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Belo Horizonte, Brazil

Silaghi C.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Skuballa J.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology | Thiel C.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Pfister K.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | And 5 more authors.
Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases | Year: 2012

The European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus) is a common insectivore in most parts of Europe and is frequently infested by the ticks Ixodes ricinus and I. hexagonus. I. ricinus ticks have been found infected with Anaplasma phagocytophilum, an obligate intracellular bacterium, but little is known about the potential of the hedgehog as a reservoir host. In this study, the infection with A. phagocytophilum and the genetic variants involved were investigated in a captive hedgehog population which was kept in a fenced, natural grass and bush garden habitat, and also in its ticks. Additionally hedgehogs from hedgehog caretaking stations were investigated. EDTA blood and ticks were collected from the captive hedgehog population once a month from March to October 2007 and in March and April 2008. All 3 developmental stages of I. ricinus and I. hexagonus occurred on the hedgehogs. After DNA extraction, the samples were screened for A. phagocytophilum with a real-time PCR, and selected samples were further investigated with a nested PCR targeting the partial 16S rRNA gene, followed by sequencing. One hundred thirty-six out of 220 hedgehog blood samples (61.8%) from altogether 48 individuals, 413 out of 563 I. ricinus samples and 90 out of 338 I. hexagonus samples were PCR-positive. Thirty-two hedgehogs were positive more than once, most frequently twice or 3 times, but also up to 9 times. Sequencing of the partial 16S rRNA gene resulted in 6 variants, but one variant ('A') was the most frequent which appeared in 93.8% of the positive hedgehogs. This variant (equaling Frankonia II, GenBank AF136712) has recently been reported from human, equine, and canine granulocytic anaplasmosis cases and thus, its specific association with hedgehogs is an important finding in the epidemiology of A. phagocytophilum in Europe. The high infection rate of both hedgehogs and ticks with A. phagocytophilum and the simultaneous infestation with 2 tick species of all developmental stages suggest that the hedgehog may be a suitable reservoir for at least some variants of A. phagocytophilum. © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. Source

Kitagawa A.T.,Federal University of Alfenas | Costa L.S.,Federal University of Lavras | Paulino R.R.,Federal University of Lavras | Luz R.K.,University of Minas Gerais | And 3 more authors.
Applied Animal Behaviour Science | Year: 2015

The aim of this study was to evaluate the rhythms of feeding and locomotor activity, the ability to synchronize to a fixed feeding time, and the influence of photoperiod on the growth parameters, feed intake and hematological parameters of a recently introduced fish in freshwater Brazilian aquaculture, Lophiosilurus alexandri. In experiment 1, six aquariums (60 fish each) had automatic feeders connected to a photoelectric cell set to 12L:12D conditions. The photoelectric cell emitted a continuous beam of infrared light, and the fish used the feeder for self-feeding for 36 days. In the second stage, to evaluate the ability to synchronize animals to food in a 12L:12D photoperiod condition, two different feeding schedules were established (12:00h and 00:00h) in a separate aquarium. All data were recorded on a computer. In experiment 2, 160 juveniles, (4.20±0.05g), were subjected to four treatments: 24h of light, T1 (24L:0D); 12h of light and 12h of dark with food provided during the day period, T2 (12L:12Da); 12h light and 12h dark with food provided during the night period, T3 (12L:12Db); and 24h dark, T4 (24D). The fish feeding was conducted using automatic feeders at fixed feeding times. The growth data calculated were weight gain, length gain, specific weight gain, feed conversion and survival. The blood parameters collected were total protein, hematocrit, glucose and cortisol. Fish kept at a photoperiod of 12L:12D showed greater locomotion (90% of total actions) and feeding activity (88% of total actions) in the dark phase. The locomotion activity was synchronized with the different times of feeding, with a peak of 160 actions at 12:00h (light phase) and a peak of 180 actions at 00:00h (dark phase). There was no difference for performance and survival. The feeding intake was improved in fish feed in 24 light condition (T1). The glucose, total protein and hematocrit showed no significant differences. Cortisol was significantly higher in T1 (mean±SE, 40±2.08ngmL-1) compared with the other treatments. In conclusion, considering the fish preference and their welfare, we suggest that they should be fed at night although they have the plasticity to adapt to other feeding schedules. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source

Reis F.M.,University of Minas Gerais | Petraglia F.,University of Siena
Human Reproduction Update | Year: 2013

Background: The recruitment of immune cells by chemokines and the regulation of endometrial cell apoptosis are critical aspects of endometriosis biology. Here, we review the local (paracrine) and systemic hormone (endocrine) modulation of these two specific, but highly related phenomena. Methods: We searched Pubmed for items published in English between September 1991 and September 2011 and selected the studies evaluating the effects of hormones on chemokines or apoptosis in normal human endometrium and endometriosis. Results: Estradiol has proinflammatory and antiapoptotic effects in endometrial cells, and these effects appear to be exacerbated in women with endometriosis. In these women, physiological estradiol concentrations are able to induce an enhanced inflammatory response mediated by local chemokine production and to reinforce mechanisms of cell survival mediated by extracellular signal-regulated kinases and Bcl-2. The main effect of progestogens is to inhibit interleukin-8 and other chemokines in stromal cells from both eutopic and ectopic endometrium. Progesterone is also effective in inducing apoptosis in endometrial and endometriotic cells through the inhibition of Bcl-2 and nuclear factor-kB. Conclusions: Estrogens and progestogens modulate chemotaxis and apoptosis in human endometrium and endometriotic cells and tissues. These endocrine and paracrine pathways are perturbed in women with endometriosis, contributing to inflammatory responses, abnormal tissue remodeling, therapeutic refractoriness and disease persistence. Ultimately, they promote adhesion formation and the clinical symptoms of pelvic pain and infertility. A more detailed understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved will offer new opportunities for novel pharmacological strategies to diagnose and treat endometriosis. © The Author 2013. Source

Urrutia S.,University of Minas Gerais | Milanes A.,Molde University College | Lokketangen A.,Molde University College
International Transactions in Operational Research | Year: 2015

The double traveling salesman problem with multiple stacks consists in determining a pair of routes (pickup and delivery) for a unique vehicle in two different and disjoint networks. It models a realistic transportation problem with loading/unloading constraints imposed by having a set of last-in-first-out (LIFO) stacks used for storing the goods being transported. The arrangement of the items in the container determines the loading plan that in terms constrains both routes. In this paper, we propose a novel local search approach. The local search heuristic is applied to the loading plan instead of working directly on the routes. A dynamic programming algorithm is used to map the loading plan solution into corresponding optimal routes. Computational results show that the proposed approach is competitive with state-of-the-art heuristics for the problem. © 2013 The Authors. Source

Nezhat F.R.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine | Pejovic T.,Oregon Health And Science University | Reis F.M.,University of Minas Gerais | Guo S.-W.,Shanghai JiaoTong University
International Journal of Gynecological Cancer | Year: 2014

Objectives: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the current evidence of the association of endometriosis and subsequent carcinoma of the ovary and to contextualize this evidence into daily practice issues. Methods: This study is a critical review of observational and in vitro studies. Results: Although the lifetime risk for ovarian cancer is low in general population and remains low in the broad spectrum of endometriosis, there may be clusters of individuals at higher risk of oncogenesis, whose identification would allow individualized surveillance and prophylactic interventions. Prevalence studies show that specific subtypes of ovarian cancer predominate in women with endometriosis. This has been validated in pathogenetic, genomic, immunobiologic, and hormonal studies. Conclusions: Taken together, these data provide a strong rationale for identifying, monitoring, counseling, and treating women with endometriosis who are at highest risk for cancer conversion. Copyright © 2014 by IGCS and ESGO. Source

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