Minneapolis, MN, United States
Minneapolis, MN, United States

The University of Minnesota, Twin Cities is a public research university located in Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minnesota, United States. The Minneapolis and St. Paul campuses are approximately 5 miles apart, and the Saint Paul campus is actually in neighboring Falcon Heights. It is the oldest and largest campus within the University of Minnesota system and has the sixth-largest main campus student body in the United States, with 51,853 students in 2012–2013. The university is organized into 19 colleges and schools, and it has sister campuses in Crookston, Duluth, Morris, and Rochester.Minnesota's athletic teams are known collectively as the Minnesota Golden Gophers and compete in the NCAA's Division I as members of the Big Ten Conference. Wikipedia.


Time filter

Source Type

Patent
U.S. Department Of Veterans Affairs and University of Minnesota | Date: 2016-11-22

An ankle-foot prosthesis includes a foot plate, an ankle frame attached to the foot plate, a yoke pivotally connected to the ankle frame and including a member for attaching to a leg, a damper having a first end connected to the yoke and a second end connected to the ankle frame, and a control mechanism for switching the damper between low and high settings.


Patent
University of Minnesota and Mayo Foundation For Medical Education And Research | Date: 2016-08-18

This disclosure describes devices, system, and a method for the prediction and prevention of acute decompensated heart failure or other patient conditions involving fluid accumulation in legs or hands. In one example, a wearable device contains a drift-free leg-size sensor and a tissue-elasticity sensor. Both sensors may be relatively inexpensive and developed using innovative new sensing ideas. Preliminary tests with the sensor prototypes show promising results: the leg-size sensor is capable of measuring 1 mm changes in leg diameter and the tissue-elasticity sensor can detect 0.15 MPa differences in elasticity. In another example, a wearable system includes sensors for measuring a variety of physiological parameters, a processing module, and a communication module. A low-profile instrumented sock, e.g., a wearable device, with multiple sensors can provide an indication of heart failure status for a patient.


Patent
University of Washington and University of Minnesota | Date: 2016-11-14

Passive prosthetic devices for focally cooling a brain and methods for inhibiting seizures are disclosed. The prosthetic devices replace a thermally insulating bone flap with a thermally conductive insert having an inner surface that contacts the relatively warm meninges or brain and an outer surface that contacts the relatively cool scalp. In an embodiment, the prosthesis is unitary; in another, a biocompatible casing is filled with a highly conductive core; in another, a filled polymer block is attached to a plate; and in another, the bone flap is filled with a conductive polymer. In one embodiment, a filled polymer containing elements that exhibit the magnetocaloric effect provide heat transfer that can be enhanced by application of a suitable magnetic field. Focal cooling as low as 1.2 C. has been found effective at inhibiting seizures.


Patent
National Health Research Institute and University of Minnesota | Date: 2016-07-12

Disclosed is an in vitro screening method for identifying an antagonist-to-agonist allosteric modifier of a mu-opioid receptor and an in vivo method for confirming that a test compound is such a modifier of a mu-opioid receptor. Also disclosed is a method for treating an opioid receptor-associated condition using a compound of Formula (I) and a pharmaceutical composition containing the same.


Patent
University of Minnesota | Date: 2016-09-01

The present invention is directed to compositions comprising topiramate and a sulfoalkyl ether cyclodextrin, and methods of making and using the same.


Patent
University of Minnesota and Intima Bioscience Inc. | Date: 2016-08-29

Genetically modified compositions, such as non-viral vectors and T cells, for treating cancer are disclosed. Also disclosed are the methods of making and using the genetically modified compositions in treating cancer.


Patent
University of Minnesota | Date: 2016-09-23

This disclosure provides a platform for making live, attenuated viruses. This disclosure also provides methods of using the live, attenuated viruses.


Patent
University of Minnesota | Date: 2015-03-10

The present disclosure provides an isolated or purified Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (PEDV) or Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (PEDV) S1 protein, and methods of use thereof.


Patent
University of Minnesota and Intima Bioscience Inc. | Date: 2016-09-02

Genetically modified compositions, such as non-viral vectors and T cells, for treating cancer are disclosed. Also disclosed are the methods of making and using the genetically modified compositions in treating cancer.


Patent
University of Minnesota | Date: 2015-04-17

Block copolymers include a poly -methyl--valerolactone (PMVL) block. The PMVL blocks can be formed from biosynthesized -methyl--valero lactone (MVL). The block copolymers can include hard blocks. The block copolymers can be thermoplastic elastomers.


Patent
University of Minnesota | Date: 2016-09-16

This disclosure describes biocompatible composites and method for making the biocompatible composites. Generally, the biocompatible composite includes a fibril prepared from a biocompatible polymer and cationic component, and a uniform coating of silica-containing material.


Patent
University of Minnesota | Date: 2016-09-19

This disclosure describes, in one aspect, a method that, in general, includes analyzing a tumor tissue sample from a subject for expression of at least two biomarkers, wherein a predetermined ratio of expression of the at least two biomarkers identifies the tumor tissue sample as coming from a subject having a particular subtype of lymphoma; and identifying the subject as having a particular subtype of lymphoma.


Patent
University of Minnesota | Date: 2016-10-06

Disclosed herein are synthetic silica-based ocular devices fabricated from a composite material comprising silica and a fibrillar protein, together with methods of making and using the ocular devices.


Patent
University of Minnesota | Date: 2015-04-21

Certain embodiments of the invention provide a method of preparing a modified distilled alcoholic spirit, comprising contacting a corresponding starting distilled alcoholic spirit with a base under conditions that cause at least one free carbonyl compound in the starting distilled alcoholic spirit to be reduced, to provide the modified distilled alcoholic spirit that has at an alcohol by volume (ABV) of at least 15%. Certain embodiments also provide a modified distilled alcoholic spirit prepared by the methods described herein.


Patent
University of Minnesota | Date: 2016-08-31

APC systems and methods using vehicle mass to assess boardings and alightings of passengers on transit vehicles (e.g., buses). Vehicle mass is determined based on signaled information indicative of a pressure in one or more air bag circuits of an air ride suspension system of the vehicle. In some embodiments, pressure information from three air bag circuits of the vehicle are monitored and reviewed to determine vehicle mass. The passenger count can be estimated based on determined vehicle mass by an Additional Mass Method or an Event-Based Method for example.


Patent
University of Minnesota | Date: 2015-11-19

An article may include a substantially perpendicularly magnetized free layer having a first magnetic orientation in the absence of an applied magnetic field. The article may also include a spin Hall channel layer configured to conduct a spin current configured to subject the perpendicularly magnetized free layer to a magnetic switching torque and a substantially in-plane magnetized bias layer configured to bias the substantially perpendicularly magnetized free layer to a second magnetic orientation. The second magnetic orientation is different than the first magnetic orientation and is out of a plane of the substantially perpendicularly magnetized free layer.


An electrical device includes at least one graphene quantum capacitance varactor. In some examples, the graphene quantum capacitance varactor includes an insulator layer, a graphene layer disposed on the insulator layer, a dielectric layer disposed on the graphene layer, a gate electrode formed on the dielectric layer, and at least one contact electrode disposed on the graphene layer and making electrical contact with the graphene layer. In other examples, the graphene quantum capacitance varactor includes an insulator layer, a gate electrode recessed in the insulator layer, a dielectric layer formed on the gate electrode, a graphene layer formed on the dielectric layer, wherein the graphene layer comprises an exposed surface opposite the dielectric layer, and at least one contact electrode formed on the graphene layer and making electrical contact with the graphene layer.


Patent
University of Minnesota | Date: 2015-04-24

Systems and methods for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using a frequency swept excitation that utilizes multiple sidebands to achieve significant increases in excitation and acquisition bandwidth are provided. The imaging sequence efficiently uses transmitter power and has increased sensitivity as compared to other techniques used for imaging of fast relaxing spins. Additionally, the imaging sequence can provide information about both fast and slow relaxing spins in a single scan. These features are advantageous for numerous MRI applications, including musculoskeletal imaging, other medical imaging applications, and imaging materials.


Patent
Cummins and University of Minnesota | Date: 2015-01-02

Described herein is a continuous process for modifying the properties of polyester and polyester based fibers, such as a poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT) fiber, comprising subjecting the PBT fiber to alkaline hydrolysis, and optionally further comprising functionalizing the PBT fiber by solution grafting such as fluorination. The alkaline hydrolysis and optionally subsequent functionalization such as fluorination process can be continuous, following the melt blowing/spinning or spun-bonding process. Also described is a nonwoven PBT fiber mat obtained by the surface modification process. Further described is a filtration device comprising the nonwoven PBT fiber mat.


In some examples, a method including depositing a functional layer over a substrate; depositing a granular layer over the functional layer, the granular layer including a first material defining a plurality of grains separated by a second material defining grain boundaries of the plurality of grains; removing the second material from the granular layer such that the plurality of grains of the granular layer define a hard mask layer on the functional layer; and removing, via reactive ion etching with a carrier gas, portions of the functional layer not masked by the hard mask layer, wherein the carrier gas comprises a gas with an atomic number less than an atomic number of argon.


Patent
University of Minnesota | Date: 2015-08-31

A formaldehyde electrochemical sensor employing a formaldehyde sensitive assembly of formaldehyde dehydrogenase attached to graphene in fluid communication with a source of NAD^(+), and a method of measuring formaldehyde utilizing the sensor.


Patent
University of Minnesota | Date: 2017-03-01

The present invention provides compositions that include an extract of human feces, and methods for using such compositions, including methods for replacing or supplementing or modifying a subjects colon microbiota, and methods for treating a disease, pathological condition, and/or iatrogenic condition of the colon.


Resistant hypertension, defined as blood pressure >140/90 mm Hg despite using ≥3 antihypertensive medications, is a well-recognized clinical entity. Patients with resistant hypertension are at an increased risk of cardiovascular disease compared with those with more easily controlled hypertension. Coronary heart disease mortality rates of younger adults are stagnating or on the rise. The purpose of our study was to characterize the phenotype and risk factors of younger patients with resistant hypertension, given the dearth of data on cardiovascular risk profile in this cohort. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis with predefined age groups of a large, ethnically diverse cohort of 2170 patients referred to the Hypertension Clinic at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. Patients (n=2068) met the inclusion criteria and were classified by age groups, that is, ≤40 years (12.7% of total cohort), 41 to 55 years (32.1%), 56 to 70 years (36.1%), and ≥71 years (19.1%). Patients aged ≤40 years compared with those aged ≥71 years had significantly earlier onset of hypertension (24.7±7.4 versus 55.0±14.1 years; P<0.0001), higher rates of obesity (53.4% versus 26.9%; P<0.0001), and significantly higher levels of plasma aldosterone (11.3±9.8 versus 8.9±7.4 ng/dL; P=0.005), plasma renin activity (4.9±10.2 versus 2.5±5.0 ng/mL per hour; P=0.001), 24-hour urinary aldosterone (13.4±10.0 versus 8.2±6.2 µg/24 h; P<0.0001), and sodium excretion (195.9±92.0 versus 146.8±67.1 mEq/24 h; P<0.0001). Among patients with resistant hypertension, younger individuals have a distinct phenotype characterized by overlapping risk factors and comorbidities, including obesity, high aldosterone, and high dietary sodium intake compared with elderly. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc


Titus M.A.,University of Minnesota
Nature Cell Biology | Year: 2017

Spectacular images of the process of myosin II filament formation and organization in migrating cells are unveiled by super-resolution imaging. A combination of short- and long-range interactions with actin filaments is seen to play a critical role in filament partitioning and alignment into contractile actin arcs and stress fibres. © 2017 Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature. All rights reserved.


The development of targeted inhibitors, vemurafenib and dabrafenib, has led to improved clinical outcome for melanoma patients with BRAFV600E mutations. Although the initial response to these inhibitors can be dramatic, sometimes causing complete tumor regression, the majority of melanomas eventually become resistant. Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) mutations are found in primary melanomas and frequently reported in BRAF melanomas that develop resistance to targeted therapy; however, melanoma is a molecularly heterogeneous cancer, and which mutations are drivers and which are passengers remains to be determined. In this study, we demonstrate that in BRAFV600E melanoma cell lines, activating MEK mutations drive resistance and contribute to suboptimal growth of melanoma cells following the withdrawal of BRAF inhibition. In this manner, the cells are drug-addicted, suggesting that melanoma cells evolve a ‘just right’ level of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling and the additive effects of MEK and BRAF mutations are counterproductive. We also used a novel mouse model of melanoma to demonstrate that several of these MEK mutants promote the development, growth and maintenance of melanoma in vivo in the context of Cdkn2a and Pten loss. By utilizing a genetic approach to control mutant MEK expression in vivo, we were able to induce tumor regression and significantly increase survival; however, after a long latency, all tumors subsequently became resistant. These data suggest that resistance to BRAF or MEK inhibitors is probably inevitable, and novel therapeutic approaches are needed to target dormant tumors.Oncogene advance online publication, 6 March 2017; doi:10.1038/onc.2016.526. © 2017 The Author(s)


Cyphers S.,University of Minnesota
Nature Chemical Biology | Year: 2017

The catalytic activity of many protein kinases is controlled by conformational changes of a conserved Asp-Phe-Gly (DFG) motif. We used an infrared probe to track the DFG motif of the mitotic kinase Aurora A (AurA) and found that allosteric activation by the spindle-associated protein Tpx2 involves an equilibrium shift toward the active DFG-in state. Förster resonance energy transfer experiments show that the activation loop undergoes a nanometer-scale movement that is tightly coupled to the DFG equilibrium. Tpx2 further activates AurA by stabilizing a water-mediated allosteric network that links the C-helix to the active site through an unusual polar residue in the regulatory spine. The polar spine residue and water network of AurA are essential for phosphorylation-driven activation, but an alternative form of the water network found in related kinases can support Tpx2-driven activation, suggesting that variations in the water-mediated hydrogen bond network mediate regulatory diversification in protein kinases. © 2017 Nature Publishing Group, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited. All Rights Reserved.


Zhao X.,University of Minnesota | Subramanian S.,University of Minnesota
Cancer Research | Year: 2017

Immune checkpoint blockade therapy (ICBT), which blocks negative immune-activating signals and maintains the antitumor response, has elicited a remarkable clinical response in certain cancer patients. However, intrinsic resistance (i.e., insensitivity of the tumors to therapy) remains a daunting challenge. The efficacy of ICBT is tightly modulated by the function of each step in the antitumor immunity cycle. Mechanistically, the number of mutations determines tumor immunogenicity. The properties of the tumor microenvironment control T-cell infiltration, distribution, and function in tumor tissues. Low tumor immunogenicity and a strong immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment cause significant intrinsic resistance to ICBT. With our evolving understanding of intrinsic resistance, people have successfully tested, in preclinical models, treatments targeting specific resistance mechanisms to sensitize ICBT-resistant tumors. Translation of those preclinical findings to the clinical arena will help generate personalized ICBT strategies that target tumorspecific resistance mechanisms. Progress in the new personalized ICBT strategies will expand the reach of immunotherapy to more cancer types, thus enabling more patients to benefit. ©2017 AACR.


Bosworth K.,University of Minnesota
Environment and Planning D: Society and Space | Year: 2017

In this paper, I argue that encounters with hydrogeologic processes encourage feminists to rethink the permeable surfaces between human bodies, ecological systems, and political events. Contemporary geographical accounts of environmental knowledge controversies are insufficiently attentive to how geologic processes exceed and undermine instrumental deliberative political solutions to environmental problems. Through a mobilization of feminist geophilosophy, I argue instead that the limits of instrumental knowledge are not merely produced by uncertainty or lack of evidence, but by the inhuman forces that condition feminist thinking itself. An investigation of a controversy surrounding the permeability of underground materials near a proposed in situ recovery uranium mine in South Dakota demonstrates that subterranean spaces have the ability to heighten a sense of the openness of our bodies to geological forces. Public and expert testimony of the hydrogeology of the region creatively extended scientific accounts to draw conclusions about the meaning and force of geology for the politics of uranium extraction. This essay contributes a unique account of environmental controversies in which materiality does not become instrumental or experiential knowledge but instead produces a creative understanding of permeable geologic materials which provokes feminist thought. © 2016, © The Author(s) 2016.


Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) from siblings or unrelated donors (URD) during complete remission (CR) may improve leukemia-free survival (LFS) in FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3+ (FLT3+) acute myeloid leukemia (AML), which has poor prognosis because of high relapse rates. Umbilical cord blood (UCB) HCT outcomes are largely unknown in this population. We found that compared with sibling HCT, relapse risks were similar after UCB (n=126) (hazard ratio (HR) 0.86, P=0.54) and URD (n=91) (HR 0.81, P=0.43). UCB HCT was associated with statistically higher non-relapse mortality compared with sibling HCT (HR 2.32, P=0.02), but not vs URD (HR 1.72, P=0.07). All three cohorts had statistically nonsignificant 3-year LFS: 39% (95% confidence interval (CI): 30–47) after UCB, 43% (95% CI: 30–54) after sibling and 50% (95% CI: 40–60) after URD. Chronic graft-versus-host disease rates were significantly lower after UCB compared with either sibling (HR 0.59, P=0.03) or URD (HR 0.49, P=0.001). Adverse factors for LFS included high leukocyte count at diagnosis and HCT during CR2 (second CR). UCB is a suitable option for adults with FLT3+ AML in the absence of an human leukocyte antigen-matched sibling and its immediate availability may be particularly important for FLT3+ AML where early relapse is common, thus allowing HCT in CR1 (first CR) when outcomes are best.Leukemia advance online publication, 14 February 2017; doi:10.1038/leu.2017.42. © 2017 Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature.


News Article | April 18, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

CHAMPAIGN, Ill. -- People who closely eyeball nutrition labels tend to eat differently than less-discerning diners in one key regard, according to research from a University of Illinois expert in food and nutrition policy and consumer food preferences and behaviors. Although nutrition-label users and non-nutrition-label users eat roughly the same amount of food, the two groups diverge when it comes to the quality of the food they eat, says a new paper co-written by Brenna Ellison, a professor of agriculture and consumer economics at Illinois. "Research has often concluded that people who use nutrition labels eat better. But we don't necessarily talk about what better means," Ellison said. "Is it eating less food, or is it eating better food? This study looks at people's plates and considers both what they selected to eat and what they actually ate in an effort to determine which difference" - volume or quality - "is occurring." To examine the relationship between label use and food selection, servings and consumption, Ellison and co-author Mary J. Christoph of the University of Minnesota combined survey and photographic data of the lunch plates of college students at two different university dining halls. Food selection, servings and consumption were assessed using digital photography, a method with strong reliability for validating portion sizes compared with weighing food and visual estimation. "In terms of measuring and evaluating the plates, we had students who built their own plates because it was a self-serve dining environment," Ellison said. "Diners were only eligible if they were just sitting down to eat. It couldn't be someone who was halfway through their meal, which would misrepresent what they were eating and skew the results." Based on the meals assessed, the quantity of foods served and consumed were roughly similar between the two groups. There were, however, distinct differences in the types of foods plated and consumed within MyPlate food categories between those who tended to read nutrition labels and those who didn't, the researchers found. The results indicate that a greater proportion of nutrition-label users selected more fruits, vegetables and beans, and fewer potatoes and refined grains, compared with non-label users. In addition, fewer label users selected fried foods and foods with added sugars, Ellison said. "We find that it's more about the types of food rather than the quantity of the food," Ellison said. "The amount of food between label users and non-label users was roughly the same amount. It's the differences in quality that are more prevalent than the sheer amount of food selected." Using digital photography also provided a more objective assessment of food selection, servings and consumption compared with self-reporting because "you don't have to rely on students remembering how much of each food they ate," Ellison said. "That's one big advantage to this study. Another one is that diners did not interact with our data collectors until after their plate was built. So our data collection methods shouldn't have affected what they chose. For example, people weren't picking more salad because they knew there was going to be a picture taken of their plate." Participants were further surveyed on socio-demographic and behavioral variables such as gender, body mass index, exercise frequency and nutrition education to better assess the possible link between label use and food selection, servings and consumption, according to the paper. Examining nutrition labels is often recommended by doctors and dietitians to improve food choices, but choice does not always translate to consumption. Furthermore, evidence on the effectiveness of labels is mixed, and few studies can identify how labels actually influence behavior, Ellison said. "Previous research has focused on portion control for weight loss or weight management, generally eating less. But, more-recent research indicates this may not be the most effective message. By eating less, consumers may feel deprived, or even 'hangry,' which can make it difficult to sustain long-term dietary behaviors," she said. "Newer research indicates that eating less of certain types of foods, rather than all foods, may matter more." Although the results show label users eat differently than non-users, the implications of the research suggest there may be a need for greater consumption of fruit, vegetables, beans, whole grains and low-fat dairy among both groups. In addition to posting labels, Ellison said dining facilities may want to increase offerings of nutrient-dense foods (whole grains and vegetables, for example) or consider product reformulations that creatively incorporate these foods to encourage healthy eating behaviors. But Ellison warned that the study's findings should still be cautiously interpreted, as the conclusions are based on only one meal. The paper will appear in the Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. The paper "A Cross-Sectional Study of the Relationship between Nutrition Label Use and Food Selection, Servings, and Consumption in a University Dining Setting" is available online.


News Article | April 19, 2017
Site: www.sciencenews.org

Biologist Leo Smith held an unusual job while an undergraduate student in San Diego. Twice a year, he tagged along on a chartered boat with elderly passengers. The group needed him to identify two particular species of rockfish, the chilipepper rockfish and the California shortspine thornyhead. Once he’d found the red-orange creatures, the passengers would stab themselves in the arms with the fishes’ spines. Doing so, the seniors believed, would relieve their aching arthritic joints. Smith, now at the University of Kansas in Lawrence, didn’t think much of the practice at the time, but now he wonders if those passengers were on to something. Though there’s no evidence that anything in rockfish venom can alleviate pain — most fish stings are, in fact, quite painful themselves — some scientists suspect fish venom is worth a look. Studying the way venom molecules from diverse fishes inflict pain might help researchers understand how nerve cells sense pain and lead to novel ways to dull the sensation. Smith is one of a handful of scientists who are studying fish venoms, and there’s plenty to investigate. An estimated 7 to 9 percent of fishes, close to 3,000 species, are venomous, Smith’s work suggests. Venomous fishes are found in freshwater and saltwater, including some stingrays, catfishes and stonefishes. Some, such as certain fang blennies, are favorites in home aquariums. Yet stinging fishes haven’t gotten the same attention from scientists as snakes and other venomous creatures. But thanks to Smith’s recent work, scientists can now see how venomous fishes fit within a tree of all fishkind. The tree shows that venom arose multiple times throughout history. Understanding which fishes are venomous is the crucial first step to working out the nature of the venoms, Smith says. Researchers are exploring how different fish venoms affect their victims and are discovering extraordinary diversity among fishes’ chemical weaponry. The scientists hope the powerful molecules in the venoms might yield insights that could be turned into medicines. One newly described venom appears to act on opioid receptors, perhaps to stupefy its victims. And venom molecules that stall cell division and others that calm inflammation are inspiring new treatment ideas that go beyond pain relief. While fish-venom studies are rare, fish stings are not. An old estimate says about 40,000 to 50,000 people are stung by fish each year. But the number is probably much higher, Smith says, since many people don’t bother to report their experiences. The most noticeable effect of a venomous fish sting is immediate pain, ranging from the mild sting of those rockfish from Smith’s scouting days to a feeling much more excruciating. “The most pain that I’ve ever been in was my first stingray envenomation,” says venom researcher Bryan Fry of the University of Queensland in Brisbane, Australia. He was trying to collect a sample from a roughly 1½-meter-wide smooth stingray when it stabbed him in the thigh. “The pain is immediate and blinding.” Smith’s first painful run-in was with a fuzzy dwarf lionfish at a pet store where he worked in his late teens. Later, at the library, he found no reports of that species having venom. In fact, medical records of fish stings documented only about 200 fish species as venomous. The experience helped set his career. As his research progressed, Smith began building fish family trees to get a better handle on which fish spew venom. He presumed that fish related to known venomous ones could also be venomous. So he checked their anatomy for venom-delivery structures, like grooved spines. He reported a partial tree in 2006 and published a more complete version last year in Integrative and Comparative Biology. To assemble the latest tree, Smith and colleagues examined eight locations in the genetic instruction books, or genomes, of 388 species of fish, then used a computer program to work out, based on differences and similarities in those genomes, how the animals are probably related. He also examined museum samples of 90 types of fish for spines or fangs and venom glands. Based on what’s known about fish diversity, Smith’s lowball estimate is that, of about 35,000 fish species, 2,386 to 2,962 are venomous. Based on his new tree, Smith estimates that there were 18 distinct instances in which nonvenomous fish evolved a venom apparatus — give or take a few, since venom might have been lost from some groups, or evolved multiple times in others, he says. Jeremy Wright, curator of ichthyology at the New York State Museum in Albany, who has studied venom in catfish family trees, says Smith’s methods were sound and the data support the tree. However, Wright’s research suggests venom arose separately two or more times in the catfish lineage, while Smith’s tree says all stinging catfishes share a single common, venomous ancestor. Whether fish venom arose 18 times, or 15, or 20, that’s a big contrast to other animals that use venom: In snakes, venom appears to have evolved only once. The same is true for the venom in bees and ants. “To have venom evolve multiple times within a group is extraordinary,” says Fry, who’s studied a range of venomous critters. Fish experts say the distinct origins of fish venoms make sense because, unlike snakes, which always use their teeth, fish deliver venom in diverse ways. Spines with venom glands are most commonly found in fins atop the fish’s back, but not always. In many venomous catfishes, the pectoral fins contain the barbs and venom glands. Weever fish spines sit on the operculum, a bony flap that protects the gills on the fish’s cheeks. In stingrays, the flattened spine protrudes just above the tail. And in fang blennies, the venom glands sit at the base of enlarged lower canines, calling to mind tiny vampires of the sea. Even within one fish genus, the venom-delivery apparatus can vary. Ichthyologists Jacob Egge, now at Pacific Lutheran University in Tacoma, Wash., and Andrew Simon of the University of Minnesota analyzed pectoral stingers of 26 species of madtom catfish, found in eastern North American freshwater. Some had smooth spines with a venom gland in the shaft, the two reported in 2011. Others had serrated spines, the better to cause injury, with a gland at the shaft and glands spread along the serrations. One species had no venom gland at all. The effects of venom — from fishes and other creatures — vary widely, but in fishes, the goal is usually the same: to stop an attack. For most fish venoms, pain is key, but some cause numbness, too. All affect the cardiovascular system in some way, by lowering blood pressure, for example, which would probably startle and debilitate a predator, Smith says. In people who have been stung, skin reddening, swelling, itching or temporary localized paralysis might also occur. In some cases, the venom can kill the tissues near the sting site. In rare cases, a combination of low blood pressure, failure of circulation or weak breathing can lead to death. Just within the catfishes, venom effects differ between species. Wright injected venom from nine different species of catfish into largemouth bass, which are typical predators. “It was clear that it was an uncomfortable experience for them,” Wright says of his unlucky subjects. Many venoms caused loss of color and bleeding, some induced jerky muscle contractions or loss of balance, and one simply killed the bass outright, he reported in BMC Evolutionary Biology in 2009. Why did such diverse venoms and delivery apparatuses evolve so many times in fish? With Smith’s comprehensive map of fish venom evolution, scientists can now address that sort of question, says Meg Daly, who studies sea anemone venom at Ohio State University in Columbus. For instance, since most fish use venom for defense, Daly wonders if the evolutionary origins of venoms coincided with times when new predators arrived on the scene. Venom seems to have arisen often in slow-moving bottom dwellers, which would certainly be vulnerable to predation. “If you’re a catfish sitting there sucking on some mud, you need to have some spines,” Fry says. Consider the reef stonefish. It loafs on the floor of the Indian and Pacific oceans, often covered in camouflaging algae, hoping to snatch a passing fish or crustacean. When distressed, the fish raises the 13 spines on its back that are adjacent to venom glands, which hold toxins powerful enough to kill a person. Though venoms have evolved multiple times across fish species, the toxic blends often converge chemically on a set of similar ways to cause damage. For example, the proteins in many fish venoms act by assembling into large rings that then insert themselves into the membranes of cells. This opens a hole where a cell’s innards leak out. When this happens to pain-sensing nerve cells, the body interprets the signal as excruciating discomfort — a good way to distract a predator from chowing down, Fry says. Other fish venoms share their modes of action with certain venoms from other animals. For example, the venoms of stonefishes, snakes and some other organisms contain hyaluronidase, an enzyme that dissolves some of the matrix that supports cells. In that way, the enzyme helps the other venom molecules speed through the victim’s tissues. But still, the multiple evolutions of fish venoms mean that each group of venomous fish probably makes venom components that attack their victims differently. Scientists are just beginning to delve into the specific molecules and actions of different venoms. Fry and collaborators took a stab in a study published February 16 in Toxins, extracting and analyzing venom from six types of fishes — dusky flathead, Luderick, mullet, yellowback seabream and two types of stingrays. “It was incredibly variable,” says study coauthor Nicholas Casewell, a venom biologist at the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine in England. Injected into a rat, the mullet and seabream toxins caused heart rate to drop slightly, while the other venoms had no effect. All venoms resulted in an initial drop in blood pressure — as is common in human envenomations by fish — but the stingray, mullet and seabream venoms then caused blood pressure to rise. In nerves and muscles growing in a dish, the venoms of stingrays and dusky flatheads blocked muscle twitching, which could potentially mean some moderate level of partial paralysis for a predator, Casewell says. Indeed, paralysis and weakness can occur in people stung by fish. The other fishes’ venoms, in contrast, boosted twitching a bit. Even though the venoms all cause pain, Fry says, these results show that the underlying effects of each venom are a bit different. It’s a classic case of evolutionary convergence, in which different evolutionary pathways lead to the same end result — in this case, the pain that makes the predator skedaddle. In a separate study published online March 30 in Current Biology, Casewell, Fry and colleagues examined fang blennies. Certain species, found in shallow reefs of the Indian and Pacific oceans, use venomous fangs to defend against predators. The researchers were puzzled that fang blenny venom didn’t seem to cause pain when injected into a mouse’s paw. The venom, it turns out, acts on opioid receptors, where it might work like a sedative. It also lowers blood pressure, probably leaving the victim disoriented or dizzy. The victim is essentially “stoned,” Fry says. A predator won’t be able to swim away properly, he surmises, or it’ll die of something akin to a heroin overdose. Another group, at the University of Tübingen in Germany, is investigating the venom of the lesser weever fish of the Mediterranean. Graduate student Myriam Fezai was inspired to study the fish by its ability to induce swelling and paralysis in fishermen and tourists in her homeland, Tunisia. The venom also blackens and kills tissues, so she and collaborators wanted to know how it killed cells. The researchers tested the venom on red blood cells in the lab, where it caused the cells to shrink in a form of programmed cell death, Fezai and colleagues reported in Scientific Reports in 2016. The team tested the weever fish venom on cancer cells, too. The cells stopped growin g and their mitochondria stopped working properly, triggering apoptosis, a classic mechanism by which cells kick the bucket. Even cells that survived tended to stop dividing regularly. Next, the researchers hope to identify the individual components of the venom involved in the cell killing. The hope is that something in weever fish venom can be turned into an anticancer drug. Medicines based on venoms from other animals already exist, including the blood pressure drug captopril (Capoten) from a pit viper. There’s even a painkiller, ziconotide (Prialt), developed from the potent venom of a marine cone snail. Sometimes, the same molecules that cause pain can, if applied correctly, also relieve it. Capsaicin, the spicy tongue-burning stuff in peppers, is used in a cream to relieve the pain of shingles and other conditions. The molecule desensitizes the pain sensors in nerve cells. Venoms provide a rich source of potentially useful molecules, says Mandë Holford, a snail venom expert at Hunter College and the American Museum of Natural History in New York City. Evolution has already honed the venoms to precisely interact with their targets. “Every time I read about a new venomous organism, like the fish in Leo [Smith’s] work, I get excited becaus e our pot is getting bigger,” she says. Several venoms, examples below, have been repurposed as medicines for human use, most for their effect on blood. Scientists around the world are in the early stages of investigating fish venoms that might combat cancer, control blood pressure or clot blood. In Brazil, researchers studying the venom of the lagoon-dwelling toadfish Thalassophryne nattereri found a small protein they named TnP, which has anti-inflammatory abilities. They hope to develop a medicine for multiple sclerosis, a disease in which immune cells cause inflammation and attack the nervous system. In February, the team reported in PLOS ONE that in mice with a form of multiple sclerosis, a synthetic version of TnP dampened inflammation, protected and promoted repair of nerves and improved muscle coordination. Isolating the specific venom ingredient that causes the desired effects, as the Brazilian researchers did with TnP, is the direction several scientists are going in their studies of fish venom. Some are analyzing which genes are uniquely turned on in a fish’s venom glands and not activated in nearby fin tissue. Modern mass spectrometry also helps, Holford says, because it allows scientists to analyze the components of even the tiny amount of venom they can extract from a snail or fish. Unlike snakes, which are easily milked for their venom, collection from fish typically involves clipping the spine off wild specimens and scraping a small bit of venom into a test tube.  (The involuntary donor, sent on its way, can typically regrow the spine, like a fingernail, Fry says.) Then things get difficult. “Fish venom is just horrible … it has this snotlike consistency,” Fry says. “It’s easily the most challenging venom that I’ve had the misfortune to work with.” In contrast to venom from other creatures, which often consists of fairly small, stable proteins, fish venom tends to be made of large proteins that fall apart easily once out of the fish. Freeze it, heat it or expose it to certain chemicals, and the proteins fall apart. That’s a major disadvantage in the lab, and for medicines, too, Casewell notes. Therefore, he doubts a fish venom could yield the next blockbuster pharmaceutical. Fry acknowledges that successes such as captopril or ziconotide, in which venom directly leads to a medicine, are quite rare. However, he believes scientists can learn about pain from fish venoms and apply that knowledge to invent novel painkillers. Similarly, Fezai, who started the weever fish project, doesn’t think the venom ingredients themselves would be the drug, but some molecule that mimics their actions might be. The upside of the fragility of fish venoms, though, is that treatment for a fish sting is quite straightforward: running hot water over the affected body part. That’s what Smith did when he was stung by a blue tang — think Dory from Finding Nemo — while cleaning his tank at home. About a half an hour under the hot tap stopped the pain by destroying the venom in his finger. But some damage had already been done. About 10 days later, a pea-sized chunk of his finger fell off, dead. The rockfish, so desired by Smith’s copassengers on the San Diego fishing trips, has a milder sting. Those arthritis sufferers weren’t risking much. But whether they were really relieving joint pain with a fish venom is an open question. They certainly seemed to think so, Smith says, though as of yet no data support this particular fishy treatment. But, he notes, the venom of scorpion fish — cousin to rockfish — affects the nervous system, immune system and blood pressure, all of which could, in theory, have some “real” effect on the arthritis. “There’s reason to believe that’s possible,” he speculates. This article appears in the April 29, 2017, issue of Science News with the headline, "A Sea of Hurt: Venomous swimmers have evolved many ways to sting."


News Article | May 3, 2017
Site: www.npr.org

All four of Anab Gulaid's children have received their vaccinations on the recommended schedule. As Somali-American residents of Minneapolis, that puts them in the minority. Fewer than half of Minnesota children of Somali descent have received the MMR shot that protects against measles, mumps and rubella, according to the Minnesota Department of Public Health, which is now working to combat a growing measles outbreak in the Twin Cities. As of Wednesday, the case count was up to 34 — all but two unvaccinated, almost all Somali-American, and mostly children ages 5 and under. Even in the midst of the outbreak, Somali resistance to vaccination remains strong in Minneapolis. Minnesota is home to the largest Somali population in the United States. It's a relatively recent attitude that emerged alongside escalating fears about links between MMR and autism among the immigrant group. Understanding the history behind those fears — and the culture that reinforces them, contrary to abundant scientific evidence — is an important step toward overcoming them, research suggests, and not just in Minnesota. "There is a context; this didn't just come out of nowhere," says Gulaid, who studies autism as a public health researcher at the University of Minnesota's Institute on Community Integration in Minneapolis. Her own children range in age from 8 to 17. "In my public health opinion, you can have a message, but if you come across as not listening, you can also lose that message." Vaccine resistance has been an issue since the technology was widely introduced in the early 1800s, says Eve Dubé, a medical anthropologist and public health researcher at Laval University in Quebec City. Since then, people have cited concerns about vaccine safety, sterilization conspiracies, and government control over their bodies and rights. Today, Dubé estimates, about one third of North American parents are hesitant to get their children vaccinated. Some but not all of those end up delaying or refusing shots. Reasons for that wariness vary, and concerns often cluster within regional subcultures, and not just among immigrants. In France, for example, worries persist about an unsubstantiated link between the Hepatitis B vaccine and multiple sclerosis. Various religious groups oppose vaccines, as do certain groups who favor organic and natural lifestyles. In developed countries, some experts argue, support for vaccines has also declined alongside a fading memory of the diseases they were created to prevent. And while multiple studies have shown spikes in vaccine-preventable diseases (including pertussis, polio, mumps and measles) in schools and regions around the world with low vaccination rates, such as affluent neighborhoods in Northern California and an Amish community in Ohio, it is extremely challenging to change people's opinions about vaccines, Dubé says. Attitudes are often deeply ingrained. She once interviewed a mother whose baby was in the hospital, extremely sick with pertussis, but the mom still believed that not vaccinating was the right choice. Dubé has also interviewed people who had bad reactions to vaccines but have no regrets. And even when vaccination campaigns win over people in one place, the same strategy can fail elsewhere. "It's like there's a predisposition to be mistrusting of these types of interventions," she says. "There's not much strong evidence in the literature or magic bullet ideas that can solve this issue." Complexities are widespread among the Somali community in Minneapolis, where concerns about autism emerged around 2008, after Somali parents expressed concerns about disproportionately high numbers of Somali preschoolers in special education classes who were receiving services for autism spectrum disorder, according to the Minnesota Department of Health. Parents had lots of questions, particularly about what was causing the disorder, says Asli Ashkir, a senior RN consultant with the Minnesota Department of Health in St. Paul. "We don't have a word in our language that translates to autism," Ashkir says. "So when this started, we were like, 'What is this?' " Around the same time, Andrew Wakefield, a British scientist who used fraudulent research to argue that the MMR vaccine causes autism, visited Minneapolis. He also teamed up with vaccine-skeptical groups to raise concerns about the shots, Ashkir says, fueling fear within an immigrant community that was already up against language barriers in a country that was new to them. Concerns quickly influenced behavior. In 2004, according to the Minnesota Department of Health, 92 percent of Somali-Minnesotan children were vaccinated with MMR. After 2008, Ashkir says, rates of vaccination with the so-called "triple-letter vaccine" dropped by 5 to 7 percent each year. As of 2013, just 45 percent of Somali-American children in Minnesota had been vaccinated. "We communicate orally," Ashkir says. "The words fly." Alleviating those concerns happens more slowly, she says. In collaboration with the Minnesota Department of Health, she is using a variety of strategies to educate the local Somali community about both vaccines and autism, including advocacy for early intervention therapies for children with autism. She is also working with health clinics to give patients more time with doctors so they can get their questions answered with help from an interpreter. "When a Somali person sees that a doctor is in a hurry, they don't want to ask questions anymore," she says. "In a clinic visit with three people, 15 minutes is not enough." Eventually, Ashkir would like to involve influential community members and religious leaders in public health efforts. It's a strategy that has worked elsewhere, including a region in Western Australia where vaccine coverage was among the lowest in the country, in part because of a locally popular alternative lifestyle that valued home births, breastfeeding, cloth diapers and not vaccinating. In 2014, a campaign there called "I Immunise" enlisted help from six locals who were featured on posters, billboards, signs and online about how vaccination fit into their alternative lifestyles. Among about 300 people who were surveyed about the campaign, researchers reported in 2015, more than 75 percent said it made them think more positively about vaccination. Still, nearly 70 percent people who had refused vaccines in the past gave negative reviews, illustrating how polarizing the issue remains. Ultimately, researchers say, compassion may be one of the most powerful tools for spreading public health messages in hesitant communities. It's not fair to characterize people who question vaccines as "selfish or dumb," says Dubé, who has studied MMR resistance among Somali immigrants in Sweden, among other groups. "These are well informed people that want to do what's best for their families, with questions and concerns that have not been resolved." "The idea is to listen to the community's specific concerns," she adds. "It's something that seems obvious but that public health is really bad at doing." Empathy can go a long way, Gulaid agrees. Her 8-year-old twin daughters were born around the time that fears of autism emerged among Somali-Americans in Minneapolis. And while she decided to move ahead with the recommended vaccination schedule, many of her friends have delayed their children's shots. She doesn't fault them for it. "The Somali community is resilient and strong, and they've gone through a lot of hardships," she says. "They just want healthy children. I understand their concerns."


(PRLEAP.COM) Louisville, KY. March 8, 2017. Louisville orthopedic surgeon and sports medicine physician Dr. Stacie L Grossfeld is welcoming Spanish speaking patients to her private medical practice Orthoapedic Specialists. In order to make this easier, Dr. Grossfeld recently hired staff member Ashley Milburn to join her team. Ms. Milburn, who is fluent in both English and Spanish, assists Spanish speaking patients with communicating with the doctor, understanding doctor's orders, translating paperwork and more.Ashley Milburn graduated from ATA College in Louisville, Kentucky. She completed the Limited Medical Radiography with Medical Assisting program (LMRMA) with an impressive 4.0 grade point average. During her time as a student, she did an externship at Dr. Grossfeld's medical practice, Orthopaedic Specialists. And when she finished her degree, Dr. Grossfeld invited her to join the team.Originally from Willisburg, Kentucky, Ms. Milburn grew up helping her family on a tobacco farm. During this time working with many Spanish-speaking farm employees, she became very interested in learning Spanish. Though she never received formal training, she is now a fluent Spanish speaker. She explains: "If you want to know what people are saying, you try hard to learn." Realizing the many benefits of speaking both English and Spanish, Ms. Milburn is also raising her three children to be bilingual.Along with her skills as a Medical Assistant and X-Ray Tech, Ashley's ability to speak Spanish has been a great skill for Orthopaedic Specialists. She enjoys helping Spanish-speaking clients. Describing her work, she explains: "I really enjoy helping people and it is great to help translate for someone who speaks Spanish. I love it when the Spanish-speaking patients tell me I speak Spanish well, and ask me what country I am from. They get really interested in how I learned it. It is a great feeling to be able to help people who might not be able to get the treatment they need."Along with working as a translator for Spanish-speaking patients, Milburn is currently working on translating all of the paperwork at Orthopaedic Specialists into Spanish including: surgery packets, pre-op and post-op instructions, sign in slips, new patient paperwork, and worker's compensation paperwork.Right now, Orthopaedic Specialist is accepting all new patients including those who are Spanish speakers . According to Milburn, most of the Spanish speaking patients they are currently serving at Orthopaedic Specialists are between the age of 30 and 60 years old. According to Louisville-area data, there are close to 30,000 Spanish-speaking people living in the Louisville Metro area with an average age of 27. Dr. Grossfeld is excited to be able to offer bilingual services to patients, and looks forward to providing orthopedic and sports medicine treatment to Spanish-speaking people in the Louisville, Kentucky area.Dr. Stacie L. Grossfeld is a double board-certified doctor in Orthopedic Surgery and Sports Medicine. After graduating from the University Of Louisville School Of Medicine, she went on to complete her internship and residency at the University of Minnesota. She also completed a Sports Medicine fellowship at the Fowler-Kennedy Sports Medicine Center.Along with her work at her private medical practice, Orthopaedic Specialists, Dr. Grossfeld also mentors medical students who are interested in the field of orthopedic surgery and sports medicine through the American Academy of Orthopedic Surgery. She also works as an Assistant Clinical Professor in the Department of Orthopedic Surgery at her alma mater – the University of Louisville School of Medicine.Outside of the medical field, Dr. Grossfeld spends time volunteering for various organizations in Louisville, KY. She is on the Board of Directors for both the YMCA at Norton Commons and the Louisville Sports Commission, where she also holds a chair position on the Louisville Active Committee. She also finds time to work with the American Medical Society for Sports Medicine as a mentor for prospective submissions. And she serves as an event doctor to numerous area sporting events including Derby City Cyclocross competitions.Dr. Grossfeld's dedication to making Louisville, KY, a better and healthier city for everyone expands across a wide variety of outlets which now includes offering professional orthopedic medical care to the city's Hispanic and Latino population. If you have been looking for an orthopedic medical office in Louisville, Kentucky, that serves the Spanish-speaking community, contact Orthoapedic Specialists today by calling 502-212-2663 or visiting them online


News Article | April 21, 2017
Site: www.cemag.us

Just down the hall from each other, two Northwestern University nanotechnology scientists accidentally stumbled on separate revolutionary discoveries. Between them, they may diminish the need for multiple surgeries in patients and transform water filtration — all by harnessing previously unknown powers of the world’s most abundant resource: water. John Rogers, Director of the Center for Bio-Integrated Electronics, is developing devices that will have major implications in medicine. William Dichtel, Robert L. Letsinger Professor of Chemistry, is working on organic and polymer chemistry and nano fabrication — essentially, how to build devices with individual molecules. The research of Rogers and Dichtel show new ways that water can improve patient outcomes and promote sustainability. John Rogers and his team of researchers recently made a significant discovery: silicon — long thought to be a permanent material, like rock or brick — actually dissolves in water when sliced into incredibly thin sheets. The discovery was mostly serendipitous. “We weren’t testing silicon for its ability to dissolve, we were interested because of its ability to bend by virtue of its tiny thickness,” Rogers says. “We had developed a way to take silicon wafers and shave them down to sheets with a thickness of maybe a tenth of a micron. In creating and manipulating that silicon, we stumbled across the fact that it dissolves, although very slowly, in water and biofluid, and that the end products are biologically benign, naturally occurring in the body.” This discovery in “bio-resorbability” — the capacity to be absorbed naturally into the human body — has remarkable medical applications. For example, an electronic device could be constructed from silicon and inserted into the body to accomplish a specific task. Then, once its purpose has been served, it dissolves. Take severe brain injuries: currently, a neurosurgeon has to insert a monitoring device into the skull to ensure the brain’s temperature and pressure stay within a safe zone. A second surgical procedure is then required to remove the device after this critical monitoring period ends. With a bio-resorbable material, “you can eliminate the dangers and complications associated with a secondary surgery for extraction, while still providing that critical monitoring function for the risk period associated with a recovery and healing process,” Rogers says. “We’ve demonstrated this in animal models — fully bio-resorbable pressure and temperature sensors that make measurements with clinical-grade quality in the intracranial space, but eventually dissolve.” With human trials up next, Rogers and his research team believe their discovery can advance medical treatments and fundamentally improve patient care. Down the hall from Rogers is the lab of William Dichtel, who is working with water outside the human body. Dichtel’s team’s research into organic and polymer chemistry and nanofabrication — how to assemble molecules into electronic or energy-storing devices — led to the discovery of a new material that can more efficiently purify water. About two years ago, Dichtel’s group joined the Center for Sustainable Polymers (CSP) at the University of Minnesota, where researchers develop plastics and organic materials from non-petroleum-based resources. A post-doctoral student on Dichtel’s team, Alaaeddin Alsbaiee, suggested applying their nanostructured polymers — material made from joining smaller molecules with pores at the nanometer scale – to water. They did just that, and the result was incredible. “I just about fell out of my chair,” says Dichtel. Dichtel and Alsbaiee worked with environmental engineers to perform more rigorous tests, and were thrilled when the results held. Their new material “just pulled pollutants out of water instantaneously,” Dichtel explains. “Like a sponge, it has a high-surface area with small voids such that water and pollutants can flow through it. Like a magnet, it attracts the pollutants and then binds them to the surface.” This nano-material is already poised for widespread commercial and industrial uses in respirators, sensing devices, and even household water filters. But Dichtel and his team hope their material can ultimately facilitate large-scale water purification efforts in the developing world, in addition to addressing environmental issues like restoring decimated fish populations. Both Rogers’ and Dichtel’s work is rooted in the same core concepts: improving mankind through technology and medicine, and transforming the future for worldwide populations. Their efforts begin by “following the science,” as Rogers says — simply staying receptive to unforeseen possibilities and unexpected applications. That intellectual openness and practiced intuition fuels their passion to harness the properties of known materials like water, and to generate significant transformations. “Northwestern really prides itself on research and discoveries with downstream applications,” Dichtel says. “Having an impact always is the dream, especially if it can make someone else’s life better.”


News Article | April 18, 2017
Site: www.biosciencetechnology.com

When a person experiences a heart attack, blood flow to the heart muscle is lost and cells die. Since these heart muscle cells cannot be replaced, scar tissue forms in the heart, putting patients at risk for future heart failure or faulty heart function. Now, biomedical engineers from the University of Minnesota have created a 3D-bioprinted patch that incorporates human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiac muscle cells that helped mend heart tissue and function in mice, following a heart attack. The patch includes cardiomyocytes, smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells that had been differentiated from human-induced pluripotent stem cells. In a dish in the lab, the matrix beat synchronously and began to grow. For the study, published April 14 in Circulation Research, researchers simulated a heart attack in mouse models and then placed the cell patch in the animal.  After just four weeks there was a significant increase in functional capacity of the heart, the researchers report. No further surgeries were required because the patch, made from cells and structural proteins natural to the heart, became part of the organ and was absorbed into the body. “This is a significant step forward in treating the No. 1 cause of death in the U.S., Brenda Ogle, associate professor of biomedical engineering, said in a statement. “We feel that we could scale this up to repair hearts of larger animals and possibly even humans within the next several years.” The 3D printing method used enabled the scientists to reach one micron resolution, which is necessary to mimic the structures of natural heart tissue. “We were quite surprised by how well it worked given the complexity of the heart,” Ogle said. “We were encouraged to see that the cells had aligned in the scaffold and showed a continuous wave of electrical signal that moved across the patch.” Up next, the team is working on increasing the size of the patch so that they can test is on a pig heart, which is closer in size to a human heart.


News Article | April 22, 2017
Site: hosted2.ap.org

The Latest: Trump pledges to protect environment and workers (AP) — The Latest on the March for Science, with events around the world intended to promote the understanding of science and defend science from attacks such as proposed U.S. government budget cuts (all times EDT): President Donald Trump says in an Earth Day statement that his administration is "committed to keeping our air and water clean, to preserving our forests, lakes and open spaces and to protecting endangered species." But that won't be done, he says, in a way that harms "working families" and says the government is "reducing unnecessary burdens on American workers and American companies, while being mindful that our actions must also protect the environment." His comments come as thousands of people around the world participate in science rallies. Hundreds turned out in light rain for a pro-science rally on the Maine statehouse lawn in Montpelier. One of the speakers, Rose Paul, director of conservation science for The Nature Conservancy of Vermont, told the crowd that "Science is not a partisan issue." She said "climate change is happening" and scientists are needed to help understand how shifting weather patterns are affecting the world. Denis Hayes, who co-organized the first Earth Day 47 years ago, said the crowd he saw from the speaker's platform on the National Mall in Washington was energized in a rare way, similar to what he saw in the first Earth Day. That's unusual for an odd numbered anniversary, he said. "This magical thing that sometimes happens, sometimes doesn't happen," Hayes said. "The reason that it happens is that you've got a clear enemy. For this kind of weather this is an amazing crowd. You're not out there today unless you really care." Lara Stephens-Brown, a graduate student studying veterinary medicine at the University of Minnesota, joined thousands marching in St. Paul. They chanted "hey hey, ho ho, we won't let this planet go." There are cancer survivors and doctors with signs that say "science saves lives," she said, and estimated that 90 percent of the signs are not political. "Science is not a partisan issue," she said. "Science is for everyone, and should be supported by everyone in our government." Thousands of people stood outside the Washington Monument amid bouts of downpours, listening to a mix of speeches and music. Speakers noted that President Trump was in the White House nearby, having cancelled a weekend in New Jersey. This was the first protest for Jeannette Villabon and her son Nikko Chey of Stanhope, New Jersey. So Villabon went all out, donning a Tyrannosaurus rex costume and holding a sign that said: "Hey tiny hands fund EPA study. Quit being cretaceous." Trump's "archaic thinking is going to ruin us all," Villabon said. Other signs were only slightly less pointed, such as "edit genes not the truth," ''data not dogma" and "global warming is real. Trump is the hoax." More than a thousand people stretched for miles through the streets of Gainesville, Florida. It was a peaceful demonstration, said Pati Vitt, a plant scientist at the Chicago Botanic Garden in town for work at the university. "We're scientists, so we're orderly," she said with a laugh. "We let the signs do the talking." She said her favorite featured a drawing of DNA, with the note "checks itself before it wrecks itself." And she hopes the crowds at hundreds of cities across the country draw attention to the perils of ignoring science funding. Hundreds of people have braved pouring rain in Nashville, Tennessee, as they march through city streets and chant "science, not silence." It's just one of the locations across the United States and the world on Saturday's March for Science events. Lawyer Jatin Shah brought his young sons — a 5-year-old who wants to be a dentist when he grows up and a 6-year-old who plans to be a doctor. Marchers are waving signs that say "there is no planet B," ''make America think again" and "climate change is real, ask any polar bear." Shah worries about his sons' futures if science spending is cut. The March for Science has attracted several thousand people in Berlin, and those supporters of sciences have walked from one of the city's universities to the Brandenburg Gate. Meike Weltin is a doctorate student at an environmental institute near Berlin. She says she's participating because — in her words — "I think that politics need to listen to sciences." Germany's foreign minister, Sigmar Gabriel, has endorsed March for Science events across Germany. Gabriel says "free research and teaching are the supporting pillars of an open and modern society." Thousands of people are expected to attend March for Science events around the world to promote the understanding of science and defend it from various attacks, including U.S. government budget cuts. The March for Science was dreamed up at the Women's March on Washington, a day after President Donald Trump's inauguration in January. The march puts scientists — who generally shy away from advocacy and whose work depends on objective experimentation — into a more public position. Scientists involved in the march say they're anxious about political and public rejection of established science such as climate change and the safety of vaccines.


News Article | May 1, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

LAWRENCE -- We're fickle creatures. At least if we can remember to be, according to a new study led by a University of Kansas researcher of marketing and consumer behavior. "People with larger working memory capacities actually encode information more deeply," said Noelle Nelson, lead author of the research published in the Journal of Consumer Research. "They remember more details about the things they've experienced, and that leads them to feel like they've had it more. That feeling then leads to the large capacity people getting tired of experiences faster." The study could have implications for marketers seeking to maintain interest in their products and brands. Consumers could also benefit from the research because it provides a window into how memory could be the key to becoming satiated, especially on products or habits they hope to quit, such as eating unhealthy foods. "Our findings suggest that if they can enhance their memory for the other times they've eaten these foods, they may feel satiated and then not seek out those unhealthy things," said Nelson, an assistant professor of marketing and consumer behavior in the KU School of Business. Nelson co-authored the study with Joseph Redden, associate professor of marketing at the University of Minnesota. They conducted four separate experiments with undergraduate student participants. The researchers measured people's working memory capacities in different ways, such as how well they could remember a string of letters or how they performed on the Simon memory game where users must try to repeat a series of tones and lights. Then participants then performed a task where they would eventually become tired of what they experienced, like viewing paintings or listening to music. "We found that their capacity predicted how fast they got tired of the art or music," Nelson said. "People with larger memory capacities satiated on these things more quickly than people with smaller capacities. Essentially, large capacity people perceive that they've experienced things more times because they remember those experiences better." Past research has only speculated on the link between memory and the rate of satiation, but this study provides direct evidence, she said. Marketers could perhaps use this type of research to craft strategies on ways to keep people interested longer. "For example, introducing new products or having distractions in ads might help break up the satiation process because they disrupt memory," Nelson said. The researchers didn't specifically study overeating or unhealthy foods, but the findings should extend to those types of experiences, she said. "Because a big part of overeating is psychological, a psychological solution such as memory processes, could help people control their eating," Nelson said. "Consumers might be able to satiate more quickly by simply recalling the last several times they ate."


News Article | April 22, 2017
Site: hosted2.ap.org

(AP) — The Latest on the March for Science, with events around the world intended to promote the understanding of science and defend science from attacks such as proposed U.S. government budget cuts (all times EDT): Scientists, students and research advocates are marking Earth Day by conveying a global message about scientific freedom without political interference. Those participating in science marches around the world are also arguing for adequate spending for future breakthroughs and the value of scientific pursuits. President Donald Trump issued an Earth Day statement, saying that "rigorous science depends not on ideology, but on a spirit of honest inquiry and robust debate." One of the organizers of the first Earth Day, Denis Hayes, says the crowd he saw on the National Mall in Washington appeared energized and "magical," almost like what he saw that first day 47 years ago. Kathryn Oakes Hall pinned a sign to the back of her T-shirt as she made her way to the march in Santa Fe, New Mexico: "Nine months pregnant, so mad I'm here." "I'd rather be sitting on the couch," she said. But she marched anyway because she worried about her baby's future in a world that seems to consider science disposable. Her husband is an engineer at Los Alamos National Laboratory, she studied anthropology, she even has a dog named rocket. So they joined thousands marching in Santa Fe, many of whom stopped her to remark on her pregnancy, with a mix of administration and concern. She wore a white T-shirt, with a drawing of the earth stretched over her belly, and carried a sign that read "evidence-based policy and not policy-based evidence." Ice photographer and filmmaker James Balog, who says he was watched trillions of tons of ice melt, told the Washington crowd that talking about the science of climate change in the face of the Trump administration and climate change deniers is "a battle between objective reality and ideological fiction." Pennsylvania State University's Michael Mann got a loud cheer just for his sentence "I am a climate scientist." Mann, who first created the hockey stick that showed a spike in recent global temperatures after thousands of years said, "there was no more noble pursuit than seeking to insure that policy is informed by the objective assessment of scientific evidence." Software engineer Bill Wood of Rockville, Maryland, had a plastic protected sign that read "things are so bad even the introverts had to come out." President Donald Trump says in an Earth Day statement that his administration is "committed to keeping our air and water clean, to preserving our forests, lakes and open spaces and to protecting endangered species." But that won't be done, he says, in a way that harms "working families" and says the government is "reducing unnecessary burdens on American workers and American companies, while being mindful that our actions must also protect the environment." His comments come as thousands of people around the world participate in science rallies. Hundreds turned out in light rain for a pro-science rally on the Vermont statehouse lawn in Montpelier. One of the speakers, Rose Paul, director of conservation science for The Nature Conservancy of Vermont, told the crowd that "Science is not a partisan issue." She said "climate change is happening" and scientists are needed to help understand how shifting weather patterns are affecting the world. Denis Hayes, who co-organized the first Earth Day 47 years ago, said the crowd he saw from the speaker's platform on the National Mall in Washington was energized in a rare way, similar to what he saw in the first Earth Day. That's unusual for an odd numbered anniversary, he said. "This magical thing that sometimes happens, sometimes doesn't happen," Hayes said. "The reason that it happens is that you've got a clear enemy. For this kind of weather this is an amazing crowd. You're not out there today unless you really care." Lara Stephens-Brown, a graduate student studying veterinary medicine at the University of Minnesota, joined thousands marching in St. Paul. They chanted "hey hey, ho ho, we won't let this planet go." There are cancer survivors and doctors with signs that say "science saves lives," she said, and estimated that 90 percent of the signs are not political. "Science is not a partisan issue," she said. "Science is for everyone, and should be supported by everyone in our government." Thousands of people stood outside the Washington Monument amid bouts of downpours, listening to a mix of speeches and music. Speakers noted that President Trump was in the White House nearby, having cancelled a weekend in New Jersey. This was the first protest for Jeannette Villabon and her son Nikko Chey of Stanhope, New Jersey. So Villabon went all out, donning a Tyrannosaurus rex costume and holding a sign that said: "Hey tiny hands fund EPA study. Quit being cretaceous." Trump's "archaic thinking is going to ruin us all," Villabon said. Other signs were only slightly less pointed, such as "edit genes not the truth," ''data not dogma" and "global warming is real. Trump is the hoax." More than a thousand people stretched for miles through the streets of Gainesville, Florida. It was a peaceful demonstration, said Pati Vitt, a plant scientist at the Chicago Botanic Garden in town for work at the university. "We're scientists, so we're orderly," she said with a laugh. "We let the signs do the talking." She said her favorite featured a drawing of DNA, with the note "checks itself before it wrecks itself." And she hopes the crowds at hundreds of cities across the country draw attention to the perils of ignoring science funding. Hundreds of people have braved pouring rain in Nashville, Tennessee, as they march through city streets and chant "science, not silence." It's just one of the locations across the United States and the world on Saturday's March for Science events. Lawyer Jatin Shah brought his young sons — a 5-year-old who wants to be a dentist when he grows up and a 6-year-old who plans to be a doctor. Marchers are waving signs that say "there is no planet B," ''make America think again" and "climate change is real, ask any polar bear." Shah worries about his sons' futures if science spending is cut. The March for Science has attracted several thousand people in Berlin, and those supporters of sciences have walked from one of the city's universities to the Brandenburg Gate. Meike Weltin is a doctorate student at an environmental institute near Berlin. She says she's participating because — in her words — "I think that politics need to listen to sciences." Germany's foreign minister, Sigmar Gabriel, has endorsed March for Science events across Germany. Gabriel says "free research and teaching are the supporting pillars of an open and modern society." Thousands of people are expected to attend March for Science events around the world to promote the understanding of science and defend it from various attacks, including U.S. government budget cuts. The March for Science was dreamed up at the Women's March on Washington, a day after President Donald Trump's inauguration in January. The march puts scientists — who generally shy away from advocacy and whose work depends on objective experimentation — into a more public position. Scientists involved in the march say they're anxious about political and public rejection of established science such as climate change and the safety of vaccines. This story corrects the location of an event described at 1:10 p.m. It was held in Vermont.


News Article | April 22, 2017
Site: hosted2.ap.org

The Latest: Science rallies around the world draw thousands (AP) — The Latest on the March for Science, with events around the world intended to promote the understanding of science and defend science from attacks such as proposed U.S. government budget cuts (all times EDT): Ice photographer and filmmaker James Balog, who says he was watched trillions of tons of ice melt, told the Washington crowd that talking about the science of climate change in the face of the Trump administration and climate change deniers is "a battle between objective reality and ideological fiction." Pennsylvania State University's Michael Mann got a loud cheer just for his sentence "I am a climate scientist." Mann, who first created the hockey stick that showed a spike in recent global temperatures after thousands of years said, "there was no more noble pursuit than seeking to insure that policy is informed by the objective assessment of scientific evidence." Software engineer Bill Wood of Rockville, Maryland, had a plastic protected sign that read "things are so bad even the introverts had to come out." President Donald Trump says in an Earth Day statement that his administration is "committed to keeping our air and water clean, to preserving our forests, lakes and open spaces and to protecting endangered species." But that won't be done, he says, in a way that harms "working families" and says the government is "reducing unnecessary burdens on American workers and American companies, while being mindful that our actions must also protect the environment." His comments come as thousands of people around the world participate in science rallies. Hundreds turned out in light rain for a pro-science rally on the Vermont statehouse lawn in Montpelier. One of the speakers, Rose Paul, director of conservation science for The Nature Conservancy of Vermont, told the crowd that "Science is not a partisan issue." She said "climate change is happening" and scientists are needed to help understand how shifting weather patterns are affecting the world. Denis Hayes, who co-organized the first Earth Day 47 years ago, said the crowd he saw from the speaker's platform on the National Mall in Washington was energized in a rare way, similar to what he saw in the first Earth Day. That's unusual for an odd numbered anniversary, he said. "This magical thing that sometimes happens, sometimes doesn't happen," Hayes said. "The reason that it happens is that you've got a clear enemy. For this kind of weather this is an amazing crowd. You're not out there today unless you really care." Lara Stephens-Brown, a graduate student studying veterinary medicine at the University of Minnesota, joined thousands marching in St. Paul. They chanted "hey hey, ho ho, we won't let this planet go." There are cancer survivors and doctors with signs that say "science saves lives," she said, and estimated that 90 percent of the signs are not political. "Science is not a partisan issue," she said. "Science is for everyone, and should be supported by everyone in our government." Thousands of people stood outside the Washington Monument amid bouts of downpours, listening to a mix of speeches and music. Speakers noted that President Trump was in the White House nearby, having cancelled a weekend in New Jersey. This was the first protest for Jeannette Villabon and her son Nikko Chey of Stanhope, New Jersey. So Villabon went all out, donning a Tyrannosaurus rex costume and holding a sign that said: "Hey tiny hands fund EPA study. Quit being cretaceous." Trump's "archaic thinking is going to ruin us all," Villabon said. Other signs were only slightly less pointed, such as "edit genes not the truth," ''data not dogma" and "global warming is real. Trump is the hoax." More than a thousand people stretched for miles through the streets of Gainesville, Florida. It was a peaceful demonstration, said Pati Vitt, a plant scientist at the Chicago Botanic Garden in town for work at the university. "We're scientists, so we're orderly," she said with a laugh. "We let the signs do the talking." She said her favorite featured a drawing of DNA, with the note "checks itself before it wrecks itself." And she hopes the crowds at hundreds of cities across the country draw attention to the perils of ignoring science funding. Hundreds of people have braved pouring rain in Nashville, Tennessee, as they march through city streets and chant "science, not silence." It's just one of the locations across the United States and the world on Saturday's March for Science events. Lawyer Jatin Shah brought his young sons — a 5-year-old who wants to be a dentist when he grows up and a 6-year-old who plans to be a doctor. Marchers are waving signs that say "there is no planet B," ''make America think again" and "climate change is real, ask any polar bear." Shah worries about his sons' futures if science spending is cut. The March for Science has attracted several thousand people in Berlin, and those supporters of sciences have walked from one of the city's universities to the Brandenburg Gate. Meike Weltin is a doctorate student at an environmental institute near Berlin. She says she's participating because — in her words — "I think that politics need to listen to sciences." Germany's foreign minister, Sigmar Gabriel, has endorsed March for Science events across Germany. Gabriel says "free research and teaching are the supporting pillars of an open and modern society." Thousands of people are expected to attend March for Science events around the world to promote the understanding of science and defend it from various attacks, including U.S. government budget cuts. The March for Science was dreamed up at the Women's March on Washington, a day after President Donald Trump's inauguration in January. The march puts scientists — who generally shy away from advocacy and whose work depends on objective experimentation — into a more public position. Scientists involved in the march say they're anxious about political and public rejection of established science such as climate change and the safety of vaccines. This story corrects the location of an event described at 1:10 p.m. It was held in Vermont.


News Article | April 25, 2017
Site: www.rdmag.com

Synthetic rubber and plastics – used for manufacturing tires, toys and myriad other products – are produced from butadiene, a molecule traditionally made from petroleum or natural gas. But those manmade materials could get a lot greener soon, thanks to the ingenuity of a team of scientists from three U.S. research universities. The scientific team –- from the University of Delaware, the University of Minnesota and the University of Massachusetts – has invented a process to make butadiene from renewable sources like trees, grasses and corn. The findings, now online, will be published in the American Chemical Society’s ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering, a leading journal in green chemistry and engineering. The study’s authors are all affiliated with the Catalysis Center for Energy Innovation (CCEI) based at the University of Delaware. CCEI is an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. “Our team combined a catalyst we recently discovered with new and exciting chemistry to find the first high-yield, low-cost method of manufacturing butadiene,” says CCEI Director Dionisios Vlachos, the Allan and Myra Ferguson Professor of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering at UD and a co-author of the study. “This research could transform the multi-billion-dollar plastics and rubber industries.” Butadiene is the chief chemical component in a broad range of materials found throughout society. When this four-carbon molecule undergoes a chemical reaction to form long chains called polymers, styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) is formed, which is used to make abrasive-resistant automobile tires. When blended to make nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR), it becomes the key component in hoses, seals and the rubber gloves ubiquitous to medical settings. In the world of plastics, butadiene is the chief chemical component in acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS), a hard plastic that can be molded into rigid shapes. Tough ABS plastic is used to make video game consoles, automotive parts, sporting goods, medical devices and interlocking plastic toy bricks, among other products. The past 10 years have seen a shift toward an academic research focus on renewable chemicals and butadiene, in particular, due to its importance in commercial products, Vlachos says. “Our team’s success came from our philosophy that connects research in novel catalytic materials with a new approach to the chemistry,” says Vlachos. “This is a great example where the research team was greater than the sum of its parts.” Novel chemistry in three steps The novel chemistry included a three-step process starting from biomass-derived sugars. Using technology developed within CCEI, the team converted sugars to a ring compound called furfural. In the second step, the team further processed furfural to another ring compound called tetrahydrofuran (THF). It was in the third step that the team found the breakthrough chemical manufacturing technology. Using a new catalyst called “phosphorous all-silica zeolite,” developed within the center, the team was able to convert THF to butadiene with high yield (greater than 95 percent). The team called this new, selective reaction “dehydra-decyclization” to represent its capability for simultaneously removing water and opening ring compounds at once. “We discovered that phosphorus-based catalysts supported by silica and zeolites exhibit high selectivity for manufacturing chemicals like butadiene,” says Prof. Wei Fan of the University of Massachusetts Amherst. “When comparing their capability for controlling certain industrial chemistry uses with that of other catalysts, the phosphorous materials appear truly unique and nicely complement the set of catalysts we have been developing at CCEI.” The invention of renewable rubber is part of CCEI’s larger mission. Initiated in 2009, CCEI has focused on transformational catalytic technology to produce renewable chemicals and biofuels from natural biomass sources. “This newer technology significantly expands the slate of molecules we can make from lignocellulose,” says Prof. Paul Dauenhauer of the University of Minnesota, who is co-director of CCEI and a co-author of the study. Additional co-authors include Prof. Michael Tsapatsis, postdoctoral researchers Dae Sung Park, Charles Spanjers, Limin Ren and Omar Abdelrahman, and graduate student Katherine Vinter, all from the University of Minnesota, and graduate student Hong Je Cho from the University of Massachusetts. To read the full research paper, titled “Biomass-Derived Butadiene by Dehydra-Decyclization of Tetrahydrofuran,” visit the ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering website.


News Article | April 17, 2017
Site: www.prweb.com

LearnHowToBecome.org, a leading resource provider for higher education and career information, has analyzed more than a dozen metrics to rank Minnesota’s best universities and colleges for 2017. Of the 32 four-year schools on the list, Gustavus Adolphus College, St. Catherine University, Saint John’s University, University of Minnesota Twin Cities and The College of Saint Scholastica came in as the top five. 32 two-year schools also made the list, and Hennepin Technical College, Hibbing Community College, North Hennepin Community College, Rochester Community and Technical College and Minnesota State and Technical College were ranked as the best five. A full list of the winning schools is included below. “Creating a healthy, diversified workforce requires a community with a strong educational foundation,” said Wes Ricketts, senior vice president of LearnHowToBecome.Org. “Minnesota provides a variety of college options, and the schools on our list show which offer the best combination of quality education and positive post-college stats for students.” To be included on the “Best Colleges in Minnesota” list, schools must be regionally accredited, not-for-profit institutions. Each college is also analyzed based on more than a dozen data points that include the annual alumni earnings 10 years after entering college, employment resources, student/teacher ratio, graduation rate and financial aid availability. Complete details on each college, their individual scores and the data and methodology used to determine the LearnHowToBecome.org “Best Colleges in Minnesota” list, visit: Minnesota’s Best Four-Year Colleges for 2017 include the following schools: Augsburg College Bemidji State University Bethany Lutheran College Bethel University Carleton College College of Saint Benedict Concordia College at Moorhead Concordia University-Saint Paul Crown College Gustavus Adolphus College Hamline University Macalester College Martin Luther College Metropolitan State University Minneapolis College of Art and Design Minnesota State University Moorhead Minnesota State University-Mankato North Central University Saint Cloud State University Saint John’s University Saint Mary's University of Minnesota Southwest Minnesota State University St Catherine University St Olaf College The College of Saint Scholastica University of Minnesota-Crookston University of Minnesota-Duluth University of Minnesota-Morris University of Minnesota-Twin Cities University of Northwestern-St Paul University of St Thomas Winona State University Minnesota’s Best Two-Year Colleges for 2017 include: Alexandria Technical & Community College Anoka Technical College Anoka-Ramsey Community College Central Lakes College Century College Dakota County Technical College Fond du Lac Tribal and Community College Hennepin Technical College Hibbing Community College Inver Hills Community College Itasca Community College Lake Superior College Leech Lake Tribal College Mesabi Range Community and Technical College Minneapolis Community and Technical College Minnesota State College - Southeast Technical Minnesota State Community and Technical College Minnesota West Community and Technical College Normandale Community College North Hennepin Community College Northland Community and Technical College Northwest Technical College Pine Technical Community College Rainy River Community College Ridgewater College Riverland Community College Rochester Community and Technical College Saint Paul College South Central College St Cloud Technical and Community College Vermilion Community College White Earth Tribal and Community College About Us: LearnHowtoBecome.org was founded in 2013 to provide data and expert driven information about employment opportunities and the education needed to land the perfect career. Our materials cover a wide range of professions, industries and degree programs, and are designed for people who want to choose, change or advance their careers. We also provide helpful resources and guides that address social issues, financial aid and other special interest in higher education. Information from LearnHowtoBecome.org has proudly been featured by more than 700 educational institutions.


News Article | April 17, 2017
Site: co.newswire.com

In 2007, Oregon’s Pacific University installed their first FieldTurf system. Four years later, they chose FieldTurf again, for their indoor multi-sport fieldhouse. Now, 10 years after their initial installation, the Boxers have announced they’ve selected FieldTurf to replace their existing field. Director of Athletics, Ken Schumann said FieldTurf has continued to prove to be durable and versatile. “We … have been pleased with the playability and durability of the FieldTurf products we have installed for our athletic programs,” said Schumann. “The indoor turf installed in our fieldhouse has been tremendous. It has held up very well in the five years since we installed it.” The Pacific Boxers opted for Classic HD, the same system installed at high profile venues such as Ford Field, Home of the Detroit Lions, TCF Bank Stadium – University of Minnesota, Ohio State University, Syracuse University and over 500 esteemed NCAA and elite high school facilities across the nation. Classic HD uses slit-film yarn that strikes the perfect balance between durability and feel. Every Classic HD fiber features a thick design and precision cut pattern that make it an industry leader in reducing “splash,” which is what happens when granules from the infill system splashes up upon impact. “The Classic HD is the next generation version of what we currently have and we have been very pleased with the current turf which has lasted for 10 years while receiving a great amount of use,” Schumann told us. Another advantage to Pacific University’s new surface is their tremendous ability to drain water via a finger-coated backing system. A key feature in areas like Oregon and Washington, where frequent rains have the potential to flood out fields and cause practice and game cancellations. “We chose FieldTurf over natural grass for the durability and playability in the type of weather we see here in the Northwest,” Schumann said, “where it rains frequently and wet, unplayable grass fields are common in the late fall, winter and spring.” Schumann went on to say that the new turf at Hanson Stadium will be used by the university’s soccer teams, women’s lacrosse team and local club soccer programs.


News Article | May 3, 2017
Site: www.npr.org

All four of Anab Gulaid's children have received their vaccinations on the recommended schedule. As Somali-American residents of Minneapolis, that puts them in the minority. Fewer than half of Minnesota children of Somali descent have received the MMR shot that protects against measles, mumps and rubella, according to the Minnesota Department of Public Health, which is now working to combat a growing measles outbreak in the Twin Cities. As of Wednesday, the case count was up to 34 — all but two unvaccinated, almost all Somali-American, and mostly children ages 5 and under. Even in the midst of the outbreak, Somali resistance to vaccination remains strong in Minneapolis. Minnesota is home to the largest Somali population in the United States. It's a relatively recent attitude that emerged alongside escalating fears about links between MMR and autism among the immigrant group. Understanding the history behind those fears — and the culture that reinforces them, contrary to abundant scientific evidence — is an important step toward overcoming them, research suggests, and not just in Minnesota. "There is a context; this didn't just come out of nowhere," says Gulaid, who studies autism as a public health researcher at the University of Minnesota's Institute on Community Integration in Minneapolis. Her own children range in age from 8 to 17. "In my public health opinion, you can have a message, but if you come across as not listening, you can also lose that message." Vaccine resistance has been an issue since the technology was widely introduced in the early 1800s, says Eve Dubé, a medical anthropologist and public health researcher at Laval University in Quebec City. Since then, people have cited concerns about vaccine safety, sterilization conspiracies, and government control over their bodies and rights. Today, Dubé estimates, about one third of North American parents are hesitant to get their children vaccinated. Some but not all of those end up delaying or refusing shots. Reasons for that wariness vary, and concerns often cluster within regional subcultures, and not just among immigrants. In France, for example, worries persist about an unsubstantiated link between the Hepatitis B vaccine and multiple sclerosis. Various religious groups oppose vaccines, as do certain groups who favor organic and natural lifestyles. In developed countries, some experts argue, support for vaccines has also declined alongside a fading memory of the diseases they were created to prevent. And while multiple studies have shown spikes in vaccine-preventable diseases (including pertussis, polio, mumps and measles) in schools and regions around the world with low vaccination rates, such as affluent neighborhoods in Northern California and an Amish community in Ohio, it is extremely challenging to change people's opinions about vaccines, Dubé says. Attitudes are often deeply ingrained. She once interviewed a mother whose baby was in the hospital, extremely sick with pertussis, but the mom still believed that not vaccinating was the right choice. Dubé has also interviewed people who had bad reactions to vaccines but have no regrets. And even when vaccination campaigns win over people in one place, the same strategy can fail elsewhere. "It's like there's a predisposition to be mistrusting of these types of interventions," she says. "There's not much strong evidence in the literature or magic bullet ideas that can solve this issue." Complexities are widespread among the Somali community in Minneapolis, where concerns about autism emerged around 2008, after Somali parents expressed concerns about disproportionately high numbers of Somali preschoolers in special education classes who were receiving services for autism spectrum disorder, according to the Minnesota Department of Health. Parents had lots of questions, particularly about what was causing the disorder, says Asli Ashkir, a senior RN consultant with the Minnesota Department of Health in St. Paul. "We don't have a word in our language that translates to autism," Ashkir says. "So when this started, we were like, 'What is this?' " Around the same time, Andrew Wakefield, a British scientist who used fraudulent research to argue that the MMR vaccine causes autism, visited Minneapolis. He also teamed up with vaccine-skeptical groups to raise concerns about the shots, Ashkir says, fueling fear within an immigrant community that was already up against language barriers in a country that was new to them. Concerns quickly influenced behavior. In 2004, according to the Minnesota Department of Health, 92 percent of Somali-Minnesotan children were vaccinated with MMR. After 2008, Ashkir says, rates of vaccination with the so-called "triple-letter vaccine" dropped by 5 to 7 percent each year. As of 2013, just 45 percent of Somali-American children in Minnesota had been vaccinated. "We communicate orally," Ashkir says. "The words fly." Alleviating those concerns happens more slowly, she says. In collaboration with the Minnesota Department of Health, she is using a variety of strategies to educate the local Somali community about both vaccines and autism, including advocacy for early intervention therapies for children with autism. She is also working with health clinics to give patients more time with doctors so they can get their questions answered with help from an interpreter. "When a Somali person sees that a doctor is in a hurry, they don't want to ask questions anymore," she says. "In a clinic visit with three people, 15 minutes is not enough." Eventually, Ashkir would like to involve influential community members and religious leaders in public health efforts. It's a strategy that has worked elsewhere, including a region in Western Australia where vaccine coverage was among the lowest in the country, in part because of a locally popular alternative lifestyle that valued home births, breastfeeding, cloth diapers and not vaccinating. In 2014, a campaign there called "I Immunise" enlisted help from six locals who were featured on posters, billboards, signs and online about how vaccination fit into their alternative lifestyles. Among about 300 people who were surveyed about the campaign, researchers reported in 2015, more than 75 percent said it made them think more positively about vaccination. Still, nearly 70 percent people who had refused vaccines in the past gave negative reviews, illustrating how polarizing the issue remains. Ultimately, researchers say, compassion may be one of the most powerful tools for spreading public health messages in hesitant communities. It's not fair to characterize people who question vaccines as "selfish or dumb," says Dubé, who has studied MMR resistance among Somali immigrants in Sweden, among other groups. "These are well informed people that want to do what's best for their families, with questions and concerns that have not been resolved." "The idea is to listen to the community's specific concerns," she adds. "It's something that seems obvious but that public health is really bad at doing." Empathy can go a long way, Gulaid agrees. Her 8-year-old twin daughters were born around the time that fears of autism emerged among Somali-Americans in Minneapolis. And while she decided to move ahead with the recommended vaccination schedule, many of her friends have delayed their children's shots. She doesn't fault them for it. "The Somali community is resilient and strong, and they've gone through a lot of hardships," she says. "They just want healthy children. I understand their concerns."


News Article | April 17, 2017
Site: www.prweb.com

The Community for Accredited Online Schools, a leading resource provider for higher education information, has determined Minnesota’s best online college and university programs for 2017. Of the 24 four-year schools that made the “Best” list, University of Minnesota Twin Cities, St. Catherine University, Bethel University, Crossroads College and Hamline University ranked as the top five schools. 26 two-year colleges also made the list, with Hennepin Technical College, Minnesota State Community and Technical College, Minnesota West Community and Technical College, Dakota County Technical College and Rochester Community and Technical College taking the top five spots. “The schools on our list represent the best online degree programs Minnesota has to offer,” said Doug Jones, CEO and founder of AccreditedSchoolsOnline.org. “Students who enroll in these programs have the opportunity to receive a quality education with greater control over their schedules thanks to the flexible nature of online learning.” To earn a place on the “Best” list for Minnesota, colleges and universities must be accredited, public or private not-for-profit schools. Each college is also analyzed based on metrics such as the availability of financial, student/teacher ratios, graduation rates and counseling resources. For more details on where each school falls in the rankings and the data and methodology used to determine the lists, visit: The Best Online Four-Year Schools in Minnesota for 2017 include the following: Bemidji State University Bethel University Concordia College at Moorhead Concordia University-Saint Paul Crossroads College Crown College Hamline University Martin Luther College Metropolitan State University Minneapolis College of Art and Design Minnesota State University Moorhead Minnesota State University-Mankato Oak Hills Christian College Saint Cloud State University Saint Johns University Saint Mary's University of Minnesota St Catherine University The College of Saint Scholastica University of Minnesota-Crookston University of Minnesota-Duluth University of Minnesota-Twin Cities University of Northwestern-St Paul University of St Thomas Winona State University The Best Online Two-Year Schools in Minnesota for 2017 include the following: Alexandria Technical & Community College Anoka Technical College Anoka-Ramsey Community College Central Lakes College Century College Dakota County Technical College Hennepin Technical College Hibbing Community College Inver Hills Community College Lake Superior College Leech Lake Tribal College Mesabi Range Community and Technical College Minneapolis Community and Technical College Minnesota State College - Southeast Technical Minnesota State Community and Technical College Minnesota West Community and Technical College Normandale Community College North Hennepin Community College Northland Community and Technical College Northwest Technical College Ridgewater College Riverland Community College Rochester Community and Technical College Saint Paul College South Central College St. Cloud Technical and Community College ### About Us: AccreditedSchoolsOnline.org was founded in 2011 to provide students and parents with quality data and information about pursuing an affordable, quality education that has been certified by an accrediting agency. Our community resource materials and tools span topics such as college accreditation, financial aid, opportunities available to veterans, people with disabilities, as well as online learning resources. We feature higher education institutions that have developed online learning programs that include highly trained faculty, new technology and resources, and online support services to help students achieve educational success.


News Article | April 26, 2017
Site: www.scientificamerican.com

Penguins inspire a special fascination, even among people who might not normally care about birds. Perhaps it’s their shuffling waddle, their bright, contrasting colors or their stoic, heroic huddles in the face of frigid Antarctic winds. Despite their charm, “if you annoy them, they’ll stab you in the face with their bill,” says Ron Naveen, the founder of nonprofit conservation group Oceanites. A new report issued Tuesday by the group says that although Antarctica has an abundance of these charismatic birds, some penguin populations have suffered huge losses over the past few decades. About six million breeding pairs of penguins currently live in Antarctica, according to the report. That number is expected to change as the organization finalizes ongoing surveys. But Naveen says one trend is clear: some species of penguin have experienced dramatic shifts in population sizes as parts of the continent have warmed. The report combines all available data on the five species of penguins that breed on the continent, including satellite imagery, ground counts and other estimates, providing a comprehensive overview of the state of penguins in the Antarctic for the first time in more than two decades. Oceanites’s report reveals several important large-scale population trends, says Naveen, who has traveled to Antarctica almost every year over the past three decades to study penguins. The findings show that two species—Adélie, the most ubiquitous on the continent, with a white ring around their eyes and short beaks, and chinstraps, named for a distinctive line of dark feathers under their faces—are declining on the Antarctic Peninsula, which juts some 800 miles north from the continent toward South America. In this area populations of the two species have dropped by as much as 50 percent since the 1980s. At the same time gentoo penguins—which live in the same region and have orange bills and white dashes over their eyes—have grown in population by about 40 percent during that period. “That leads us to start thinking about climate change and why one species is adapting better than another,” Naveen says. Naveen thinks the rapid warming of the peninsula through the second half of the 20th century may have caused these shifts (although the region has cooled slightly since the 1990s). No one has proven why these penguin populations are dwindling, but Naveen speculates melting glaciers and ice sheets around the peninsula could change the balance of krill and fish penguins eat. If gentoos can adapt their diet more readily than Adélies can, then that may be why they are thriving in that region. Michelle LaRue, a research ecologist at the University of Minnesota, confirms the importance of sea ice for organisms like krill. "Krill need sea ice to survive," she explains. LaRue says there is a strong correlation between reduced sea ice and decreased krill populations. Naveen notes that in East Antarctica, on the opposite side of the continent from the peninsula, Adélie numbers have in fact grown. In the east, Naveen says, “it’s colder—there has not been a similar warming trend.” Emperor and macaroni penguins are the other Antarctic species, but not enough long-term data exists yet to determine how their populations have changed across the continent. All the species play a critical role in the Antarctic ecosystem, according to LaRue, who uses satellite imagery to study Antarctica’s penguin populations. Not only do they eat krill and many species of fish, they are also important prey for leopard seals. Naveen hopes this report will be used by organizations involved in Antarctic management and conservation. The Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources, an international group comprising 24 countries and the European Union, is in charge of regulating fishing for krill and toothfish (also marketed as Chilean sea bass) in Antarctic waters. Naveen says the commission could use this report to make decisions about regulating fishing and to help justify its rules. The report draws heavily on a new database Oceanites helped launch last year called the “Mapping Application for Penguin Populations and Projected Dynamics,” or MAPPPD. This open-access project lets scientists—and anyone interested in penguins—visualize and work with data on the locations and numbers of penguin colonies in Antarctica. LaRue, who was not involved with the new report, says that in the past, information on different species or on penguins in different regions were only available separately. But “the Southern Ocean and Antarctica is not piecemeal—it’s all connected,” she says. “This puts it all in one spot.” Heather Lynch, a researcher at Stony Brook University who helps run MAPPPD and is currently working on an updated survey of chinstrap penguin populations, agrees. “Having a single open-access data set that everyone in the community can use is a big deal scientifically,” she explains. “For once, we can start working on models and analyses on an agreed[-on] data set, rather than everyone using their own.” Louise Emmerson, a research scientist with Australia’s Department of Environment and Energy Antarctic Division, raises some issues with the database though, including errors in data on the site—both in terms of actual numbers used and because satellite imagery can sometimes generate false positives, incorrectly identifying marks such as sediment runoff as guano stains from penguin colonies. “This is concerning and has the potential for detracting from conservation efforts,” she says. Emmerson hopes the database will go through a peer review process in the near future; Naveen says that process is underway. Ultimately, Oceanites plans to produce reports like this one annually. As more data comes into the MAPPPD database, estimates will improve and long-term trends will become clearer. Climate change will likely continue to influence population trends, Naveen speculates. But Emmerson also notes changing penguin populations cannot be attributed solely to climate change—food webs, the fishing industry and disturbance from tourism can also affect penguin populations. “One of the difficulties we have as scientists is trying to understand what is driving these [population] differences,” she says. “This is an incredibly complex thing to decipher.”


News Article | April 21, 2017
Site: globenewswire.com

NEW YORK, April 21, 2017 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Ann M. Bajari, Treasurer at the Minnesota Public Health Association, has been selected to join the Nursing Board at the American Health Council. She will be sharing her knowledge and expertise on Public Health, Administration, Community Development, Public Policy, and Patient Care. With over three decades of experience in the field of Nursing, Ann offers valuable insight in her role as the Treasurer at the Minnesota Public Health Association. Located in Minneapolis, Minnesota, Minnesota Public Health Association (MPHA) was established in 1907 to create a healthier Minnesota through effective public health practice and engaged citizens. MPHA inspires effective public health leadership by offering opportunities for leadership, advocacy and enhancing learning, skills, and practice. As the Treasurer at the Minnesota Public Health Association, an all-volunteer organization, Ann’s day-to-day responsibilities include financial management of the organization, contributing to the decision making about day-to-day operations and organizational strategic planning, and duties as a member of the Executive Committee and Governing Board. Due to her commitment to the field, Ann has held notable leadership positions as the President of the Minnesota Public Health Association, Administrator of Meeker-McLeod-Sibley Counties Community Health Services Agency, Public Health Nurse and Agency Director at Meeker County Public Health and as a Registered Nurse and Charge Nurse for the Buffalo Memorial Hospital. Following her graduation with a Bachelor of Science in Nursing from College of St. Benedict in 1980, Ann earned her Master of Public Health from the University of Minnesota in 1993. Ann’s desire to pursue the field of nursing started at a young age during her experience as a candy striper.  In high school and college, she worked as a dietary aide and nursing assistant eventually realizing the nursing field was the profession for her. Ann attributes her success to discovering her passion and belief in the principles of public health. Ann maintains a membership with The Minnesota Public Health Nursing Practice Council, Minnesota Public Health Association, and American Public Health Association. Previously, she has participated with the Minnesota Community Health Services Advisory Committee, the Minnesota Department of Health, and the Citizen’s Advisory Committee for Alcohol, Tobacco and Other Drug Abuse for the Minnesota Department of Human Services. As a testament to her success, Ann has been honored with the 2000 Jim Parker Leadership Award, 2004 Barbara O'Grady Excellence in Public Health Nursing Leadership Award, and 2013 Albert Justus Chesley Award. Among her many accomplishments, Ann is proud to volunteer with the Minnesota Public Health Association Leadership. Most of all, she is proud she could balance attending nursing school at The College of St. Benedict, clinical work, and being a mother of three young children in early elementary school. In her free time, she enjoys gardening, supporting and caring for her grandchildren, volunteering, and providing eldercare to her mother. Looking to the future, Ann plans to become more politically involved and will continue to volunteer with entities that can use her knowledge and skills.


News Article | May 3, 2017
Site: phys.org

A team of LLNL researchers, along with scientists from the University of Minnesota and Oklahoma State University , report the creation of 3-D-printed transparent glass components in the latest issue of Advanced Materials , published online April 28. In the paper, the researchers describe a 3-D printing technique enabling glass structures and composition gradients previously impossible through conventional manufacturing processes. "The Lab is always looking for different ways to create new materials for optical applications," said LLNL chemical engineer and project lead Rebecca Dylla-Spears. "We're not going to replace the optical materials made through traditional means, but we're trying to impart new functionality using additive manufacturing. This is the first step to being able to print compositionally graded glass optics." Other research institutions have shown 3-D printing of glass is possible, however prior demonstrations have involved extruding molten glass filaments through a heated print-head or using lasers to selectively melt and fuse glass powders. With these methods, the powders and filaments don't fully meld together in the short times they are heated during the printing process, researchers said, which leads to porous or non-uniform structures that would not be suitable for optical applications. Lawrence Livermore's approach does not rely on printing molten glass; instead the researchers create custom inks that are formed from concentrated suspensions of glass particles with highly controlled flow properties so they can be printed at room temperature. The printed components then undergo a carefully designed thermal treatment to densify the parts and remove evidence of the printing process. Finally, the processed parts are given an optical quality polish. Researchers said the approach improves the odds of achieving optical uniformity. "For printing high-quality optics, you shouldn't be able to see any pores and lines, they have to be transparent," said LLNL materials engineer Du Nguyen, who went through numerous mixtures of materials before finding the right combination. "Once we got a general formulation to work, we were able to tweak it so the material could merge during the printing process. Most other groups that have printed glass melt the glass first and cool it down later, which has the potential for residual stress and cracking. Because we print at room temperature, that's less of an issue." LLNL's method uses a "slurry" of silica particles extruded through a direct-ink writing process. The printed product comes out opaque, but after drying and heat treatment becomes transparent. In contrast to 3-D printing with molten glass, the researchers state, the approach doesn't require high temperatures during printing, thereby allowing for higher resolution features. "This was a major first step because there's been no demonstration of dense and transparent 3-D-printed glass structures using this printing approach [extrusion]," Dylla-Spears said. "We're on our way to 3-D-printed glass optics." The research could allow scientists to print glass that incorporates different refractive indices in a single flat optic, as opposed to the special shapes that are required for constant composition glasses to achieve similar lensing characteristics. Due to the ability to program the composition, Nguyen said, printed components would be easier and cheaper to finish. "Polishing complex or aspheric lenses is pretty labor-intensive and requires a lot of skill, but polishing a flat surface is much easier," Nguyen said. "By controlling the refractive index in the printed parts, you alter the bending of light, which enables a lens that could be polished flat." Rather than replace traditional optics, researchers said they want to explore new applications with composition gradients that don't exist on the market today. Designing for novel optical components instead of using off-the-shelf optics could reduce the size, weight or cost of optics systems. "Optical fabrication research and development is trending toward freeform optics, which are optics that can be made virtually to any complex shape," said Tayyab Suratwala, LLNL's program director for Optics and Material Science and Technology. "Expanding this to 3-D-printed optics with compositional variation can greatly increase the capabilities of this new frontier." While the research could expand the design space for optical engineers, it also may have applications outside of optics, including glass microfluidic devices that have complex and previously unobtainable layouts, researchers said. Glass is a prized material for microfluidics due to its optical transparency, chemical resistance, mechanical properties and ability to tailor its surface chemistry and functionality. However, glass is difficult to machine and etch to make complex microfluidic device geometries feasible. The 3-D printing of glass could change that, and the team demonstrated 3-D printing of a simple microfluidic network. "Achieving compositional and structural control for functional materials, in this case for optical components and microfluidics, promises to tremendously open up the application space for 3-D-printing technologies," said Eric Duoss, a materials engineer working on the project. "It's not easy to do, however our multidisciplinary team was able to identify and overcome challenges in a broad range of areas including chemistry, materials, engineering, physics and optics, to create a robust and repeatable approach to printing glass." Now that they've proved printing transparent glass is possible, researchers are turning their attention to making actual high-quality optics and gradient index lenses by varying the composition of the glass. The next hurdle is Gradient Refractive Index (GRIN) optics, which will require more process understanding and control.


News Article | April 22, 2017
Site: news.yahoo.com

Anne Herdman Royal wears a brain hat during the March for Science on Saturday, April 22, 2017, in Chattanooga, Tenn. About a thousand demonstrators marched from the Main Terrain Art Park to Riverfront Parkway and back in support of science and education in solidarity with other marches nationwide. (Doug Strickland/Chattanooga Times Free Press via AP) WASHINGTON (AP) — The Latest on the March for Science, with events around the world intended to promote the understanding of science and defend science from attacks such as proposed U.S. government budget cuts (all times EDT): Scientists, students and research advocates are marking Earth Day by conveying a global message about scientific freedom without political interference. Those participating in science marches around the world are also arguing for adequate spending for future breakthroughs and the value of scientific pursuits. President Donald Trump issued an Earth Day statement, saying that "rigorous science depends not on ideology, but on a spirit of honest inquiry and robust debate." One of the organizers of the first Earth Day, Denis Hayes, says the crowd he saw on the National Mall in Washington appeared energized and "magical," almost like what he saw that first day 47 years ago. Kathryn Oakes Hall pinned a sign to the back of her T-shirt as she made her way to the march in Santa Fe, New Mexico: "Nine months pregnant, so mad I'm here." "I'd rather be sitting on the couch," she said. But she marched anyway because she worried about her baby's future in a world that seems to consider science disposable. Her husband is an engineer at Los Alamos National Laboratory, she studied anthropology, she even has a dog named rocket. So they joined thousands marching in Santa Fe, many of whom stopped her to remark on her pregnancy, with a mix of administration and concern. She wore a white T-shirt, with a drawing of the earth stretched over her belly, and carried a sign that read "evidence-based policy and not policy-based evidence." Ice photographer and filmmaker James Balog, who says he was watched trillions of tons of ice melt, told the Washington crowd that talking about the science of climate change in the face of the Trump administration and climate change deniers is "a battle between objective reality and ideological fiction." Pennsylvania State University's Michael Mann got a loud cheer just for his sentence "I am a climate scientist." Mann, who first created the hockey stick that showed a spike in recent global temperatures after thousands of years said, "there was no more noble pursuit than seeking to insure that policy is informed by the objective assessment of scientific evidence." Software engineer Bill Wood of Rockville, Maryland, had a plastic protected sign that read "things are so bad even the introverts had to come out." President Donald Trump says in an Earth Day statement that his administration is "committed to keeping our air and water clean, to preserving our forests, lakes and open spaces and to protecting endangered species." But that won't be done, he says, in a way that harms "working families" and says the government is "reducing unnecessary burdens on American workers and American companies, while being mindful that our actions must also protect the environment." His comments come as thousands of people around the world participate in science rallies. Hundreds turned out in light rain for a pro-science rally on the Vermont statehouse lawn in Montpelier. One of the speakers, Rose Paul, director of conservation science for The Nature Conservancy of Vermont, told the crowd that "Science is not a partisan issue." She said "climate change is happening" and scientists are needed to help understand how shifting weather patterns are affecting the world. Denis Hayes, who co-organized the first Earth Day 47 years ago, said the crowd he saw from the speaker's platform on the National Mall in Washington was energized in a rare way, similar to what he saw in the first Earth Day. That's unusual for an odd numbered anniversary, he said. "This magical thing that sometimes happens, sometimes doesn't happen," Hayes said. "The reason that it happens is that you've got a clear enemy. For this kind of weather this is an amazing crowd. You're not out there today unless you really care." Lara Stephens-Brown, a graduate student studying veterinary medicine at the University of Minnesota, joined thousands marching in St. Paul. They chanted "hey hey, ho ho, we won't let this planet go." There are cancer survivors and doctors with signs that say "science saves lives," she said, and estimated that 90 percent of the signs are not political. "Science is not a partisan issue," she said. "Science is for everyone, and should be supported by everyone in our government." Thousands of people stood outside the Washington Monument amid bouts of downpours, listening to a mix of speeches and music. Speakers noted that President Trump was in the White House nearby, having cancelled a weekend in New Jersey. This was the first protest for Jeannette Villabon and her son Nikko Chey of Stanhope, New Jersey. So Villabon went all out, donning a Tyrannosaurus rex costume and holding a sign that said: "Hey tiny hands fund EPA study. Quit being cretaceous." Trump's "archaic thinking is going to ruin us all," Villabon said. Other signs were only slightly less pointed, such as "edit genes not the truth," ''data not dogma" and "global warming is real. Trump is the hoax." More than a thousand people stretched for miles through the streets of Gainesville, Florida. It was a peaceful demonstration, said Pati Vitt, a plant scientist at the Chicago Botanic Garden in town for work at the university. "We're scientists, so we're orderly," she said with a laugh. "We let the signs do the talking." She said her favorite featured a drawing of DNA, with the note "checks itself before it wrecks itself." And she hopes the crowds at hundreds of cities across the country draw attention to the perils of ignoring science funding. Hundreds of people have braved pouring rain in Nashville, Tennessee, as they march through city streets and chant "science, not silence." It's just one of the locations across the United States and the world on Saturday's March for Science events. Lawyer Jatin Shah brought his young sons — a 5-year-old who wants to be a dentist when he grows up and a 6-year-old who plans to be a doctor. Marchers are waving signs that say "there is no planet B," ''make America think again" and "climate change is real, ask any polar bear." Shah worries about his sons' futures if science spending is cut. The March for Science has attracted several thousand people in Berlin, and those supporters of sciences have walked from one of the city's universities to the Brandenburg Gate. Meike Weltin is a doctorate student at an environmental institute near Berlin. She says she's participating because — in her words — "I think that politics need to listen to sciences." Germany's foreign minister, Sigmar Gabriel, has endorsed March for Science events across Germany. Gabriel says "free research and teaching are the supporting pillars of an open and modern society." Thousands of people are expected to attend March for Science events around the world to promote the understanding of science and defend it from various attacks, including U.S. government budget cuts. The March for Science was dreamed up at the Women's March on Washington, a day after President Donald Trump's inauguration in January. The march puts scientists — who generally shy away from advocacy and whose work depends on objective experimentation — into a more public position. Scientists involved in the march say they're anxious about political and public rejection of established science such as climate change and the safety of vaccines. This story corrects the location of an event described at 1:10 p.m. It was held in Vermont.


The explosive death of a star is an incredible event, but not an unusual one for astronomers to observe. But now, for the first time, scientists have spotted a star’s death — known as a supernova — in an unprecedented way: the light from a distant explosion was warped on its way to Earth by a galaxy that got in the way. This warping magnified the supernova’s light and even split the explosion into four different images. It’s a unique find that could tell us more about the structure of our Universe. What the astronomers observed is known as “gravitational lensing,” and it was predicted by Albert Einstein in his theory of general relativity. The idea is that massive objects curve space and time around them, and these curvatures in space-time can affect the paths on which light travels. Light passing by a particularly massive object, for instance, will not follow a straight path but a warped one. In the case of this supernova, its light encountered a galaxy that acted like an optical lens would on Earth — focusing the light and splitting it in four different ways. What the astronomers observed is known as “gravitational lensing” It’s not the first time that a supernova’s light has been warped by gravitational lensing before. In fact, astronomers also saw an exploding star split four different ways in 2014. But that supernova was lensed by a cluster of galaxies. This one, detailed today in the journal Science, was lensed by just one galaxy — something that’s never been seen before. And it’s the first time a supernova of this kind, known as a “standard candle,” has been warped like this. All these unique traits make the discovery extra exciting for astronomers, since the four supernova images can be used to learn more about our expanding Universe. Experts agree that the Universe is growing, but exactly how fast that’s happening is still up for debate. Studying this warped supernova more closely could provide a more definitive answer of that expansion rate. “This is a new tool that we hadn’t thought we had,” Ariel Goobar, a cosmologist at the University of Stockholm and the lead author of the study, tells The Verge. Gravitational lensing has been used before to learn more about the cosmos — to better understand dark matter, for instance. This mysterious type of material is thought to make up about 27 percent of our Universe, but it can’t be seen directly. So the only way to study dark matter is to observe how it warps the space-time around it. “We’re not looking at dark matter itself, but the effects of dark matter,” Liliya Williams, a gravitational lensing expert at the University of Minnesota, who was not involved in the study, tells The Verge. “That immediately made me think that this was something special.” To use gravitational lensing to study supernovae, though, things have to line up just right. Goobar and his team stumbled upon this fortuitous event in September 2016, while searching for star explosions with the intermediate Palomar Transient Factory telescope in California. They found a lot of supernovae in the sky, but one particular star caught Goobar’s attention. He studied the supernova’s light a little more closely and found that this star was much farther away than any of the others they had seen. “That immediately made me think that this was something special,” says Goobar. “We were looking for supernovae, but we were never looking for supernovae that far.” The team then realized that there was a galaxy next to the distant supernova, and that the galaxy was pretty much halfway between Earth and the exploding star. That’s when it clicked: the galaxy had magnified the light of the supernova, making it 50 times brighter than normal and easier to spot from Earth. When the astronomers studied the event with other instruments like the Hubble Space Telescope, they found that the supernova had been multiplied by the galaxy into four separate images. That happened because the galaxy is shaped in such a way that it creates four different paths in space-time the light can take, Goobar says. The discovery was made extra special by the fact that this exploding star is a “standard candle” supernova. These supernovae explode in very predictable ways, with the same level of brightness. By knowing how luminous this star would have been without the lensing effect, Goobar and his team were able to measure very precisely just how much the galaxy magnified the supernova’s light. In turn, that gives them a good idea of what the galaxy is made of and how its matter is distributed. “We know how to look for more.” In addition to all that, this particular type of supernova will also allow the astronomers to figure out how fast the Universe is expanding. The astronomers can measure how long it takes for the light from each of the four images to arrive at Earth. And comparing these arrival times can be used to figure out the expansion rate. As exciting as that is, those measurements may not fully settle the debate over the growth of the Universe. But the good news is there will probably be more opportunities like this in the future. This discovery tells astronomers how to look for similar warped supernovae, Goobar says. And the more they find, the closer we’ll get to understanding just how fast the cosmos is growing. “It’s a breakthrough in the methodology — we know how to look for more,” he says. “And with a bit of luck and patience, we’ll be able to have answers in the next few years.”


News Article | April 22, 2017
Site: hosted2.ap.org

The Latest: Science rallies around the world draw thousands (AP) — The Latest on the March for Science, with events around the world intended to promote the understanding of science and defend science from attacks such as proposed U.S. government budget cuts (all times EDT): Kathryn Oakes Hall pinned a sign to the back of her T-shirt as she made her way to the march in Santa Fe, New Mexico: "Nine months pregnant, so mad I'm here." "I'd rather be sitting on the couch," she said. But she marched anyway because she worried about her baby's future in a world that seems to consider science disposable. Her husband is an engineer at Los Alamos National Laboratory, she studied anthropology, she even has a dog named rocket. So they joined thousands marching in Santa Fe, many of whom stopped her to remark on her pregnancy, with a mix of administration and concern. She wore a white T-shirt, with a drawing of the earth stretched over her belly, and carried a sign that read "evidence-based policy and not policy-based evidence." Ice photographer and filmmaker James Balog, who says he was watched trillions of tons of ice melt, told the Washington crowd that talking about the science of climate change in the face of the Trump administration and climate change deniers is "a battle between objective reality and ideological fiction." Pennsylvania State University's Michael Mann got a loud cheer just for his sentence "I am a climate scientist." Mann, who first created the hockey stick that showed a spike in recent global temperatures after thousands of years said, "there was no more noble pursuit than seeking to insure that policy is informed by the objective assessment of scientific evidence." Software engineer Bill Wood of Rockville, Maryland, had a plastic protected sign that read "things are so bad even the introverts had to come out." President Donald Trump says in an Earth Day statement that his administration is "committed to keeping our air and water clean, to preserving our forests, lakes and open spaces and to protecting endangered species." But that won't be done, he says, in a way that harms "working families" and says the government is "reducing unnecessary burdens on American workers and American companies, while being mindful that our actions must also protect the environment." His comments come as thousands of people around the world participate in science rallies. Hundreds turned out in light rain for a pro-science rally on the Vermont statehouse lawn in Montpelier. One of the speakers, Rose Paul, director of conservation science for The Nature Conservancy of Vermont, told the crowd that "Science is not a partisan issue." She said "climate change is happening" and scientists are needed to help understand how shifting weather patterns are affecting the world. Denis Hayes, who co-organized the first Earth Day 47 years ago, said the crowd he saw from the speaker's platform on the National Mall in Washington was energized in a rare way, similar to what he saw in the first Earth Day. That's unusual for an odd numbered anniversary, he said. "This magical thing that sometimes happens, sometimes doesn't happen," Hayes said. "The reason that it happens is that you've got a clear enemy. For this kind of weather this is an amazing crowd. You're not out there today unless you really care." Lara Stephens-Brown, a graduate student studying veterinary medicine at the University of Minnesota, joined thousands marching in St. Paul. They chanted "hey hey, ho ho, we won't let this planet go." There are cancer survivors and doctors with signs that say "science saves lives," she said, and estimated that 90 percent of the signs are not political. "Science is not a partisan issue," she said. "Science is for everyone, and should be supported by everyone in our government." Thousands of people stood outside the Washington Monument amid bouts of downpours, listening to a mix of speeches and music. Speakers noted that President Trump was in the White House nearby, having cancelled a weekend in New Jersey. This was the first protest for Jeannette Villabon and her son Nikko Chey of Stanhope, New Jersey. So Villabon went all out, donning a Tyrannosaurus rex costume and holding a sign that said: "Hey tiny hands fund EPA study. Quit being cretaceous." Trump's "archaic thinking is going to ruin us all," Villabon said. Other signs were only slightly less pointed, such as "edit genes not the truth," ''data not dogma" and "global warming is real. Trump is the hoax." More than a thousand people stretched for miles through the streets of Gainesville, Florida. It was a peaceful demonstration, said Pati Vitt, a plant scientist at the Chicago Botanic Garden in town for work at the university. "We're scientists, so we're orderly," she said with a laugh. "We let the signs do the talking." She said her favorite featured a drawing of DNA, with the note "checks itself before it wrecks itself." And she hopes the crowds at hundreds of cities across the country draw attention to the perils of ignoring science funding. Hundreds of people have braved pouring rain in Nashville, Tennessee, as they march through city streets and chant "science, not silence." It's just one of the locations across the United States and the world on Saturday's March for Science events. Lawyer Jatin Shah brought his young sons — a 5-year-old who wants to be a dentist when he grows up and a 6-year-old who plans to be a doctor. Marchers are waving signs that say "there is no planet B," ''make America think again" and "climate change is real, ask any polar bear." Shah worries about his sons' futures if science spending is cut. The March for Science has attracted several thousand people in Berlin, and those supporters of sciences have walked from one of the city's universities to the Brandenburg Gate. Meike Weltin is a doctorate student at an environmental institute near Berlin. She says she's participating because — in her words — "I think that politics need to listen to sciences." Germany's foreign minister, Sigmar Gabriel, has endorsed March for Science events across Germany. Gabriel says "free research and teaching are the supporting pillars of an open and modern society." Thousands of people are expected to attend March for Science events around the world to promote the understanding of science and defend it from various attacks, including U.S. government budget cuts. The March for Science was dreamed up at the Women's March on Washington, a day after President Donald Trump's inauguration in January. The march puts scientists — who generally shy away from advocacy and whose work depends on objective experimentation — into a more public position. Scientists involved in the march say they're anxious about political and public rejection of established science such as climate change and the safety of vaccines. This story corrects the location of an event described at 1:10 p.m. It was held in Vermont.


News Article | April 25, 2017
Site: www.rdmag.com

Synthetic rubber and plastics – used for manufacturing tires, toys and myriad other products – are produced from butadiene, a molecule traditionally made from petroleum or natural gas. But those manmade materials could get a lot greener soon, thanks to the ingenuity of a team of scientists from three U.S. research universities. The scientific team –- from the University of Delaware, the University of Minnesota and the University of Massachusetts – has invented a process to make butadiene from renewable sources like trees, grasses and corn. The findings, now online, will be published in the American Chemical Society’s ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering, a leading journal in green chemistry and engineering. The study’s authors are all affiliated with the Catalysis Center for Energy Innovation (CCEI) based at the University of Delaware. CCEI is an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. “Our team combined a catalyst we recently discovered with new and exciting chemistry to find the first high-yield, low-cost method of manufacturing butadiene,” says CCEI Director Dionisios Vlachos, the Allan and Myra Ferguson Professor of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering at UD and a co-author of the study. “This research could transform the multi-billion-dollar plastics and rubber industries.” Butadiene is the chief chemical component in a broad range of materials found throughout society. When this four-carbon molecule undergoes a chemical reaction to form long chains called polymers, styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) is formed, which is used to make abrasive-resistant automobile tires. When blended to make nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR), it becomes the key component in hoses, seals and the rubber gloves ubiquitous to medical settings. In the world of plastics, butadiene is the chief chemical component in acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS), a hard plastic that can be molded into rigid shapes. Tough ABS plastic is used to make video game consoles, automotive parts, sporting goods, medical devices and interlocking plastic toy bricks, among other products. The past 10 years have seen a shift toward an academic research focus on renewable chemicals and butadiene, in particular, due to its importance in commercial products, Vlachos says. “Our team’s success came from our philosophy that connects research in novel catalytic materials with a new approach to the chemistry,” says Vlachos. “This is a great example where the research team was greater than the sum of its parts.” Novel chemistry in three steps The novel chemistry included a three-step process starting from biomass-derived sugars. Using technology developed within CCEI, the team converted sugars to a ring compound called furfural. In the second step, the team further processed furfural to another ring compound called tetrahydrofuran (THF). It was in the third step that the team found the breakthrough chemical manufacturing technology. Using a new catalyst called “phosphorous all-silica zeolite,” developed within the center, the team was able to convert THF to butadiene with high yield (greater than 95 percent). The team called this new, selective reaction “dehydra-decyclization” to represent its capability for simultaneously removing water and opening ring compounds at once. “We discovered that phosphorus-based catalysts supported by silica and zeolites exhibit high selectivity for manufacturing chemicals like butadiene,” says Prof. Wei Fan of the University of Massachusetts Amherst. “When comparing their capability for controlling certain industrial chemistry uses with that of other catalysts, the phosphorous materials appear truly unique and nicely complement the set of catalysts we have been developing at CCEI.” The invention of renewable rubber is part of CCEI’s larger mission. Initiated in 2009, CCEI has focused on transformational catalytic technology to produce renewable chemicals and biofuels from natural biomass sources. “This newer technology significantly expands the slate of molecules we can make from lignocellulose,” says Prof. Paul Dauenhauer of the University of Minnesota, who is co-director of CCEI and a co-author of the study. Additional co-authors include Prof. Michael Tsapatsis, postdoctoral researchers Dae Sung Park, Charles Spanjers, Limin Ren and Omar Abdelrahman, and graduate student Katherine Vinter, all from the University of Minnesota, and graduate student Hong Je Cho from the University of Massachusetts. To read the full research paper, titled “Biomass-Derived Butadiene by Dehydra-Decyclization of Tetrahydrofuran,” visit the ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering website.


News Article | April 25, 2017
Site: www.futurity.org

Researchers have devised a more accurate way to predict and measure the impact products have on the environment. Using a process called life-cycle assessment, companies often test the environmental impact their products may have—as well as the impact of producing the components, such as corn or sugarcane, that go into those products. This kind of assessment, however, often lacks detail about how the products affect natural resources such as land, water, and biodiversity. The researchers tested this new LCA, called Land Use Change Improved Life Cycle Assessment, or LUCI-LCA, by evaluating the potential environmental impacts of two bio-plastic products that could come from sugarcane grown in Mato Grosso, Brazil, or from corn grown in Iowa. Their approach—which includes more accurate data about the regional land composition than the traditional LCA—came to different conclusions about which option would be more environmentally responsible. The group reports the results in Nature Communications. “The size and reach of multinational companies is stunning, on par with that of many nations,” says Gretchen Daily, professor of biology at Stanford University and senior author of the paper. “When we think about how to bring human activities into balance with what Earth can sustain, corporations have a major role to play in decoupling economic growth from environmental impact.” Life-cycle assessment offers a systematic way of determining potential environmental impacts of a product from source materials to disposal. Results from these assessments often inform decisions companies make about product design, material, and technology choices and sourcing strategies. An incomplete or inaccurate assessment could lead to well intentioned but environmentally damaging decisions. One problem with a standard life cycle assessment is that it represents the average land composition of the country from which materials will be sourced. So, in this case, it assumes that Mato Grosso contains the same proportion of rainforest as all of Brazil, and that sourcing sugarcane from that state would lead to deforestation of the Amazon. Daily and her colleagues made improvements that allow for more refined assessment using data relevant to the exact regions from which materials would likely be sourced, taking into account predictions about future impacts to the environment. “In reality, from the modeling that we did, it looked like most of the expansion of agriculture in Mato Grosso would happen in the savannah,” says Rebecca Chaplin-Kramer, research associate at the Stanford Woods Institute for the Environment and lead author of the study. “Whereas in Iowa, if any expansion happens, it will likely mean expanding into forest.” While the standard LCA showed that the Mato Grosso sugarcane would lead to more CO in the atmosphere, this more spatially sensitive LCA found that the carbon footprint of the Iowan corn was larger. In addition, while the traditional LCA found that the corn would result in more water use than the sugarcane, the new LCA found that the sugarcane would use more—900 percent more. “This work has major implications for anybody involved in product innovation, commodity sourcing, or policy setting for new land development,” says Ryan Noe, a researcher with the National Capital Project at University of Minnesota and coauthor of the paper. “Where that sourcing comes from matters and it’s not really being captured with the approaches being used.” The researchers hope that the stark and significant differences between the results of the two LCAs will encourage companies and policymakers to adopt the new approach for decision-making. It took the team substantial time and effort to pull together the data necessary for this case study. But with increased interest, they believe they could develop a more streamlined tool that would require little manual work. “There’s more work at some levels—but this is exactly the kind of 21st-century work that responsible corporations are pursuing to promote green growth and a sustainable human enterprise,” Daily says. “In the short run, this approach will reduce costs and risks. In the long run, it is utterly key to survival.” Additional coauthors contributed from Stanford, the University of Minnesota, the Natural Capital project, and Unilever. Unilever and the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation funded this research.


News Article | April 22, 2017
Site: hosted2.ap.org

The Latest: Marchers around the world join science rallies (AP) — The Latest on the March for Science, with events around the world intended to promote the understanding of science and defend science from attacks such as proposed U.S. government budget cuts (all times EDT): Hundreds turned out in light rain for a pro-science rally on the Maine statehouse lawn in Montpelier. One of the speakers, Rose Paul, director of conservation science for The Nature Conservancy of Vermont, told the crowd that "Science is not a partisan issue." She said "climate change is happening" and scientists are needed to help understand how shifting weather patterns are affecting the world. Denis Hayes, who co-organized the first Earth Day 47 years ago, said the crowd he saw from the speaker's platform on the National Mall in Washington was energized in a rare way, similar to what he saw in the first Earth Day. That's unusual for an odd numbered anniversary, he said. "This magical thing that sometimes happens, sometimes doesn't happen," Hayes said. "The reason that it happens is that you've got a clear enemy. For this kind of weather this is an amazing crowd. You're not out there today unless you really care." Lara Stephens-Brown, a graduate student studying veterinary medicine at the University of Minnesota, joined thousands marching in St. Paul. They chanted "hey hey, ho ho, we won't let this planet go." There are cancer survivors and doctors with signs that say "science saves lives," she said, and estimated that 90 percent of the signs are not political. "Science is not a partisan issue," she said. "Science is for everyone, and should be supported by everyone in our government." Thousands of people stood outside the Washington Monument amid bouts of downpours, listening to a mix of speeches and music. Speakers noted that President Trump was in the White House nearby, having cancelled a weekend in New Jersey. This was the first protest for Jeannette Villabon and her son Nikko Chey of Stanhope, New Jersey. So Villabon went all out, donning a Tyrannosaurus rex costume and holding a sign that said: "Hey tiny hands fund EPA study. Quit being cretaceous." Trump's "archaic thinking is going to ruin us all," Villabon said. Other signs were only slightly less pointed, such as "edit genes not the truth," ''data not dogma" and "global warming is real. Trump is the hoax." More than a thousand people stretched for miles through the streets of Gainesville, Florida. It was a peaceful demonstration, said Pati Vitt, a plant scientist at the Chicago Botanic Garden in town for work at the university. "We're scientists, so we're orderly," she said with a laugh. "We let the signs do the talking." She said her favorite featured a drawing of DNA, with the note "checks itself before it wrecks itself." And she hopes the crowds at hundreds of cities across the country draw attention to the perils of ignoring science funding. Hundreds of people have braved pouring rain in Nashville, Tennessee, as they march through city streets and chant "science, not silence." It's just one of the locations across the United States and the world on Saturday's March for Science events. Lawyer Jatin Shah brought his young sons — a 5-year-old who wants to be a dentist when he grows up and a 6-year-old who plans to be a doctor. Marchers are waving signs that say "there is no planet B," ''make America think again" and "climate change is real, ask any polar bear." Shah worries about his sons' futures if science spending is cut. The March for Science has attracted several thousand people in Berlin, and those supporters of sciences have walked from one of the city's universities to the Brandenburg Gate. Meike Weltin is a doctorate student at an environmental institute near Berlin. She says she's participating because — in her words — "I think that politics need to listen to sciences." Germany's foreign minister, Sigmar Gabriel, has endorsed March for Science events across Germany. Gabriel says "free research and teaching are the supporting pillars of an open and modern society." Thousands of people are expected to attend March for Science events around the world to promote the understanding of science and defend it from various attacks, including U.S. government budget cuts. The March for Science was dreamed up at the Women's March on Washington, a day after President Donald Trump's inauguration in January. The march puts scientists — who generally shy away from advocacy and whose work depends on objective experimentation — into a more public position. Scientists involved in the march say they're anxious about political and public rejection of established science such as climate change and the safety of vaccines.


News Article | April 24, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Synthetic rubber and plastics -- used for manufacturing tires, toys and myriad other products -- are produced from butadiene, a molecule traditionally made from petroleum or natural gas. But those manmade materials could get a lot greener soon, thanks to a team of scientists from three U.S. research universities. The scientific team -- from the University of Delaware, the University of Minnesota and the University of Massachusetts - has invented a process to make butadiene from renewable sources.


News Article | April 29, 2017
Site: www.prweb.com

LearnHowToBecome.org, a leading resource provider for higher education and career information, has determined which online colleges and universities in the U.S. have the most military-friendly programs and services. Of the 50 four-year schools that earned honors, Drexel University, University of Southern California, Duquesne University, Regis University and Harvard University were the top five. 50 two-year schools were also recognized; Laramie County Community College, Western Wyoming Community College, Dakota College at Bottineau, Mesa Community College and Kansas City Kansas Community College ranked as the top five. A complete list of top schools is included below. “Veterans and active duty members of the military often face unique challenges when it comes to transitioning into college, from navigating the GI Bill to getting used to civilian life,” said Wes Ricketts, senior vice president of LearnHowToBecome.org. “These online schools not only offer military-friendly resources, they also offer an online format, allowing even the busiest members of our armed forces to earn a degree or certificate.” To be included on the “Most Military-Friendly Online Colleges” list, schools must be regionally accredited, not-for-profit institutions. Each college is also evaluated on additional data points such as the number and variety of degree programs offered, military tuition rates, employment services, post-college earnings of alumni and military-related academic resources. Complete details on each college, their individual scores and the data and methodology used to determine the LearnHowToBecome.org “Most Military-Friendly Online Colleges” list, visit: The Most Military-Friendly Online Four-Year Colleges in the U.S. for 2017 include: Arizona State University-Tempe Auburn University Azusa Pacific University Baker University Boston University Canisius College Carnegie Mellon University Columbia University in the City of New York Creighton University Dallas Baptist University Drexel University Duquesne University George Mason University Hampton University Harvard University Illinois Institute of Technology Iowa State University La Salle University Lawrence Technological University Lewis University Loyola University Chicago Miami University-Oxford Michigan Technological University Missouri University of Science and Technology North Carolina State University at Raleigh Norwich University Oklahoma State University-Main Campus Pennsylvania State University-Main Campus Purdue University-Main Campus Regis University Rochester Institute of Technology Saint Leo University Southern Methodist University Syracuse University Texas A & M University-College Station University of Arizona University of Denver University of Florida University of Idaho University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign University of Michigan-Ann Arbor University of Minnesota-Twin Cities University of Mississippi University of Missouri-Columbia University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill University of Oklahoma-Norman Campus University of Southern California University of the Incarnate Word Washington State University Webster University The Most Military-Friendly Online Two-Year Colleges in the U.S. for 2017 include: Aims Community College Allen County Community College Amarillo College Barton County Community College Bunker Hill Community College Casper College Central Texas College Chandler-Gilbert Community College Cincinnati State Technical and Community College Cochise College Columbus State Community College Cowley County Community College Craven Community College Dakota College at Bottineau East Mississippi Community College Eastern New Mexico University - Roswell Campus Edmonds Community College Fox Valley Technical College GateWay Community College Grayson College Hutchinson Community College Kansas City Kansas Community College Lake Region State College Laramie County Community College Lone Star College Mesa Community College Metropolitan Community College Mitchell Technical Institute Mount Wachusett Community College Navarro College Northeast Community College Norwalk Community College Ozarka College Phoenix College Prince George's Community College Quinsigamond Community College Rio Salado College Rose State College Sheridan College Shoreline Community College Sinclair College Southeast Community College Southwestern Oregon Community College State Fair Community College Truckee Meadows Community College Western Nebraska Community College Western Oklahoma State College Western Texas College Western Wyoming Community College Yavapai College ### About Us: LearnHowtoBecome.org was founded in 2013 to provide data and expert driven information about employment opportunities and the education needed to land the perfect career. Our materials cover a wide range of professions, industries and degree programs, and are designed for people who want to choose, change or advance their careers. We also provide helpful resources and guides that address social issues, financial aid and other special interest in higher education. Information from LearnHowtoBecome.org has proudly been featured by more than 700 educational institutions.


News Article | April 24, 2017
Site: www.rdmag.com

Digital technologies and advanced manufacturing are transforming production, driving a new industrial revolution known as Industry 4.0. Creating a digital supply chain, one that’s more resilient and responsive to risks and opportunities, is essential. Many companies have already moved in this direction: A third of more than 2,000 industrial companies have digitized their supply chains while nearly three-quarters expect to by 2020, according to a recent PwC survey. The advantages include improved efficiency, greater revenue, and lower costs. Such Industry 4.0 benefits are available today through on-demand manufacturing, particularly with a supplier that harnesses digital technologies and advanced, automated production processes to produce custom components on short notice, on time, and cost-effectively. While that makes on-demand manufacturing ideal for rapid prototyping, manufacturing on demand can also reduce the TCO for low-volume production of injection molded parts. TCO takes into account the direct and indirect costs of acquiring and using a part or piece of equipment throughout its life cycle. Think of it as the purchase price plus the additional costs incurred for each step along the supply chain, such as shipping and logistics, inventory, operation, maintenance, and retirement of the part. In that perspective, TCO is seen as offering a more complete picture of costs—and a better measure of value or return on investment—than looking at just the purchase price. On-demand manufacturing represents an evolution in procurement and supply chain management thought, bringing together the best of previous concepts, such as just-in-time manufacturing, which focuses on streamlining operations, and lean manufacturing principles, which seeks to drive waste from processes. With product life cycles getting shorter and industry trends driving mass customization of products, on-demand manufacturing makes even more sense in today’s supply chain strategy. On-demand manufacturing offers several ways to improve supply chain efficiency and reduce total cost of ownership for companies. A unique advantage is the ability for companies to continue using the same supplier as a part or product moves from prototyping into low-volume production. Consolidating suppliers in this way reduces the cost and complexity of working with multiple vendors. An on-demand manufacturer with the scale and advanced automation needed to ramp up production quickly to meet delivery dates consistently will improve on-time performance, a key metric in supply chain management. Additionally, on-demand production reduces inventory costs, as companies gain the flexibility to purchase parts in quantities they need at a given time. Manufacturing on demand also helps companies manage through demand volatility, so they’re not tied to production forecasts. When demand spikes, they can get parts quickly, avoiding the risk of lost sales opportunities because of stock outages or long lead times. On-demand injection molding typically offers the greatest benefit from a total cost of ownership perspective when used for low- to mid-range volume production. The purchase price of a part from an on-demand supplier may be more expensive but that supplier’s use of cost-effective tooling—and ability to improve the supply chain experience—will make it a better value for production volumes in the tens of thousands per year compared to the larger capital expense involved in working with a traditional injection molding company. More companies began evaluating their supply chain in TCO terms—focusing on quality, consistency, and on-time performance instead of just purchase price—as the economy tightened and, more recently, as finance has gained more influence in purchasing decisions and product development. Total cost of ownership also has received greater consideration as companies decide where to source or manufacture parts. Of late, TCO considerations have convinced some companies to bring overseas production back to the United States or to expand manufacturing in this country. One factor driving that trend is that supply chain costs likely are greater than most companies think, according to the U.S. Commerce Department’s Manufacturing Extension Partnership (MEP). Surveys indicate that using only purchase price—without taking total cost of ownership into account—can underestimate hidden costs by 20 percent, MEP has stated. That’s why, in the view of MEP and others, total cost of ownership provides a more complete and comprehensive measurement of visible and hidden costs. To help companies understand the cost of sourcing decisions—from labor costs to product quality to political and security risks—the Commerce Department launched an online tool known as Assess Costs Everywhere (ACE). To explain total cost of ownership to her students, Karen Donohue, associate professor of operations and supply management at the University of Minnesota’s Carlson School of Management, asks them to picture an iceberg. The visible part represents the purchase price or acquisition cost of a part while the “huge chunk of ice” below the water’s surface represents hidden costs. These additional costs may include inventory coordination, transportation, duties or tariffs as products cross international borders, issues with supplier reliability in terms of product quality, and ability to meet on-time delivery quotes, Donohue said. A TCO view also needs to incorporate lead times, a supplier’s ability to scale up production, and the long-term relationship with a supplier. “It’s hard to completely cost out every element of sourcing a product but the idea is to incorporate more measures than what had been traditionally tracked,” Donohue said. “What’s more, is that you’re trying to extend it even further and incorporate even more measures in those decisions. You’re moving away from just acquisition price to a wider set of metrics.” Industries that are likely to or already are pursuing the advantages of on-demand manufacturing as a TCO production solution, particularly for low-volume production, include medical device, automotive, lighting, and aerospace. In the medical device world, that would include both large corporations and the startups that service them, Donohue said. Small, innovative design shops working with a variety of industries also are turning to on-demand manufacturing for prototyping and production. “It is certainly a hot area now,” Donohue said of manufacturing on demand. “Companies are trying to figure out how to plug-and-play this in. It’s a pretty exciting area, particularly with the emphasis on trying to develop more manufacturing in the United States. This is one of the growth areas. So having people understand what the capabilities are and what the different tradeoffs are is important.” Becky Cater is currently the global product manager for injection molding at Proto Labs.  She has nearly 15 years of experience in B2B product management in a diverse range of markets including automotive components, industrial equipment, and thermal management solutions.  In her current role at Proto Labs, Cater is dedicated to bringing rapid plastic injection molding technologies to designers, engineers, and product developers to help them accelerate their time to market.  Cater has an undergraduate degree in chemical engineering and is nearing completion on her MBA.


News Article | May 3, 2017
Site: www.cemag.us

Lawrence Livermore's approach does not rely on printing molten glass; instead the researchers create custom inks that are formed from concentrated suspensions of glass particles with highly controlled flow properties so they can be printed at room temperature. The printed components then undergo a carefully designed thermal treatment to densify the parts and remove evidence of the printing process. Finally, the processed parts are given an optical quality polish. Researchers said the approach improves the odds of achieving optical uniformity. "For printing high-quality optics, you shouldn't be able to see any pores and lines, they have to be transparent," says LLNL materials engineer Du Nguyen, who went through numerous mixtures of materials before finding the right combination. "Once we got a general formulation to work, we were able to tweak it so the material could merge during the printing process. Most other groups that have printed glass melt the glass first and cool it down later, which has the potential for residual stress and cracking. Because we print at room temperature, that's less of an issue." LLNL's method uses a "slurry" of silica particles extruded through a direct-ink writing process. The printed product comes out opaque, but after drying and heat treatment becomes transparent. In contrast to 3D printing with molten glass, the researchers state, the approach doesn't require high temperatures during printing, thereby allowing for higher resolution features. "This was a major first step because there's been no demonstration of dense and transparent 3D-printed glass structures using this printing approach [extrusion]," Dylla-Spears says. "We're on our way to 3D-printed glass optics." The research could allow scientists to print glass that incorporates different refractive indices in a single flat optic, as opposed to the special shapes that are required for constant composition glasses to achieve similar lensing characteristics. Due to the ability to program the composition, Nguyen says, printed components would be easier and cheaper to finish. "Polishing complex or aspheric lenses is pretty labor-intensive and requires a lot of skill, but polishing a flat surface is much easier," Nguyen says. "By controlling the refractive index in the printed parts, you alter the bending of light, which enables a lens that could be polished flat." Rather than replace traditional optics, researchers say they want to explore new applications with composition gradients that don't exist on the market today. Designing for novel optical components instead of using off-the-shelf optics could reduce the size, weight or cost of optics systems. "Optical fabrication research and development is trending toward freeform optics, which are optics that can be made virtually to any complex shape," says Tayyab Suratwala, LLNL's program director for Optics and Material Science and Technology. "Expanding this to 3D-printed optics with compositional variation can greatly increase the capabilities of this new frontier." While the research could expand the design space for optical engineers, it also may have applications outside of optics, including glass microfluidic devices that have complex and previously unobtainable layouts, researchers say. Glass is a prized material for microfluidics due to its optical transparency, chemical resistance, mechanical properties and ability to tailor its surface chemistry and functionality. However, glass is difficult to machine and etch to make complex microfluidic device geometries feasible. The 3D printing of glass could change that, and the team demonstrated 3D printing of a simple microfluidic network. "Achieving compositional and structural control for functional materials, in this case for optical components and microfluidics, promises to tremendously open up the application space for 3D-printing technologies," says Eric Duoss, a materials engineer working on the project. "It's not easy to do, however our multidisciplinary team was able to identify and overcome challenges in a broad range of areas including chemistry, materials, engineering, physics and optics, to create a robust and repeatable approach to printing glass." Now that they've proved printing transparent glass is possible, researchers are turning their attention to making actual high-quality optics and gradient index lenses by varying the composition of the glass. The next hurdle is Gradient Refractive Index (GRIN) optics, which will require more process understanding and control. LLNL's Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program is funding the research. Other researchers involved include Lab scientists and engineers Timothy Yee, Nikola Dudukovic, Joel Destino, Cheng Zhu, and Theodore Baumann, along with Cameron Meyers from the University of Minnesota, and James Smay from Oklahoma State University.


News Article | April 22, 2017
Site: hosted2.ap.org

(AP) — The Latest on the March for Science, with events around the world intended to promote the understanding of science and defend science from attacks such as proposed U.S. government budget cuts (all times EDT): Scientists, students and research advocates from the Washington Monument to Germany's Brandenburg Gate and even to Greenland are rallying on Earth Day. They are conveying a global message about scientific freedom without political interference, the need for adequate spending for future breakthroughs, and the value of scientific pursuits. President Donald Trump issued an Earth Day statement, saying that "rigorous science depends not on ideology, but on a spirit of honest inquiry and robust debate." One of the organizers of the first Earth Day, Denis Hayes, says the crowd he saw on the National Mall in Washington appeared energized and "magical," almost like what he saw that first day 47 years ago. Kathryn Oakes Hall pinned a sign to the back of her T-shirt as she made her way to the march in Santa Fe, New Mexico: "Nine months pregnant, so mad I'm here." "I'd rather be sitting on the couch," she said. But she marched anyway because she worried about her baby's future in a world that seems to consider science disposable. Her husband is an engineer at Los Alamos National Laboratory, she studied anthropology, she even has a dog named rocket. So they joined thousands marching in Santa Fe, many of whom stopped her to remark on her pregnancy, with a mix of administration and concern. She wore a white T-shirt, with a drawing of the earth stretched over her belly, and carried a sign that read "evidence-based policy and not policy-based evidence." Ice photographer and filmmaker James Balog, who says he was watched trillions of tons of ice melt, told the Washington crowd that talking about the science of climate change in the face of the Trump administration and climate change deniers is "a battle between objective reality and ideological fiction." Pennsylvania State University's Michael Mann got a loud cheer just for his sentence "I am a climate scientist." Mann, who first created the hockey stick that showed a spike in recent global temperatures after thousands of years said, "there was no more noble pursuit than seeking to insure that policy is informed by the objective assessment of scientific evidence." Software engineer Bill Wood of Rockville, Maryland, had a plastic protected sign that read "things are so bad even the introverts had to come out." President Donald Trump says in an Earth Day statement that his administration is "committed to keeping our air and water clean, to preserving our forests, lakes and open spaces and to protecting endangered species." But that won't be done, he says, in a way that harms "working families" and says the government is "reducing unnecessary burdens on American workers and American companies, while being mindful that our actions must also protect the environment." His comments come as thousands of people around the world participate in science rallies. Hundreds turned out in light rain for a pro-science rally on the Vermont statehouse lawn in Montpelier. One of the speakers, Rose Paul, director of conservation science for The Nature Conservancy of Vermont, told the crowd that "Science is not a partisan issue." She said "climate change is happening" and scientists are needed to help understand how shifting weather patterns are affecting the world. Denis Hayes, who co-organized the first Earth Day 47 years ago, said the crowd he saw from the speaker's platform on the National Mall in Washington was energized in a rare way, similar to what he saw in the first Earth Day. That's unusual for an odd numbered anniversary, he said. "This magical thing that sometimes happens, sometimes doesn't happen," Hayes said. "The reason that it happens is that you've got a clear enemy. For this kind of weather this is an amazing crowd. You're not out there today unless you really care." Lara Stephens-Brown, a graduate student studying veterinary medicine at the University of Minnesota, joined thousands marching in St. Paul. They chanted "hey hey, ho ho, we won't let this planet go." There are cancer survivors and doctors with signs that say "science saves lives," she said, and estimated that 90 percent of the signs are not political. "Science is not a partisan issue," she said. "Science is for everyone, and should be supported by everyone in our government." Thousands of people stood outside the Washington Monument amid bouts of downpours, listening to a mix of speeches and music. Speakers noted that President Trump was in the White House nearby, having cancelled a weekend in New Jersey. This was the first protest for Jeannette Villabon and her son Nikko Chey of Stanhope, New Jersey. So Villabon went all out, donning a Tyrannosaurus rex costume and holding a sign that said: "Hey tiny hands fund EPA study. Quit being cretaceous." Trump's "archaic thinking is going to ruin us all," Villabon said. Other signs were only slightly less pointed, such as "edit genes not the truth," ''data not dogma" and "global warming is real. Trump is the hoax." More than a thousand people stretched for miles through the streets of Gainesville, Florida. It was a peaceful demonstration, said Pati Vitt, a plant scientist at the Chicago Botanic Garden in town for work at the university. "We're scientists, so we're orderly," she said with a laugh. "We let the signs do the talking." She said her favorite featured a drawing of DNA, with the note "checks itself before it wrecks itself." And she hopes the crowds at hundreds of cities across the country draw attention to the perils of ignoring science funding. Hundreds of people have braved pouring rain in Nashville, Tennessee, as they march through city streets and chant "science, not silence." It's just one of the locations across the United States and the world on Saturday's March for Science events. Lawyer Jatin Shah brought his young sons — a 5-year-old who wants to be a dentist when he grows up and a 6-year-old who plans to be a doctor. Marchers are waving signs that say "there is no planet B," ''make America think again" and "climate change is real, ask any polar bear." Shah worries about his sons' futures if science spending is cut. The March for Science has attracted several thousand people in Berlin, and those supporters of sciences have walked from one of the city's universities to the Brandenburg Gate. Meike Weltin is a doctorate student at an environmental institute near Berlin. She says she's participating because — in her words — "I think that politics need to listen to sciences." Germany's foreign minister, Sigmar Gabriel, has endorsed March for Science events across Germany. Gabriel says "free research and teaching are the supporting pillars of an open and modern society." Thousands of people are expected to attend March for Science events around the world to promote the understanding of science and defend it from various attacks, including U.S. government budget cuts. The March for Science was dreamed up at the Women's March on Washington, a day after President Donald Trump's inauguration in January. The march puts scientists — who generally shy away from advocacy and whose work depends on objective experimentation — into a more public position. Scientists involved in the march say they're anxious about political and public rejection of established science such as climate change and the safety of vaccines. This story corrects the location of an event described at 1:10 p.m. It was held in Vermont.


« GE and SCE unveil first battery-gas turbine hybrid system | Main | Baidu incorporating NVIDIA Tesla P40 GPUs and deep learning software in Baidu Cloud » Researchers at the University of Minnesota have developed and demonstrated at laboratory scale a novel process to synthesize low-cost, polymeric valerolactones with tunable mechanical properties and low glass transition temperatures. The glass transition temperature is the temperature region in which a polymer transitions from a hard, glassy material to a soft, rubbery material. In other words, when the polymer is cooled below the glass transition temperature, it becomes hard and brittle. The low glass transition temperature allows these polymers to be used at lower temperatures than other biodegradable polymers; applications could include tires, gaskets, seals adhesive, sealant and damping products. Described in a paper in the ACS journal Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, the process creates chemically crosslinked poly(β-methyl-δ-valerolactone) (PMVL) elastomers from high molar mass PMVL homopolymers that can be chemically converted back to recover the monomer in high purity. The crosslinked PMVL materials are highly tunable and exhibit lower glass transition temperature values (near −50°C). Cross-linked polymers (CPs) encompass almost a third of the synthetic polymer industry and are vital in a wide variety of products including tires, contact lenses, elastomers, adhesives, and foams. While cross-linking confers a number of advantages, including high thermal stability and solvent resistance, this structure also prevents these materials from being reprocessed. Postconsumer CPs are consequentially disposed of in landfills or by incineration, leading to significant loss of value. Additionally, the vast majority of synthetic polymers—including CPs—are petroleum-derived and non- degradable. Their production and disposal is therefore unsustainable in the long term. In recent years, considerable effort has been devoted to the development of CPs that are recyclable, some of which are also renewable. Currently available bioderived and/or elastomers based on recoverable monomers are not easily tunable, exhibit poor mechanical properties, and exhibit glass transition temperature values above −40°C, greatly limiting their applications. Commercial petroleum-derived polyurethanes are highly resistant to degradation and are environmentally unfriendly. Using recoverable aliphatic polyesters to produce thermoplastic elastomers requires rigorous reaction conditions and yields materials with poor solvent resistance, low thermal stability, and significant stress softening (Mullins effect). The University of Minnesota method overcomes these obstacles by combining a MVL monomer and crosslinking methods. The University is seeking to license the technology.


The International Nurses Association is pleased to welcome Carolyn M. Querales, DNP to their prestigious organization with her upcoming publication in the Worldwide Leaders in Healthcare.  Carolyn M. Querales is a Nurse Practitioner with 10 years of experience in her field and an extensive expertise in all facets of nursing, especially adult geriatrics and acute care. Carolyn is currently serving patients as an Advanced Registered Nurse Practitioner within the Digestive and Liver Center of Florida in Orlando, Florida. Carolyn’s career in nursing began in 2008 when she graduated with her Bachelor of Science Degree in Nursing from Bethel University. An advocate for continuing education, she attended the University of Minnesota-Twin Cities, gaining her Doctor of Nursing Practice Degree in 2013, becoming an Adult/Geriatric Nurse Practitioner. In addition to her clinical work, Carolyn serves as a Course Mentor at Western Governors University. To keep up to date with the latest advances and developments in her field, she maintains a professional membership with the American Geriatrics Society and the Sigma Theta Tau International Honor Society of Nursing. She attributes her success to coming from a long line of nurses, as well as being intuitive and empathetic. In her free time, Carolyn enjoys running and hiking. Learn more about Carolyn here: http://inanurse.org/network/index.php?do=/4136044/info/ and be sure to read her upcoming publication in the Worldwide Leaders in Healthcare.


News Article | May 1, 2017
Site: www.businesswire.com

BLOOMINGTON, Minn.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Minnesota Masonic Charities (MMC) today announced the recipients of its 2017 Scholarships Program. As part of its continuing commitment to building a better future for Minnesota, the nonprofit organization provides annual awards to some of the state’s most promising scholars. Since 2008, the organization has provided more than $2 million to fund Minnesota students seeking higher education. By 2018, Minnesota Masonic Charities plans to distribute $1 million annually in merit scholarship awards. “Our scholars reflect the values and character that are important to Masons,” said Eric Neetenbeek, Minnesota Masonic Charities president and CEO. “They demonstrate integrity and dedication – two traits we believe exemplify leadership. We have great faith in the individuals we select for these awards each year.” MMC offers up to 95 scholarship awards annually. The Signature, Legacy, Heritage and Vocational scholarships are made available to high school seniors on an equal opportunity basis, with no discrimination for age, gender, religion, national origin or Masonic affiliation; and an Undergraduate scholarship for up to 20 current college students is also available. All awards range from $1,000 to $5,000 per year, and students may renew their scholarship awards annually, provided they maintain scholastic performance. Please see the following page for a complete list of the 2017 Masonic Scholars. For more information about the Minnesota Masonic Charities Scholarships Program, please contact Kelly Johns, Director of Communications for MMC, at 952-948-6202 or kelly.johns@mnmasonic.org. Colton Mowers, Albert Lea (University of Wisconsin, Madison) Lucas Fleissner, Rochester (Iowa State University) Seth Cattanach, Lake Elmo (University of Notre Dame) Katelynne Schatz, Kettle River (College of St. Scholastica) Rachel Pompa, Hermantown (University of Minnesota, Duluth) Karli Weisz, Mora (University of North Dakota) Brock Drevlow, Theif River Falls (Johns Hopkins University) Jack Hedberg, Roseville (University of Minnesota, Twin Cities) Sophia Vrba, Maple Grove (University of Minnesota, Twin Cities) Za Vang, Minneapolis (University of St. Thomas) Sela Fadness, Austin (Hamline University) Tess Hatfield, Hill City (University of Wisconsin, Superior) Isabel Brown, White Bear lake (University of Minnesota, Twin Cities) Taylor Schmidt, Duluth (College of St. Scholastica) Jenifer Weyer, St. Cloud (Winona State University) Anthony Tran Vu, St. Paul (University of St. Thomas) Ryan McMahon, Mahtomedi (University of Minnesota, Twin Cities) Alex Sellner, Fairfax (Gustavus Adolphus College) Nathan Kuhn, Eagan (Southwest Minnesota State University) Caroline Sullivan, Fridley (University of Minnesota, Twin Cities)


News Article | May 4, 2017
Site: motherboard.vice.com

A stunning new forecast projects that the internal combustion engine, along with the entire oil industry, are going to vanish from the face of the earth in little more than a decade. And it's all because of the robot revolution. By 2030, rapid technological improvements and dramatic cost efficiencies in self-driving electric vehicles (EV) will sweep away the energy and economics of oil-powered cars; and with it, global oil demand will plummet. This is the verdict of a new report, Rethinking Transportation 2020-2030: The Disruption of Transportation and the Collapse of the ICE Vehicle and Oil Industries, published in May from independent research group, RethinkX. Co-authored by venture investor James Arbib, founder of the philanthropic environmental foundation Tellus Mater, and serial entrepreneur Tony Seba, a lecturer in technology disruption and clean energy at Stanford University, the report takes aim at mainstream forecasts which project more modest adoption rates for electric cars. The impact of automation, it says, on both the automobile and oil industries will not just be profoundly disruptive: it will be fatal. Vast oil reserves will become stranded, and trillions of dollars in oil industry investments will become worthless, as a revolution in technology takes over. As a result, most people will gratefully ditch their own cars, participating instead in a breakthrough economy of electric vehicle fleets—shared cars that can be used when needed—which can be accessed far more cheaply and at someone's convenience. Carbon Tracker, a think-tank in London, projects that electric vehicles will account for some 35 percent of the road transport market by 2035. This is faster than most projections. BP's 2017 World Energy Outlook puts the figure at only 6 percent. But Arbib and Seba say those incremental forecasts are based on outdated methodologies that failed to anticipate the speed and scale of recent technological disruptions. Think mobile phones, microwave ovens or digital cameras. Mass adoption of such disruptive technologies followed an "S-curve"—they increased slowly at first, then accelerated, before rapidly approaching an exponential growth rate. "Uber, a company founded in 2008, now has more bookings in 2016 than the whole taxi industry in the entire United States. Now that's what you call disruption," report co-author Tony Seba told me. "And it happened in just 12 years. Disruptions do happen, and they're happening more and more quickly." Electric cars are already following the S-curve, he said. Seba's approach integrates analysis of how the technology is experiencing massive reduction in costs, while generating increasing returns, all the while pushing through new technological innovations at a rapid pace—trends which fundamentally transform whole markets. The model's results are astonishing. If US regulations catch up by 2021, Arbib and Seba predict that within just 10 years from then: "95% of all passenger miles will be served by transport-as-a-service (Taas) providers who will own and operate fleets of autonomous electric vehicles providing passengers with higher levels of service, faster rides and vastly increased safety at a cost up to 10 times cheaper than today's individually owned (IO) vehicles." This means we will share cars at the click of a button, at massively reduced costs, on safer smartly managed roads, and with potentially much less impact on the environment. Dr. Nathan Hagans, a former Vice President at Lehman Brothers who now teaches ecology at the University of Minnesota, told me that this scenario depended on fully self-driving cars being available within a clear regulatory framework, an event he said is "highly doubtful" based on actual announcements by car manufacturers. But the report points out that things are changing fast: California has already proposed rules to allow fully autonomous vehicles as early as this year, for instance. The authors said using these cars will simply get so cheap and convenient that it will no longer make economic sense to own and drive your own car. But if you're rural or suburban folks, you might hang on to your old ride until there's a critical mass. Hagens questions whether the report's scenario accounts for one common private transport modes—commutes. Lots of people "move from outside into the city, leave the car and return in the evening. There is no vehicle sharing model that supports this." Citing US government data, Arbib told me that this is not a problem for the model: "Only a small proportion of commutes are between rural and urban areas. And commutes generally are only 15% of daily trips." But are Americans really going to give up their own cars so easily? "We are attracted to the emotional efficiency of walking out our door, getting in our own car and going somewhere we choose, and choosing to stop somewhere in between," said Hagens. "The new model will be to wait, even if only for 5 minutes, for a self-driving car—the 'control', 'novelty', 'unexpected reward' aspects of driving will go away." Arbib and Seba have a simple reply to this. A century ago, they argue, the internal combustion engine led cars to disrupt horse transportation within little more than a decade. At the time, nobody thought it was possible because "we loved our horses." And we all know what happened then. "Countries that fail to lead or make a transition to TaaS will become the 21st century equivalents of horse-based countries trying to compete with economies whose transportation systems are based on cars, trucks, tractors and airplanes", concludes the RethinkX report. The biggest driver of the disruption, said Arbib, is the cost. "The cost will be so radically lower that it could still incentivise rural users who are on average poorer; and it will be relatively easy to plan and book long trips in advance." Not only would the new vehicles be cheaper, but the old, oil-fueled ones will be too expensive to maintain. "Once we hit around 55 to 70 percent adoption, it becomes more difficult to operate old vehicles. That sort of mass adoption creates a tipping point which could make even our 95% prediction conservative." Even if rural areas hang back, the urban impact will be so huge that the market for new cars will shrink: in short, incumbent transport businesses will collapse unless they find a way to reinvent themselves either as hardware manufacturers or transport providers themselves. As individual car ownership drops, the number of cars on the road will fall by as much as 80 percent. And as most cars are not used most of the time, just 26 million TaaS vehicles would be sufficient to meet all US demand in 2030. If Arbib and Seba are right, the oil industry is about to face an unprecedented existential crisis. Global oil demand, they predict, will drop from 100 million barrels per day in 2020, to around 70 million barrels per day in 2030. The price of oil will drop to around $25 per barrel, and could collapse even earlier, by around 2021. Not only will high-cost oil fields be completely stranded, but big pipeline projects like Keystone XL and Dakota Access would be dead in the water. Oil exporting heavy-hitters like Saudi Arabia, Venezuela, Nigeria and Russia will (and have started to) face growing political instability as their primary source of revenue evaporates. These countries could become embroiled in "growing debt, cuts in social welfare expenditures and increasing poverty and inequality." While this would pose short-term geopolitical risks to the US, the stakes would be less high due to the decreased demand for oil from these regions. Read More: We Need to Accept That Oil Is a Dying Industry But there could be other challenges. Hagens warned that there would be a large upscaling of industry to sustain the shift to self-driving electric vehicle. Supply bottlenecks for key raw materials and minerals like lithium and cobalt were possible. Arbib wasn't deterred. He conceded that vehicle lifetime under the new model would be much shorter, but said: "There wouldn't be huge production volumes partly because there will be overall a lot less vehicles; more miles, yes, but radically less vehicles." Which means less material resources. According to Professor Ugo Bardi of the Department of Earth Sciences at the University of Florence, Hagens' concerns about resources are valid: the report's suggestions are viable, but not easy. "They seem to neglect the need of upgrading the grid and the whole energy infrastructure in order to provide more renewable electric power," said Bardi, whose own research has found that investments in new renewables are still too low and slow to stop climate change. Without those investments, "we won't have enough energy to power all the needs we have – including transportation." And at worst, the need to sustain TaaS might create a short-term push for more coal plants, "which would spell disaster in many ways." Seba argued that even without substantial investment, the existing US electricity infrastructure would be able to handle the extra load, with most charging done at night: "Also, the companies driving this are already building their own infrastructure for charging, and they are even starting to build their own solar and wind plants." While it's hard to imagine such a large, dramatic shift in the next decade, Bardi told me that the fundamentals of the RethinkX forecast are plausible: "They [the RethinkX authors] really nailed it...Whether all that can happen as fast as they say is another matter. But it might." And there seems little doubt that the US is on the brink of a major transport disruption. Only time will tell how fast and sustainably it scales. In the meantime, you might want to lovingly take your car for a spin just in case the robots take it away.


Patent
University of Minnesota | Date: 2017-04-12

This disclosure describes methods, polynucleotides, cells, compositions, and treatment methods that involve changing a genomic nucleotide sequence. Generally, the method includes introducing a donor polynucleotide and a nucleotide that encodes an enzyme that cuts at least one strand of DNA into a cell that has a genomic sequence in need of editing, allowing the enzyme to cut at least one strand of the genomic sequence, and allowing the donor sequence to replace the genomic sequence in need of editing.


The present disclosure is directed to a medical instrument. Systems and methods are provided for stimulation of the gastrointestinal tract. The medical instrument may include an elongate component having a proximal end and a distal end. The medical instrument may be configured for insertion in a natural orifice of a patient and to traverse the gastrointestinal tract of the patient. The medical instrument may include a handle at the proximal end and a stimulator at the distal end wherein the stimulator may be configured to stimulate the gastrointestinal tract to effect coordination of peristaltic waves.


News Article | May 3, 2017
Site: news.yahoo.com

U.S. President Donald Trump speaks to staffers setting up for the Commander in Chief's trophy presentation in the Rose Garden of the White House in Washington, U.S., May 2, 2017. REUTERS/Joshua Roberts WASHINGTON (Reuters) - In his first 100 days in office, Donald Trump made fewer appearances outside of the presidential bubble than his three immediate predecessors, venturing less beyond the White House or his private Mar-a-Lago estate, according to a Reuters review. The U.S. president cast himself during his election campaign last year as a Washington outsider and a populist champion, and often seemed most comfortable at raucous campaign rallies. Trump still constantly tells Americans what is on his mind through prolific use of Twitter messages, but he has not traveled out into the country often since taking office on Jan. 20. Trump made comments at official appearances 132 times in the first 100 days, compared with 139 by Barack Obama in the same period, 177 by George W. Bush and 162 by Bill Clinton. (http://tmsnrt.rs/2p8M8EU) Some 22 of his appearances were in settings other than the White House, Air Force One, a government agency or at Mar-a-Lago, a Florida resort that his administration has called the "winter White House." That compares to 62 such appearances by Obama in his first 100 days, 80 for Bush and 46 for Clinton. Reuters reviewed public remarks delivered by the presidents using White House websites, pool reports and documents archived by the American Presidency Project at the University of California, Santa Barbara. Trump made public comments on five separate occasions at Mar-a-Lago. None of the other three presidents spoke to the public from a personal residence during their first 100 days, although Bush spoke twice at Camp David, the rustic presidential retreat in Maryland. Asked about his travel, Trump's advisers say he is focused on implementing the promises he made at his campaign rallies. "There is obviously a premium on his time," said White House spokeswoman Natalie Strom. "We proceed with any additional travel very thoughtfully." Bradley Blakeman, who was deputy assistant for scheduling and appointments under Bush, said Trump may be missing out on opportunities to sell his message to the public. "Deals are made in Washington on Pennsylvania Avenue, but they are sold on Main Street, USA," Blakeman said. "It's an important part of the bully pulpit." He said Trump should do targeted events focused on specific legislative priorities that will get coverage by local news outlets, where stories on presidential visits tend to be more positive than in the national media. During his first 100 days, Bush visited more than half a dozen schools in Washington and at least five different states as he promoted his education initiative, No Child Left Behind. Trump's first major legislative push has focused on reforming the U.S. healthcare system, but he has not yet delivered remarks at a medical facility. In an interview with Reuters last week, Trump lamented the confining nature of the presidency with its 24-hour Secret Service protection. "You're really into your own little cocoon, because you have such massive protection that you really can't go anywhere," he said. Still, he remains a constant focus of public attention, helped by his use of Twitter, a tool that was seldom used or was entirely unavailable to his most recent three predecessors. "Interaction online does not completely replace the value of in-person appearances, but you can't ignore the fact that there is no limit on the amount of people the president's tweets can reach," Strom said. Larry Jacobs, director of the Center for the Study of Politics and Governance at the University of Minnesota, said that while Trump's use of social media had opened a new chapter in presidential communication, his lack of sustained attention on any one issue undercut his message. "There's not a focus there. When a president is all over the map, then he loses his power," Jacobs said.


News Article | May 7, 2017
Site: news.yahoo.com

The new material, made of a compound called barium stannate, could lead to the creation of smaller, faster, and more powerful electronics, and more efficient solar cells. A team of researchers announced, in a study published Friday in the journal Nature Communications, that it had succeeded in creating a nano-scale material that could be used to build cheap and efficient transparent conductors. The researchers argued that the new material, made of a compound called barium stannate, could lead to the creation of smaller, faster, and more powerful electronics, and more efficient solar cells. "Even though this material has the highest conductivity within the same materials class, there is much room for improvement in addition to the outstanding potential for discovering new physics if we decrease the defects," lead researcher Bharat Jalan, a professor of chemical engineering and materials science at the University of Minnesota, said in a statement. The researchers used a novel synthesis method to create the material. They first grew a thin film of barium stannate in which the elemental tin source had been replaced with a chemical precursor of tin. Doing so allowed them to exploit the unique properties of the chemical precursor, and greatly enhanced the chemical reactivity and conductivity of the material. The thin film thus created not only had a much higher conductivity than any other material in its class, it also had a wide "bandgap" — which means light could easily pass through the material, making it optically transparent. So far, most materials with a wide bandgap have been found to have either low conductivity or poor transparency. "We were quite surprised at how well this unconventional approach worked the very first time we used the tin chemical precursor," study's first author Abhinav Prakash, a graduate student at the University of Minnesota, said in the statement. "It was a big risk, but it was quite a big breakthrough for us." The technique also allowed researchers to exercise "unprecedented" control over thickness and composition of the material created. Moreover, since the process that created the new material is both reproducible and scalable, the researchers said it could eventually replace the indium-based transparent conductors that are currently used. The discovery of the new material comes at a time when reserves of indium tin oxide — the material most commonly used in transparent conducting materials — are running low. Given that most modern technologies, including smartphones, tablets and household appliances, now come with incorporated touch screens, a replacement is urgently needed. Since both barium and tin are significantly cheaper than indium and are much more abundant, they could help scientists move toward the ultimate goal — creation of a material with high conductivity and optical transparency at a low cost. "The high conductivity and wide bandgap make this an ideal material for making optically transparent conducting films which could be used in a wide variety of electronic devices, including high power electronics, electronic displays, touchscreens and even solar cells in which light needs to pass through the device," Jalan said.


The prevailing narrative that the U.S. labor market is experiencing an unprecedented rate of technology-driven disruption couldn’t be further from the truth, according to a new analysis examining 165 years of Census data. In reality, the level of job churn—the rate at which some occupations expand while others contract—is now at a historic low, a new study by the Information Technology and Innovation Foundation (ITIF) finds. ITIF, the leading U.S. tech-policy think tank, warns that this misperception risks leading policymakers and the public to be wary of technological innovation and progress when they should instead be encouraging more of it to accelerate productivity, grow the economy, and improve living standards. “It has become an article of faith that workers in advanced economies are facing unprecedented levels of labor-market disruption and insecurity. But that assumption turns out to be completely wrong,” said Robert D. Atkinson, ITIF’s president and the report’s lead author. “People see Uber disrupting the taxi market, robots assembling cars, and artificial intelligence reviewing legal documents, and they assume no occupation is safe. But when you look at the data, you find we are actually in a period of relative tranquility. If opinion leaders continue suggesting we are in unchartered economic territory and warn that just about anyone’s occupation can be thrown on the scrap heap of history, then the public is likely to sour on technological progress and the policies that support it that will lead to more shared prosperity.” The ITIF report, part of the think tank’s @Work series on employment in the innovation economy, reviews U.S. occupational trends from 1850 to 2015, comparing the mix of occupations in the economy from decade to decade as reflected in Census data compiled by the University of Minnesota’s Minnesota Population Center. ITIF also assessed each occupation to judge whether increases or decreases in employment in a given decade were likely due to technological progress or to other factors. Overall, three main findings emerge from this analysis: ITIF’s report also enumerates methodological flaws in previous research that has helped drive the false narrative suggesting we will soon see an unprecedented rate of technology-driven labor disruption. For example, a frequently cited Oxford University study concluded that 47 percent of U.S. employment is at risk of computerization, but it included fashion models, manicurists, barbers, and school bus drivers as potentially automatable jobs. Atkinson suggests these are unlikely positions for automation, quipping, “Does anyone really want to let their middle school child ride an autonomous school bus without an adult present?” ITIF’s findings do not mean there is no need to help workers who are displaced, says Atkinson. “Policymakers should do more to improve labor-market transitions for workers who lose their jobs, regardless of the rate of churn or whether we are trying to speed it up or slow it down. From ensuring workers can receive unemployment benefits while they are in training for new jobs to establishing more support for lifelong learning, we must help people who lose jobs through no fault of their own. But that is true whether the job loss stems from short-term business-cycle downturns or from trends that lead to natural labor-market churn.” Overall though, Atkinson makes it clear that ratcheting down technological progress, by such ill-advised schemes as taxing robots, is not the answer. “Labor market disruption is not abnormally high. It’s at an all-time low. And predictions that human labor is just one high-tech ‘unicorn’ away from redundancy are likely vastly overstated, as they always have been. If there is any risk for the future, it is that technological change and resulting productivity growth will be too slow—not too fast—to raise living standards at the rate we want.”


News Article | May 5, 2017
Site: www.prweb.com

The Chicago law firm of Pluymert, MacDonald, Hargrove & Lee, Ltd. recently welcomed the addition of Joseph Selbka to its roster of attorneys. Mr. Selbka is an experienced litigator who will represent clients of the firm across a range of practice areas within his vast realm of experience, including business and corporate law, education law, residential and commercial real estate, employment law, estate planning and litigation, and construction law. Joseph Selbka graduated cum laude from the University of Minnesota Law School in 1996 and immediately went to work as a special assistant attorney general representing the Illinois Department of Employment Security (IDES) as litigation counsel before entering private practice. During his tenure at IDES, Mr. Selbka defended hundreds of administrative review actions and gained an enormous wealth of experience in administrative and employment law. In 2001, he earned a Master's in Public Administration from the University of Illinois at Chicago, College of Urban Planning and Public Affairs, where he currently serves as an adjunct lecturer teaching a master's level course to public administration graduate students. Mr. Selbka also possesses several years of experience serving as a Hearing Officer for the Illinois State Board of Education as well as the District of Columbia Office of the State Superintendent of Education. In his many years of private practice, Mr. Selbka has represented clients before a great many tribunals, including the Illinois Circuit Courts and the Illinois Appellate Court, the Illinois Labor Relations Board, the Illinois Educational Labor Relations Board, the Illinois Department of Employment Security, the Illinois Department of Human Rights, the National Labor Relations Board, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, the United States District Court for the Northern District of Illinois, and the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit. A frequent author and lecturer, Mr. Selbka has made presentations on behalf of the Northwest Suburban Bar Association and Attorneys Title and Guaranty on various estate planning and probate matters, and has lectured on expert testimony in administrative hearings for the Illinois Institute of Continuing Legal Education. He is the author of Special Education Due Process Litigation, published by the Illinois Institute of Continuing Legal Education. Mr. Selbka is also active in the legal profession as a member of the Illinois State Bar Association and the Northwest Suburban Bar Association, and serves his community as a member of the Arlington Heights Board of Zoning Appeals. Pluymert, Hargrove, MacDonald & Lee, Ltd. is a Chicago area law firm with offices in Hoffman Estates and Des Plaines which represents individuals, businesses, churches and not-for-profit organizations across a wide variety of legal areas; business corporate, estate planning, employment law, commercial real estate, family law, school and education matters and Probate and Trust Administration. The well-established firm is well-known and respected in the Chicagoland legal community for practicing with exceptional skill, integrity, ethics and professionalism.


News Article | May 4, 2017
Site: www.futurity.org

Memory could be the key to how quickly we get tired of certain experiences, such as listening to music or eating certain foods. “People with larger working memory capacities actually encode information more deeply,” says Noelle Nelson, lead author of the study in the Journal of Consumer Research. “They remember more details about the things they’ve experienced, and that leads them to feel like they’ve had it more. That feeling then leads to the ‘large-capacity’ people getting tired of experiences faster.” The study could have implications for marketers seeking to maintain interest in their products and brands. Consumers could also benefit from the research because it provides a window into how memory could be the key to becoming satiated, especially on products or habits they hope to quit, such as eating unhealthy foods. “Our findings suggest that if they can enhance their memory for the other times they’ve eaten these foods, they may feel satiated and then not seek out those unhealthy things,” says Nelson, assistant professor of marketing and consumer behavior in the University of Kansas School of Business. Nelson and coauthor Joseph Redden, associate professor of marketing at the University of Minnesota, conducted four separate experiments with undergraduate students. The researchers measured people’s working memory capacities in different ways, such as how well they could remember a string of letters or how they performed on the Simon memory game, in which users try to repeat a series of tones and lights. Then participants performed a task in which they would eventually become tired of what they experienced, like viewing paintings or listening to music. “We found that their capacity predicted how fast they got tired of the art or music,” Nelson says. “People with larger memory capacities satiated on these things more quickly than people with smaller capacities. Essentially, large-capacity people perceive that they’ve experienced things more times because they remember those experiences better.” Past research has only speculated on the link between memory and the rate of satiation, but this study provides direct evidence, she says. Marketers could perhaps use this type of research to craft strategies on ways to keep people interested longer. “For example, introducing new products or having distractions in ads might help break up the satiation process because they disrupt memory,” Nelson says. The researchers didn’t specifically study overeating or unhealthy foods, but the findings should extend to those types of experiences, she says. “Because a big part of overeating is psychological, a psychological solution such as memory processes could help people control their eating,” Nelson says. “Consumers might be able to satiate more quickly by simply recalling the last several times they ate.”


News Article | April 20, 2017
Site: globenewswire.com

BERKELEY, Calif., April 20, 2017 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Aduro Biotech, Inc. (Nasdaq:ADRO), a biopharmaceutical company with three distinct immunotherapy technologies, today announced the promotion of Michele DeVries to vice president, regulatory affairs and Celeste Ferber to vice president, associate general counsel. “I am pleased to announce the promotion of Michele DeVries and Celeste Ferber, who have each demonstrated expertise in their respective areas that is critical to the continued growth and success of our company,” said Stephen T. Isaacs, chairman, president and CEO of Aduro Biotech. “Both Michele and Celeste have played an integral role in our ongoing clinical and corporate development efforts, and we are pleased to add them to our leadership team.  As we advance our programs into late stage development and set our sights on commercialization, Michele’s proven track record of effectively liaising with regulatory agencies and corporate partners, and Celeste’s extensive expertise in counseling public companies and astute business acumen, will continue to be of great value to Aduro.” Michele DeVries, vice president, regulatory affairs, has been with Aduro since April 2013 and is responsible for all aspects of regulatory strategy, implementation and oversight of Aduro’s proprietary, partnered and licensed programs, both in the U.S. and internationally. Prior to Aduro, Ms. DeVries served as director of regulatory affairs for Intarcia Therapeutics where she managed key regulatory aspects of their drug delivery system, was the primary contact for regulatory authorities and responsible for all aspects of routine and specialized regulatory submissions including preparation for launch of four global Phase 3 studies. Before Intarcia, she held escalating regulatory affairs positions at VaxGen, InterMune and Tularik.  She received her B.S. in Chemical Engineering from the University of Minnesota. Celeste Ferber, vice president, associate general counsel, has been with Aduro since February 2016. Prior to Aduro, she was with Shearman & Sterling LLP, where she served as counsel in the capital markets group.  Ms. Ferber has over 15 years of experience advising public and private companies on corporate and finance matters, including securities offerings, mergers, acquisitions and strategic transactions, corporate governance and securities law compliance. Before Shearman & Sterling, Ms. Ferber was counsel at Morrison & Foerster LLP working in their Palo Alto, Hong Kong and San Diego offices. Ms. Ferber received her J.D. from the University of California, Hastings College of Law and her B.A. in Economics from Bucknell University. She is the author of numerous publications regarding legal matters. About Aduro Aduro Biotech, Inc. is an immunotherapy company focused on the discovery, development and commercialization of therapies that transform the treatment of challenging diseases. Aduro's technology platforms, which are designed to harness the body's natural immune system, are being investigated in cancer indications and have the potential to expand into autoimmune and infectious diseases. Aduro's LADD technology platform is based on proprietary attenuated strains of Listeria that have been engineered to express tumor-associated antigens to induce specific and targeted immune responses. This platform is being developed as a treatment for multiple indications, including mesothelioma, ovarian, lung and prostate cancers. Additionally, a personalized form of LADD, or pLADD, is being developed utilizing tumor neoantigens that are specific to an individual patient’s tumor. Aduro's STING Pathway Activator platform is designed to activate the STING receptor in immune cells, resulting in a potent tumor-specific immune response. ADU-S100 is the first STING Pathway Activator compound to enter the clinic and is currently being evaluated in a Phase 1 study in patients with cutaneously accessible metastatic solid tumors or lymphomas. Aduro’s B-select monoclonal antibody platform includes a number of immune modulating assets in research and preclinical development. Aduro is collaborating with leading global pharmaceutical companies to expand its products and technology platforms. For more information, please visit www.aduro.com. This press release contains forward-looking statements for purposes of the safe harbor provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Forward-looking statements include statements regarding our intentions or current expectations concerning, among other things, our technology platforms, plans, and the potential for eventual regulatory approval of our product candidates. In some cases, you can identify these statements by forward-looking words such as “may,” “will,” “continue,” “anticipate,” “intend,” “could,” “project,” “seek”, “expect” or the negative or plural of these words or similar expressions.  Forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance and are subject to risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results and events to differ materially from those anticipated, including, but not limited to, our history of net operating losses and uncertainty regarding our ability to achieve profitability, our ability to develop and commercialize our product candidates, our ability to use and expand our technology platforms to build a pipeline of product candidates, our ability to obtain and maintain regulatory approval of our product candidates, our ability to operate in a competitive industry and compete successfully against competitors that have greater resources than we do, our reliance on third parties, and our ability to obtain and adequately protect intellectual property rights for our product candidates.  We discuss many of these risks in greater detail under the heading “Risk Factors” contained in our annual report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2016, which is on file with the Securities and Exchange Commission. Any forward-looking statements that we make in this press release speak only as of the date of this press release. We assume no obligation to update our forward-looking statements whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, after the date of this press release.


News Article | May 4, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Annapolis, MD; April 28, 2017 -- Farmers in the midwestern United States have been battling increasing infestations from a variety of stink bug species in recent years, and now they have a new free resource for understanding and managing the emerging pests. Next week, the Entomological Society of America's open-access Journal of Integrated Pest Management (JIPM) will publish "Identification, Biology, Impacts, and Management of Stink Bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) of Soybean and Corn in the Midwestern United States," a profile of several of the most common stink bug pests that offers methods for differentiating species, summaries of stink bug life cycles and behaviors, and guidance for monitoring and managing them. Stink bugs have historically been more prevalent pests in the southern United States, but they are now making more frequent appearances in midwestern fields, according to Robert Koch, Ph.D., assistant professor and extension entomologist at the University of Minnesota and lead author of the JIPM article. "Because stink bugs are emerging as a new threat to Midwest soybean and corn production, we felt that there was need for a comprehensive review of these pests that was accessible to producers and agricultural professionals," he says. Koch and co-authors conducted an extensive review of existing research on management of stink bugs in developing the new profile aimed at midwestern growers. While "at least 24 species or subspecies of stink bugs could potentially be encountered in soybean and corn in the midwestern United States," the most common pest species are outlined in the article, including: In soybean, stink bugs can feed on all above-ground parts of the plant but prefer pods and developing seeds, and the damage they cause can affect yield, seed quality, and germination rates. In corn, stink bugs can feed on corn at all growth stages, but seedling and early reproductive stages of corn are most susceptible. Koch and colleagues specify scouting methods for measuring stink bug abundance in fields, along with economic thresholds at which management tactics should be deployed. Their research identifies which classes of insecticides may be best suited for individual species and identify additional resources for growers to investigate cultural and biological control measures, as well. "Stink bugs tend to be generalist pests and can feed on and move between different crops and wild plant species throughout the year," says Koch. The JIPM profile rounds up existing knowledge about stink bugs, much of it from research conducted in southern states, but "further research is needed on corn and soybean response to stink bug feeding in the Midwest," he says. "Identification, Biology, Impacts, and Management of Stink Bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) of Soybean and Corn in the Midwestern United States," by Robert L. Koch, Daniela T. Pezzini, Andrew P. Michel, and Thomas E. Hunt, will be published online on May 4 in the Journal of Integrated Pest Management. Journalists may request advance copies of the article via the contact below. ABOUT: ESA is the largest organization in the world serving the professional and scientific needs of entomologists and people in related disciplines. Founded in 1889, ESA today has over 6,000 members affiliated with educational institutions, health agencies, private industry, and government. Headquartered in Annapolis, Maryland, the Society stands ready as a non-partisan scientific and educational resource for all insect-related topics. For more information, visit http://www. . Journal of Integrated Pest Management is an open access, peer-reviewed, extension journal covering the field of integrated pest management. The journal is multi-disciplinary in scope, publishing articles in all pest management disciplines, including entomology, nematology, plant pathology, weed science, and other subject areas. For more information, visit https:/ , or visit https:/ to view the full portfolio of ESA journals and publications.


News Article | April 26, 2017
Site: www.fastcompany.com

Editor’s Note: This article is one of the top 10 business lessons of 2015. See the full list here. Walt Disney World—a massive experiment in friction-free user experience that has inspired projects in industries ranging from health care to sports. He’s now chief experience officer at Carnival, the $38 billion dollar cruise industry behemoth. which at tomorrow’s CES keynote will unveil the Ocean Medallion. Co.Design got a exclusive look at the process behind creating the Ocean Medallion, which promises to transform the cruise ship experience into a personalized voyage at massive scales: Where touchscreens will recognize you, a la Minority Report. This is a caption. Photo: Facebook Fast Company: London and Paris have been cultural and economic rivals for centuries. Now, post-Brexit, Paris is angling to replace London as Europe’s financial center. How has the dynamic between the two cities changed? Anne Hidalgo: It’s true that Brexit creates a new situation for London and Paris. There’s competition, but there’s also cooperation. We’re both big cities with progressive mayors. London mayor Sadiq Khan and I thought that there might be a way to take advantage of this situation by offering London companies the possibility of setting up in Paris and Parisian companies to do so in London—we talked about it when he came to Paris in August. Sadiq Khan is someone I admire. His plan for his city is very where every drink you order and every activity you do will power new recommendations. This is a caption. Photo: Facebook FC: Now it’s abbreviated to attract business is the “Choose Paris” which establishes London. Why should they choose Paris, as opposed to Frankfurt or Dublin? AH: We’re comparable to London in size, in cosmopolitanism, and in cultural makeup, which is no small thing. We’re also just a stone’s throw from London. And Paris is business-friendly. We’re ranked fourth overall and first for living conditions in the latest Global Power City Index. The map referenced in The Da Vinci Code, which maps a guest’s behavior to recommendations for activities, meals, drinks, and services. Photos: Jeff Olson for Fast Company By November 2017, when the first Medallion-class ship, the Regal Princess, sets sail, the best place to taste the future won’t be in a skunk works lab in Silicon Valley. It’ll be from a deckchair adrift in the Caribbean, with the smell of suntan lotion in the air and a mai tai in your hand. Whether it succeeds or not in its grandious goals, it’ll be a bellwether for design and technology, and a world where your environment is every bit as important as the device in your hand. Solving The Problem Of Choice, Via Personalization Unless you’re one of the 2% of vacationers who’ve taken a cruise, then you probably don’t realize the size and scale of the modern cruise ship. Take the Regal Princess. She’s almost 1,100 feet long—nearly four football fields. John Padgett, Carnival’s Chief Experience Officer and one of the 15 largest cruise ships. Photo: Flickr User Markel Her 19 decks tower 200 feet above the water. She carries 3,500 passengers and 1,300 crew, and ranks as one of the 15 largest cruise ships in the world. As big as she is, she probably won’t be all that remarkable in a decade. It’s because of simple economics. In the 1990s, ship sizes began to explode when cruise operators realized that even if they doubled how many passengers could fit onto a ship, the combined costs of crew and fuel didn’t increase nearly as fast. So whatever you saved thanks to less crew and less fuel per passenger, you could put into profits. And if that cavernous ship proved hard to fill, then you could use some of those profits to put more weeks —from giant water slides to casinos to musical shows to ice-skating smell of suntan lotion in the air and a mai tai in your hand. Whether it for the Internet of state: Every modern ship only comes in for a dry dock every three years, and those dry docks last a week. 1. MARS AND CHAPPELL BROTHERS, 1935 In an early example of portfolio diversification, the Snickers maker acquired Chappell Brothers, which manufactured a decidedly less-craveable comestible: Chappie canned dog food. Why it was smart: Today, the majority of Mars’s business comes not from treats like M&M’s, but from pet brands such as Pedigree and Whiskas. 2. TANDY AND RADIOSHACK, 1963 Texas-based shoe-leather supplier Tandy purchased a flailing Boston radio-parts chain. With RadioShack as a launchpad, Tandy became an early player in the personal computer boom. Why it was smart: It turned out to be a good fit: CEO Charles Tandy grew RadioShack into an electronics powerhouse. When preparing, Marz cautions leaders to make the distinction between a retreat and an offsite meeting. She recommends asking the following questions to determine whether you are planning a true retreat versus an offsite work or strategy session. Chamomile Toner, the finest of Johnson’s toners. Photo: Celine Grouard for Fast Company 1. A.P.C. DENIM From $125, usonline.apc.fr “A.P.C.’s Butler denim program enables customers to trade in their preloved A.P.C. jeans for a new pair at half price. The old ones are curated, reshaped, refreshed, and signed by their previous owner for the new buyer to enjoy.” —Sébastien Fabre, CEO, Vestiaire Collective 2. CLARE V. PURSE From $345, clarev.com “I’m obsessed with Clare V.’s luxury leather bags. The gift wrapping comes with a handwritten note, which is such a special touch.” —Joanna Rose, SVP of corporate communications, Related Companies When preparing, Marz cautions leaders to make the distinction between a retreat and an offsite meeting. She recommends asking the following questions to determine whether you are planning a true retreat versus an offsite work or strategy session. PROJECT INTERZONE by Project Interzone It’s a foregone conclusion that–all of our best ride-sharing and public-transit developments aside–cities will continue to get more crowded. Instead of relying on standard traffic-mitigation strategies, Project Interzone suggests abandoning our traditional concept of linear time. It sounds like something out of a science fiction novel, and the organizers, in fact, came up with the concept through developing a fictional scenario: A New York City divided–by an entity called the Department of Tim– into three time zones, each three hours apart. Project Interzone imagines gridlock relieved via a schedule spread out enough to disperse traffic flows, but not so extreme as to completely disrupt residents’ lives and relationships. CIVIL MAPS by Civil Maps Beyond a standard GPS, self-driving cars will need a practically human level of sensitivity to navigate successfully through unfamiliar terrain. Civil Maps’ “location and augmented reality (AR) maps” translate the surrounding scene into 3D, data-driven maps that are updated in real time. Through crowdsourcing, the Civil Maps team will build out a centralized map collection that will apply to any to any environment at a low cost. STREAMING WARS Hulu is not the only skinny bundle to enter the ring. Here, a look at its live-streaming competitors. 1. Sling TV: Dish Networks’ Sling TV is the cheapest bundle, starting at just $20 a month, but it’s also the skinniest. The basic “orange” plan gives you more than 30 channels, including Disney and ESPN, but no major broadcast networks. The “blue” plan, for $25 a month, will get you Fox and NBC, but you lose the Disney channels. 2. DirecTV Now: DirecTV Now is more expensive but offers the most complete lineup of channels. Plans range from $35 to $70 a month for between 60 and 120 channels; the latter includes MTV Classic and Sundance TV. All the major networks are available except CBS. Anne Hidalgo, Mayor of Paris. Photos: Paul Rousteau 30-SECOND BIO: ANNE HIDALGO Title: Mayor of Paris Education: Master of social work; master of advanced studies, social and union law; Institute of Labor Studies, University of Lyon Nationality: French and Spanish. Hidalgo was born in San Fernando, Spain, and immigrated to Lyon, France, with her parents and older sister at age 2. “I am European,” she says. Political party: Socialist Here is the block quote and the lists Marz says there are five indicators that signal when it may be time for an organization to plan a retreat: Padgett grew up unafraid of scale, and scale has become his obsession. He was one of the prime movers of Disney’s $1 billion MagicBand and MyMagic+ project, which transformed how millions of people move through Walt Disney World—a massive experiment in friction-free user experience that has inspired projects in industries. Co.Design got a exclusive look at the process behind creating the Ocean Medallion, which promises to transform the cruise ship experience into a personalized voyage at massive scales: Where touchscreens will recognize you as you move past, a la Minority Report; where every drink you order and every activity you do will power new recommendations, refactored going, and know exactly how much help you might need; and where you can order anything you’d like, anywhere you’d like among the ship’s dozens of floors and rooms, and a waiter arrives with your order. Think of it like Uber for everything, powered by Netflix recommendations for meat space. Your excuse sounds like an old story. “If you’ve told yourself something along those lines before, and it feels like you’re not objectively looking at the situation,” David says. Your excuse is surrounded by emotions of anxiety, fear, or anger. Emotions are difficult and an excuse gives you relief, says David. It allows you to put aside a move to discomfort. It keeps you safe, but it doesn’t allow you to grow or move toward value. It allows you to put aside a move to discomfort. It keeps you safe, is surrounded by emotions of anxiety, fear, or anger. “Emotions are difficult and an excuse gives you relief.” By November 2017, when the first Medallion-class ship, the Regal Princess, sets sail, the best place to taste the future won’t be in a skunk works lab in Silicon Valley. It’ll be from a deckchair adrift in the Caribbean, with the smell of suntan lotion in the air and a mai tai in your hand. Whether it succeeds or not in its grandious goals, it’ll be a bellwether for design and technology, and a world where your environment is every bit as important as the device in your hand. When departments are functioning in silos and communication is breaking down. When you are bringing on new people and you want to incorporate them into the company’s culture. After a challenging time, such as cutbacks or a downturn in the market. During a merger that plans to combine two companies’ cultures. Annually for maintenance, but have a clear purpose and objectives about what you want to get out of it. Next, Marz advises finding the right setting for the culture of your organization, whether it’s a remote wilderness experience filled with outdoor activities or another setting to host team and leadership-building exercises to enjoy and remember. When preparing, Marz cautions leaders to make the distinction between a retreat and an offsite meeting. She recommends asking the following questions to determine whether you are planning a true retreat versus an offsite work or strategy session. Related link: Doppler Here One Earbuds: Bionic Hearing Is Tantalizing, But Not For Everybody DECIDING WHERE TO GO Biba Binotti, founder of U.K.-based leadership development consultancy Red Hat People, believes that getting people out of the office and on to a farm is a crucial element of staff development. “We do that because it busts reflect your congruence,” she says. In other words, the horse will respond positively when what being with horses reduces you feel words, the horse inside matches your outward expression. “The great thing is that, unlike humans, they are Nonjudgmental and don’t hold any grudges, they respond in the moment so you can also change your behavior and get instant feedback. Plus, just being with horses reduces stress and is calming.” Mollor giant water slides to casinos to musical shows to ice-skating extravaganzas. The largest cruise ship sailing today, the Harmony of the Seas, has 13 different restaurants—as many as the world’s largest resorts and casinos. Cruise ship heads like to say that cruising provides off-the-charts value. But then again, with so many options, so is the overload. Dan Whiteley is regents professor, McKnight presidential endowed chair in public health, and the founding director of the Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy (CIDRAP) at the University of Minnesota. Mark Olshaker is an Emmy Award-winning documentary filmmaker and author. Excerpted from Deadliest Enemy, copyright © 2017 by Dr. Mike Osterholm and Mark Olshaker. Used with permission of Little, Brown and Company, New York. All rights reserved. Read More Inside Tim Cook’s Apple Playing The Long Game Inside Tim Cook’s Apple 9 Ways Tim Cook Has Transformed Apple Apple Music’s Bozoma Saint John: It’s Passion, Not Algorithms Related Video: Meet The Man Who Designed Trump’s Vodka Bottle Of “Envy And Status” if(typeof(jQuery)=="function"){(function($){$.fn.fitVids=function(){}})(jQuery)}; jwplayer('jwplayer_yK02riK6_G2hQKLvX_div').setup( {"playlist":"https:\/\/content.jwplatform.com\/feeds\/yK02riK6.json","ph":2} );


(PRLEAP.COM)Dr. Stacie Grossfeld, orthopedic surgeon at Orthopaedic Specialists, PLLC , has been named Volunteer of the Year by the YMCA at Norton Commons in Louisville, Kentucky. Since 2015, Dr. Stacie Grossfeld has served on the Board of Directors for the organization, and has regularly connected the YMCA with potential business partners since joining.Since joining the Norton Commons YMCA Board of Directors, Dr. Stacie Grossfeld has been happy to help fundraise for the Y at Norton Commons . Some examples of Dr. Grossfeld's involvement with the YMCA include:Describing their experience with Dr. Grossfeld, leaders at the YMCA at Norton Commons explain: "Stacie is a tremendous asset to the YMCA at Norton Commons and she is very deserving of our Volunteer of the Year Award!"The YMCA at Norton Commons is one of the newest YMCA facilities to open in the Greater Louisville area. At the Norton Commons YMCA, families can take advantage of a wide variety of programs including:The YMCA at Norton Commons also offers a warm water pool for recreational activities, a lap pool for exercise, a sauna, spa, group exercise and cycling classes, a fitness center, supervised Kid's Club, Club Y for preteens, a full gymnasium, and more.Dr. Stacie Grossfeld is known around Louisville for being an active member of the community. When she is not serving on the Board of Directors at the YMCA at Norton Commons, she can be found treating patients at her private orthopedic medical practice Orthopaedic Specialists. She also serves as an Assistant Clinical Professor in the Department of Orthopedic Surgery at the University of Louisville and she is on the Board of Directors for the Louisville Sports Commission Being named "Volunteer of the Year" by the YMCA at Norton Commons is a huge honor for Dr. Grossfeld. Over the years, Dr. Grossfeld has received many awards for her achievements and philanthropic work for the city of Louisville. She received the Small Business Owner of the Year Award in 2016 from the National Association of Women Business Owners (NAWBO), the Most Compassionate Doctor Award based on patient reviews, recognition as a Top Ten Orthopedic Doctor in Louisville, KY through American Top 10, and The Patients Choice Award through Vitals.com . However, the Volunteer of the Year award given to her by the YMCA at Norton Commons has a special place in her heart due to her extensive involvement in the YMCA community both personally and professionally.Dr. Stacie Grossfeld graduated from the University of Louisville School of Medicine and completed her internship and residency at the University of Minnesota. Dr. Grossfeld is double board-certified in sports medicine and orthopedic surgery. As an independent, non-hospital employed orthopedic surgeon, Dr. Grossfeld runs a private practice called Orthopaedic Specialists with several locations in Louisville. In addition to her work, Dr. Stacie Grossfeld is committed to serving her community as a mentor and philanthropist. In her spare time, when she is not working, volunteering, or serving on a local board, she enjoys playing sports including: tennis, cycling, and hiking. Outside of her career and sports, Dr. Grossfeld loves spending time with her family.Orthopaedic Specialists, PLLC has two convenient office locations in Louisville, KY . The office located in the St. Matthews area of Louisville is at 4001 Kresge Way in Louisville, Kentucky, 40207 on the third floor in Suite 303. The Jeffersontown location is located within the Baptist Health Urgent Care facility at 10261 Taylorsville Road, Louisville, Kentucky, 40299. Both offices offer treatment options for various orthopedic and sports medicine issues including: ankle and foot pain, knee injuries and reconstruction, shoulder injuries and reconstruction, sports medicine, ACL injuries, wrist, arm and elbow pain, hip injuries, and more. Dr. Grossfeld routinely performs arthroscopic rotator cuff repairs, ACL reconstructions, knee arthroscopy, labral repairs, and more, at her offices and in area-hospitals.If you are experiencing knee pain, shoulder pain, or have suffered from some type of sports injury, contact Dr. Stacie Grossfeld with Orthopaedic Specialists, PLLC today by calling 502-212-2663 or visiting Orthopaedic Specialists online


News Article | April 24, 2017
Site: www.businesswire.com

MINNEAPOLIS--(BUSINESS WIRE)--On National Superhero Day (April 28, 2017), Love Your Melon will send thousands of college students dressed as superheroes into children’s hospitals across the country to give over 10,000 beanies to children battling cancer. In celebration of Superhero Day, April 28 will be “Buy One, Get One Beanie Day” for customers purchasing a beanie at loveyourmelon.com. Superhero Day was first hosted at the University of Minnesota Masonic Children’s Hospital in 2014. Love Your


News Article | April 13, 2017
Site: www.cemag.us

Bacteria are everywhere. And despite widespread belief, not all bacteria are “bad.” However, to combat those that can cause health issues for humans, there has been an over-reliance on the use of antibiotics — so much so, that many of them are now proving ineffective due to bacteria developing increased resistance to them. “More and more antibiotics are essentially becoming useless,” says Robert Smith, Ph.D., assistant professor in the Department of Biological Sciences at NSU’s Halmos College of Natural Sciences and Oceanography. “Even the most routine infections, such as ear infections that are often seen in children, are becoming more challenging and expensive to treat.” This notion isn’t new — just prior to winning his Nobel Prize in 1945, Alexander Fleming, the scientist who discovered antibiotics, warned that overusing them would lead to bacteria that were no longer killed by these drugs.  Since then, scientists and bacteria have been locked in a deadly arms race. While scientists rush to discover new antibiotics, bacteria fight back by developing new tools to resist antibiotics. In recent years, the bacteria have been winning. So this paradigm led researchers at NSU to take another look at how bacteria do what they do to see if there was another way to approach this issue. Researchers are now focusing on developing new ways to treat infections that reduce the use of antibiotics. And what the NSU researchers found, working with colleagues from Duke University and the University of Minnesota, was interesting. Their findings are detailed in the March 27 edition of Scientific Reports. One way that bacteria infect people is by working together. First, they build a home called a biofilm, and then use chemicals to “talk with each other.” This allows the bacteria to coordinate an attack on the infected person. Led by NSU graduate Cortney Wilson, Smith’s lab recently discovered that by shaking the house that the bacteria have built, the ability of the bacteria to talk to one another is affected. Wilson earned her Master’s degree from NSU and is now at the University of Colorado, Boulder. “We found that shaking the bacteria forced them to face a decision; do they want to grow, or do they want to cooperate,” Smith says. “And if we shook them at just the right frequency, we created enough confusion that the bacteria could do neither effectively.” Smith notes that this strategy to prevent bacteria from talking to one another has promise in reducing the need for antibiotics. The team of scientists hope to begin testing their theory in more species of bacteria, and eventually in mice. “It is a very exciting time for our research team. We are looking forward to building upon our very promising results and to moving our strategy into the clinic.”


News Article | April 20, 2017
Site: www.cemag.us

Discovered more than 100 years ago, black phosphorus was soon forgotten when there was no apparent use for it. In what may prove to be one of the great comeback stories of electrical engineering, it now stands to play a crucial role in the future of electronic and optoelectronic devices. With a research team’s recent discovery, the material could possibly replace silicon as the primary material for electronics. The team’s research, led by Fengnian Xia, Yale’s Barton L. Weller Associate Professor in Engineering and Science, is published in the journal Nature Communications. With silicon as a semiconductor, the quest for ever-smaller electronic devices could soon reach its limit. With a thickness of just a few atomic layers, however, black phosphorus could usher in a new generation of smaller devices, flexible electronics, and faster transistors, say the researchers. That’s due to two key properties. One is that black phosphorus has a higher mobility than silicon — that is, the speed at which it can carry an electrical charge. The other is that it has a bandgap, which gives a material the ability to act as a switch; it can turn on and off in the presence of an electric field and act as a semiconductor. Graphene, another material that has generated great interest in recent years, has a very high mobility, but it has no bandgap. However, finding a way to control the bandgap of black phosphorus is critical to realizing its potential applications. To that end, the researchers have discovered that the material’s bandgap is most controllable at a certain thickness. By applying a vertical electric field to the material at that thickness, the researchers can “tune” the bandgap, essentially shrinking the moderate gap to the point where it nearly closes. That opens up many potential applications for black phosphorus, such as imaging tools, night vision devices, mid-infrared optical modulators, on-chip spectroscopy tools, and other optoelectronic technologies. “Before this study, the bandgap of black phosphorus could not be dynamically tuned, limiting its applications in optoelectronics,” says Bingchen Deng, lead author of the study and a Ph.D. student in Xia’s lab. Finding the optimum thickness took some trial and error. “At first, we tried a 4-nanometer thick sample, and we found the bandgap tuning was not very pronounced,” Deng says. Deng also noted that having a bandgap that can be controlled means that black phosphorus could potentially be used as a topological insulator, a material with the unusual ability to serve as both an insulator (inside the material) and as a conductor (on its surface). Researchers are particularly interested in topological insulators, since they could be key to developing low-power electronics in which electrons at the surface do not suffer from scattering. Other authors for the paper are Professor Judy Cha, Yujun Xie, Cheng Li, Qiushi Guo, and Xiaomu Wang from Yale; Professor Li Yang and Vy Tran from Washington University; Professor Han Wang from the University of Southern California; Professor Steve Koester from the University of Minnesota; Hao Jiang of the University of Massachusetts, Amherst; and He Tian of the University of Southern California.


Combines Three Subsidiaries to Provide Advanced Precision Medicine for Patients, Physicians and Health Organizations; Appoints Industry Veteran Scott Jenkins to Lead the Group WEST PALM BEACH, FL--(Marketwired - May 04, 2017) - Rennova Health, Inc. ( : RNVA), ( : RNVAZ) ("Rennova" or the "Company"), a vertically integrated provider of industry-leading diagnostics and supportive software solutions to healthcare providers, announces the formation of the Advanced Molecular Services Group, Inc. ("AMS Group" or the "Group") to focus on precision medicine. The Group includes CollabRx, Inc., Genomas, Inc. and Alethea Laboratories, Inc., Rennova's New Mexico laboratory. Rennova's board of directors is considering all options to create shareholder value, and subject to required consents and approvals may spin off the Group to its stockholders. AMS Group's focus will be on mental and behavioral health, oncology, urology and cardiovascular disease. These areas benefit from understanding each person's molecular profile and, in turn, determining the best treatment protocol. The Group's proprietary technology combines Rennova's advanced testing development whereby the results of laboratory data are interpreted to provide treatment guidance to physicians and patients, with expertise in machine learning. Over time the AMS Group is expected to expand its offerings in both areas to help deliver precision medicine-based solutions. Rennova has licensed a critical mobile application that brings these services to users and intends to release a beta version this summer. This would bring the AMS Group's advanced products to patients, physicians and health organizations throughout the U.S. with testing to be conducted at Alethea Laboratories. Rennova also announces that following an extensive search, Scott Jenkins, Ph.D., a long-time Silicon Valley Healthcare IT executive with nearly 30 years of experience, has been selected to lead the newly formed AMS Group as chief executive officer. Dr. Jenkins is responsible for the integration of the operations of the individual companies that comprise the Group. "Precision medicine is exploding in part because of advances in diagnostic technologies and machine learning. Rennova has these key components to be a leader in this space," says Dr. Jenkins. "Every patient, physician and health organization needs immediate access to these life-changing tools, and we are going to deliver them." Dr. Jenkins comes to Rennova from Alchemist Ventures, where he led the development of many innovative precision medicine companies. Dr. Jenkins has been an executive in Healthcare and Life Sciences at Applied Biosystems, IBM and Apple, and more recently at Dell Healthcare where he was Vice President for Healthcare Solutions sales. Over the past several years, Dr. Jenkins has been committed to the advancement of precision medicine. He has lectured and presented papers at many global conferences, including most recently at Health2.0, The Milken institute, Best Practices in Personalized Medicine, The Galan Institute and Personalized Medicine World. He holds a Ph.D. in organic chemistry from the University of Minnesota and a B.S. in chemistry from Minnesota State University. Rennova provides industry-leading diagnostics and supportive software solutions to healthcare providers, delivering an efficient, effective patient experience and superior clinical outcomes. Through an ever-expanding group of strategic brands that work in unison to empower customers, we are creating the next generation of healthcare. For more information, please visit www.rennovahealth.com. This press release includes "forward-looking statements" within the meaning of the safe harbor provisions of the United States Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Actual results may differ from expectations and, consequently, you should not rely on these forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. Words such as "expect," "estimate," "project," "budget," "forecast," "anticipate," "intend," "plan," "may," "will," "could," "should," "believes," "predicts," "potential," "continue," and similar expressions are intended to identify such forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements involve significant risks and uncertainties that could cause the actual results to differ materially from the expected results. Additional information concerning these and other risk factors are contained in the Company's most recent filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission. The Company cautions readers not to place undue reliance upon any forward-looking statements, which speak only as of the date made. The Company does not undertake or accept any obligation or undertaking to release publicly any updates or revisions to any forward-looking statements to reflect any change in their expectations or any change in events, conditions or circumstances on which any such statement is based, except as required by law.


News Article | April 29, 2017
Site: www.PR.com

Receive press releases from American Science and Technology: By Email AST and ECN Aim to Accelerate the Development of Lignin-Based Products American Science and Technology to send multiple shipments of organosolv lignin to Energy research Centre of the Netherlands. Wausau, WI, April 29, 2017 --( Led by Dr. Paul J. de Wild, the team of researchers at ECN will test the production of high-value functionalized aromatics via their pyrolysis-based LIBRA (Lignin Biorefinery Approach) technology. “Both AST and ECN share similar aspirations in transitioning society to more sustainable energy systems and advancing the bio-based economy,” said Dr. Ali Manesh, President of AST. “And like AST, ECN has many years of experience working with lignin. Since lignin valorization is a key step in achieving those shared goals, we believe that combining the expertise of these two companies is a definite step in the right direction.” Currently, AST’s Organosolv lignin is being used by several research teams at various universities, including University of Washington, Mississippi State University, University of Wisconsin, University of Minnesota, and Washington State University, for various research projects. The team at University of Wisconsin-Platteville was recently able to successfully coextrud AST’s Organosolv lignin with other polymers to create new resins that were then used to produce polymeric parts via injection molding. American Science and Technology is a full service shared piloting facility available to industry, and is dedicated to helping its clients develop innovative biorefinery and chemical technologies to convert lignocellulosic biomass into high-value, bio-based chemicals and products. Operating from laboratory level to multi-ton scale, the AST facility provides a unique opportunity for collaboration to accelerate the advancement of the bio-based economy. During the past 10 years, AST scientists and engineers have also developed a patented Organosolv pulping process that has shown to increase the efficiency and profitability of pulp and paper production by converting virtually all of the incoming lignocellulosic biomass to high-value products. Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN) is the largest energy research institute in the Netherlands. ECN develops new technology and conducts pioneering research in various ways into innovative solutions to facilitate the transition to sustainable energy management. With around 500 members of staff, ECN is active in projects both at domestically and abroad, in joint efforts with the industry, government authorities and research institutes. For more information on AST, please visit www.amsnt.com For more information on ECN, please visit www.ecn.nl Wausau, WI, April 29, 2017 --( PR.com )-- American Science and Technology (AST), a sustainable technology company, has agreed to begin sending shipments of its Organosolv lignin to the Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN ). This is a continuation of AST’s ongoing efforts to speed up the development of advanced and innovative lignin-based products by sharing its Organosolv lignin with an increasing number of research institutions around the world.Led by Dr. Paul J. de Wild, the team of researchers at ECN will test the production of high-value functionalized aromatics via their pyrolysis-based LIBRA (Lignin Biorefinery Approach) technology.“Both AST and ECN share similar aspirations in transitioning society to more sustainable energy systems and advancing the bio-based economy,” said Dr. Ali Manesh, President of AST. “And like AST, ECN has many years of experience working with lignin. Since lignin valorization is a key step in achieving those shared goals, we believe that combining the expertise of these two companies is a definite step in the right direction.”Currently, AST’s Organosolv lignin is being used by several research teams at various universities, including University of Washington, Mississippi State University, University of Wisconsin, University of Minnesota, and Washington State University, for various research projects. The team at University of Wisconsin-Platteville was recently able to successfully coextrud AST’s Organosolv lignin with other polymers to create new resins that were then used to produce polymeric parts via injection molding.American Science and Technology is a full service shared piloting facility available to industry, and is dedicated to helping its clients develop innovative biorefinery and chemical technologies to convert lignocellulosic biomass into high-value, bio-based chemicals and products. Operating from laboratory level to multi-ton scale, the AST facility provides a unique opportunity for collaboration to accelerate the advancement of the bio-based economy. During the past 10 years, AST scientists and engineers have also developed a patented Organosolv pulping process that has shown to increase the efficiency and profitability of pulp and paper production by converting virtually all of the incoming lignocellulosic biomass to high-value products.Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN) is the largest energy research institute in the Netherlands. ECN develops new technology and conducts pioneering research in various ways into innovative solutions to facilitate the transition to sustainable energy management. With around 500 members of staff, ECN is active in projects both at domestically and abroad, in joint efforts with the industry, government authorities and research institutes.For more information on AST, please visit www.amsnt.comFor more information on ECN, please visit www.ecn.nl Click here to view the list of recent Press Releases from American Science and Technology


AUSTIN, Texas--(BUSINESS WIRE)--R. Mack Harrell, MD, FACP, FACE, ECNU, has been elected as President of the American College of Endocrinology (ACE). “I’m honored to be elected by my peers to lead an organization dedicated to excellence in endocrine teaching for practicing endocrinologists and patients,” said Dr. Harrell. Dr. Harrell attended the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill as an undergraduate and was awarded a Morehead Fellowship in Medicine at UNC in 1975. He performed his postgraduate studies in Internal Medicine at the University of Minnesota and completed his endocrinology fellowship at Duke University, where he specialized in bone and mineral metabolism, as well as served on the academic faculty. A member of AACE since 1991, Dr. Harrell was elected President of the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) in 2014. He has served on numerous AACE Committees and task forces as a member, Chair or Co-Chair, with special expertise in socioeconomics, legislative and regulatory issues. Currently, Dr. Harrell practices in Hollywood, Fla., where he focuses his efforts in the nascent field of interventional endocrinology and performs pre-operative imaging for endocrine surgery. From the academic world to private practice, to Foundation staff model work with the Cleveland Clinic to hospital-based endocrine surgery practice, Dr. Harrell has witnessed the practice of endocrinology from every conceivable angle. “I have evolved my practice focus through many different iterations, with guidance from mentors at AACE,” said Dr. Harrell. “Over the next year as President of the College, I look forward to leading others to take the same informed risks that I have taken to improve the practice of endocrinology domestically and internationally by fostering advances in patient care and patient education.” About the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) The American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) represents more than 7,500 endocrinologists in the United States and abroad. AACE is the largest association of clinical endocrinologists in the world. A majority of AACE members are certified in endocrinology, diabetes and metabolism and concentrate on the treatment of patients with endocrine and metabolic disorders including diabetes, thyroid disorders, osteoporosis, growth hormone deficiency, cholesterol disorders, hypertension and obesity. Visit our site at www.aace.com. About the American College of Endocrinology (ACE) The American College of Endocrinology (ACE) is the educational and scientific arm of the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE). ACE is the leader in advancing the care and prevention of endocrine and metabolic disorders by: providing professional education and reliable public health information; recognizing excellence in education, research and service; promoting clinical research and defining the future of Clinical Endocrinology. Please visit www.aace.com/college.


News Article | April 20, 2017
Site: globenewswire.com

BERKELEY, Calif., April 20, 2017 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Aduro Biotech, Inc. (Nasdaq:ADRO), a biopharmaceutical company with three distinct immunotherapy technologies, today announced the promotion of Michele DeVries to vice president, regulatory affairs and Celeste Ferber to vice president, associate general counsel. “I am pleased to announce the promotion of Michele DeVries and Celeste Ferber, who have each demonstrated expertise in their respective areas that is critical to the continued growth and success of our company,” said Stephen T. Isaacs, chairman, president and CEO of Aduro Biotech. “Both Michele and Celeste have played an integral role in our ongoing clinical and corporate development efforts, and we are pleased to add them to our leadership team.  As we advance our programs into late stage development and set our sights on commercialization, Michele’s proven track record of effectively liaising with regulatory agencies and corporate partners, and Celeste’s extensive expertise in counseling public companies and astute business acumen, will continue to be of great value to Aduro.” Michele DeVries, vice president, regulatory affairs, has been with Aduro since April 2013 and is responsible for all aspects of regulatory strategy, implementation and oversight of Aduro’s proprietary, partnered and licensed programs, both in the U.S. and internationally. Prior to Aduro, Ms. DeVries served as director of regulatory affairs for Intarcia Therapeutics where she managed key regulatory aspects of their drug delivery system, was the primary contact for regulatory authorities and responsible for all aspects of routine and specialized regulatory submissions including preparation for launch of four global Phase 3 studies. Before Intarcia, she held escalating regulatory affairs positions at VaxGen, InterMune and Tularik.  She received her B.S. in Chemical Engineering from the University of Minnesota. Celeste Ferber, vice president, associate general counsel, has been with Aduro since February 2016. Prior to Aduro, she was with Shearman & Sterling LLP, where she served as counsel in the capital markets group.  Ms. Ferber has over 15 years of experience advising public and private companies on corporate and finance matters, including securities offerings, mergers, acquisitions and strategic transactions, corporate governance and securities law compliance. Before Shearman & Sterling, Ms. Ferber was counsel at Morrison & Foerster LLP working in their Palo Alto, Hong Kong and San Diego offices. Ms. Ferber received her J.D. from the University of California, Hastings College of Law and her B.A. in Economics from Bucknell University. She is the author of numerous publications regarding legal matters. About Aduro Aduro Biotech, Inc. is an immunotherapy company focused on the discovery, development and commercialization of therapies that transform the treatment of challenging diseases. Aduro's technology platforms, which are designed to harness the body's natural immune system, are being investigated in cancer indications and have the potential to expand into autoimmune and infectious diseases. Aduro's LADD technology platform is based on proprietary attenuated strains of Listeria that have been engineered to express tumor-associated antigens to induce specific and targeted immune responses. This platform is being developed as a treatment for multiple indications, including mesothelioma, ovarian, lung and prostate cancers. Additionally, a personalized form of LADD, or pLADD, is being developed utilizing tumor neoantigens that are specific to an individual patient’s tumor. Aduro's STING Pathway Activator platform is designed to activate the STING receptor in immune cells, resulting in a potent tumor-specific immune response. ADU-S100 is the first STING Pathway Activator compound to enter the clinic and is currently being evaluated in a Phase 1 study in patients with cutaneously accessible metastatic solid tumors or lymphomas. Aduro’s B-select monoclonal antibody platform includes a number of immune modulating assets in research and preclinical development. Aduro is collaborating with leading global pharmaceutical companies to expand its products and technology platforms. For more information, please visit www.aduro.com. This press release contains forward-looking statements for purposes of the safe harbor provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Forward-looking statements include statements regarding our intentions or current expectations concerning, among other things, our technology platforms, plans, and the potential for eventual regulatory approval of our product candidates. In some cases, you can identify these statements by forward-looking words such as “may,” “will,” “continue,” “anticipate,” “intend,” “could,” “project,” “seek”, “expect” or the negative or plural of these words or similar expressions.  Forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance and are subject to risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results and events to differ materially from those anticipated, including, but not limited to, our history of net operating losses and uncertainty regarding our ability to achieve profitability, our ability to develop and commercialize our product candidates, our ability to use and expand our technology platforms to build a pipeline of product candidates, our ability to obtain and maintain regulatory approval of our product candidates, our ability to operate in a competitive industry and compete successfully against competitors that have greater resources than we do, our reliance on third parties, and our ability to obtain and adequately protect intellectual property rights for our product candidates.  We discuss many of these risks in greater detail under the heading “Risk Factors” contained in our annual report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2016, which is on file with the Securities and Exchange Commission. Any forward-looking statements that we make in this press release speak only as of the date of this press release. We assume no obligation to update our forward-looking statements whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, after the date of this press release.


News Article | May 1, 2017
Site: www.prnewswire.com

"TSI is pleased to continue its partnership with the University of Minnesota to provide this outstanding aerosol short course, which includes extensive hands-on lab sessions with a broad range of the latest particle instrumentation. Equally, we are excited to offer our hands-on Thursday lab this year," said Brian Osmondson, Business Director, Research and Analytical Instruments. Participants will have the opportunity to gain a fundamental understanding of aerosol properties and behaviors and receive practical training on skills to sample, measure, and characterize airborne particulate matter in a variety of applications, while earning continuing education credits, according to David Pui, Professor at the University of Minnesota and director of the short course. Attendees will visit TSI Headquarters for hands-on lab experiments, Tuesday, August 22, 2017, during the short course. Following the short course, TSI will be holding an additional hands-on training with a variety of TSI instruments on Thursday, August 24, 2017. These sessions will provide smaller group sizes, more time with the instruments and further application conversation with TSI experts. To view the original version on PR Newswire, visit:http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/tsi-to-host-42nd-annual-aerosol-and-particle-measurement-short-course-300448813.html


News Article | April 17, 2017
Site: phys.org

Last summer, the researchers completed a successful pilot program with help from more than 5,000 volunteers who counted seals from satellite images of sea ice in the Ross Sea. The team is now ready to expand the project to the entire continent. "Right now, everything we know about Weddell seals is limited to an area representing about one percent of the coastline around Antarctica," said Michelle LaRue, a research ecologist in the University of Minnesota's Department of Earth Sciences and lead researcher on the project. "Now we need help from the public to search the remaining 99 percent so we can better understand where seals live and why." Weddell seals are important to the Southern Ocean ecosystem and have been studied since the early 1960s. However, no one has been able to do a comprehensive count of the seals due to the harsh Antarctic weather and remote locations in which the seals live. Now, high-resolution satellite images provide a solution—counting seals on satellite images—but there are too many images for scientists to handle alone. "There's really no other way to do a count of Weddell seals like this," LaRue said. "Even though our team includes seasoned researchers and know how to count seals on the images, it would take years for our small team to search all the images. These types of projects also expand education on important wildlife species. We have engagement from classrooms nationwide in our research." Weddell seals are one of Antarctica's most iconic species. In addition to being undeniably charismatic, they are the southern-most mammal in the world, can live up to 30 years, and are perfectly adapted to living in some of the harshest conditions on the planet. They are seasonal occupants of the coastal sea ice that surrounds Antarctica. By counting seals on satellite imagery, scientists hope to learn more about climate change and how fishing in Antarctic may be affecting the number of seals and the entire ecosystem over time. This research is funded by the National Science Foundation and is a joint effort of the University of Minnesota, University of Colorado at Boulder, H.T. Harvey & Associates Ecological Consultants, Point Blue Conservation Science, Tomnod, and DigitalGlobe. In addition to LaRue, the research team includes David Ainley, HT Harvey and Associates; Sharon Stammerjohn, University of Colorado at Boulder; Leo Salas, Point Blue Conservation Science; and Kostas Stamatiou and Jon Saints, Tomnod. Explore further: Count seals in Antarctica from the comfort of your couch More information: To start counting seals, visit the Tomnod website: www.tomnod.com/campaign/antarctica_pilot_2


Ms. Retka brings to Somos over 40 years of telecommunications experience and a broad background in network growth and industry expansion, operational standards, and telecom numbering.  She most recently served as Executive Director – Network Policy for CenturyLink where she held numerous industry leadership roles including on the FCC's North American Numbering Council, the ATIS Testbeds Focus Group, and the FCC Communication Security Reliability, and Interoperability Council.  Ms. Retka holds a Bachelor of Arts degree from South Dakota State University and earned an Executive Master of Business Administration from the University of Minnesota – Carlson School of Business. "Somos is a great organization that I am very excited to join.  Somos' work is such an important part of the industry as we address emerging issues and the changes ahead as the telecommunications infrastructure and systems continue the evolution into the IP environment.  Representing Somos in the industry organizations is an opportunity that I greatly value, as I do the chance to become part of the diverse and growing Somos organization," Ms. Retka stated. To view the original version on PR Newswire, visit:http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/somos-inc-announces-new-hire-of-telecom-veteran-mary-retka-as-senior-director-industry-relations-300447677.html


News Article | April 20, 2017
Site: globenewswire.com

BERKELEY, Calif., April 20, 2017 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Aduro Biotech, Inc. (Nasdaq:ADRO), a biopharmaceutical company with three distinct immunotherapy technologies, today announced the promotion of Michele DeVries to vice president, regulatory affairs and Celeste Ferber to vice president, associate general counsel. “I am pleased to announce the promotion of Michele DeVries and Celeste Ferber, who have each demonstrated expertise in their respective areas that is critical to the continued growth and success of our company,” said Stephen T. Isaacs, chairman, president and CEO of Aduro Biotech. “Both Michele and Celeste have played an integral role in our ongoing clinical and corporate development efforts, and we are pleased to add them to our leadership team.  As we advance our programs into late stage development and set our sights on commercialization, Michele’s proven track record of effectively liaising with regulatory agencies and corporate partners, and Celeste’s extensive expertise in counseling public companies and astute business acumen, will continue to be of great value to Aduro.” Michele DeVries, vice president, regulatory affairs, has been with Aduro since April 2013 and is responsible for all aspects of regulatory strategy, implementation and oversight of Aduro’s proprietary, partnered and licensed programs, both in the U.S. and internationally. Prior to Aduro, Ms. DeVries served as director of regulatory affairs for Intarcia Therapeutics where she managed key regulatory aspects of their drug delivery system, was the primary contact for regulatory authorities and responsible for all aspects of routine and specialized regulatory submissions including preparation for launch of four global Phase 3 studies. Before Intarcia, she held escalating regulatory affairs positions at VaxGen, InterMune and Tularik.  She received her B.S. in Chemical Engineering from the University of Minnesota. Celeste Ferber, vice president, associate general counsel, has been with Aduro since February 2016. Prior to Aduro, she was with Shearman & Sterling LLP, where she served as counsel in the capital markets group.  Ms. Ferber has over 15 years of experience advising public and private companies on corporate and finance matters, including securities offerings, mergers, acquisitions and strategic transactions, corporate governance and securities law compliance. Before Shearman & Sterling, Ms. Ferber was counsel at Morrison & Foerster LLP working in their Palo Alto, Hong Kong and San Diego offices. Ms. Ferber received her J.D. from the University of California, Hastings College of Law and her B.A. in Economics from Bucknell University. She is the author of numerous publications regarding legal matters. About Aduro Aduro Biotech, Inc. is an immunotherapy company focused on the discovery, development and commercialization of therapies that transform the treatment of challenging diseases. Aduro's technology platforms, which are designed to harness the body's natural immune system, are being investigated in cancer indications and have the potential to expand into autoimmune and infectious diseases. Aduro's LADD technology platform is based on proprietary attenuated strains of Listeria that have been engineered to express tumor-associated antigens to induce specific and targeted immune responses. This platform is being developed as a treatment for multiple indications, including mesothelioma, ovarian, lung and prostate cancers. Additionally, a personalized form of LADD, or pLADD, is being developed utilizing tumor neoantigens that are specific to an individual patient’s tumor. Aduro's STING Pathway Activator platform is designed to activate the STING receptor in immune cells, resulting in a potent tumor-specific immune response. ADU-S100 is the first STING Pathway Activator compound to enter the clinic and is currently being evaluated in a Phase 1 study in patients with cutaneously accessible metastatic solid tumors or lymphomas. Aduro’s B-select monoclonal antibody platform includes a number of immune modulating assets in research and preclinical development. Aduro is collaborating with leading global pharmaceutical companies to expand its products and technology platforms. For more information, please visit www.aduro.com. This press release contains forward-looking statements for purposes of the safe harbor provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Forward-looking statements include statements regarding our intentions or current expectations concerning, among other things, our technology platforms, plans, and the potential for eventual regulatory approval of our product candidates. In some cases, you can identify these statements by forward-looking words such as “may,” “will,” “continue,” “anticipate,” “intend,” “could,” “project,” “seek”, “expect” or the negative or plural of these words or similar expressions.  Forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance and are subject to risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results and events to differ materially from those anticipated, including, but not limited to, our history of net operating losses and uncertainty regarding our ability to achieve profitability, our ability to develop and commercialize our product candidates, our ability to use and expand our technology platforms to build a pipeline of product candidates, our ability to obtain and maintain regulatory approval of our product candidates, our ability to operate in a competitive industry and compete successfully against competitors that have greater resources than we do, our reliance on third parties, and our ability to obtain and adequately protect intellectual property rights for our product candidates.  We discuss many of these risks in greater detail under the heading “Risk Factors” contained in our annual report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2016, which is on file with the Securities and Exchange Commission. Any forward-looking statements that we make in this press release speak only as of the date of this press release. We assume no obligation to update our forward-looking statements whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, after the date of this press release.


News Article | April 20, 2017
Site: globenewswire.com

BERKELEY, Calif., April 20, 2017 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Aduro Biotech, Inc. (Nasdaq:ADRO), a biopharmaceutical company with three distinct immunotherapy technologies, today announced the promotion of Michele DeVries to vice president, regulatory affairs and Celeste Ferber to vice president, associate general counsel. “I am pleased to announce the promotion of Michele DeVries and Celeste Ferber, who have each demonstrated expertise in their respective areas that is critical to the continued growth and success of our company,” said Stephen T. Isaacs, chairman, president and CEO of Aduro Biotech. “Both Michele and Celeste have played an integral role in our ongoing clinical and corporate development efforts, and we are pleased to add them to our leadership team.  As we advance our programs into late stage development and set our sights on commercialization, Michele’s proven track record of effectively liaising with regulatory agencies and corporate partners, and Celeste’s extensive expertise in counseling public companies and astute business acumen, will continue to be of great value to Aduro.” Michele DeVries, vice president, regulatory affairs, has been with Aduro since April 2013 and is responsible for all aspects of regulatory strategy, implementation and oversight of Aduro’s proprietary, partnered and licensed programs, both in the U.S. and internationally. Prior to Aduro, Ms. DeVries served as director of regulatory affairs for Intarcia Therapeutics where she managed key regulatory aspects of their drug delivery system, was the primary contact for regulatory authorities and responsible for all aspects of routine and specialized regulatory submissions including preparation for launch of four global Phase 3 studies. Before Intarcia, she held escalating regulatory affairs positions at VaxGen, InterMune and Tularik.  She received her B.S. in Chemical Engineering from the University of Minnesota. Celeste Ferber, vice president, associate general counsel, has been with Aduro since February 2016. Prior to Aduro, she was with Shearman & Sterling LLP, where she served as counsel in the capital markets group.  Ms. Ferber has over 15 years of experience advising public and private companies on corporate and finance matters, including securities offerings, mergers, acquisitions and strategic transactions, corporate governance and securities law compliance. Before Shearman & Sterling, Ms. Ferber was counsel at Morrison & Foerster LLP working in their Palo Alto, Hong Kong and San Diego offices. Ms. Ferber received her J.D. from the University of California, Hastings College of Law and her B.A. in Economics from Bucknell University. She is the author of numerous publications regarding legal matters. About Aduro Aduro Biotech, Inc. is an immunotherapy company focused on the discovery, development and commercialization of therapies that transform the treatment of challenging diseases. Aduro's technology platforms, which are designed to harness the body's natural immune system, are being investigated in cancer indications and have the potential to expand into autoimmune and infectious diseases. Aduro's LADD technology platform is based on proprietary attenuated strains of Listeria that have been engineered to express tumor-associated antigens to induce specific and targeted immune responses. This platform is being developed as a treatment for multiple indications, including mesothelioma, ovarian, lung and prostate cancers. Additionally, a personalized form of LADD, or pLADD, is being developed utilizing tumor neoantigens that are specific to an individual patient’s tumor. Aduro's STING Pathway Activator platform is designed to activate the STING receptor in immune cells, resulting in a potent tumor-specific immune response. ADU-S100 is the first STING Pathway Activator compound to enter the clinic and is currently being evaluated in a Phase 1 study in patients with cutaneously accessible metastatic solid tumors or lymphomas. Aduro’s B-select monoclonal antibody platform includes a number of immune modulating assets in research and preclinical development. Aduro is collaborating with leading global pharmaceutical companies to expand its products and technology platforms. For more information, please visit www.aduro.com. This press release contains forward-looking statements for purposes of the safe harbor provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Forward-looking statements include statements regarding our intentions or current expectations concerning, among other things, our technology platforms, plans, and the potential for eventual regulatory approval of our product candidates. In some cases, you can identify these statements by forward-looking words such as “may,” “will,” “continue,” “anticipate,” “intend,” “could,” “project,” “seek”, “expect” or the negative or plural of these words or similar expressions.  Forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance and are subject to risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results and events to differ materially from those anticipated, including, but not limited to, our history of net operating losses and uncertainty regarding our ability to achieve profitability, our ability to develop and commercialize our product candidates, our ability to use and expand our technology platforms to build a pipeline of product candidates, our ability to obtain and maintain regulatory approval of our product candidates, our ability to operate in a competitive industry and compete successfully against competitors that have greater resources than we do, our reliance on third parties, and our ability to obtain and adequately protect intellectual property rights for our product candidates.  We discuss many of these risks in greater detail under the heading “Risk Factors” contained in our annual report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2016, which is on file with the Securities and Exchange Commission. Any forward-looking statements that we make in this press release speak only as of the date of this press release. We assume no obligation to update our forward-looking statements whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, after the date of this press release.


BRISBANE, Calif.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Harpoon Therapeutics, Inc., a biotechnology company developing novel T-cell and other immune-cell recruiting biologic therapies for the treatment of cancer and immunologic disorders, today announced the appointment of Che-Leung Law, Ph.D., to vice president, translational medicine. Dr. Law brings nearly 20 years of experience in the discovery and development of novel biologics and small molecules in oncology and immuno-oncology to his position. Dr. Law most recently was senior director of preclinical research at Seattle Genetics, Inc. where he led target discovery, drug technology development, IND-enabling studies and translational research, including pharmacodynamic and biomarker research. Dr. Law previously held scientific positions at CDR Therapeutics and Xcyte Therapies. He was also an assistant professor in the department of microbiology at the University of Washington for several years. Dr. Law received his Ph.D. in pathobiology from the University of Minnesota and an M.Phil. in biochemistry from the University of Hong Kong. “We are pleased to welcome Che-Leung to Harpoon, where his experience in immuno-oncology will be particularly important as we transition to a clinical-stage company,” said Jerry McMahon, Ph.D., president and chief executive officer of Harpoon Therapeutics. “Harpoon’s novel TriTAC™ discovery platform offers a new way to unleash the target cell-killing properties of a patient’s own immune system, and provides distinct therapeutic advantages over existing approaches. Che-Leung will be a valuable addition to the team and will oversee preclinical development, including IND filings for our first TriTAC™ products for the potential treatment of prostate, ovarian and lung cancers.” In other news, Harpoon has added Ramy Ibrahim, M.D., to its scientific advisory board. Dr. Ibrahim, a recognized leader in clinical development of immunotherapy, is currently vice president and head of clinical development at the Parker Institute for Cancer Immunotherapy. He helped develop some of the first breakthrough treatments in the field during his tenure at Bristol-Meyer Squibb (including Yervoy® or ipilumimab) and MedImmune/AstraZeneca, where he served as the clinical vice president for immuno-oncology. “The additions of Che-Leung and Ramy substantially enhance and broaden the capabilities of the Harpoon executive and advisory team,” said Luke Evnin, Ph.D., chairman of Harpoon and co-founder of MPM Capital. “Harpoon continues to expand its capabilities and is now well positioned for progression to the clinic with products that harness the immune system for the treatment of cancers." About Harpoon Therapeutics — Harpoon is a preclinical stage biotechnology company founded by MPM Capital to develop multiple T-cell recruiting platforms leading to therapies for cancer patients and other immunologic disorders. Harpoon created its proprietary TriTAC™ biologics platform to harness T cells to kill tumor and other cell types by recruiting T cells and other immune cells. This approach has been optimized to penetrate tissues and extend serum exposure, and has the potential to address a broad range of cancers and immunologic diseases. HPN424, a prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-targeting TriTAC™ biologic, is in development for the treatment of prostate cancer and is expected to enter a clinical trial next year. For more information, please visit www.harpoontx.com.


News Article | April 20, 2017
Site: www.prnewswire.com

Lilja's career at CHS spans the last 37 years, with progressive leadership roles in the organization's legal and compliance areas. Lilja brings strong knowledge of the cooperative system and rural communities to her role as foundation president. "I'm excited to build on the wonderful momentum the CHS Foundation and our partners are creating across the country to positively impact agriculture education, farm safety and rural communities," said Lilja. "I believe in being grounded in work that helps agricultural communities grow, while keeping the evolving needs of our communities in focus." The CHS Foundation trustees approved the appointment of Lilja replacing Mark Biedenfeld who served as the CHS Foundation's interim president during the search process. Biedenfeld will continue to partner with Lilja as the executive liaison to the foundation working to advance key opportunity areas. "Over the past year, we've taken a thoughtful look at the work of the CHS Foundation and the critical role this president will play with our partners and our communities," said David Kayser, chair of the CHS Foundation finance and investment committee. "Nanci is the type of leader we want bringing continued purpose, focus and results to our work as a foundation." Lilja will lead the CHS Foundation's implementation and activation of two of the largest gifts in foundation history. Last year, CHS Foundation announced a $3.4 million grant to transform agriculture education with the University of Minnesota, and also a $2.5 million grant to create the CHS Chair in Risk Management and Trading at North Dakota State University. Lilja currently serves as the chair of the Heartland Credit Union Board of Directors and is the incoming chair of the Certifying Board of the National Association of Legal Assistants. She has a bachelor's degree in business from St. Mary's University of Minnesota. To view the original version on PR Newswire, visit:http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/chs-foundation-announces-new-leadership-300442897.html


News Article | May 2, 2017
Site: scienceblogs.com

A claim is being made, in a recent issue of Nature Magazine, that humans were active in the vicinity of San Diego well over 100,000 years before archaeologists think humans were even in the New World. Most commentary on this claim dismisses it out of hand, but out of hand rejections are no better than foundationless assertions. Let’s take a closer look at the Cerutti Mastodon Site. But first, some important context. The Clovis Culture is a Native American phenomenon that occurred between about 12 and 10 thousand years ago (most likely between 11,500 and 11,000 uncalibrated radiocarbon years before present). The key feature of Clovis is the rather extraordinary “Clovis Point.” There is another, similar looking, point that goes with the Folsom Culture, which is about as old as the Clovis culture, but a bit younger, and there are a couple of other less common named forms. We refer to them all as “fluted points.” Unlike some other so-called “projectile points” (many of which are knives or spearheads, many perhaps not even mounted in use) fluted points are rarely found in large numbers anywhere, but are represented over a very large region; They are found across the United Sates and Canada, and as far south as Venezuela. There is almost no evidence suggesting that any humans existed in North America prior to Clovis times, and this has been known for years. Therefore, “Clovis culture” or more broadly, “Paleoindian” culture has long been thought to represent the first humans to come to North America. Since Native Americans physically resemble East Asians (an observation supported and refined by genetic analysis) it has always been assumed that Native Americans came from Asia as Paleoindians, or developed the Paleoindian culture right after arriving in North America. The dates of Clovis sites cluster into such a tight time frame that it makes sense to assume that these folks arrived on an unoccupied continent, spread quickly over a large area, and subsequently differentiated into diverse groups. The idea of earlier, pre-Clovis, occupation has long been considered by the occasional daring archaeologist, and even the famous African archaeologist, Louis Leakey, suggested that certain finds in the vicinity of modern day San Diego represented much older human occupation. However, North American archaeologists remained firm on the idea that there is no pre-Clovis, and argued strongly and vociferously against the idea. Indeed, any archaeologist who wished to argue for pre-Clovis risked something close to professional censure, others were so sure about Clovis first. For a very long time it has been at first quietly, and later less quietly, recognized that there are some problems with the Clovis-First hypotheses. First, even though one might expect the early dates for Clovis, if it represented a sudden and rapid colonization of a world with no humans, to be difficult to interpret, it became apparent that the earliest Clovis is in the far East of the continent, with later clovis being farther west. Recent interpretations of the data have suggested that this may not be true, but those interpretations are tenuous. Oddly, pretty solid dating evidence showing east coast Clovis to be earlier was always rejected as unimportant, while a much less clear argument that Clovis out west is early has been quickly and not very critically accepted, presumably because it fits the underlying assumptions of a sudden colonization from Asia. Fluted points are way more common in the East, east of the Mississippi, in various Mississippi drainage valleys, and along the East Coast. They are relatively sparse in the west, say, on the west side of the Rocky Mountains, and they are very rare in Alaska. So, the distribution of fluted points is exactly the opposite of what one might expect with a simple model of Asians arriving in North America, suddenly becoming Clovis, then spreading from there. Of the fluted points found in North America, the oldest style, Clovis, is mainly an Eastern phenomenon, with later styles, such as Folsom, are more in the West. If the so-called spatio-temporal boundaries of these styles is correct, and Clovis is older than Folsem, then it is very hard to argue that Clovis is a primary phenomenon that came out of Asia as the first thing people did in North America. These observations together with the absence of Paleoindian culture in Asia strongly suggests that the actual history of people in North America prior to about 10,000 years ago was a little more complex than the usual textbook version. Indeed, Clovis would make a lot more sense if there was a pre-Clovis culture that did some or much of the initial spreading, followed quickly by the rise of a Clovis Culture among those people, perhaps in the east, which then spread across the continents very quickly. That would have simply been an early example of a phenomenon we see again and again in New World prehistory, where a material phenomenon of some kind, a type of projectile point, or a symbolic image, or something, spreads in what seems like an instant across a vast area. Beginning mainly in the 1980s, a number of archaeological sites were discovered and presented as pre-Clovis. These are dated using various means. They occur across the US in Pennsylvania, Souoth Carolina, Oregon, Florida, Alaska, and elsewhere. They are also found in South America in Brazil, Chile, and Columbia. Most, perhaps all, of these sites — there are about 16 of them — are very strongly and forcefully argued to be real, and have varying degrees of evidence on them. Most of the sites date to either just a thousand or two years, or sometime, just centuries, before Clovis and would easily fit into a pre-Clovis model as suggested above. This would go with the idea that somehow, humans arrived in North America, spread out, then popped out Clovis Culture soon after. Some of the sites are much earlier, but as far as I know, all the earliest sites have very questionable artifacts or dating that is not very secure. I am not certain, but I think most of the North American archaeologists who so forcefully argued against pre-Clovis of any form have either moved off that position, stopped talking, or died off. Now, I believe, most North American archaeologists accept that there is a distinct possibility that there is what I would call a “near-Pre-Clovis.” But, since there are just over one dozen sites across two continents, one must be reserved in assuming this. Such a small number of sites could represent a small number of aberrant if well meaning interpretations of sites that have something wrong with them. I personally have excavated many, many archaeological sites, and I have seen things that can’t be explained. Personally, I think some of the late pre-Clovis sites are good. But, I would not be surprised if an all knowing alien with a time machine landed nearby and proved that I was wrong. The Cerutti Mastodon site is in San Diego County, California. The site was excavating in the early 1990s by a team from the San Diego Museum of Natural History. If you ever get a chance to visit that museum, do so. It is one of the many museums of Balboa Park, which also includes the famous San Diego Zoo. The finds at this site include a juvenile Mastodon, Mammut Americanum, as well as dire wolf, horse, ground sloth, camel, and mammoth. The site is dated using Uranium-thorium dating on the mastodon bone, to 130,000 +/- 9,400 years b.p. A recent analysis of the site, just published in the journal Nature, claims that the bones show evidence of human modification, and that some stones also found on the site show evidence of having been used to modify the bones. The modification suggested is the smashing of bone to extract marrow, and possibly, to make some flakes or otherwise modify the bone to make tools. The authors of the paper suggest that there are, as commonly agreed by North American archaeologists, three criteria that a site must meet to be considered a candidate for early pre-Clovis human evidence: 1) archaeological evidence is found in a clearly defined and undisturbed geologic context; 3) multiple lines of evidence from interdisciplinary studies provide consistent results; and They argue that all of these are met. From the abstract: That the site is in a good geological context is apparently beyond question, as far as I know. The “refitting” referred to is where bits and pieces of one thing that was broken apart can be glued back together, showing that since the breaking event not much has moved around, which helps to argue that the site is not too messed up by geological processes. The dating seems good. Everything seems good. Yay, an early site showing humans in North America way before we ever thought! But wait, not so fast … Archaeologists have a conceptual problem with discontinuity. They don’t believe in it. Say you are working in a previously unstudied part of the world (there are none, but pretend). You find a site with some pottery on it, and date the site to 1,000 years ago. In the same area, you find several sites, of various dates, from 1,000 years ago to 4,000 years ago, but they are all sites with chipped stone tools on them and no pottery. But then, you finally find another pottery bearing site. The pottery looks different, and the site was fairly deep down, so when you get your dates back from the lab and they are about 4,000 years old, you are not surprised. And, now, you know that pottery using people lived here from 4,000 years ago to 1,000 years ago, right? Wrong. It is possible that people showed up here with pottery, and left, leaving behind non-pottery using people, then came back later. Or, people moved here with pottery, or invented or were introduced to pottery, 4,000 years ago, then stopped using it for some reason, then pottery made a return, somehow, more recently. The problem is, most archaeologists will not accept that once something happens, it can unhappen, even though we actually do know of places in the world where pottery was brought there with the first people, then forgotten about or rejected for some reason, later. So, here’s the idea. During warm periods, like the interglacial of roughly the age of the CM site, and the present, hominins tend to spread. Even the ones that like warmer regions, maybe not even humans, spread around during warm periods, and spread north. So, naturally, some of them get to the New World somehow, and these are them. They don’t even have to be chipped stone tool using humans. They could be bone breakers. They could be bigfoot! They could be anything. Now, this may seem like a crazy idea, and it almost certainly is. But, the rejection of occupation as early as 130,000 years ago because we have no evidence of anything half that old requires that the new world can be occupied in only one way: something or someone shows up, then they never leave. This is in direct conflict with the known migrations of large mammals, many of which migrated either to the New World from the Old World, or the other way round, several times over that last 5 or more million years, and most of which do not exist in the place they migrated to now. I know an archaeologist who once said this. She said, teaching her class, that the discovery of a house structure at about 5,000 years ago (by the way, it might have been the house structure I discovered, which for a time was the oldest one in North America) tells us that by 5,000 years ago, Native Americans had a concept of building a house, like a wigwam, and the technology to do so. I once read an archaeological monograph that suggested that the presence in some 3,000 year old pottery of impressions of woven material show that by that time Native Americans could weave cloth. One textbook refers to the earliest fire in North America (several thousands of years back) indicating that we now knew that by that time, at least, Native Americans had fire and thus could possibly cook their food. I’ve read and heard North American archaeologists say things like this over and over again. These statements assume that the first proto-Native American people to come to the new world, say as just-pre-Clovis people, must have arrived naked and technology free! People in the Old World had chipped stone technology, whereby stones were used to break stones in a very systematic (and not too easy to learn) way to produce, ultimately, tools. Our ancestors had this technology before the genus Homo existed. In fact, it may be the case that our ancestors were stone tool chipping bipedal apes for as long before the rise of the genus Homo as after (this remains to be pinned down). Modern humans have existed on this planet for only a fraction of the time that hominins were making chipped stone tools. Until the abrupt and dramatic near perfect elimination of chipped stone technology in recent centuries, chipped stone tool technology was as much a part of human behavior and culture as walking on two legs was. We know this because of all that Old World archaeology that has been done. Despite the limited understanding of world prehistory by many North American archaeologists, the truth is that a human (even a non-fully modern human) presence in the New World would have chipped stone tools with it. If a creature was at the CM site with a culture that lacked chipped stone tools, but that used hammer and anvil stones to break up bone, it was an ape, not a hominin. It was Gigantopithecus, or something. Bigfoot! CM is potentially believable as a site if it occurred in a larger time horizon with definitive human evidence. In other words, a bunch of chomped up elephant bones down the way from clear unambiguous human occupation on a landscape with many sites of that date might be acceptable as a human site, but not this. Not just pounded bones with no other cultural manifestations. Now, I want to add new rules to the ones listed above. 5) The artifacts have to include evidence of proper chipped stone tool technology, as this is a ubiquitous trait of Homo and proto-Homo 6) Among the chipped stone, there must be both flakes and pieces that are flaked, because many natural processes will produce one or the other (usually flaked pieces) without human engagement. 7) The flakes must exhibit many cases of clear striking platforms, the part where the flake is hit to make it fly off the parent rock, and those striking platforms must be mostly below 90 degrees angle, because that is the experimentally established difference between “natural” flakes (including those made by cars running over rocks and rocks falling off cliffs, etc.) and human made proper flakes. 8) If flaked bone is invoked as an artifact type, the flakes must be numerous and have the same low angle of percussion, and there must as noted above, also be stone flakes. This is the underlying fact that must be understood by people considering the CM site as human. Humans bust up bones, but busted up bones in the absence of any other evidence of human activity does not constitute unquestionable artifactual nature. Ever. Just to make sure that I was still up to date on bone breakage taphonomy, the study of how to interpret bone breakage, I asked Professor Martha Tappen of the University of Minnesota, a bone taphonomist, for her opinion about the site. She told me, “I would say that the breaks appear to be consistent with human breakage, but quite possibly other causes, too, such as backhoes and perhaps other scenarios involving trampling. Other evidence is needed to support the idea that people reached the new world at this early time.” I spent a certain amount of time living among the elephants of the African Rain Forest. Well, OK, I wan’t actually “living among them” but I was living there doing archaeology and other things, and they were there too. In fact, I studied elephant movement and trial making, and in so doing, observed a lot of places where elephants tromp around. Some of the elephants we observed in the Ituri (along with the afore mentioned Professor Tappen) which had been killed over the years by Efe hunters (they are the traditional elephant hunters of the region), died on or near regular elephant trails. Once an elephant is all butchered up or scavenged, I assume the living elephants walk around the remains, though in some areas they have been known to play around with the bones of the dead. But eventually, the bones get incorporated with the undergrowth and the sediment, and get trampled by the elephants. The elephants also trample rocks. I saw locations where the elephants walked a lot, including trails and one location where they had dug a cave to obtain sediment that they would eat, where there was so much elephant trampling of stone that most of the stone looked human modified. CM site has several animals, including some large ones. Something about this site attracted animals that then died, but at one point were alive. This is a very common phenomenon in paleontology, and is not fully understood. It is very likely that the broken up bones and the seemingly modified stones look the way they do because huge multi-ton animals stepped on them repeatedly. I don’t want to rule out CM out of hand. I don’t want to do this because Archaeology is full of stuff that was ruled out by orthodoxy then later found out to be important or real, but data was lost because of the narrow mindedness of the narrow minded. I believe it is appropriate and necessary to reserve a part of our dogma for possibilities, evidence for things that we are pretty sure are not real but that have just enough credibility, just enough of a question, to allow for a later surprise. I would love to see more large mammal sites of the late Pleistocene excavated carefully to see what they look like. A program of exploration for and investigation of sites during and near the Last Glacial Maximum in the Western US is a good idea, and should yield some very interesting paleontological results. If there was some kind of a hominin running around then — which is very unlikely and indeed almost impossible to imagine — but if there was one, it would eventually be bumped into. Meanwhile, think of all the cool extinct animal stuff we would get to learn no matter what the human prehistoric story turns out to be!


News Article | April 17, 2017
Site: co.newswire.com

Like FieldTurf, the Bixby High School Spartans’ football program has a longstanding history of excellence. This past year, FieldTurf and school officials worked closely to plan the installation of the school’s second synthetic surface. Bixby opted for FieldTurf’s Classic HD with CoolPlay. The new field is scheduled to be installed summer 2017. “I think everybody’s excited about getting brand new turf,” Spartans Head Football Coach Loren Montgomery said. “It’s something the players ask about it all the time and they’re definitely looking forward to it.” Designed to reduce surface heat, FieldTurf’s exclusive extruded composite dressing allows the revolutionary CoolPlay system to deliver the same results and overall stability as FieldTurf’s proven elite systems. Want to learn more on CoolPlay? Click Here. We’d like to congratulate Bixby’s football team for bringing home a third-straight title in 2016. The Spartans join an exclusive list of elite football programs playing on FieldTurf, such as the New England Patriots, St. Thomas Aquinas Raiders and Piedmont Bulldogs. The University of Wisconsin Badgers installed the Classic HD at Camp Randall and went on to win the Big Ten Championship in a 70-31 blowout of the Nebraska Cornhuskers. Classic HD is the same system installed at high profile venues such as Ford Field, Home of the Detroit Lions, TCF Bank Stadium – University of Minnesota, Ohio State University, Syracuse University and over 500 esteemed NCAA and elite high school facilities across North America and around the world.


News Article | April 17, 2017
Site: co.newswire.com

" Leadership development begins with a support system, that helps all team members reach their potential, focusing on their gifts, talents and capabilities. The purpose is not exploitation, but functional benefit for the mission of the team. This requires a fine balance between the need for tunnel vision during execution of a mission and capabilities that support stability, health, happiness and prosperity in the bigger picture of life. Though paradoxical, the objective is a team of leaders."  -- Stephen M. Apatow. From "Living On The Edge" to being the "Cutting Edge" In 1994, a small nonprofit organization named Humanitarian Resource Institute (HRI), was formed in Carson City, Nevada.  The mission was to address the cross section of needs defined during two national touch outreach projects, the first for substance abuse in 1990, and second for hunger, homelessness and poverty in 1993.  HRI's first project was named Focus On America.  Through the assistance of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and Emergency Food and Shelter National Board Program (EFSNBP), the mission was to take lessons learned, and "bridge unmet needs to untapped resources."   This project reached front-line programs and EFSNBP directors in over 3100 U.S. counties, all 50 states and territories.  In 1999, the successful completion of United States networks, led to the development the International Disaster Information Network (IDIN), to assist FEMA with remediation for the Year 2000 Conversion, and then complex emergencies in 193 UN member countries. Formation of the Humanitarian University Consortium in 2002, helped connect subject matter experts at colleges and universities, public, private and defense organizations in every UN member country.  Through this consortium initiative, the worlds top reference points in medicine, veterinary medicine and law helped HRI be a global reference point for health care, education, agricultural and economic development. Shortly thereafter, HRI was recognized as one of nine leading educational and research institutions by the National Academy of Sciences, with the Center for Nonproliferation Studies, Columbia University: Center for Public Health Preparedness, Harvard University John F. Kennedy School of Government: Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Humanitarian Resource Institute, Johns Hopkins University: Center for Civilian Biodefense Studies, Massachusetts Institute of Technology: Center for International Studies, National Academy of Sciences, University of Maryland: Center for International and Security Studies at Maryland,  University of Minnesota: Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy. -- See:  Biological Threats and Terrorism, Assessing the Science and Response Capabilities: Workshop Summary:  Forum on Emerging Infections, Board on Global Health. "Front Matter, " Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2002.   In 2009, HRI formed the United Nations Arts Initiative to promote "Arts Integration Into Education," connecting educators, artists and entertainment industry, who have the innovation, creativity and intimate connection with the grassroots level, to impact prioritized humanitarian emergencies and relief operations. The United Nations Arts Initiative helps both artist and grassroots leaders with strategic planning, critical analysis, expert think tank development for background discussions, peer reviewed data compilation and communications that engage decision makers and audiences in a target demographic. In 2011, H-II OPSEC Expeditionary Operations was developed to assist defense support for humanitarian and security emergencies, currently beyond the capabilities of governmental, UN, NGO and relief organizations. Though functioning outside of the mainstream spotlight for 23 years, Humanitarian Resource Institute has been the reference point for unconventional asymmetric strategic planning. Today, Stephen M. Apatow, President, Director of Research and Development for HRI, is focused on helping young leaders and executive leadership teams understand how to operate in complex environments and strategic areas viewed as critical to the CEO level of operations.  Lead from the Front: Development Programs help the CEO level break down walls and barriers, establishing a focus on optimization of the mission objective, through:


News Article | May 4, 2017
Site: phys.org

Next week, the Entomological Society of America's open-access Journal of Integrated Pest Management (JIPM) will publish "Identification, Biology, Impacts, and Management of Stink Bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) of Soybean and Corn in the Midwestern United States," a profile of several of the most common stink bug pests that offers methods for differentiating species, summaries of stink bug life cycles and behaviors, and guidance for monitoring and managing them. Stink bugs have historically been more prevalent pests in the southern United States, but they are now making more frequent appearances in midwestern fields, according to Robert Koch, Ph.D., assistant professor and extension entomologist at the University of Minnesota and lead author of the JIPM article. "Because stink bugs are emerging as a new threat to Midwest soybean and corn production, we felt that there was need for a comprehensive review of these pests that was accessible to producers and agricultural professionals," he says. Koch and co-authors conducted an extensive review of existing research on management of stink bugs in developing the new profile aimed at midwestern growers. While "at least 24 species or subspecies of stink bugs could potentially be encountered in soybean and corn in the midwestern United States," the most common pest species are outlined in the article, including: In soybean, stink bugs can feed on all above-ground parts of the plant but prefer pods and developing seeds, and the damage they cause can affect yield, seed quality, and germination rates. In corn, stink bugs can feed on corn at all growth stages, but seedling and early reproductive stages of corn are most susceptible. Koch and colleagues specify scouting methods for measuring stink bug abundance in fields, along with economic thresholds at which management tactics should be deployed. Their research identifies which classes of insecticides may be best suited for individual species and identify additional resources for growers to investigate cultural and biological control measures, as well. "Stink bugs tend to be generalist pests and can feed on and move between different crops and wild plant species throughout the year," says Koch. The JIPM profile rounds up existing knowledge about stink bugs, much of it from research conducted in southern states, but "further research is needed on corn and soybean response to stink bug feeding in the Midwest," he says. More information: Robert L. Koch et al, Identification, Biology, Impacts, and Management of Stink Bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) of Soybean and Corn in the Midwestern United States, Journal of Integrated Pest Management (2017). DOI: 10.1093/jipm/pmx004


The discovery is being published today in Nature Communications, an open access journal that publishes high-quality research from all areas of the natural sciences. Researchers say that what makes this new material so unique is that it has a high conductivity, which helps electronics conduct more electricity and become more powerful. But the material also has a wide bandgap, which means light can easily pass through the material making it optically transparent. In most cases, materials with wide bandgap, usually have either low conductivity or poor transparency. "The high conductivity and wide bandgap make this an ideal material for making optically transparent conducting films which could be used in a wide variety of electronic devices, including high power electronics, electronic displays, touchscreens and even solar cells in which light needs to pass through the device," said Bharat Jalan, a University of Minnesota chemical engineering and materials science professor and the lead researcher on the study. Currently, most of the transparent conductors in our electronics use a chemical element called indium. The price of indium has gone up tremendously in the past few years significantly adding to the cost of current display technology. As a result, there has been tremendous effort to find alternative materials that work as well, or even better, than indium-based transparent conductors. In this study, researchers found a solution. They developed a new transparent conducting thin film using a novel synthesis method, in which they grew a BaSnO3 thin film (a combination of barium, tin and oxygen, called barium stannate), but replaced elemental tin source with a chemical precursor of tin. The chemical precursor of tin has unique, radical properties that enhanced the chemical reactivity and greatly improved the metal oxide formation process. Both barium and tin are significantly cheaper than indium and are abundantly available. "We were quite surprised at how well this unconventional approach worked the very first time we used the tin chemical precursor," said University of Minnesota chemical engineering and materials science graduate student Abhinav Prakash, the first author of the paper. "It was a big risk, but it was quite a big breakthrough for us." Jalan and Prakash said this new process allowed them to create this material with unprecedented control over thickness, composition, and defect concentration and that this process should be highly suitable for a number of other material systems where the element is hard to oxidize. The new process is also reproducible and scalable. They further added that it was the structurally superior quality with improved defect concentration that allowed them to discover high conductivity in the material. They said the next step is to continue to reduce the defects at the atomic scale. "Even though this material has the highest conductivity within the same materials class, there is much room for improvement in addition, to the outstanding potential for discovering new physics if we decrease the defects. That's our next goal," Jalan said. Explore further: See-through circuitry: New and cheap alternative for transparent electronics More information: Abhinav Prakash et al, Wide bandgap BaSnO3 films with room temperature conductivity exceeding 104 S cm−1, Nature Communications (2017). DOI: 10.1038/ncomms15167


CHICAGO (April 25, 2017): About 150,000 people are admitted to hospitals each year for diverticulitis,1 an inflammation of an outgrowth or pouching in the colon that can cause severe abdominal pain. Furthermore, emergency room (ER) visits for diverticulitis have increased 21 percent in recent years.2 However, these ER visits don't have to land patients in the hospital as frequently as they do, according to new findings published as an "article in press" on the Journal of the American College of Surgeons website in advance of print publication. A study of patients with diverticulitis who went to emergency rooms in a Minnesota health system found that about half of those admitted could have been sent home at significant savings to not only the health care system, but to the individual patients as well. Researchers at the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, reported that most patients with uncomplicated diverticulitis could safely go home with a prescription for oral antibiotics after their ER visits with a very low risk of returning to the hospital. "While that finding may not seem surprising to most surgeons, it is a poorly studied topic in the United States, and gathering some data on this occurrence is important to clarify in terms of whether there are even more people seen in the emergency room who could be safely managed at home," said lead study author Mary Kwaan, MD, MPH, FACS, assistant professor of surgery, division of colon and rectal surgery, department of surgery, University of Minnesota. National statistics have shown that only 15 percent of patients with diverticulitis who go to the emergency room need an operation right away.1 Complicated diverticulitis involves a small perforation of the pouching or outgrowth of the colon that is visible on a computerized tomography (CT) scan, whereas uncomplicated diverticulitis is defined as no identifiable perforation on a CT scan. Extreme cases involve a large perforation of the colon with peritonitis, which is inflammation of the abdomen. The goal of treatment is to relieve symptoms, typically of abdominal pain and inflammation, and to restore normal bowel function. Severe cases often require surgery. CT scanning is essential in the diagnosis of diverticulitis. "The CT scan provides us with a surrogate for determining the severity of perforation one has suffered," Dr. Kwaan said. The researchers evaluated 240 patients treated in five hospital emergency rooms in the Fairview Health System, which includes University of Minnesota Health, from September 2010 through January 2012; 144 (60 percent) were admitted to the hospital and 96 (40 percent) were discharged to their homes on oral antibiotics. Admitted patients were more likely to be age 65 years or older, have other health problems, take steroids to treat inflammation or agents that suppressed their immune system, have excess air in the digestive system, or have an abscess or perforation in the diverticular area as seen on a CT scan. Among those patients discharged from the emergency room, 12.5 percent returned to the ER or were admitted to the hospital within 30 days, and only one patient required emergency surgery, but not until 20 months later. "That [finding] didn't seem to be a high rate," Dr. Kwaan said. For the patients who were admitted from their emergency room visit, the hospital readmission rate was slightly higher, at 15 percent. Dr. Kwaan and coauthors found that 53 percent of the admitted patients in their study could be safely discharged home. They used a standard that Margaret Greenwood-Ericksen, MD,2 and colleagues at Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, had developed for determining low-risk diverticulitis. Two key factors the researchers found that determined the severity of diverticulitis were high fever and high white blood cell counts. In low-risk patients, "we found that few patients had high fevers and most patients had normal or mildly elevated white blood cell counts," Dr. Kwaan said. While the study is relatively small, Dr. Kwaan noted it is significant because it involved several emergency rooms across one health system. It also confirms findings of an earlier randomized clinical trial in Spain that concluded outpatient treatment is safe in selected cases of uncomplicated diverticulitis.3 Dr. Kwaan said physicians and hospitals could use the Minnesota study findings to develop protocols for emergency room doctors to better treat diverticulitis. "As a result of this study, a checklist approach to patient and CT characteristics can prompt a protocol that allows an emergency room doctor to quickly sort out whether or not the patient needs a surgical consult or whether they need to be admitted to the hospital, and then whether they can be safely discharged home," she said. She and her colleagues are collaborating with ER physicians to develop such protocols in their health system. The next step would be to create a feedback loop to monitor the effectiveness of the protocol. Avoiding unnecessary hospitalizations is important for reducing health care costs and applying hospital resources more effectively. "Diverticulitis is quite a common disease, and there is a general movement among hospitals toward being more strategic with their resources," Dr. Kwaan said. "Unnecessary hospital admissions cost the system and potentially expose patients to hospital-acquired infections." Dr. Kwaan's study coauthors are Anne-Marie E. Sirany, MD; Wolfgang B. Gaertner, MD, FACS; and Robert D. Madoff, MD, FACS, all of University of Minnesota Health, Minneapolis. Dr. Kwaan presented the study at the annual meeting of the Western Surgical Association, Coronado, California, in November 2016. NOTE: "FACS" designates that a surgeon is a Fellow of the American College of Surgeons. Citation: Diverticulitis diagnosed in the emergency room: is it safe to discharge home?? Journal of the American College of Surgeons. DOI: http://dx. 1Etzioni DA, Mack TM, Beart RW, Kaiser AM. Diverticulitis in the United States: 1998-2005: changing patterns of disease and treatment. Ann Surg. 2009 Feb;249(2):210-17. 2Greenwood-Ericksen MB, Havens JM, Ma J, et al. Trends in hospital admission and surgical procedures following ED visits for diverticulitis. W J Emerg Med. 2016 Jul;17(4):409-17. 3Biondo S, Golda T, Kreisler E, et al. Outpatient versus hospitalization management for uncomplicated diverticulitis: A prospective, multicenter randomized clinical trial (DIVER trial). Ann Surg. 2014 Jan;259(1):38-44. About the American College of Surgeons The American College of Surgeons is a scientific and educational organization of surgeons that was founded in 1913 to raise the standards of surgical practice and improve the quality of care for all surgical patients. The College is dedicated to the ethical and competent practice of surgery. Its achievements have significantly influenced the course of scientific surgery in America and have established it as an important advocate for all surgical patients. The College has more than 80,000 members and is the largest organization of surgeons in the world. For more information, visit http://www. .


A team of researchers, led by the University of Minnesota, have discovered a new nano-scale thin film material with the highest-ever conductivity in its class. The new material could lead to smaller, faster, and more powerful electronics, as well as more efficient solar cells. The discovery is being published today in Nature Communications, an open access journal that publishes high-quality research from all areas of the natural sciences. Researchers say that what makes this new material so unique is that it has a high conductivity, which helps electronics conduct more electricity and become more powerful. But the material also has a wide bandgap, which means light can easily pass through the material making it optically transparent. In most cases, materials with wide bandgap, usually have either low conductivity or poor transparency. “The high conductivity and wide bandgap make this an ideal material for making optically transparent conducting films which could be used in a wide variety of electronic devices, including high power electronics, electronic displays, touchscreens and even solar cells in which light needs to pass through the device,” said Bharat Jalan, a University of Minnesota chemical engineering and materials science professor and the lead researcher on the study. Currently, most of the transparent conductors in our electronics use a chemical element called indium. The price of indium has generally gone up over the last two decades, which has added to the cost of current display technology. As a result, there has been tremendous effort to find alternative materials that work as well, or even better, than indium-based transparent conductors. In this study, researchers found a solution. They developed a new transparent conducting thin film using a novel synthesis method, in which they grew a BaSnO  thin film (a combination of barium, tin and oxygen, called barium stannate), but replaced elemental tin source with a chemical precursor of tin. The chemical precursor of tin has unique, radical properties that enhanced the chemical reactivity and greatly improved the metal oxide formation process. Both barium and tin are significantly cheaper than indium and are abundantly available. “We were quite surprised at how well this unconventional approach worked the very first time we used the tin chemical precursor,” said University of Minnesota chemical engineering and materials science graduate student Abhinav Prakash, the first author of the paper. “It was a big risk, but it was quite a big breakthrough for us.” Jalan and Prakash said this new process allowed them to create this material with unprecedented control over thickness, composition, and defect concentration and that this process should be highly suitable for a number of other material systems where the element is hard to oxidize. The new process is also reproducible and scalable. They further added that it was the structurally superior quality with improved defect concentration that allowed them to discover high conductivity in the material. They said the next step is to continue to reduce the defects at the atomic scale. “Even though this material has the highest conductivity within the same materials class, there is much room for improvement in addition, to the outstanding potential for discovering new physics if we decrease the defects. That’s our next goal,” Jalan said. The research was funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF), Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR), and U.S. Department of Energy. In addition to Jalan and Prakash, the research team included Peng Xu, University of Minnesota chemical engineering and materials science graduate student; Cynthia S. Lo, Washington University assistant professor; Alireza Faghaninia, former graduate student at Washington University; Sudhanshu Shukla, researcher at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and Nanyang Technological University; and Joel W. Ager III, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and University of California Berkeley adjunct professor. To read the full paper, entitled “Wide Bandgap BaSnO  Films with Room Temperature Conductivity Exceeding 104 Scm-1,” visit the Nature Communications website.


Home > Press > Discovery of new transparent thin film material could improve electronics and solar cells: Conductivity is highest-ever for thin film oxide semiconductor material Abstract: A team of researchers, led by the University of Minnesota, have discovered a new nano-scale thin film material with the highest-ever conductivity in its class. The new material could lead to smaller, faster, and more powerful electronics, as well as more efficient solar cells. The discovery is being published today in Nature Communications, an open access journal that publishes high-quality research from all areas of the natural sciences. Researchers say that what makes this new material so unique is that it has a high conductivity, which helps electronics conduct more electricity and become more powerful. But the material also has a wide bandgap, which means light can easily pass through the material making it optically transparent. In most cases, materials with wide bandgap, usually have either low conductivity or poor transparency. "The high conductivity and wide bandgap make this an ideal material for making optically transparent conducting films which could be used in a wide variety of electronic devices, including high power electronics, electronic displays, touchscreens and even solar cells in which light needs to pass through the device," said Bharat Jalan, a University of Minnesota chemical engineering and materials science professor and the lead researcher on the study. Currently, most of the transparent conductors in our electronics use a chemical element called indium. The price of indium has gone up tremendously in the past few years significantly adding to the cost of current display technology. As a result, there has been tremendous effort to find alternative materials that work as well, or even better, than indium-based transparent conductors. In this study, researchers found a solution. They developed a new transparent conducting thin film using a novel synthesis method, in which they grew a BaSnO3 thin film (a combination of barium, tin and oxygen, called barium stannate), but replaced elemental tin source with a chemical precursor of tin. The chemical precursor of tin has unique, radical properties that enhanced the chemical reactivity and greatly improved the metal oxide formation process. Both barium and tin are significantly cheaper than indium and are abundantly available. "We were quite surprised at how well this unconventional approach worked the very first time we used the tin chemical precursor," said University of Minnesota chemical engineering and materials science graduate student Abhinav Prakash, the first author of the paper. "It was a big risk, but it was quite a big breakthrough for us." Jalan and Prakash said this new process allowed them to create this material with unprecedented control over thickness, composition, and defect concentration and that this process should be highly suitable for a number of other material systems where the element is hard to oxidize. The new process is also reproducible and scalable. They further added that it was the structurally superior quality with improved defect concentration that allowed them to discover high conductivity in the material. They said the next step is to continue to reduce the defects at the atomic scale. "Even though this material has the highest conductivity within the same materials class, there is much room for improvement in addition, to the outstanding potential for discovering new physics if we decrease the defects. That's our next goal," Jalan said. ### The research was funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF), Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR), and U.S. Department of Energy. In addition to Jalan and Prakash, the research team included Peng Xu, University of Minnesota chemical engineering and materials science graduate student; Cynthia S. Lo, Washington University assistant professor; Alireza Faghaninia, former graduate student at Washington University; Sudhanshu Shukla, researcher at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and Nanyang Technological University; and Joel W. Ager III, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and University of California Berkeley adjunct professor. For more information, please click If you have a comment, please us. Issuers of news releases, not 7th Wave, Inc. or Nanotechnology Now, are solely responsible for the accuracy of the content.


A team of researchers, led by the University of Minnesota, have discovered a new nano-scale thin film material with the highest-ever conductivity in its class. The new material could lead to smaller, faster, and more powerful electronics, as well as more efficient solar cells. The discovery is being published today in Nature Communications, an open access journal that publishes high-quality research from all areas of the natural sciences. Researchers say that what makes this new material so unique is that it has a high conductivity, which helps electronics conduct more electricity and become more powerful. But the material also has a wide bandgap, which means light can easily pass through the material making it optically transparent. In most cases, materials with wide bandgap, usually have either low conductivity or poor transparency. "The high conductivity and wide bandgap make this an ideal material for making optically transparent conducting films which could be used in a wide variety of electronic devices, including high power electronics, electronic displays, touchscreens and even solar cells in which light needs to pass through the device," said Bharat Jalan, a University of Minnesota chemical engineering and materials science professor and the lead researcher on the study. Currently, most of the transparent conductors in our electronics use a chemical element called indium. The price of indium has generally gone up over the last two decades, which has added to the cost of current display technology. As a result, there has been tremendous effort to find alternative materials that work as well, or even better, than indium-based transparent conductors. In this study, researchers found a solution. They developed a new transparent conducting thin film using a novel synthesis method, in which they grew a BaSnO3 thin film (a combination of barium, tin and oxygen, called barium stannate), but replaced elemental tin source with a chemical precursor of tin. The chemical precursor of tin has unique, radical properties that enhanced the chemical reactivity and greatly improved the metal oxide formation process. Both barium and tin are significantly cheaper than indium and are abundantly available. "We were quite surprised at how well this unconventional approach worked the very first time we used the tin chemical precursor," said University of Minnesota chemical engineering and materials science graduate student Abhinav Prakash, the first author of the paper. "It was a big risk, but it was quite a big breakthrough for us." Jalan and Prakash said this new process allowed them to create this material with unprecedented control over thickness, composition, and defect concentration and that this process should be highly suitable for a number of other material systems where the element is hard to oxidize. The new process is also reproducible and scalable. They further added that it was the structurally superior quality with improved defect concentration that allowed them to discover high conductivity in the material. They said the next step is to continue to reduce the defects at the atomic scale. "Even though this material has the highest conductivity within the same materials class, there is much room for improvement in addition, to the outstanding potential for discovering new physics if we decrease the defects. That's our next goal," Jalan said. The research was funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF), Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR), and U.S. Department of Energy. In addition to Jalan and Prakash, the research team included Peng Xu, University of Minnesota chemical engineering and materials science graduate student; Cynthia S. Lo, Washington University assistant professor; Alireza Faghaninia, former graduate student at Washington University; Sudhanshu Shukla, researcher at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and Nanyang Technological University; and Joel W. Ager III, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and University of California Berkeley adjunct professor. To read the full paper, entitled "Wide Bandgap BaSnO3 Films with Room Temperature Conductivity Exceeding 104 Scm-1," visit the Nature Communications website.


News Article | April 27, 2017
Site: www.prnewswire.com

Raisa Ahmad was previously a summer associate with the firm, in which she conducted research and prepared memos for patent litigation cases involving software and security patents, pharmaceuticals, and biomedical devices.  In addition, she has experience preparing claim construction charts, invalidity contentions, and Lanham Act standing memos.  Prior to law school, she was a student engineer and conducted electric-cell substrate impedance sensing analysis for the Center for the Convergence of Physical and Cancer Biology.  Ahmad received her J.D. from the University of Arizona College of Law in 2016 where she was senior articles editor for the Arizona Law Review and received the Dean's Achievement Award Scholarship.  She received her B.S.E., magna cum laude, in biomedical engineering from Arizona State University in 2011.  She is admitted to practice in Texas. Brian Apel practices patent litigation, including post-grant proceedings before the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.  He has worked for clients in the mechanical, electrical, and chemical industries and has experience in pre-suit diligence including opinion work, discovery, damages, summary judgment, and appeals.  Apel also has experience in patent prosecution, employment discrimination, and First Amendment law.  Before law school, he served as an officer in the U.S. Navy.  Apel received his J.D., magna cum laude, Order of the Coif, from the University of Michigan Law School in 2016 and his B.A., with honors, in chemistry from Northwestern University in 2008.  He is admitted to practice in Minnesota, the U.S. District Court of Minnesota, and before the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. Zoya Kovalenko Brooks focuses her practice on patent litigation, including working on teams for one of the largest high-tech cases in the country pertaining to data transmission and memory allocation technologies.  She was previously a summer associate and law clerk with the firm.  While in law school, she served as a legal extern at The Coca-Cola Company in the IP group.  Prior to attending law school, she was an investigator intern at the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, where she investigated over 20 potential discrimination cases.  Brooks received her J.D., high honors, Order of the Coif, from Emory University School of Law in 2016 where she was articles editor for Emory Law Journal and her B.S., high honors, in applied mathematics from the Georgia Institute of Technology in 2013.  She is admitted to practice in Georgia. Holly Chamberlain focuses on patent prosecution in a variety of areas including the biomedical, mechanical, and electromechanical arts.  She was previously a summer associate with the firm.  She received her J.D. from Boston College Law School in 2016 where she was an editor of Intellectual Property and Technology Forum and her B.S. in biological engineering from Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 2013.  She is admitted to practice in Massachusetts and before the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. Thomas Chisena previously was a summer associate with the firm where he worked on patent, trade secret, and trademark litigation.  Prior to attending law school, he instructed in biology, environmental science, and anatomy & physiology.  Chisena received his J.D., magna cum laude, from the University of Pennsylvania Law School in 2016 where he was executive editor of Penn Intellectual Property Group Online and University of Pennsylvania Journal of International Law, Vol. 37.  He also received his Wharton Certificate in Business Management in December 2015.  He received his B.S. in biology from Pennsylvania State University in 2009.  He is admitted to practice in Pennsylvania, Massachusetts, and the U.S. District Court of Massachusetts. Claire Collins was a legal intern for the Middlesex County District Attorney's Office during law school.  She has experience researching and drafting motions and legal memorandums.  Collins received her J.D. from the University of Virginia School of Law in 2016 where she was a Dillard Fellow, her M.A. from Texas A&M University in 2012, and her B.A. from Bryn Mawr College in 2006.  She is admitted to practice in Massachusetts. Ronald Golden, III previously served as a courtroom deputy to U.S. District Judge Leonard P. Stark and U.S. Magistrate Judge Mary Pat Thynge.  He received his J.D. from Widener University School of Law in 2012 where he was on the staff of Widener Law Review and was awarded "Best Overall Competitor" in the American Association for Justice Mock Trial.  He received his B.A. from Stockton University in political science and criminal justice in 2005.  He is admitted to practice in Delaware and New Jersey. Dr. Casey Kraning-Rush was previously a summer associate with the firm, where she focused primarily on patent litigation.  She received her J.D. from the University of Pennsylvania Law School in 2016 where she was managing editor of Penn Intellectual Property Group Online and awarded "Best Advocate" and "Best Appellee Brief" at the Western Regional of the AIPLA Giles Rich Moot Court.  She earned her Ph.D. in biomedical engineering from Cornell University in 2013 and has extensive experience researching cellular and molecular medicine.  She received her M.S. in biomedical engineering from Cornell University in 2012 and her B.S., summa cum laude, in chemistry from Butler University in 2008.  She is admitted to practice in Delaware. Alana Mannigé was previously a summer associate with the firm and has worked on patent prosecution, patent litigation, trademark, and trade secret matters.  During law school, she served as a judicial extern to the Honorable Judge James Donato of the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California.  She also worked closely with biotech startup companies as part of her work at the UC Hastings Startup Legal Garage.  Prior to attending law school, Mannigé worked as a patent examiner at the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.  She received her J.D., magna cum laude, from the University of California, Hastings College of the Law in 2016 where she was senior articles editor of Hastings Science & Technology Law Journal.  She received her M.S. in chemistry from the University of Michigan in 2010 and her B.A., cum laude, in chemistry from Clark University in 2007.  She is admitted to practice in California and before the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. Will Orlady was previously a summer associate with the firm, in which he collaborated to research and brief a matter on appeal to the Federal Circuit.  He also analyzed novel issues related to inter partes review proceedings, drafted memoranda on substantive patent law issues, and crafted infringement contentions.  During law school, Orlady was a research assistant to Professor Kristin Hickman, researching and writing on administrative law.  He received his J.D., magna cum laude, Order of the Coif, from the University of Minnesota Law School in 2016 where he was lead articles editor of the Minnesota Journal of Law, Science and Technology and his B.A. in neuroscience from the University of Southern California in 2012.  He is admitted to practice in Minnesota and the U.S. District Court of Minnesota. Jessica Perry previously was a summer associate and law clerk with the firm, where she worked on patent and trademark litigation.  During law school, she was an IP & licensing analyst, in which she assisted with drafting and tracking material transfer agreement and inter-institutional agreements.  She also worked with the Boston University Civil Litigation Clinic representing pro bono clients with unemployment, social security, housing, and family law matters.  Prior to law school, she was a senior mechanical design engineer for an aerospace company.  She received her J.D. from Boston University School of Law in 2016 where she was articles editor of the Journal of Science and Technology Law, her M.Eng. in mechanical engineering from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in 2009, and her B.S. in mechanical engineering from the University of Massachusetts, Amherst in 2007.  She is admitted to practice in Massachusetts and the U.S. District Court of Massachusetts. Taufiq Ramji was previously a summer associate with the firm, in which he researched legal issues that related to ongoing litigation and drafted responses to discovery requests and U.S. Patent and Trademark Office actions.  Prior to attending law school, Ramji worked as a software developer.  He received his J.D. from Harvard Law School in 2016.  He is admitted to practice in California. Charles Reese has worked on matters before various federal district courts, the Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit, and the Patent Trial and Appeal Board.  His litigation experience includes drafting dispositive, evidentiary, and procedural motions; arguing in federal district court; and participating in other stages of litigation including discovery, appeal, and settlement negotiation.  Previously, he was a summer associate with the firm.  He received his J.D., cum laude, from Harvard Law School in 2016 where he was articles editor of Harvard Law Review, his A.M. in organic and organometallic chemistry from Harvard University in 2012, and his B.S., summa cum laude, in chemistry from Furman University in 2010.  He is admitted to practice in Georgia and the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of Georgia. Ethan Rubin was previously a summer associate and law clerk with the firm.  During law school, he worked at a corporation's intellectual property department in which he prepared and prosecuted patents relating to data storage systems.  He also worked as a student attorney, advocating for local pro bono clients on various housing and family law matters.  Rubin received his J.D., cum laude, from Boston College Law School in 2016 where he was articles editor of Boston College Law Review, his M.S. in computer science from Boston University in 2013, and his B.A., magna cum laude, in criminal justice from George Washington University in 2011.  He is admitted to practice in Massachusetts and before the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. Pooya Shoghi focuses on patent prosecution, including portfolio management, application drafting, client counseling, and standard essential patent development.  Prior to joining the firm, he was a patent practitioner at a multinational technology company, where he was responsible for the filing and prosecution of U.S. patent applications.  During law school, he was a legal intern at a major computer networking technology company, where he focused on issues of intellectual property licensing in the software arena.  He received his J.D., with honors, from Emory University School of Law in 2014 where he was executive managing editor of Emory Corporate Governance and Accountability Review.  He received his B.S., summa cum laude, in computer science (2015) and his B.A., summa cum laude, in political science (2011) from Georgia State University.  He is admitted to practice in New York and before the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. Tucker Terhufen focuses his practice on patent litigation in federal district courts as well as before the International Trade Commission for clients in the medical devices, life sciences, chemical, and electronics industries.  Prior to joining Fish, he served as judicial extern to the Honorable David G. Campbell of the U.S. District Court for the District of Arizona and to the Honorable Mary H. Murguia of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit.  He received his J.D., magna cum laude, Order of the Coif, from Arizona State University, Sandra Day O'Connor College of Law in 2016 where he was note and comment editor of Arizona State Law Journal and received a Certificate in Law, Science, and Technology with a specialization in Intellectual Property.  He received his B.S.E., summa cum laude, in chemical engineering from Arizona State University.  He is admitted to practice in California. Laura Whitworth was previously a summer associate with the firm.  During law school, she served as a judicial intern for the Honorable Judge Jimmie V. Reyna of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit.  She received her J.D., cum laude, from American University Washington College of Law in 2016 where she was senior federal circuit editor of American University Law Review and senior patent editor of Intellectual Property Brief.  She received her B.S. in chemistry from the College of William & Mary in 2013.  She is admitted to practice in Virginia, the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Virginia, and before the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. Jack Wilson was previously a summer associate with the firm.  During law school, he served as a judicial extern for the Honorable Mark Davis of the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Virginia.  Prior to attending law school, he served in the United States Army.  He received his J.D., magna cum laude, from William & Mary Law School in 2016 where he was on the editorial staff of William & Mary Law Review and his B.S. in computer engineering from the University of Virginia in 2009.  He is admitted to practice in Virginia and before the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. Fish & Richardson is a global patent prosecution, intellectual property litigation, and commercial litigation law firm with more than 400 attorneys and technology specialists in the U.S. and Europe.  Our success is rooted in our creative and inclusive culture, which values the diversity of people, experiences, and perspectives.  Fish is the #1 U.S. patent litigation firm, handling nearly three times as many cases than its nearest competitor; a powerhouse patent prosecution firm; a top-tier trademark and copyright firm; and the #1 firm at the Patent Trial and Appeal Board, with more cases than any other firm.  Since 1878, Fish attorneys have been winning cases worth billions in controversy – often by making new law – for the world's most innovative and influential technology leaders.  For more information, visit https://www.fr.com or follow us at @FishRichardson. To view the original version on PR Newswire, visit:http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/fish--richardson-announces-18-recent-associates-300447237.html


News Article | May 2, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

The National Academy of Sciences announced today the election of 84 new members and 21 foreign associates in recognition of their distinguished and continuing achievements in original research. The National Academy of Sciences announced today the election of 84 new members and 21 foreign associates in recognition of their distinguished and continuing achievements in original research. Those elected today bring the total number of active members to 2,290 and the total number of foreign associates to 475. Foreign associates are nonvoting members of the Academy, with citizenship outside the United States. Newly elected members and their affiliations at the time of election are: Bates, Frank S.; Regents Professor, department of chemical engineering and materials science, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis Beilinson, Alexander; David and Mary Winton Green University Professor, department of mathematics, The University of Chicago, Chicago Bell, Stephen P.; investigator, Howard Hughes Medical Institute; and professor of biology, department of biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge Bhatia, Sangeeta N.; John J. (1929) and Dorothy Wilson Professor, Institute for Medical Engineering and Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge Buzsáki, György; professor, Neuroscience Institute, departments of physiology and neuroscience, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York City Carroll, Dana; distinguished professor, department of biochemistry, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City Cohen, Judith G.; Kate Van Nuys Page Professor of Astronomy, department of astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena Crabtree, Robert H.; Conkey P. Whitehead Professor of Chemistry, department of chemistry, Yale University, New Haven, Conn. Cronan, John E.; professor and head of microbiology, professor of biochemistry, and Microbiology Alumni Professor, department of microbiology, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign Cummins, Christopher C.; Henry Dreyfus Professor of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge Darensbourg, Marcetta Y.; distinguished professor of chemistry, department of chemistry, Texas A&M University, College Station DeVore, Ronald A.; The Walter E. Koss Professor and distinguished professor, department of mathematics, Texas A&M University, College Station Diamond, Douglas W.; Merton H. Miller Distinguished Service Professor of Finance, The University of Chicago, Chicago Doe, Chris Q.; investigator, Howard Hughes Medical Institute; and professor of biology, Institute of Molecular Biology, University of Oregon, Eugene Duflo, Esther; Co-founder and co-Director of the Abdul Latif Jameel Poverty Action Lab, and Professor of Poverty Alleviation and Development Economics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge Edwards, Robert Haas; professor of neurology and physiology, University of California, San Francisco Firestone, Mary K.; professor and associate dean of instruction and student affairs, department of environmental science policy and management, University of California, Berkeley Fischhoff, Baruch; Howard Heinz University Professor, department of social and decision sciences and department of engineering and public policy, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh Ginty, David D.; investigator, Howard Hughes Medical Institute; and Edward R. and Anne G. Lefler Professor of Neurobiology, department of neurobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston Glass, Christopher K.; professor of cellular and molecular medicine and professor of medicine, University of California, San Diego Goldman, Yale E.; professor, department of physiology, Pennsylvania Muscle Institute, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia González, Gabriela; spokesperson, LIGO Scientific Collaboration; and professor, department of physics and astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge Hagan, John L.; John D. MacArthur Professor of Sociology and Law, department of sociology, Northwestern University, Evanston, Ill. Hatten, Mary E.; Frederick P. Rose Professor, laboratory of developmental neurobiology, The Rockefeller University, New York City Hebard, Arthur F.; distinguished professor of physics, department of physics, University of Florida, Gainesville Jensen, Klavs F.; Warren K. Lewis Professor of Chemical Engineering and professor of materials science and engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge Kahn, Barbara B.; vice chair for research strategy and George R. Minot Professor of Medicine at Harvard Medical School, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston Kinder, Donald R.; Philip E. Converse Collegiate Professor of Political Science and Psychology and research scientist, department of political science, Center for Political Studies, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor Lazar, Mitchell A.; Willard and Rhoda Ware Professor in Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases, and director, Institute for Diabetes, Obesity, and Metabolism, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia Locksley, Richard M.; investigator, Howard Hughes Medical Institute; and professor, department of medicine (infectious diseases), and Marion and Herbert Sandler Distinguished Professorship in Asthma Research, University of California, San Francisco Lozano, Guillermina; professor and chair, department of genetics, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston Mavalvala, Nergis; Curtis and Kathleen Marble Professor of Astrophysics and associate head, department of physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge Moore, Jeffrey Scott; Murchison-Mallory Professor of Chemistry, department of chemistry, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign Moore, Melissa J.; chief scientific officer, mRNA Research Platform, Moderna Therapeutics, Cambridge, Mass.; and Eleanor Eustis Farrington Chair of Cancer Research Professor, RNA Therapeutics Institute, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester Nunnari, Jodi M.; professor, department of molecular and cellular biology, University of California, Davis O'Farrell, Patrick H.; professor of biochemistry and biophysics, department of biochemistry and biophysics, University of California, San Francisco Ort, Donald R.; research leader and Robert Emerson Professor, USDA/ARS Global Change and Photosynthesis Research Unit, departments of plant biology and crop sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign Parker, Gary; professor, department of civil and environmental engineering and department of geology, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign Patapoutian, Ardem; investigator, Howard Hughes Medical Institute; and professor, department of molecular and cellular neuroscience, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, Calif. Pellegrini, Claudio; distinguished professor emeritus, department of physics and astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles Pikaard, Craig, S.; investigator, Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation; and distinguished professor of biology and molecular and cellular biochemistry, department of biology, Indiana University, Bloomington Read, Nicholas; Henry Ford II Professor of Physics and professor of applied physics and mathematics, Yale University, New Haven, Conn. Roediger, Henry L.; James S. McDonnell Distinguished and University Professor of Psychology, department of psychology and brain sciences, Washington University, St. Louis Rosenzweig, Amy C.; Weinberg Family Distinguished Professor of Life Sciences, and professor, departments of molecular biosciences and of chemistry, Northwestern University, Evanston, Ill. Seto, Karen C.; professor, Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, New Haven, Conn. Seyfarth, Robert M.; professor of psychology and member of the graduate groups in anthropology and biology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia Sibley, L. David; Alan A. and Edith L. Wolff Distinguished Professor in Molecular Microbiology, department of molecular microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis Spielman, Daniel A.; Henry Ford II Professor of Computer Science and Mathematics, departments of computer science and mathematics, Yale University, New Haven, Conn. Sudan, Madhu; Gordon McKay Professor of Computer Science, John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. Tishkoff, Sarah; David and Lyn Silfen University Professor, departments of genetics and biology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia Van Essen, David C.; Alumni Professor of Neurobiology, department of anatomy and neurobiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis Vidale, John E.; professor, department of earth and space sciences, University of Washington, Seattle Wennberg, Paul O.; R. Stanton Avery Professor of Atmospheric Chemistry and Environmental Science and Engineering, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena Wilson, Rachel I.; Martin Family Professor of Basic Research in the Field of Neurobiology, department of neurobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston Zachos, James C.; professor, department of earth and planetary sciences, University of California, Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz Newly elected foreign associates, their affiliations at the time of election, and their country of citizenship are: Addadi, Lia; professor and Dorothy and Patrick E. Gorman Chair of Biological Ultrastructure, department of structural science, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel (Israel/Italy) Folke, Carl; director and professor, The Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden (Sweden) Freeman, Kenneth C.; Duffield Professor of Astronomy, Mount Stromlo and Siding Spring Observatories, Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Weston Creek (Australia) Lee, Sang Yup; distinguished professor, dean, and director, department of chemical and biomolecular engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon, South Korea (South Korea) Levitzki, Alexander; professor of biochemistry, unit of cellular signaling, department of biological chemistry, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem (Israel) Peiris, Joseph Sriyal Malik; Tam Wah-Ching Professorship in Medical Science, School of Public Health, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong, People's Republic of China (Sri Lanka) Robinson, Carol Vivien; Dr. Lee's Professor of Chemistry, Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory, University of Oxford, Oxford, England (United Kingdom) Thesleff, Irma; academician of science, professor, and research director, developmental biology program, Institute of Biotechnology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland) Underdal, Arild; professor of political science, department of political science, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway (Norway) The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit institution that was established under a congressional charter signed by President Abraham Lincoln in 1863. It recognizes achievement in science by election to membership, and -- with the National Academy of Engineering and the National Academy of Medicine -- provides science, engineering, and health policy advice to the federal government and other organizations.


News Article | April 17, 2017
Site: www.gizmag.com

One of the problems with heart attacks (as if there weren't enough already) is that when the heart heals afterwards, it grows scar tissue over the part of the heart that was damaged. That scar tissue never does become beating heart tissue, so it leaves the heart compromised for the rest of the patient's life. There may be hope, however, as scientists from the University of Minnesota have created a new patch that allows the heart to heal more completely. First of all, yes, this has been done before. We have already seen experimental "heart patches" from places like the University of Tel Aviv, Brown University and MIT, which allow the heart to heal with a minimum of scar tissue growth. One of the things that makes this latest patch unique is the fact that it's 3D-bioprinted out of structural proteins native to the heart. It takes the form of a scaffolding-like matrix, which is subsequently seeded with cardiac cells derived from stem cells. The result is a patch of material, similar in structure and material to heart tissue, containing actual functioning heart cells – as opposed to inert scar tissue. In lab tests, one of the patches was placed on the heart of a mouse that had suffered a simulated heart attack. Within just four weeks, the scientists noted a "significant increase in functional capacity." The patch was ultimately absorbed by the body, so no additional surgeries were required to remove it after its job was done. "We were quite surprised by how well it worked given the complexity of the heart," says associate professor Brenda Ogle, who is leading the research. "We were encouraged to see that the cells had aligned in the scaffold and showed a continuous wave of electrical signal that moved across the patch." A larger patch is now in the works, which will be tested on a pig heart. Other institutions involved in the study include the University of Wisconsin-Madison and University of Alabama-Birmingham. A paper on the research was recently published in the journal Circulation Research.


News Article | April 17, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

A team of biomedical engineering researchers, led by the University of Minnesota, has created a revolutionary 3D-bioprinted patch that can help heal scarred heart tissue after a heart attack. The discovery is a major step forward in treating patients with tissue damage after a heart attack. The research study is published today in Circulation Research, a journal published by the American Heart Association. Researchers have filed a patent on the discovery. According to the American Heart Association, heart disease is the No. 1 cause of death in the U.S. killing more than 360,000 people a year. During a heart attack, a person loses blood flow to the heart muscle and that causes cells to die. Our bodies can't replace those heart muscle cells so the body forms scar tissue in that area of the heart, which puts the person at risk for compromised heart function and future heart failure. In this study, researchers from the University of Minnesota-Twin Cities, University of Wisconsin-Madison, and University of Alabama-Birmingham used laser-based 3D-bioprinting techniques to incorporate stem cells derived from adult human heart cells on a matrix that began to grow and beat synchronously in a dish in the lab. When the cell patch was placed on a mouse following a simulated heart attack, the researchers saw significant increase in functional capacity after just four weeks. Since the patch was made from cells and structural proteins native to the heart, it became part of the heart and absorbed into the body, requiring no further surgeries. "This is a significant step forward in treating the No. 1 cause of death in the U.S.," said Brenda Ogle, an associate professor of biomedical engineering at the University of Minnesota. "We feel that we could scale this up to repair hearts of larger animals and possibly even humans within the next several years." Ogle said that this research is different from previous research in that the patch is modeled after a digital, three-dimensional scan of the structural proteins of native heart tissue. The digital model is made into a physical structure by 3D printing with proteins native to the heart and further integrating cardiac cell types derived from stem cells. Only with 3D printing of this type can we achieve one micron resolution needed to mimic structures of native heart tissue. "We were quite surprised by how well it worked given the complexity of the heart," Ogle said. "We were encouraged to see that the cells had aligned in the scaffold and showed a continuous wave of electrical signal that moved across the patch." Ogle said they are already beginning the next step to develop a larger patch that they would test on a pig heart, which is similar in size to a human heart. The research was funded by the National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health, University of Minnesota Lillehei Heart Institute, and University of Minnesota Institute for Engineering in Medicine. In addition to Ogle, other biomedical engineering researchers who were part of the team include Molly E. Kupfer, Jangwook P. Jung, Libang Yang, Patrick Zhang, and Brian T. Freeman from the University of Minnesota; Paul J. Campagnola, Yong Da Sie, Quyen Tran, and Visar Ajeti from the University of Wisconsin-Madison; and Jianyi Zhang, Ling Gao, and Vladimir G. Fast from the University of Alabama, To read the full research paper entitled "Myocardial Tissue Engineering With Cells Derived from Human Induced-Pluripotent Stem Cells and a Native-Like, High-Resolution, 3-Dimensionally Printed Scaffold," visit the Circulation Research website.


News Article | April 19, 2017
Site: globenewswire.com

MADONA, Latvia, April 19, 2017 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Quest Management Inc. (OTC-PINK:QSMG) announces that as part of its control acquisition and new business initiatives, it is negotiating to acquire Chagrin Safety Supply for its consolidated holding company operations. The acquisition of Chagrin Safety Supply will serve as a beachhead entry into the business-to-business durable goods market, as part of its diversified strategy. Chagrin has an over 29 year history, including having been awarded the master contract post-911 from the US Postal Service to supply nitrile safety gloves to the nations 44,000 post offices. As part of the acquisition, Bill Oler will continue to serve as its President, and additionally as part of the Quest management team. Bill Oler has more than 44 years’ experience in the Healthcare and Safety fields. Prior to founding Chagrin Safety Supply in January 1988, Bill was Vice President, Operations, University Hospitals of Cleveland, the major teaching affiliate of Case Western Reserve University. In 2013, Bill was elected to the Board of Directors of the Solon Chamber of Commerce. Four months later, he founded the Western Reserve Safety Council, a not-for-profit partnership between the Solon Chamber of Commerce and the Ohio Bureau of Workers’ Compensation, and has since served as its Steering Committee Chair to this day. Bill earned his undergraduate degree from Villanova University (BA) and his Masters’ Degree in Hospital and HealthCare Administration (MHA) from the University of Minnesota. Bill is married, has 2 daughters, one son and a grandson. He has lived in the Chagrin Valley area of Ohio for 33 years, served 2 terms as President, Tanglewood Lake Homeowners Association and is a proud 12 year member of the Geauga Blue Coats, a non-profit organization whose mission is to fund college education for the children of fallen first responders. Safe Harbor Statement: This news release contains "forward-looking statements", which are statements that are not purely historical and include any statements regarding beliefs, plans, expectations or intentions regarding the future. Such forward-looking statements include, among other things, the development, costs and results of new business opportunities. Actual results could differ from those projected in any forward-looking statements due to numerous factors. Such factors include, among others, the inherent uncertainties associated with new projects and development stage companies. These forward-looking statements are made as of the date of this news release, and we assume no obligation to update the forward-looking statements, or to update the reasons why actual results could differ from those projected in the forward-looking statements. Although we believe that any beliefs, plans, expectations and intentions contained in this press release are reasonable, there can be no assurance that any such beliefs, plans, expectations or intentions will prove to be accurate. Investors should consult all of the information set forth herein and should also refer to the risk factors disclosure outlined in our annual report on Form 10-K for the most recent fiscal year, our quarterly reports on Form 10-Q and other periodic reports filed from time-to-time with the Securities and Exchange Commission.

Loading University of Minnesota collaborators
Loading University of Minnesota collaborators