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Kweon B.-S.,University of Maryland College Park | Marans R.W.,University Of Michigans | Yi C.-W.,University of Maryland College Park
Landscape Journal | Year: 2016

The question of whether parks are equally available to African American and white residents is of growing concern among public officials, urban and regional planners, parks and recreation managers, and landscape architects. This paper examines the distribution of parks among African American and white residents in metropolitan Detroit and considers relationships between parks, their use by each group, and their overall quality of life. The study uses structural equation modeling to analyze household survey data and GIS data covering the location and amount of parkland. Findings show that, on average, African Americans lived closer to parks and had more parkland within one- half mile of home. However, African Americans were less likely to visit parks and more likely to rate them poorly. For both groups, local park ratings were positively associated with neighborhood satisfaction and higher quality of life. © 2016 by the Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System.


Boland C.S.,ICF International | De Kleine R.,Ford Motor Company | Keoleian G.A.,University of Michigans | Keoleian G.A.,University of Michigan | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Industrial Ecology | Year: 2016

This study examines the life cycle energy demand and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with substituting natural cellulose and kenaf in place of glass fibers in automotive components. Specifically, a 30 wt% glass-fiber composite component weighing 3 kilograms (kg) was compared to a 30 wt% cellulose fiber composite component (2.65 kg) and 40 wt% kenaf fiber composite component (2.79 kg) for six cars, crossovers, and sport utility vehicles. The use-phase fuel consumption of the baseline and substitute components, with and without powertrain resizing, were determined using a mass-induced fuel consumption model based on U.S. Environmental Protection Agency test records. For all vehicles, compared to the baseline glass fiber component, using the cellulose composite material reduced life cycle energy demand by 9.2% with powertrain resizing (7.2% without) and reduced life cycle GHG emissions by 18.6% with powertrain resizing (16.3% without), whereas the kenaf composite component reduced energy demand by 6.0% with powertrain resizing (4.8% without) and GHG emissions by 10.7% with powertrain resizing (9.2% without). For both natural fiber components, the majority of the life cycle energy savings is realized in the use-phase fuel consumption as a result of the reduced weight of the component. Copyright © 2016, Yale University.


Colett J.S.,University of Michigans | Kelly J.C.,Argonne National Laboratorys Center for Transportation Research | Keoleian G.A.,University of Michigan
Journal of Industrial Ecology | Year: 2016

This study explored the impacts of electricity allocation protocols on the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of electricity consumption. The selection of appropriate electricity allocation protocols, methodologies that assign pools of electricity generators to electricity consumers, has not been well standardized. This can lead to very different environmental profiles of similar, electricity-intensive processes. In an effort to better represent the interconnected nature of the U.S. electrical grid, we propose two new protocols that utilize inter-regional trade information and localized emission factors to combine generating pools that are sub- or supersets of one another. This new nested approach increases the likelihood of capturing important inter-regional electricity trading and the appropriate assignment of generator emissions to consumers of local and regional electricity. We applied the new and existing protocols to the U.S. primary aluminum industry, an industry whose environmental impact is heavily tied to its electricity consumption. Our analysis found GHG emission factors that were dramatically different than those reported in previous literature. We calculated production-weighted average emission factors of 19.0 and 19.9 kilograms carbon dioxide equivalent per kilogram of primary aluminum ingot produced when using our two nested electricity allocation protocols. Previous studies reported values of 10.5 and 11.0, at least 42% lower than those found by our study. © 2016, Yale University.


Shaverdian A.A.,University of Michigans | Hao Z.,University of Michigans | Michailidis G.,University of Michigans | Jagadish H.V.,University of Michigans
IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications | Year: 2012

Visual analytics (VA), which combines analytical techniques with advanced visualization features, is fast becoming a standard tool for extracting information from graph data. Researchers have developed many tools for this purpose, suggesting a need for formal methods to guide these tools' creation. Increased data demands on computing requires redesigning VA tools to consider performance and reliability in the context of analysis of exascale datasets. Furthermore, visual analysts need a way to document their analyses for reuse and results justification. A VA graph framework encapsulated in a graph algebra helps address these needs. Its atomic operators include selection and aggregation. The framework employs a visual operator and supports dynamic attributes of data to enable scalable visual exploration of data. © 1981-2012 IEEE.

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