observations of celestial bodies are missing some terms of the cosmological origin that are proportional to the Hubble constant H. We also analyze the effect of the cosmological expansion on motion of electrons in atoms. We prove that the Hubble expansion does not affect the atomic frequencies and hence does not affect the atomic time scale used in the creation of astronomical ephemerides. We derive the cosmological correction to the light travel time equation and argue that its measurement opens an exciting opportunity to determine the local value of the Hubble constant H in the Solar System independently of cosmological observations. © 2012 American Physical Society. Source


Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima Blume) is an exotic species that has potential as a niche crop. As a nut crop, it is relatively precocious in its bearing habit and has resistance to chestnut blight, tolerance to low winter temperatures, and relatively few pests. Current prices for fresh chestnuts are as much as $14/kg. Most U.S. chestnut growers (64%) have small orchards (less than 4 ha) and have been producing this crop for less than 10 years. Commercial chestnut production is low ('680,000 kg) in the United States, but it is a relatively new industry in the central region. Limitations to growing this crop include a shortage of grafted trees, high tree costs, low yield efficiency, and high labor costs resulting from limited large-scale harvest equipment in the United States. However, results of ongoing research using cultivars on dwarfing rootstocks, thinning of secondary (28) flowers, and improved tree nutritionwill likely enhance profitability of production. In a 2003 Missouri survey, 67% of those interviewed had never consumed Chinese chestnuts but associated chestnut roasting with holidays. Chinese chestnuts provide health benefits. including a source of dietary fiber, a significant amount of vitamin C, no cholesterol, and are gluten-free. Source


Alpert M.A.,University of Missouri
Hemodialysis International | Year: 2011

Sudden cardiac death is the most common cause of death in dialysis patients and is usually preceded by sudden cardiac arrest due to ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation. A variety of risk factors have been identified that predispose the sudden cardiac arrest and sudden cardiac death in dialysis patients. Primary prevention of sudden cardiac arrest in dialysis patients may be accomplished by avoiding the use of low potassium dialysate. Pharmacotherapy with beta-blockers angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers and use of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) may also prevent sudden cardiac arrest and sudden cardiac death in high-risk dialysis patients. Secondary prevention of sudden cardiac death may be accomplished by similar pharmacotherapy and by the use of ICDs. Indications for ICD use in dialysis patients are similar to those for nondialysis patients; however, survival rates following ICD implantation in dialysis patients are substantially lower than in non-dialysis patients. © 2011 The Author; Hemodialysis International © 2011 International Society for Hemodialysis. Source


Geary D.C.,University of Missouri
Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics | Year: 2011

The goals of the review are threefold: (a) to highlight the educational and employment consequences of poorly developed mathematical competencies; (b) overview the characteristics of children with mathematical learning disability (MLD) and with persistently low achievement (LA) in mathematics; and (c) provide a primer on cognitive science research that is aimed at identifying the cognitive mechanisms underlying these learning disabilities and associated cognitive interventions. Literatures on the educational and economic consequences of poor mathematics achievement were reviewed and integrated with reviews of epidemiological, behavioral genetic, and cognitive science studies of poor mathematics achievement. Poor mathematical competencies are common among adults and result in employment difficulties and difficulties in many common day-to-day activities. Among students, ∼7% of children and adolescents have MLD and another 10% show persistent LA in mathematics, despite average abilities in most other areas. Children with MLD and their LA peers have deficits in understanding and representing numerical magnitude, difficulties retrieving basic arithmetic facts from long-term memory, and delays in learning mathematical procedures. These deficits and delays cannot be attributed to intelligence but are related to working memory deficits for children with MLD, but not LA children. These individuals have identifiable number and memory delays and deficits that seem to be specific to mathematics learning. Interventions that target these cognitive deficits are in development and preliminary results are promising. Copyright © 2011 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source


Zars T.,University of Missouri
Science | Year: 2012

Sexual rejection or deprivation is connected to ethanol consumption in Drosophila. Source


Vieira-Potter V.J.,University of Missouri
Cellular Microbiology | Year: 2014

The adipose tissue is an active endocrine organ that harbours not only mature and developing adipocytes but also a wide array of immune cells, including macrophages, a key immune cell in determining metabolic functionality.With adipose tissue expansion, M1 pro-inflammatory macrophage infiltration increases, activates other immune cells, and affects lipid trafficking and metabolism, in part via inhibiting mitochondrial function and increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS). The proinflammatory cytokines produced and released interfere with insulin signalling, while inhibiting M1 macrophage activation improves systemic insulin sensitivity. In healthy adipose tissue, M2 alternative macrophages predominate and associate with enhanced lipid handling and mitochondrial function, anti-inflammatory cytokine production, and inhibition of ROS. The sequence of events leading to macrophage infiltration and activation in adipose tissue remains incompletely understood but lipid handling of both macrophages and adipocytes appears to play a major role. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source


Hakim C.H.,University of Missouri
Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) | Year: 2011

The primary function of skeletal muscle is to generate force. Muscle force production is compromised in various forms of acquired and/or inherited muscle diseases. An important goal of muscle gene therapy is to recover muscle strength. Genetically engineered mice and spontaneous mouse mutants are readily available for preclinical muscle gene therapy studies. In this chapter, we outlined the methods commonly used for measuring murine skeletal muscle function. These include ex vivo and in situ analysis of the contractile profile of a single intact limb muscle (the extensor digitorium longus for ex vivo assay and the tibialis anterior muscle for in situ assay), grip force analysis, and downhill treadmill exercise. Force measurement in a single muscle is extremely useful for pilot testing of new gene therapy protocols by local gene transfer. Grip force and treadmill assessments offer body-wide evaluation following systemic muscle gene therapy. Source


Kopeikin S.M.,University of Missouri | Petrov A.N.,Moscow State University
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2013

Post-Newtonian celestial dynamics is a relativistic theory of motion of massive bodies and test particles under the influence of relatively weak gravitational forces. The standard approach for development of this theory relies upon the key concept of the isolated astronomical system supplemented by the assumption that the background spacetime is flat. The standard post-Newtonian theory of motion was instrumental in the explanation of the existing experimental data on binary pulsars, satellite, and lunar laser ranging, and in building precise ephemerides of planets in the Solar System. Recent studies of the formation of large-scale structures in our Universe indicate that the standard post-Newtonian mechanics fails to describe more subtle dynamical effects in motion of the bodies comprising the astronomical systems of larger size - galaxies and clusters of galaxies - where the Riemann curvature of the expanding Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker universe interacts with the local gravitational field of the astronomical system and, as such, cannot be ignored. The present paper outlines theoretical principles of the post-Newtonian mechanics in the expanding Universe. It is based upon the gauge-invariant theory of the Lagrangian perturbations of cosmological manifold caused by an isolated astronomical N-body system (the Solar System, a binary star, a galaxy, and a cluster of galaxies). We postulate that the geometric properties of the background manifold are described by a homogeneous and isotropic Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker metric governed by two primary components - the dark matter and the dark energy. The dark matter is treated as an ideal fluid with the Lagrangian taken in the form of pressure along with the scalar Clebsch potential as a dynamic variable. The dark energy is associated with a single scalar field with a potential which is hold unspecified as long as the theory permits. Both the Lagrangians of the dark matter and the scalar field are formulated in terms of the field variables which play a role of generalized coordinates in the Lagrangian formalism. It allows us to implement the powerful methods of variational calculus to derive the gauge-invariant field equations of the post-Newtonian celestial mechanics of an isolated astronomical system in an expanding universe. These equations generalize the field equations of the post-Newtonian theory in asymptotically flat spacetime by taking into account the cosmological effects explicitly and in a self-consistent manner without assuming the principle of liner superposition of the fields or a vacuole model of the isolated system, etc. The field equations for matter dynamic variables and gravitational field perturbations are coupled in the most general case of an arbitrary equation of state of matter of the background universe. We introduce a new cosmological gauge which generalizes the de Donder (harmonic) gauge of the post-Newtonian theory in asymptotically flat spacetime. This gauge significantly simplifies the gravitational field equations and allows one to find out the approximations where the field equations can be fully decoupled and solved analytically. The residual gauge freedom is explored and the residual gauge transformations are formulated in the form of the wave equations for the gauge functions. We demonstrate how the cosmological effects interfere with the local system and affect the local distribution of matter of the isolated system and its orbital dynamics. Finally, we worked out the precise mathematical definition of the Newtonian limit for an isolated system residing on the cosmological manifold. The results of the present paper can be useful in the Solar System for calculating more precise ephemerides of the Solar System bodies on extremely long time intervals, in galactic astronomy to study the dynamics of clusters of galaxies, and in gravitational wave astronomy for discussing the impact of cosmology on generation and propagation of gravitational waves emitted by coalescing binaries and/or merging galactic nuclei. © 2013 American Physical Society. Source


Pai P.F.,University of Missouri
Thin-Walled Structures | Year: 2014

Because the deformed beam geometry often is the most important information for applications of highly flexible beams, a geometrically exact beam theory needs to be displacement-based in order to directly and exactly describe any greatly deformed geometry. Main challenges in geometrically exact beam modeling are how to describe a beam's large reference-line deformation and cross-sectional rotations without singularity and how to derive objective directional strains in terms of global displacements and rotations that contain elastic deformation and rigid-body movement. By comparing with a geometrically exact displacement-based beam theory this paper shows that theoretical and numerical problems of other geometrically nonlinear beam theories are mainly caused by: (1) use of independent variables to account for bending-shear rotations, (2) use of problematic energy-based Green-Lagrange strains in order to have objective strain measures, and/or (3) use of strain-based formulations in order not to use problematic Green-Lagrange strains. The theoretical problems include inconsistent governing equations from energy- and momentum-based formulations, inexistence of material property matrices for the chosen strain and stress measures, and non-directional stresses. The numerical problems include shear locking in finite-element analysis, the need of internal nodes and hence more degrees of freedom in finite-element modeling, singularity of mathematics-based rotational variables, deformed geometry being obtained by approximate post-processing numerical integration, and difficult to match secondary (force) variables with deformed conditions. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Huxley V.H.,University of Missouri | Scallan J.,St Jude Childrens Research Hospital
Journal of Physiology | Year: 2011

Regulation of fluid and material movement between the vascular space of microvessels penetrating functioning organs and the cells therein has been studied extensively. Unanswered questions as to the regulatory mechanisms and routes remain. Significantly less is known about the lymphatic vascular system given the difficulties in seeing, no less isolating, these vessels lying deeper in these same tissues. It has become evident that the exchange microvasculature is not simply a passive biophysical barrier separating the vascular and interstitial compartments but a dynamic, multicellular structure subject to acute regulation and chronic adaptation to stimuli including inflammation, sepsis, diabetes, injury, hypoxia and exercise. Similarly lymphatic vessels range, in their simplest form, from lymphatic endothelium attached to the interstitial matrix, to endothelia and phasic lymphatic smooth muscle that act as Starling resistors. Recent work has demonstrated that among the microvascular lymphatic elements, the collecting lymphatics have barrier properties similar to venules, and thus participate in exchange. As with venules, vasoactive agents can alter both the permeability and contractile properties thereby setting up previously unanticipated gradients in the tissue space and providing potential targets for the pharmacological prevention and/or resolution of oedema. © 2011 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2011 The Physiological Society. Source


Macuga K.L.,Oregon State University | Frey S.H.,University of Missouri
NeuroImage | Year: 2014

Damage to the superior and/or inferior parietal lobules (SPL, IPL) (Sirigu et al., 1996) or cerebellum (Grealy and Lee, 2011) can selectively disrupt motor imagery, motivating the hypothesis that these regions participate in predictive (i.e., feedforward) control. If so, then the SPL, IPL, and cerebellum should show greater activity as the demands on feedforward control increase from visually-guided execution (closed-loop) to execution without visual feedback (open-loop) to motor imagery. Using fMRI and a Fitts' reciprocal aiming task with tools directed at targets in far space, we found that the SPL and cerebellum exhibited greater activity during closed-loop control. Conversely, open-loop and imagery conditions were associated with increased activity within the IPL and prefrontal areas. These results are consistent with a superior-to-inferior gradient in the representation of feedback-to-feedforward control within the posterior parietal cortex. Additionally, the anterior SPL displayed greater activity when aiming movements were performed with a stick vs. laser pointer. This may suggest that it is involved in the remapping of far into near (reachable) space (Maravita and Iriki, 2004), or in distalization of the end-effector from hand to stick (Arbib et al., 2009). © 2014 Elsevier Inc. Source


An integral part of auxin-regulated gene expression involves the interplay of two types of transcription factors, the DNA binding auxin response factor (ARF) activators and the interacting auxin/indole acetic acid (Aux/IAA) repressors. Insight into the mechanism of how these transcription factors interact with one another has recently been revealed from crystallographic information on ARF5 and ARF7 C-terminal domains (i.e., a protein-protein interaction domain referred to as domain III/IV that is related to domain III/IV in Aux/IAA proteins). Three-dimensional structures showed that this domain in ARF5 and ARF7 conforms to a well-known PB1 (Phox and Bem1) domain that confers protein-protein interactions with other PB1 domain proteins through electrostatic contacts. Experiments verifying the importance of charged amino acids in conferring ARF and Aux/IAA interactions have confirmed the PB1 domain structure. Some in planta experiments designed to test the validity of PB1 interactions in the auxin response have led to updated models for auxin-regulated gene expression and raised many questions that will require further investigation. In addition to the PB1 domain, a second protein interaction module that functions in ARF-ARF dimerization and facilitates DNA binding has recently been revealed from crystallography studies on the ARF1 and ARF5 DNA binding domains. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved. Source


Taylor J.F.,University of Missouri
Aquaculture | Year: 2014

Genomic selection is emerging as a powerful tool for the estimation of breeding values in plant and animal breeding. While many analytical approaches have been proposed for the joint estimation of high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) effects, within the framework of best linear unbiased estimation, genomic selection is equivalent to the prediction of breeding values for individuals with no phenotypes, for which the theoretical solution was first published in 1974. Genomic selection simply replaces the pedigree-derived numerator relationship matrix with the marker-derived realized genomic relationship matrix, an approach first proposed in 1997. The advance facilitated by the availability of high-density SNP genotypes is the ability to precisely estimate realized relationship coefficients among individuals regardless of the availability of pedigree information or the history of selection that has been applied to the population. However, genomic relationship coefficients are usually estimated assuming the independence of SNP genotypes, thus ignoring the effects of linkage disequilibrium, and the utilized SNPs are invariably ascertained to be common variants within the specie's genome which leads to the overestimation of relationship coefficients. The accuracy of the produced genomic estimated breeding values (GEBV) is often evaluated using variously formed validation populations incorporating individuals with genotypes and phenotypes that were not used for the estimation of SNP effects in the training population. However, GEBV accuracies are shown here to be a function of the accuracy of training population GEBV and the magnitudes of genomic relationships between individuals in the training and validation populations. Consequently, genomic selection is ideally suited to populations in which highly accurate GEBV are available for training population individuals and whose marker-selected progeny go on to produce phenotypes and reenter the training population which then becomes dynamic. Conversely, genomic selection is not well suited to the identification of elite individuals within families that have not historically contributed to breeding programs, to static training populations, or to training and implementation in distantly related populations. Thus, the implementation of genomic selection for costly or difficult to measure phenotypes such as feed efficiency or disease resistance will require the periodic regeneration of phenotyped populations for the retraining of GEBV prediction equations or the identification of the causal variants which underlie variation in these traits. The exponentially reducing cost of whole genome resequencing may soon allow the identification of at least the large effect variants. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source


Eric Schranz M.,University of Amsterdam | Mohammadin S.,University of Amsterdam | Edger P.P.,University of Missouri
Current Opinion in Plant Biology | Year: 2012

Many large and economically important plant groups (e.g. Brassicaceae, Poaceae, Asteraceae, Fabaceae and Solanaceae) have had ancient whole genome duplications (WGDs) occurring near or at the time of their origins, suggesting that WGD contributed to the origin of novel key traits and drove species diversification. However, these large clades show phylogenetic asymmetries with a species-rich crown group and a species-poor sister clade, suggesting significant 'lag-times' between WGDs and radiations. The species-poor sister groups share many key traits, but are often restricted to the hypothesized center of origin for the larger clade. Thus, the ultimate success of the crown group does not only involve the WGD and novel key traits, but largely subsequent evolutionary phenomena including later migration events, changing environmental conditions and/or differential extinction rates. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Schatten H.,University of Missouri | Sun Q.-Y.,CAS Institute of Zoology
Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology | Year: 2010

Centrosomes play significant central roles during reproduction, cell division, embryo development and stem cell biology, and a wealth of new information has been accumulated during the past decade that spans molecular details and newly discovered functions/dysfunctions for specific centrosome proteins in various cellular activities. The present review will focus on the current state of knowledge on the role of germ cell centrosomes during fertilization, formation of the zygote centrosome, centrosome duplication and separation during first embryonic cell division, and asymmetric cell divisions during cell differentiation and subsequent embryo development. It will also address asymmetric cell division in stem cells and formation of the primary cilium during embryo development. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


A fuzzy adaptive management framework is proposed for evaluating the vulnerability of an ecosystem to losing ecological integrity as a result of climate change in an historical period (ex post evaluation) and selecting the best compensatory management action for reducing potential adverse impacts of future climate change on ecological integrity in a future period (ex ante evaluation). The ex post evaluation uses fuzzy logic to test hypotheses about the extent of past ecosystem vulnerability to losing ecological integrity and the ex ante evaluation uses the fuzzy minimax regret criterion to determine the best compensatory management action for alleviating potential adverse impacts of climate change on ecosystem vulnerability to losing ecological integrity in a future period. The framework accounts for uncertainty regarding: (1) the relationship between ecosystem vulnerability to losing ecological integrity and ecosystem resilience; (2) the relationship between ecosystem resilience and the extent to which observed indicators of ecological integrity depart from their thresholds; (3) the extent of future climate change; and (4) the potential impacts of future climate change on ecological integrity and ecosystem resilience. The adaptive management element of the framework involves using the ex post and ex ante evaluations iteratively in consecutive time segments of the future time period to determine if and when it is beneficial to adjust compensatory management actions to climate change. A constructed example is used to demonstrate the framework. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010. Source