Flint, MI, United States
Flint, MI, United States

The University of Michigan–Flint , is a public university located in Flint, Michigan in the United States. It is one of the two University of Michigan satellite campuses. Wikipedia.

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Abouelenien M.,University of Michigan | Perez-Rosas V.,University of Michigan | Mihalcea R.,University of Michigan | Burzo M.,University of Michigan-Flint
IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security | Year: 2017

Deception detection has received an increasing amount of attention in recent years, due to the significant growth of digital media, as well as increased ethical and security concerns. Earlier approaches to deception detection were mainly focused on law enforcement applications and relied on polygraph tests, which had proved to falsely accuse the innocent and free the guilty in multiple cases. In this paper, we explore a multimodal deception detection approach that relies on a novel data set of 149 multimodal recordings, and integrates multiple physiological, linguistic, and thermal features. We test the system on different domains, to measure its effectiveness and determine its limitations. We also perform feature analysis using a decision tree model, to gain insights into the features that are most effective in detecting deceit. Our experimental results indicate that our multimodal approach is a promising step toward creating a feasible, non-invasive, and fully automated deception detection system. © 2005-2012 IEEE.

Lin H.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Mares J.A.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | LaMonte M.J.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Brady W.E.,State University of New York at Buffalo | And 5 more authors.
Ophthalmic Epidemiology | Year: 2017

Purpose: To examine the association between xanthophyll intake and prevalent early age-related macular degeneration (AMD) using data from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (n = 10,295). Potential effect modification by genetic polymorphisms and biomarkers of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) metabolism was explored. Methods: Xanthophyll intake was assessed at visit 1 (1987–1989) using food frequency questionnaires. Prevalent early AMD was assessed at visit 3 (1993–1995) via retinal photographs. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for AMD by quintiles of xanthophyll intake, adjusted for age, sex, race, field center, and pack-years of smoking. To evaluate effect modification, the association between tertiles (T) of xanthophyll intake and AMD was stratified by complement factor H (CFH) rs1061170 and age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2 (ARMS2) rs10490924 genotypes, as well as by median cutpoints of HDL biomarkers. Results: Xanthophyll intake was not associated with AMD in the overall sample, Caucasians (n = 8257), or African-Americans (n = 2038). Exploratory analyses observed that the association between xanthophyll intake and AMD varied statistically significantly by CFH rs1061170 genotype among Caucasians (p for interaction = 0.045) but not African Americans. No interactions were observed between xanthophyll intake and ARMS2 rs10490924. Moreover, higher xanthophyll intake was associated with decreased odds of AMD among participants with lower HDL (OR = 0.79, 95% CI 0.57–1.09) but not higher HDL (p for interaction = 0.048). Conclusion: Xanthophyll intake was not associated with early AMD. Further studies to investigate this association by genetic susceptibility or variations in HDL metabolism are needed. © 2017 Taylor & Francis

Samona J.,University of Michigan-Flint | Samona J.,Hurley Medical Center | Cook C.,University of Michigan-Flint | Cook C.,Hurley Medical Center | And 10 more authors.
Orthopaedic Surgery | Year: 2017

Objective: To examine whether the addition of intravenous dexamethasone during total knee arthroplasty (TKA) would be effective at reducing postoperative pain scores and postoperative opioid consumption. Methods: A total of 102 patients undergoing TKA were placed into two groups: 55 subjects received intraoperative dexamethasone 8 mg intravenously (treatment group) and 47 did not receive dexamethasone at any time during the perioperative period. Comparison was made using the 0–10 numeric pain rating scale and the amount of opioids used in each group. Results: Patients who received dexamethasone required significantly less oral opioids compared to the control group. Pain scores at 24 h post-surgery were significantly less for the dexamethasone group compared to the control group. There was no difference between groups in regards to patient-controlled analgesic dose or pain scores in the post-anesthesia care unit, at 12 or 48 h post-surgery. Conclusion: A single dose of dexamethasone given intraoperatively significantly decreased oral narcotic consumption and decreased pain scores 24 h postoperatively. Dexamethasone appears to be a safe modality to use to control pain in patients undergoing TKA. © 2017 Chinese Orthopaedic Association and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd

Yorke A.M.,University of Michigan-Flint | Smith L.,University of Michigan-Flint | Babcock M.,University of Michigan-Flint | Alsalaheen B.,University of Michigan-Flint | Alsalaheen B.,University of Michigan
Sports Health | Year: 2017

Background: Sustaining a concussion commonly results in vestibular impairments that may be associated with balance deficits. To screen for vestibular impairments after a concussion, the Vestibular/Ocular Motor Screening (VOMS) tool was developed. The relationship between the VOMS and other concussion screening tools, such as the Balance Error Scoring System (BESS) and King-Devick (K-D), have not been explored. Hypotheses: (1) VOMS would provide reliable results and not provoke symptoms in healthy adolescents and (2) VOMS test items would measure related aspects of vestibular function that are not measured through the BESS or K-D. Study Design: Cross-sectional, descriptive. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Methods: A total of 105 healthy adolescents (53 male, 52 female; mean age, 15.4 years) completed the VOMS, BESS, and K-D tests. A subsample of 21 adolescents (16 male, 5 female; mean age, 15.5 years) completed the VOMS twice. Results: The median total symptom score for all 7 VOMS items was 0 (0-5). The majority of the individual VOMS test items total symptom scores demonstrated a significant correlation with each other (rs = 0.25-0.66, P < 0.02). The individual VOMS items did not demonstrate a significant relationship to the BESS or K-D. VOMS items demonstrated high agreement in total symptom scores between testing trials, with near point convergence (NPC) distance demonstrating an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.95 (95% CI, 0.89-0.98; P < 0.001). The MDC95 (minimal detectable change with 95 confidence) for NPC distance was 4 cm. Conclusion: The VOMS did not provoke vestibular symptoms in healthy adolescents. The VOMS items measured unique aspects of vestibular function other than those measured by the BESS or K-D with good reliability. Clinical Relevance: Clinicians should consider implementing the VOMS as part of a comprehensive concussion assessment if vestibular impairment is suspected. If NPC distance is measured twice, a difference of >4 cm would be considered real change outside of measurement error. © 2016, © 2016 The Author(s).

Lubeckyj R.A.,University of Michigan-Flint | Winkler-Moser J.K.,Functional Foods Research Unit | Fhaner M.J.,University of Michigan-Flint
JAOCS, Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society | Year: 2017

There has been an increase in the use of electrochemical methods for monitoring antioxidant levels in a variety of disciplines due to the sensitivity, low detection limits, ease of use, low cost and rapid analysis time offered by these techniques. One technique that has received specific attention is differential pulse voltammetry. We describe a novel application of differential pulse voltammetry to quantitatively and qualitatively determine the efficiency of removing tocopherols from commercial fish oil via column chromatographic separation. The relative limits of detection and quantitation of differential pulse voltammetry are compared to HPLC for determining the removal of tocopherols from commercial fish oil. It was determined that differential pulse voltammetry can monitor the separation of commercially added antioxidants from the bulk sample via a decrease in antioxidant oxidation currents. Furthermore, the limits of detection and quantitation were found to be comparable with values obtained using HPLC for tocopherol identification and quantitation. © 2017, AOCS.

Aluko O.,University of Michigan-Flint | Gotham S.,Michigan Technological University | Odegard G.M.,Michigan Technological University
Proceedings of the American Society for Composites - 31st Technical Conference, ASC 2016 | Year: 2016

A computational molecular dynamic model involving multilayer graphene nanoplatelets in epoxy composite was developed in order to characterize its elastic behavior when subjected to thermo-mechanical loadings. In this investigation, the approach for constructing the molecular structure of graphene/epoxy composite using Optimized Potential Liquid Simulation (OPLS) force field is documented. Also, the cross-linking and the method for equilibrating the systems are defined. The techniques used for evaluating the models under different loading conditions are given. The predicted results are made available for the user of composite materials.

Perera S.,University of Michigan-Flint | Janakiraman G.,University of Texas at Dallas | Niu S.-C.,University of Texas at Dallas
International Journal of Production Economics | Year: 2017

The classical economic-order-quantity (EOQ) model is at the heart of supply chain optimization and the theory of inventories. We study an extension of the original EOQ model that permits a minimal set of assumptions on the ordering/procurement and holding/backorder costs and establish necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of an optimal policy of the (s, S) type. Our work lends theoretical credibility to the practice of using (s, S) policies for virtually any cost structure of practical interest. Our proof is constructive and elementary, in the sense that it is based on first principles that do not rely on advanced mathematical machinery. We also prove that an optimal policy, not necessarily of the (s, S) type, always exists within our general EOQ framework. © 2016

Anderson E.M.,University of Michigan | Lundquist A.M.,University of Michigan | Pearson C.,University of Michigan-Flint | Millunchick J.M.,University of Michigan
Journal of Applied Physics | Year: 2017

The interaction between Sb and As is investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy of InAs (001) surfaces. Sb roughens the surface by increasing the coverage of divots (vacancy clusters) and two dimensional islands, which both possess a c(4 × 4) reconstruction. ab initio total energy calculations predict that the As-terminated β2(2 × 4) transforms into In-Sb heterodimer terminated c(4 × 4) configurations with increasing Sb chemical potential, which causes the roughening by pulling atoms from the terrace. Thus we propose an alternative model for interfacial broadening by intermixing rather than by surface segregation. © 2017 Author(s).

Resnick B.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Selig S.,University of Michigan-Flint | Riegelman R.,George Washington University
Public Health Reviews | Year: 2017

Objectives: With over 10,900 public health bachelor's degree graduates conferred in 2015, public health undergraduate education in the USA has become mainstream. However, with the recent establishment of a majority of the programs, the impact of the undergraduate programs remains largely unknown. This study examines a sample of undergraduate programs in public health to further elucidate the undergraduate landscape. Methods: Semi-structured interviews and a review of program websites from a sample of 39 institutions across the USA with undergraduate majors labeled as public health were conducted in 2015 to examine program content and operations. Results: Findings from the 39 programs reviewed demonstrated growing and diverse undergraduate public health programs rapidly evolving. While program enrollments, infrastructure, and curriculum varied among the individual programs, collectively, findings indicated increasing numbers of undergraduate students gaining knowledge and experience in matters related to the health of societies locally, nationally, and globally. Conclusions: Study findings suggest it is an opportune time for the field to offer guidance, support, and vision to these burgeoning undergraduate programs. Such engagement offers opportunities to advance the programs as well as increase the number of students attuned to societal health in whatever life roles they assume. © The Author(s).

McIntosh B.,University of Michigan-Flint | Khatchadourian K.,University of Ottawa | Amed S.,University of British Columbia
Canadian Journal of Diabetes | Year: 2016

Objectives: There are few studies exploring why adherence to clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of childhood type 1 diabetes is suboptimal. Our objective was to describe healthcare providers' perspectives on the facilitators of and barriers to adhering to pediatric diabetes treatment guidelines. Methods: We fielded an electronic survey to 260 pediatric diabetes healthcare providers (physicians, nurses, dietitians) in British Columbia, Canada, followed by qualitative interviews with a purposeful sample (N=15) of physicians and allied healthcare providers. Descriptive statistics and directed content analysis were used. Results: We received 95 of 260 survey responses(37%). Of the 260 healthcare providers who received the survey, 116 were known to be working in a pediatric diabetes centre, and 71 of 116 (61%) responded. Almost all providers were aware of (92%) and familiar with (77%) the Canadian Diabetes Association clinical practice guidelines, and most were in agreement with the recommendations. Patient-level factors, such as poor adherence and patient/family preferences for higher glycemic targets, as well as inadequate resources (i.e. funding, mental health support), were identified as significant barriers. Qualitative interviews identified 3 key themes: 1) working collectively provincially; 2) supporting emotional and mental health and 3) frequent interactions with patients. A provincial health delivery and communication model, as well as mental health support integrated into routine patient care, were recommended. Conclusions: The results of this study can guide resource allocation toward key priorities, such as increased investment in mental health support for children with diabetes. The next steps include collecting patient and family perspectives on improving guideline adherence. © 2016 Canadian Diabetes Association.

Lapeyrouse L.M.,University of Michigan-Flint | Miranda P.Y.,Pennsylvania State University | Morera O.F.,University of Texas at El Paso | Heyman J.M.,University of Texas at El Paso | Balcazar H.G.,Charles R. Drew University of Medicine and Science
Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities | Year: 2016

Introduction: Among Latinas, lacking health insurance and having lower levels of acculturation are associated with disparities in mammography screening. Objective: We seek to investigate whether differences in lifetime mammography exist between Latina border residents by health insurance status and health care site (i.e., U.S. only or a combination of U.S. and Mexican health care). Methods: Using data from the 2009 to 2010 Ecological Household Study on Latino Border Residents, mammography screening was examined among (n = 304) Latinas >40 years old. Results: While more acculturated women were significantly (p < .05) more likely to report ever having a mammogram than less acculturated women, ever having a mammogram was not predicted by health care site or insurance status. Conclusion: Latinas who utilize multiple systems of care have lower levels of acculturation and health insurance, thus representing an especially vulnerable population for experiencing disparities in mammography screening. © 2016 W. Montague Cobb-NMA Health Institute

Dwyer J.W.,University of Michigan-Flint
Academic Medicine | Year: 2017

PROBLEM: The Affordable Care Act charged the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality to create the Primary Care Extension Program, but did not fund this effort. The idea to work through health extension agents to support health care delivery systems was based on the nationally known Cooperative Extension System (CES). Instead of creating new infrastructure in health care, the CES is an ideal vehicle for increasing health-related research and primary care delivery. APPROACH: The CES, a long-standing component of the land-grant university system, features a sustained infrastructure for providing education to communities. The Michigan State University (MSU) Model of Health Extension offers another means of developing a National Primary Care Extension Program that is replicable in part because of the presence of the CES throughout the United States. A partnership between the MSU College of Human Medicine and MSU Extension formed in 2014, emphasizing the promotion and support of human health research. The MSU Model of Health Extension includes the following strategies: building partnerships, preparing MSU Extension educators for participation in research, increasing primary care patient referrals and enrollment in health programs, and exploring innovative funding. OUTCOMES: Since the formation of the MSU Model of Health Extension, researchers and extension professionals have made 200+ connections, and grants have afforded savings in salary costs. NEXT STEPS: The MSU College of Human Medicine and MSU Extension partnership can serve as a model to promote health partnerships nationwide between CES services within land-grant universities and academic health centers or community-based medical schools.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal. © 2017 by the Association of American Medical Colleges

News Article | April 17, 2017
Site: www.prweb.com

The Community for Accredited Online Schools, a leading resource provider for higher education information, has determined the best online colleges programs in Michigan for 2017. Of the 36 four-year schools that made the “Best” list, University of Michigan Ann Arbor, Eastern Michigan University, Michigan State University, Wayne State University and Western Michigan University came in as the top schools. Of the 12 two-year colleges that also made the list, Lansing Community College, Washtenaw Community College, Delta College, Kirtland Community College and Henry Ford Community College were the top five. “Students in Michigan have more options than ever for pursuing a certificate or degree online,” said Doug Jones, CEO and founder of AccreditedSchoolsOnline.org. “The schools on our list are particularly distinctive because they offer the best combination of quality education, academic resources and online program variety.” To earn a place on the Community for Accredited Online Schools list, colleges and universities must be accredited, public or private not-for-profit schools. Each college is also analyzed based on such data as the availability of academic resources, student/teacher ratios, graduation rates and financial aid opportunities. For more details on where each school falls in the rankings and the data and methodology used to determine the lists, visit: Michigan’s Best Online Four-Year Schools for 2017 include the following: Andrews University Baker College Central Michigan University Cleary University Concordia University-Ann Arbor Cornerstone University Davenport University Eastern Michigan University Ferris State University Grace Bible College Grand Valley State University Kettering University Lake Superior State University Lawrence Technological University Madonna University Marygrove College Michigan State University Michigan Technological University Northern Michigan University Northwood University-Michigan Oakland University Olivet College Siena Heights University Spring Arbor University University of Detroit Mercy University of Michigan-Ann Arbor University of Michigan-Dearborn University of Michigan-Flint Walsh College of Accountancy and Business Administration Wayne State University Western Michigan University Michigan’s Best Online Two-Year Schools for 2017 include the following: Bay College Bay Mills Community College Delta College Glen Oaks Community College Grand Rapids Community College Henry Ford Community College Kirtland Community College Lansing Community College Mid Michigan Community College Schoolcraft College St Clair County Community College Washtenaw Community College About Us: AccreditedSchoolsOnline.org was founded in 2011 to provide students and parents with quality data and information about pursuing an affordable, quality education that has been certified by an accrediting agency. Our community resource materials and tools span topics such as college accreditation, financial aid, opportunities available to veterans, people with disabilities, as well as online learning resources. We feature higher education institutions that have developed online learning programs that include highly trained faculty, new technology and resources, and online support services to help students achieve educational success.

News Article | April 17, 2017
Site: www.prweb.com

LearnHowToBecome.org, a leading resource provider for higher education and career information, has released its list of Michigan’s best colleges and universities for 2017. Of the 48 four-year schools that made the list, University of Michigan Ann Arbor, Michigan Technological University, Albion College, Calvin College and Alma College were the top five institutions. 27 two-year schools were also included, with Lansing Community College, Washtenaw Community College, Delta College, Henry Ford Community College and Kellogg Community College in the top five. A full list of schools is included below. “The job outlook in Michigan continues to be positive as the state’s economy improves, and that’s great news for students seeking a degree,” said Wes Ricketts, senior vice president of LearnHowToBecome.Org. “The schools on our list have established a commitment to student success, as demonstrated by their employment services and the average earnings of their alumni after graduation.” To be included on Michigan’s “Best Colleges” list, schools must be regionally accredited, not-for-profit institutions. Each college is also scored on additional data that includes annual alumni earnings 10 years after entering college, career services offered, availability of financial aid and such additional metrics as student/teacher ratios and graduation rates. Complete details on each college, their individual scores and the data and methodology used to determine the LearnHowToBecome.org “Best Colleges in Michigan” list, visit: The Best Four-Year Colleges in Michigan for 2017 include: Aquinas College Baker College Center for Graduate Studies Baker College of Auburn Hills Baker College of Clinton Township Baker College of Flint Baker College of Muskegon Baker College of Port Huron Calvin College Central Michigan University Cleary University College for Creative Studies Concordia University-Ann Arbor Cornerstone University Davenport University Eastern Michigan University Ferris State University Finlandia University Grand Valley State University Great Lakes Christian College Hope College Kalamazoo College Kettering University Kuyper College Lake Superior State University Lawrence Technological University Madonna University Marygrove College Michigan State University Michigan Technological University Northern Michigan University Northwood University-Michigan Oakland University Olivet College Rochester College Saginaw Valley State University Siena Heights University Spring Arbor University University of Detroit Mercy University of Michigan-Ann Arbor University of Michigan-Dearborn University of Michigan-Flint Walsh College of Accountancy and Business Administration Wayne State University Western Michigan University Best Two-Year Colleges in Michigan for 2017 include: Alpena Community College Bay College Bay Mills Community College Delta College Glen Oaks Community College Gogebic Community College Grand Rapids Community College Henry Ford Community College Kalamazoo Valley Community College Kellogg Community College Kirtland Community College Lansing Community College Macomb Community College Michigan Career and Technical Institute Mid Michigan Community College Monroe County Community College Montcalm Community College Mott Community College Muskegon Community College North Central Michigan College Oakland Community College Schoolcraft College Southwestern Michigan College St Clair County Community College Washtenaw Community College Wayne County Community College District West Shore Community College ### About Us: LearnHowtoBecome.org was founded in 2013 to provide data and expert driven information about employment opportunities and the education needed to land the perfect career. Our materials cover a wide range of professions, industries and degree programs, and are designed for people who want to choose, change or advance their careers. We also provide helpful resources and guides that address social issues, financial aid and other special interest in higher education. Information from LearnHowtoBecome.org has proudly been featured by more than 700 educational institutions.

Tseng K.-K.,Harbin Institute of Technology | Huang H.-N.,Tunghai University | Zeng F.F.,Harbin Institute of Technology | Tu S.-Y.,University of Michigan-Flint
Sensors (Switzerland) | Year: 2015

It is known that cardiac and respiratory rhythms in electrocardiograms (ECGs) are highly nonlinear and non-stationary. As a result, most traditional time-domain algorithms are inadequate for characterizing the complex dynamics of the ECG. This paper proposes a new ECG sensor card and a statistical-based ECG algorithm, with the aid of a reduced binary pattern (RBP), with the aim of achieving faster ECG human identity recognition with high accuracy. The proposed algorithm has one advantage that previous ECG algorithms lack-the waveform complex information and de-noising preprocessing can be bypassed; therefore, it is more suitable for non-stationary ECG signals. Experimental results tested on two public ECG databases (MIT-BIH) from MIT University confirm that the proposed scheme is feasible with excellent accuracy, low complexity, and speedy processing. To be more specific, the advanced RBP algorithm achieves high accuracy in human identity recognition and is executed at least nine times faster than previous algorithms. Moreover, based on the test results from a long-term ECG database, the evolving RBP algorithm also demonstrates superior capability in handling long-term and non-stationary ECG signals. © 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Li W.,University of Michigan-Flint
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2011

This paper introduces a multi-start search approach to dynamic traveling salesman problem (DTSP). Our experimental problem is stochastic and dynamic. Our search algorithm is dynamic because it explicitly incorporates the interaction of change and search over time. The result of our experiment demonstrates the effectiveness and efficiency of the algorithm. When we use a matrix to construct the solution attractor from the set of local optima generated by the multi-start search, the attractor-based search can provide even better result. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Yang L.,Saint Louis University | Vincent Hirt M.,University of Minnesota | Sado T.,Natural History Museum and Institute | Arunachalam M.,Manonmaniam Sundaranar University | And 6 more authors.
Zootaxa | Year: 2012

The barbin genera Discherodontus Rainboth 1989, Chagunius Smith 1938 and Hypselobarbus Bleeker 1860 are distrib-uted in Southeast and South Asia and are among the least studied taxa of the order Cypriniformes. Few morphological studies have been conducted on these genera and only a very limited number of morphological characters were employed to hypothesize or infer their monophyly, inter-relationships, and relationships with other barbins. The main aim of this study is to examine the monophyly of these three genera and propose hypothesis of relationship among these taxa and other barbins based on a molecular phylogeny of the subfamily Cyprininae. A total of 106 cypriniform species were sam-pled, including 64 species and 31 genera of barbins collected from Eurasia and Africa. Partitioned maximum likelihood analysis was performed using DNA sequences derived from five mitochondrial genes (5601 bp): cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), cytochrome b (Cyt b), 16S ribosomal RNA (16S), NADH dehydrogenase subunits 4 (ND4) and subunits 5 (ND5). The resulting phylogeny demonstrates that, under current taxon sampling, Discherodontus, Chagunius, and Hypselobarbus are all monophyletic genera. Together they do not form a monophyletic group, as hypothesized in previous studies, but are instead part of three distinct and unrelated clades. Discherodontus constitutes the basal lineage of a clade formed by Southeast Asian barbins (e.g. Poropuntius, Hypsibarbus, Balantiocheilos); Chagunius is basal to a clade formed mainly by Puntius and allies (although this relationship was only weakly supported); Hypselobarbus and Barbus carnaticus formed a clade sister to a clade including Tor, Neolissochilus, Labeobarbus, and Varicorhinus. Homoplasy and shared plesiomorphy of some hypothesized important morphological characters employed in previous studies that led re-searchers to hypothesize earlier relationships are discussed. Copyright © 2001-2012 Magnolia Press.

Blackwood J.,University of Michigan-Flint | Sweet C.,University of Michigan-Flint
Gerontology and Geriatrics Education | Year: 2016

Introduction: Increased exposure to geriatrics throughout a student's professional education has been reported to improve the desire to work in this area; however, factors that influence the perception of geriatric physical therapy may prohibit students from actively seeking those experiences. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of geriatric physical therapy by first-year graduate physical therapy students. Design: A qualitative case study research approach was performed. Method: Three focus groups were completed using students enrolled in their second semester of a graduate-level physical therapy program. Dialogue was reviewed and coded by three raters. Twenty-five subcategories of open-coding terms were triangulated and grouped into 4 themes via axial coding. Results: Four themes emerged: (1) ageism exists in health care, (2) personal and professional experiences serve as a framework for students’ perception of geriatrics, (3) interpersonal relationships formed within geriatric practice are highly valued, and (4) additional contextual barriers exist in geriatrics. Conclusions: To meet the needs of a highly skilled geriatric workforce, students should participate in enhanced geriatric experiences in didactic coursework as well as within interprofessional geriatric clinics throughout their education. © 2016, Routledge. All rights reserved.

Liu H.,CAF Institute of Chemical Industry of Forest Products | Wang A.,Qingdao University of Science and Technology | Xu X.,Nanjing Forestry University | Wang M.,Qingdao University of Science and Technology | And 3 more authors.
RSC Advances | Year: 2016

Cellulose aerogels based on crosslinking of cellulose with 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether (BDE) were homogeneously synthesized in NaOH/urea aqueous solution followed by freeze-drying. In the NaOH/urea aqueous solution, cellulose existed in a sodium alkoxide form that could react with the epoxide groups of BDE. The rheological behavior of the cellulose/NaOH/urea aqueous solution showed that the crosslinking reaction occurred immediately once the BDE was added to the cellulose/NaOH/urea aqueous solution at room temperature. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) characterization identified a transition from the crystalline structure of cellulose to an amorphous state of cellulose aerogels with increasing amount of BDE. Elemental analysis revealed the variation in carbon and oxygen elemental percentages in cellulose aerogels caused by the reaction between cellulose and BDE. The porous network of aerogels was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the pore size of the aerogels increased as a function of BDE. The water adsorbent ability of aerogels was up to 41 g g-1 - even after 30 squeezing-adsorption cycles, the water adsorbent ability was still 37 g g-1. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2016.

Johnson D.A.,University of Michigan | Johnson D.A.,Harvard University | Lisabeth L.,University of Michigan | Hickson D.,My Brothers Keeper Inc. | And 4 more authors.
Sleep | Year: 2016

Study Objectives: We investigated cross-sectional associations of individual-level socioeconomic position (SEP) and neighborhood characteristics (social cohesion, violence, problems, disadvantage) with sleep duration and sleep quality in 5,301 African Americans in the Jackson Heart Study. Methods: All measures were self-reported. Sleep duration was assessed as hours of sleep; sleep quality was reported as poor (1) to excellent (5). SEP was measured by categorized years of education and income. Multinomial logistic and linear regression models were fit to examine the associations of SEP and neighborhood characteristics (modeled dichotomously and tertiles) with sleep duration (short vs. normal, long vs. normal) and continuous sleep duration and quality after adjustment for demographics and risk factors. Results: The mean sleep duration was 6.4 ± 1.5 hours, 54% had a short (≤ 6 h) sleep duration, 5% reported long (≥ 9 h) sleep duration, and 24% reported fair to poor sleep quality. Lower education was associated with greater odds of long sleep (odds ratio [OR] = 2.19, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.42, 3.38) and poorer sleep quality (β =-0.17, 95% CI =-0.27,-0.07) compared to higher education after adjustment for demographics and risk factors. Findings were similar for income. High neighborhood violence was associated with shorter sleep duration (-9.82 minutes, 95% CI =-16.98,-2.66) and poorer sleep quality (β =-0.11, 95% CI =-0.20, 0.00) after adjustment for demographics and risk factors. Results were similar for neighborhood problems. In secondary analyses adjusted for depressive symptoms in a subset of participants, most associations were attenuated and only associations of low SEP with higher odds of long sleep and higher neighborhood violence with poorer sleep quality remained statistically significant. Conclusions: Social and environmental characteristics are associated with sleep duration and quality in African Americans. Depressive symptoms may explain at least part of this association.

Menezes R.,University of Pittsburgh | Letra A.,University of Pittsburgh | Kim A.H.,Carnegie Mellon University | Kuchler E.C.,Federal University of Fluminense | And 6 more authors.
Birth Defects Research Part A - Clinical and Molecular Teratology | Year: 2010

Background: Clefts of the lip and/or palate (cleft lip/palate) are notable for their complex etiology. The WNT pathway regulates multiple developmental processes including craniofacial development and may play a role in cleft lip/palate and other defects of craniofacial development such as tooth agenesis. Variations in WNT genes have been recently associated with cleft lip/palate in humans. In addition, two WNT genes, Wnt3 and Wnt9B, are located in the clf1 cleft locus in mice. Methods: We investigated 13 SNPs located in Wnt3A, Wnt5A, Wnt8A, Wnt11, Wnt3, and Wnt9B genes for association with cleft lip/palate subphenotypes in 463 cleft cases and 303 unrelated controls. Genotyping of selected polymorphisms was carried out using Taqman assays. PLINK 1.06 software was used to test for differences in allele frequencies of each polymorphism between affected and unaffected individuals. Haplotype analysis was also performed. Results: Individuals carrying variant alleles in WNT3 presented an increased risk for cleft lip/palate (p = 0.0003; OR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.29-2.02) in the population studied. Conclusion: Our results continue to support a role for WNT genes in the pathogenesis of cleft lip/palate. Although much remains to be learned about the function of individual WNT genes during craniofacial development, additional studies should focus on the identification of potentially functional variants in these genes as contributors to human clefting. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Uludag S.,University of Michigan-Flint | Imboden T.,Southern Illinois University Carbondale | Akkaya K.,Southern Illinois University Carbondale
International Journal of Communication Systems | Year: 2012

The definition of wireless mesh networks (WMNs) has been used in the literature to connote and epitomize the ideal, ubiquitous, pervasive, and autonomic networking technology. An increasing interest has been emerging on the development of 802.11-based WMN testbeds to test the new ideas and approaches more realistically as opposed to relying solely on simulations. Although the developed testbeds have provided several insights to researchers for furthering the technology, there are still several issues that need to be addressed, particularly, with the approval of new standards, such as IEEE 802.11s, IEEE 802.11n, and IEEE 802.16, and upcoming protocols, such as IEEE 802.11ac, 802.11ad, 802.11ah, and 802.11af TV White Space efforts. In this paper, our goal is to provide a taxonomy and insightful guidelines for the creation of 802.11-based WMN testbeds as well as to identify several features that future WMN testbeds should possess. Utilizing these features, we evaluate the existing WMN testbeds. Finally, in addition to the existing WMN testbed experiments conducted at several layers of the protocol stack, we provide a list of open future research issues that can benefit from experiments on WMN testbeds. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Ingwersen W.W.,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency | Ceja M.,Procter and Gamble | Weisbrod A.V.,Procter and Gamble | Cabezas H.,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency | And 14 more authors.
Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research | Year: 2016

Integrated sustainability metrics provide an enriched set of information to inform decision-making. However, such approaches are rarely used to assess product supply chains. In this work, four integrated metrics-presented in terms of land, resources, value added, and stability-are applied in a life cycle context, along with industrial process systems assessment and life cycle assessment, to evaluate Bounty paper towels from two manufacturing lines. The results show that the paper towels from the more state-of-the-art manufacturing line and newer facility are marginally more sustainable by the majority of environmental measures. Drivers of impacts from land use, resource use, and externality costs in the product life cycle are largely in the supply chains for raw materials and energy. The integrated metrics point to greenhouse gases, criteria air pollutants, land used for pulpwood, and fossil fuel use as important emissions and resources to manage for improving the sustainability of paper towel production. The metrics employed help to reconcile contrasting results from the life cycle impact assessment, such as water and energy use impacts, and provide a reduced set of practical, yet comprehensive, information to inform product-related decision-making. (Figure Presented). © 2016 American Chemical Society.

Panja B.,University of Michigan-Flint | Ogunyanwo O.,University of Michigan-Flint | Meharia P.,Eastern Michigan University
2014 IEEE/ACIS 15th International Conference on Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence, Networking and Parallel/Distributed Computing, SNPD 2014 - Proceedings | Year: 2014

Intrusion detection systems classify computer activities into two main categories: normal and suspicious activities. In order to achieve the classification, Intrusion detection systems use software computing techniques including neural networks and neuro fuzzy networks to categorize network activities and specify what category of attack is being generated. Neuro-Fuzzy classifiers are used for the initial classification of the initial network traffic. An inference system, Fuzzy inference systems is further used to determine whether the activity is normal or malicious. Efficient IDS systems are those capable of reducing false positives and generate high rate attack detection. However, fuzzy inference systems use human knowledge to create their fuzzy rule. In order to introduce a more accurate way of classifying network traffic, we introduce the use of Genetic Algorithms in conjunction with ANFIS so as to optimize data classification and obtain the best results. Genetic algorithms use a set of genetic operators such as mutation, crossover and selection on current population to reproduce similar patterns that will be used repeatedly until a particular criterion is met. © 2014 IEEE.

Turner S.W.,University of Michigan-Flint
Proceedings - Frontiers in Education Conference, FIE | Year: 2010

It is well documented that computer science education is improved with greater student involvement through interesting practical exercises. Many studies exemplify this through their use of hands-on programming activities with physical objects, such as robots, to illustrate important concepts. It is also known that interest in computer science has recently waned, and more specifically, interest in parallel processing has decreased greatly since its zenith in the early 1990s. Simultaneously, recent developments in computer architecture underline the future importance of parallel processing, and the popular press continually reports on the great need for more IT graduates in general. Past studies suggest that intrinsic motivation for given tasks can improve creativity. This paper presents a work-in-progress study, in which specific practical exercises were examined for their effectiveness at improving the motivation level of students, leading to greater creativity and interest in participation in a parallel processing class. The exercises involved the design and construction of a low-cost supercomputer using off-the-shelf components. © 2010 IEEE.

Aluko O.,University of Michigan-Flint
ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Proceedings (IMECE) | Year: 2013

An analysis was performed to predict the failure load of unidirectional and woven pinned loaded composite joints using the characteristic curve model. The characteristic dimensions used to determine the characteristic curve were evaluated from stress functions without experimental tests. A parametric study was carried out for different coefficient of friction ranging between 0 and 0.15 to evaluate the effect of friction on joints failure using Tsai-Wu failure criterion along the characteristic curve. A comparison of analytical results with the available experimental data showed that the friction coefficient of 0.05 generally gave the best prediction for the joint configurations evaluated. Copyright © 2013 by ASME.

Akkaya K.,Southern Illinois University Carbondale | Senel F.,University of Maryland Baltimore County | Thimmapuram A.,Southern Illinois University Carbondale | Uludag S.,University of Michigan-Flint
IEEE Transactions on Computers | Year: 2010

Mobility has been introduced to sensor networks through the deployment of movable nodes. In movable wireless networks, network connectivity among the nodes is a crucial factor in order to relay data to the sink node, exchange data for collaboration, and perform data aggregation. However, such connectivity can be lost due to a failure of one or more nodes. Even a single node failure may partition the network, and thus, eventually reduce the quality and efficiency of the network operation. To handle this connectivity problem, we present PADRA to detect possible partitions, and then, restore the network connectivity through controlled relocation of movable nodes. The idea is to identify whether or not the failure of a node will cause partitioning in advance in a distributed manner. If a partitioning is to occur, PADRA designates a failure handler to initiate the connectivity restoration process. The overall goal in this process is to localize the scope of the recovery and minimize the overhead imposed on the nodes. We further extend PADRA to handle multiple node failures. The approach, namely, MDAPRA strives to provide a mutual exclusion mechanism in repositioning the nodes to restore connectivity. The effectiveness of the proposed approaches is validated through simulation experiments. © 2010 IEEE.

Stout N.L.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Harrington S.E.,Creighton University | Pfalzer L.A.,University of Michigan-Flint | Fisher M.I.,University of Dayton
Topics in Geriatric Rehabilitation | Year: 2015

Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women in the United States. The treatment for breast cancer occurs along a protracted time period and includes many different disease treatment modalities. These treatments carry with them a large number of adverse effects that negatively impact function in both the short term and long term. It is necessary for rehabilitation providers to interface with patients being treated for breast cancer throughout the continuum of care so that interval assessments can be conducted to identify emerging impairments and alleviate disability. To achieve this, the rehabilitation provider must have an understanding of the clinical measurement tools best suited for examination and assessment of breast cancer-related impairments and disability. This article aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the evidence supporting the use of various clinical measurement tools for the breast cancer population and highlights the implementation of rehabilitation examination and assessment along the continuum of disease treatment. Copyright © 2015, Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

Carlisle J.,University of Michigan-Flint
16th Americas Conference on Information Systems 2010, AMCIS 2010 | Year: 2010

This paper presents a natural language processing semantic modeling approach that can be automated to pull conceptual information from text documents. The approach is based in the use of theta-roles, in particular thematic-hierarchies, to create a collection of vectors culled from the sentences of a document that describe content of the document. This approach can form the basis of a natural language processing-based concept representation scheme.

Wade R.A.,Pennsylvania State University | Clausen D.R.,Pennsylvania State University | Kopparapu R.K.,Pennsylvania State University | O'Shaughnessy R.,Pennsylvania State University | And 5 more authors.
AIP Conference Proceedings | Year: 2010

Observations to date preferentially find Galactic hot subdwarf (sdB/sdO) stars in binaries when the subdwarfs are more luminous than their relatively faint companions (G/K/M dwarfs, white dwarfs). As suggested by Han et al. [1], this selection bias may distort our perspective of the evolutionary channels that form hot subdwarfs in the galactic disk. A predicted and possibly more numerous population of binaries features a lower-mass, lower-luminosity, longer-lived hot subdwarf hiding in the glare from its companion: the subdwarf+A/early F binaries. Such systems may arise when mass transfer is initiated in the Hertzsprung gap; the A/F companion in some cases was "created" from a lower-mass star (i.e., it would be a blue straggler if seen in a cluster). A survey is underway at Penn State to identify hot subdwarfs paired with F stars, determine their properties, and establish their space density. The project makes use of ground and space archival data to identify these systems (from their UV excesses) and new spectroscopic observations to determine their orbital periods and other properties. Successful characterization of this group of close binaries should help to challenge, calibrate, or refine models of binary star evolution that are used in population synthesis studies, including the relative importance of the RLOF and common-envelope channels for the formation of hot subdwarfs. The motivation, methodology, and status of this search for hidden hot subdwarfs are presented in this contribution. © 2010 American Institute of Physics.

Berrington R.C.,Ball State University | Brotherton M.S.,University of Wyoming | Gallagher S.C.,University of Western Ontario | Ganguly R.,University of Michigan-Flint | And 9 more authors.
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | Year: 2013

We report the results of a new 60 ks Chandra X-ray Observatory Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer S-array (ACIS-S) observation of the reddened, radio-selected, highly polarized 'FeLoBAL' quasar FIRST J1556+3517. We investigated a number of models of varied sophistication to fit the 531-photon spectrum. These models ranged from simple power laws to power laws absorbed by hydrogen gas in differing ionization states and degrees of partial covering. Preferred fits indicate that the intrinsic X-ray flux is consistent with that expected for quasars of similarly high luminosity, i.e. an intrinsic, dereddened and unabsorbed optical to X-ray spectral index of -1.7.We cannot tightly constrain the intrinsic X-ray power-law slope, but find indications that it is flat (photon index γ = 1.7 or flatter at a >99 per cent confidence for a neutral hydrogen absorber model). Absorption is present, with a column density a few times 1023 cm-2, with both partially ionized models and partially covering neutral hydrogen models providing good fits. We present several lines of argument that suggest the fraction of X-ray emissions associated with the radio jet is not large. We combine our Chandra data with observations from the literature to construct the spectral energy distribution of FIRST J1556+3517 from radio to X-ray energies. We make corrections for Doppler beaming for the pole-on radio jet, optical dust reddening and X-ray absorption, in order to recover a probable intrinsic spectrum. The quasar FIRST J1556+3517 seems to be an intrinsically normal radioquiet quasar with a reddened optical/UV spectrum, a Doppler-boosted but intrinsically weak radio jet and an X-ray absorber not dissimilar from that of other broad absorption line quasars. © 2013 The Authors Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society.

Wallace P.M.,Boston University | Suzuki R.,University of Michigan-Flint
Journal of Cancer Education | Year: 2012

African-Americans have higher incidence and mortality from colorectal cancer than non-African-Americans. Early detection with colorectal cancer (CRC) screening reduces untimely death because the test can detect abnormalities and precancerous polyps in the colon and rectum. However, African-Americans aged 50 and older continue to have low CRC screening adherence. A retrospective analysis was conducted on data from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey to examine trends in self-reported CRC screening by geographic region, race, and gender. African-Americans, particularly men, were less likely to have been screened for colon cancer compared to all races and genders in this study. Individuals in the south were more likely to receive CRC screening than other regions. Colon cancer education and interventions are needed among low-adherent groups to promote the benefits of early detection with CRC screening. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Rao X.,CAF Institute of Chemical Industry of Forest Products | Huang X.,CAF Institute of Chemical Industry of Forest Products | He L.,China Pharmaceutical University | Song J.,University of Michigan-Flint | And 2 more authors.
Combinatorial Chemistry and High Throughput Screening | Year: 2012

A series of novel diterpenoids including imines, amides and ureas with a dehydroabietyl skeleton were screened to hepatocellular carcinoma (SMMC-7721), lung cancer (A-549), glioma (C-6) and breast carcinoma (MCF-7) tumor cells by MTT method. Their antitumor activity and structure activity relationship were analyzed. Several of the title compounds such as I-2, I-10, I-6 and I-5, possess noticeable antitumor activity against SMMC-7721, A-549, C-6 and MCF-7 tumor cells, with lowest IC50 values of 6.65, 0.75, 0.81 and 10.65μM, respectively. Based on the structure-activity relationship investigation, the three kinds of diterpenoids with a dehydroabietyl skeleton show high activity to SMMC-7721 cells. Imines derivatives exhibit broad spectrum and highly efficient activities to the selected four kinds of tumor cells. © 2012 Bentham Science Publishers.

Fhaner M.,University of Michigan-Flint | Hwang H..-S.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Winkler-Moser J.K.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Bakota E.L.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Liu S.X.,U.S. Department of Agriculture
European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology | Year: 2016

The aim of this study was to determine whether sesamol may provide antioxidant protection for marine omega-3 fatty acids. We tested the effectiveness of sesamol at two temperatures, 30 and 50°C and compared its antioxidant activity with butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), a commercial rosemary extract, and gamma-oryzanol. Each antioxidant system was tested at two concentrations, 0.84 and 8.4mM except for BHT of which the concentration was fixed at 0.84mM BHT (200ppm, the regulatory limit allowed in oils). 0.84mM phenolic diterpenes in the rosemary extract protected fish oil very well. 0.84mM sesamol was not as good as the rosemary extract as indicated by peroxide values, conjugated diene values, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels, and volatile compounds formation. However, 8.4mM sesamol performed better than the rosemary extract containing 8.4mM phenolic diterpenes in peroxide values and headspace volatiles compounds during storage of the stripped fish oil for 14 days at 30 and 50°C, while it showed similar results as the rosemary extract in conjugated diene values and EPA and DHA levels. Gamma-oryzanol was also evaluated for protection of fish oil. However, it was found that gamma-oryzanol was less effective than the other antioxidants tested in this study. Practical applications: At 8.4mM (0.13wt%), sesamol, a natural antioxidant, showed better than or comparable antioxidant activity to a commercial rosemary extract toward fish oil during storage at 30 and 50°C. Considering problems of flavor, odor, and color associated with a rosemary extract and that a rosemary extract product is typically sold as a solution containing only a few percent of active ingredients for oil applications, such as omega-3 oil supplements and frying oil due to the low solubility of active ingredients in oil, sesamol offers advantages over the rosemary extract as it can be used as a pure form without mixing with other ingredients. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Suzuki R.,University of Michigan-Flint | Krahn G.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Small E.,University of Texas at Arlington | Peterson-Besse J.,Pacific University in Oregon
American Journal of Health Behavior | Year: 2013

Objectives: To assess the barriers and facilitators to mammogram use in middle aged women with mobility limitations who had completed an educational workshop, Promoting Access to Health Service (PATHS), on clinical preventive services. Methods: Women aged 40 to 64 with mobility impairments who reported not receiving a mammogram in the last 2 years were randomly assigned to a PATHS workshop and received follow-up monthly phone call interviews over 6 months. Results: Individual (eg, comorbidities, family responsibilities), interpersonal (eg, unclear provider communication, negative history), and environmental (eg, healthcare availability, insurance coverage, finances) factors were identified as unsolved barriers and potential facilitators (eg, reminders, physical proximity), to obtaining a mammogram. Conclusions: A multi-level intervention approach is required to promote mammogram use by women with disabilities.

Allison M.,University of Michigan-Flint | Joo S.F.,Broward College
10th International Conference on Computer Science and Education, ICCSE 2015 | Year: 2015

Today's classroom and learner cohorts are supported by new and innovative technology in an unprecedented manner. The pace of technological advancements however does present challenges to educators in keeping abreast of the state of the art while concurrently facilitating a learner-certered approach. Topics within software engineering are especially susceptible to this phenomena and demands a more individualized adaptive model to support significant learning. Although there is an abundance of sound theoretical models which may address the challenge, the literature is sparse as to contextualization, application or concrete operation. Within a blended classroom, we have implemented an adaptive approach to address the pace of technology advancements with consideration for the skillsets and declarative knowledge of the learner. In this paper we present our approach within a software testing and maintenance course and discuss the lessons learnt. We have based our approach on the scientific grounding of Vygotsky's zone of proximal development and discuss the necessary scaffolding, inherent challenges and present an evaluation based on pre/post testing. © 2015 IEEE.

Small E.,University of Texas at Arlington | Suzuki R.,University of Michigan-Flint | Maleku A.,University of Texas at Arlington
Social Work in Public Health | Year: 2014

This study explores the impact of family structure and parental education on adolescents' substance use using a racially diverse sample of 14,268, 12th-grade high school adolescents. Findings reveal that family structure affects adolescents' substance use. In addition, racial differences are noted. African American adolescents report a relatively lower rate of substance use compared to White and Hispanic adolescents, yet they are gravely affected by substance use outcomes. The study lends further support that family structure and parental education variables may buffer adolescents from substance abuse influences. Implications for practice and policy are discussed. © Copyright Taylor & Francis.

Uludag S.,University of Michigan-Flint | McBride B.,University of Michigan-Flint
Proceedings - Frontiers in Education Conference, FIE | Year: 2010

The objective of this work-in-progress project is to develop complementary computer science networking laboratory exercises to reinforce the theoretical topics by means of active learning based on the ubiquitous Bluetooth wireless communications technology. The main advantages of our approach are: (1) Bluetooth is used everywhere and students would find it a very tangible and relevant learning tool, (2)The full software implementation in C++ is available from Broadcom (major Bluetooth manufacturer) that contains a majority of the main protocol functions with respect to the seven OSI layers, (3) No special equipment other than the low cost Bluetooth adapters are needed. This makes it very easy to sustain, reconfigure and maintain for a rich learning environment. (4) Bluetooth technology will enable to teach theoretical networking concepts as well as fundamental programming concepts. The labs will facilitate the students' learning at comprehension, application, synthesis and evaluation levels of cognition based on the classical taxonomy of cognitive levels by Bloom. The deliverables of this project include student lab exercises as well as instructor manuals for easy deployment at other institutions. We have already used the first set of labs successfully in a networking course at the U of Michigan - Flint. © 2010 IEEE.

Erickson J.,University of Michigan-Flint | Lyon D.E.,Virginia Commonwealth University
Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing | Year: 2010

Cowden syndrome is a familial cancer predisposition syndrome associated with an increased risk for breast, thyroid, and endometrial cancers and benign manifestations. With early detection and appropriate therapeutic treatment, many of its associated tumors and cancers are treatable. By better understanding mutations such as Cowden syndrome, additional targeted therapies can be developed and delivered.

Banerjee S.,University of Michigan-Flint | Dholakia R.R.,University of Rhode Island
International Journal of Mobile Communications | Year: 2013

Extensive wireless internet access via mobile phones, netbooks and tablet computers has eliminated most barriers to ubiquitous consumption. But both practitioners and researchers lack understanding of how availability of wireless internet has translated into flexibility of consumers' internet shopping patterns as well as their receptivity to mobile advertising. Reports show that nations where internet users are more flexible across locations and devices use more media and mobile web for shopping related purposes. In this paper, we identify four segments of consumers that range from 'domestically rooted' who prefer to shop from private spaces to 'flying spenders' who shop across multiple contexts based on their sensitivity to four critical dimensions of the shopping context- place, time, social context and perceived control. These segments differ significantly in the amount of time and money spent online and their readiness to respond to mobile-based advertisements and promotions. Copyright © 2013 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

Millen A.E.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Sahli M.W.,University of Michigan-Flint | Nie J.,State University of New York at Buffalo | LaMonte M.J.,State University of New York at Buffalo | And 6 more authors.
Cardiovascular Diabetology | Year: 2016

Background: Vitamin D status has been hypothesized to protect against development of diabetic retinopathy via its anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic properties. Additionally, in vitro and in vivo studies suggest vitamin D favorably influences blood pressure and blood glucose control, strong risk factors for diabetic retinopathy. We examined the association between vitamin D status and prevalent diabetic retinopathy in participants with diabetes from a population-based cohort. Methods: Among participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study with diabetes at visit 3 (1993-1995), 1339 (906 Caucasians, 433 African Americans) had serum 25-hydroxyvitamin (25[OH]D) concentrations assessed at visit 2 (1989-1992) and nonmydriatic retinal photographs taken at visit 3. Dietary intake of vitamin D was assessed at visit 1 (1987-1989). Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) for diabetic retinopathy by categories of season-adjusted 25(OH)D (<30 [referent], 30-<50, 50-<75 and ≥75 nmol/L), by quartile of vitamin D intake (IU/day), and use of vitamin D or fish oil supplements (yes/no). P for trend was estimated using continuous 25(OH)D or vitamin D intake. ORs were adjusted for race, and duration of diabetes. We further adjusted for HBA1c and hypertension to examine if 25(OH)D influenced diabetic retinopathy via its effects on either glycemic control or blood pressure. Results: ORs (95 % CIs) for retinopathy, adjusted for race and duration, were 0.77 (0.45-1.32), 0.64 (0.37-1.10), and 0.39 (0.20-0.75), p for trend = 0.001, for participants with 25(OH)D of 30-<50, 50-<75, and ≥75 nmol/L, respectively. Further adjustment for hypertension minimally influenced results (data not show), but adjustment for HBA1c attenuated the OR among those with 25(OH)D ≥75 (0.47 [0.23-0.96], p for trend = 0.030). No statistically significant association was observed between vitamin D intake from foods or supplements and retinopathy. Conclusions: 25(OH)D concentrations ≥75 nmol/L were associated with lower odds of any retinopathy assessed 3 years later. We speculate this may be due in part to vitamin D's influence on blood glucose control. © 2016 The Author(s).

Kupperman J.,University of Michigan-Flint | Robertson B.,Community Systems Foundation | Baglin S.,Community Systems Foundation
Learning in the Disciplines: ICLS 2010 Conference Proceedings - 9th International Conference of the Learning Sciences | Year: 2010

We report on a pilot of DevInfo GameWorks, a web-based system that allows users to create and play data-driven educational games. In particular, we focus on the challenges of scaffolding game creation, encouraging meaningful inquiry as the basis for game design, and supporting a community of learners. Preliminary findings point to several areas for continued investigation and development. © ISLS.

Gao Y.,Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University | Li J.,Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University | Song Z.,CAF Institute of Chemical Industry of Forest Products | Song J.,University of Michigan-Flint | And 4 more authors.
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2015

Rosin is extensively distributed and renewable natural resource in China. In continuation of our research on natural product-based insecticidal agents endowed with eco-friendly properties, 37 rosin-based amide derivatives containing thiadiazole group were prepared. Meanwhile, the structures of rosin-based derivatives containing thiadiazole group were characterized by melting point, IR spectroscopy, 1H NMR, elemental analysis, ESI-MS and X-ray crystallography. In addition, the insecticidal activities of rosin-based amide derivatives containing thiadiazole group (3a-w and 7a-n) against Mythimna separata and Plutella xylostella were investigated. Compounds 3p-r, 7f and 7n (with LC50 values of 0.222, 0.222, 0.224, 0.223 and 0.214μg/mL) displayed outstanding insecticidal activity in comparison with flunbendiamide (a commercial insecticide, with LC50 value of 0.222μg/mL). The optimal conformers and best multilinear regression analysis were performed by Gaussian and CODESSA software package, and five descriptors correlating the molecular structures with their insecticidal activities were selected as follows: HOMO-LUMO, log MV, log P, Total Charge I and Total Charge II. For this built QSAR model, the correlation coefficient (R2) was 0.9604, the squared standard error of the estimates (S2) was 0.0052, and the Fisher significance ratio (F) was 103.79. The preliminary SAR and QSAR studies showed that electronic and steric effect of target compounds had an important influence on the larvicidal activity. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Kodjebacheva G.,University of Michigan-Flint | Kruger D.J.,University of Michigan | Rybarczyk G.,University of Michigan-Flint
Journal of public health (Oxford, England) | Year: 2015

AIM: The study investigated the socio-demographic differences in the association between depressive symptoms and higher body mass index (BMI).SUBJECTS AND METHODS: In Genesee County, Michigan, random samples of households were drawn from all residential census tracts. The Speak to Your Health! Survey was administered among adults aged 18 years and older in these households. To conduct this cross-sectional study, data from three waves of survey data collection (2007, 2009 and 2011) were combined resulting in a sample of 3381 adults. Self-reported height and weight were used to calculate BMI. Depressive symptoms were assessed with Brief Symptoms Inventory items. Socio-demographic factors included age, race/ethnicity, gender and education.RESULTS: Using stepwise linear regression, gender (β = 0.04, P = 0.02) and the interaction terms of race/ethnicity × depressive symptoms (β = 0.15, P < 0.001) and gender × depressive symptoms (β = 0.05, P = 0.01) uniquely predicted BMI.CONCLUSION: Women had a higher BMI than men, and depressive symptoms were more strongly associated with BMI among African Americans and women than among non-Latino Whites and men. Tailored interventions to alleviate depressive symptoms in African Americans and females may help decrease racial/ethnic and gender differences in depressive symptoms and obesity. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

Liao S.,CAF Institute of Chemical Industry of Forest Products | Shang S.,CAF Institute of Chemical Industry of Forest Products | Shen M.,CAF Institute of Chemical Industry of Forest Products | Rao X.,CAF Institute of Chemical Industry of Forest Products | And 3 more authors.
Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters | Year: 2016

A series of novel 3-cyanopyridine derivatives of (−)-β-pinene were designed and synthesized by one-pot four-component domino reactions. The targeted compounds were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against four bacteria (Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter aerogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis) and a fungus (Candida albicans). The results showed that most of the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of these 3-cyanopyridine derivatives against the tested strains was in the range of 15.6–125 mg/L. Among these 3-cyanopyridine derivatives, the MICs of compound 5h against S. epidermidis and C. albicans were 15.6 mg/L, which revealed that compound 5h featured double fluoro substituents at meta- and para-position was the most active compound. In addition, the preliminary structure–activity relationship analysis indicated that the change of substituents on the pyridine ring and benzene ring of 3-cyanopyridine derivatives was an important factor for inducing antimicrobial activity. This research would promote the development of heterocyclic derivatives of β-pinene with antimicrobial activity. © 2016

Dabney B.W.,University of Michigan-Flint | Kalisch B.J.,University of Michigan
Journal of Nursing Care Quality | Year: 2015

A total of 729 inpatients were surveyed using the MISSCARE Survey-Patient. Missed timeliness, patient reports of the time it took for them to receive care from nursing staff, was negatively associated with total nursing staff hours of care per patient-day (r =-0.09, P =.015), registered nurse (RN) hours per patient-day (r =-0.14, P =.0002), and RN skill mix (r =-0.13, P =.0004). RN skill mix was also a predictor of missed timeliness (P =.01). © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

Aluko O.,University of Michigan-Flint | Moore B.S.,Washington Technology
Mechanics of Advanced Materials and Structures | Year: 2014

An analytic model was developed to predict the failure strength of pin loaded composite joints using a two-dimensional analysis. The characteristic dimensions, which define the characteristic curve, were obtained by stress analyses associated with no bearing and tensile tests on laminates with and without a hole. The available experimental data in the literature was then used to evaluate the joints strength. There was a good agreement between the experimental data and the computed joints strength. Additionally, the failure mode that characterizes the failure condition depends on the orientations of the laminas that constitute the laminate used for joint construction. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Goldberg A.,University of Michigan-Flint | Talley S.A.,University of Michigan-Flint
Physiotherapy Theory and Practice | Year: 2015

Reduced stepping speed is associated with balance deficits and falls in older adults. We evaluated psychometric properties of a test of rapid stepping, the Thirty-Rapid-Step test (30-RST) in 37 community-dwelling older adults. Participants performed the 30-RST, dynamic (step execution time, five-times-sit-to-stand test, gait speed, maximum step length and four-square-step test) and static (single-leg-stance-time and postural sway) performance-based tests. Relationships between 30-RST and performance-based tests were evaluated with Spearman's rho. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), standard error of measurement (SEM), 95% limits of agreement and minimum detectable change at the 95% confidence level (MDC95) were computed for the 30-RST. Relationships between 30-RST and dynamic measures were moderate to very good (r =-0.35-0.73, p < 0.05); however, relationships between 30-RST and static balance were weak (r = 0.04-0.19, p > 0.05). The ICC2,1 was 0.85 for 30-RST indicating excellent test-retest reliability. SEM expressed as a percent of mean 30-RST was 8.2%, indicating low measurement error. The MDC95 was 9.4 s, and MDC95 expressed as a percent of mean 30-RST was moderately low at 22.6%. The 30-RST is a valid measure of dynamic balance and mobility with excellent relative and absolute reliability, and may be a useful measure in geriatric clinical settings and studies investigating balance in healthy community-dwelling older adults. © 2015 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. All rights reserved.

Panja B.,University of Michigan-Flint | Morrison D.,University of Michigan-Flint | Turner S.,University of Michigan-Flint | Meharia P.,Eastern Michigan University
9th International Conference on Cyber Warfare and Security 2014, ICCWS 2014 | Year: 2014

Vehicle to Vehicle (V2V) interfaces will provide the future of safe driving. Implemented along V2I (Vehicle to Interface) setups, a driver will be more aware of their surroundings and traffic will be less of a hazard. Companies such as Google are trying to make cars that drive themselves through external sensors and internal maps. The security issues in V2V communication are vast and still being solved. Telecommunication companies have been working in turn to implement cloud computing to improve what they can offer their data users. They have been consistent with their improvements of coverage and data transfer speed. The creation of 4G LTE has shown great promise for what can be done with data transfers and minimizing tower loads. This research paper takes a look at how the system can be protected against outside intrusions. It uses a Cloud to do computations, making it more difficult to steal data from the cars themselves. The system is designed to be in constant communication with the cloud to prevent any data theft, and presents methods for encrypting the data sent between the cloud and the cars. It also addresses the issue of tower load, by creating car groups to lower the difficulty of communicating in high traffic situations. These car groups communicate with one car, the lead car which is the only car that is communicating directly with the cloud. It sends and receives messages which are then distributed amongst the group, including but not limited to car locations, media and security keys. Cars that are separated from a group are treated as the lead car of a single car group, and cars that are completely separated from the system must first validate themselves through the cloud. © Copyright The Authors, 2014. All Rights Reserved.

Horner-Johnson W.,Oregon Health And Science University | Suzuki R.,University of Michigan-Flint | Krahn G.L.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Andresen E.M.,University of Florida | Drum C.E.,Oregon Health And Science University
Quality of Life Research | Year: 2010

Purpose The objective of this study was to assess the factor structure of nine health-related quality of life (HRQOL) survey items among people with and without disabilities or functional limitations (FL) and determine whether factor loadings were similar for the two groups. Methods Data were from US states and territories in the 2001 and 2002 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). Confirmatory factor analyses assessed fit of the data to a previously found factor structure. Results A two-factor structure was confirmed, conceptually representing physical and mental health. Although this structure fit data for both people with and without FL, factor loadings were significantly different for the two groups. In all but one instance, factor loadings were higher for people with FL than for people without FL. Conclusions Results suggest that people with and without FL conceptualize physical and mental HRQOL similarly. However, the nine items analyzed appear to be a better reflection of the latent constructs of physical and mental HRQOL in the population of people with FL than those without FL.

Horner-Johnson W.,Oregon Health And Science University | Krahn G.L.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Suzuki R.,University of Michigan-Flint | Peterson J.J.,Oregon Health And Science University | Hall T.,Northwest Neurobehavioral Health
Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation | Year: 2010

Horner-Johnson W, Krahn GL, Suzuki R, Peterson JJ, Roid G, Hall T, the RRTC Expert Panel on Health Measurement. Differential performance of SF-36 items in healthy adults with and without functional limitations. Objective: To determine whether Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) items show differential item functioning among healthy adults with various types of functional limitations as compared with a healthy sample with no identified limitations. Design: Survey responses were analyzed by using partial correlations. Setting: General community. Participants: Participants (N=206) included (1) adults with spinal cord injury (SCI), (2) adults who were deaf or hard of hearing, (3) adults who were legally blind, (4) adults with psychiatric or emotional conditions, and (5) adults with no reported functional limitations. Participants were screened to ensure the absence of substantial health problems. Interventions: Not applicable. Main Outcome Measure: SF-36. Results: Partial correlations showed a significant negative correlation, indicating differential item functioning (ie, apparent bias) for people with SCI on all 10 SF-36 Physical Functioning items. For people who were blind, 5 items showed a significant negative correlation. Two items had significant negative correlations for the deaf/hard-of-hearing group. One item showed significant negative performance for people with mental health conditions. Conclusions: Our data indicated a possibility for measurement bias caused by the blending of health and function concepts in the SF-36. © 2010 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine.

Hawkins J.,Michigan State University | Watkins D.C.,University of Michigan | Bonner T.,Texas College | Thompson T.L.,Texas College | Thompson T.L.,University of Michigan-Flint
Social Work in Public Health | Year: 2016

Diabetes and depression are two of the most frequently diagnosed health conditions in the United States and often co-occur. The present study examines racial/ethnic differences in predictors of mental health service use among a national sample of African Americans, Hispanics, and non-Hispanic Whites with a self-reported diabetes and depression diagnosis. Multiple logistic regression was used to analyze a cross-sectional sample (N = 3377) of the 2012 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), a nationally representative, cross-sectional survey. African Americans were less likely to have visited a mental health professional in the last 12 months (odds ratio [OR] = .634, confidence interval [CI] [0.429, 0.911]). Significant odds ratios also uncovered results for the “never married” (OR = 1.737, CI [1.322, 2.281]) category. Also for the entire sample, being 55 years or older (OR = .352, CI [0.234, 0.533]) was found to be strongly associated with mental health service use for individuals with diabetes. Being unemployed or not in the labor force increased the odds of mental health service use in persons with diabetes and depression, whereas having less than a high school diploma or Graduate Equivalency Diploma decreased odds of visits (OR = .611, CI [0.394, 0.945]) as did not having health insurance (OR = .540, CI [0.365, 0.800]). Racial/ethnic variation in mental health service utilization exists among persons with self-reported diabetes and depression. Due to the challenges associated with comorbid depression and diabetes, as well as the impact depression can have on diabetes self-management, it is imperative that more strategies for managing both depression and diabetes be explored. © 2016 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Wanebo H.J.,The Surgical Center | LeGolvan M.,Rhode Island Hospital | LeGolvan M.,Brown University | Paty P.B.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center | And 4 more authors.
Clinical and Experimental Metastasis | Year: 2012

An overview of colorectal cancer discussed (Philip Paty) the good outcome after primary management with local control in 90-95 % of colon and 85 % in rectal cancer patients with major progression to metastases and to death related to hematogenous dissemination. The major disease pathways include the APC, aneuploid pathway involving mutations of P53, KRAS, SMAD 4, or the CMP/ MSI pathway, mismatched repair defect as characterized by additional question reviewed related to the role of neoadjuvant systemic chemotherapy (with response rates in the 50 % range) to produce down staging of the hepatic metastases and allow one to retrieve these patients with possible residual disease. In a series of 116 patients who had hepatic resection of CRC metastases in presence of regional node metastases, post neoadjuvant chemotherapy (normally not candidates for resection) these patients were demonstrated to have a 95 % recurrence at median time of 9 months. This raises a cautionary note to the literature report of five-year survivals in the 20-30 % range for hepatic metastases in presence of extra hepatic disease. Such may reflect patient selection rather than a true measure of the biology of disease, and warrant clinical trial evaluation. Lastly, regional therapy and overall systemic therapy were addressed by Dr. Kemeny. The CALGB study of hepatic artery infusion (HAI) with FUDR, dexamethasone versus 5FU leucovorin showed an overall survival of 24.4 months with HAI versus 20 months with systemic therapy (P = 0.0034). An adjuvant trial of HAI at MSK in 156 patients showed an overall survival benefit at 2 year and recent long term 10yr follow-up showing a significant overall survival of 41 % with HAI versus 27 % with systemic therapy (5FU leucovorin). In the neoadjuvant Nordlinger trial for hepatic metastases, there was a significant outcome differences-the preoperative therapy group had 9.2 % increase of progression free survival versus the surgery alone group which suggests the value of combining neoadjuvant surgery in good risk liver resection candidates. Conclude the final lesson from this well presented mini symposium confirms the need for continued evaluation of the numerous discussion points by clinical trial. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012.

Blackwood J.,University of Michigan-Flint | Sweet C.,University of Michigan-Flint | Martin A.,University of Michigan-Flint
Physical and Occupational Therapy in Geriatrics | Year: 2014

Aims: Attitudes toward aging have been reported to guide patterns of practice in healthcare; however, the current attitudes toward aging in physical therapy are unknown. Methods: Physical therapist (PT) and student physical therapist (SPT) members of the American Physical Therapy Association were invited to complete an anonymous online survey using a modified version of the 14-item University of California, Los Angeles-Geriatric Attitudinal Scale (UCLA-GAS) to examine attitudes toward aging. Differences between responses on each item of the UCLA-GAS were completed between groups and within three categories commonly reported in the UCLA-GAS. Results: Significant differences were found between the responses of PTs and SPTs on half of the items of the UCLA-GAS. Conclusions: PTs had slightly more positive attitudes toward aging, which may be a reflection of time spent with older adults and familiarity with the economics of geriatric physical therapy practice. © 2014 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.

Panja B.,University of Michigan-Flint | Scott Z.,University of Michigan-Flint | Meharia P.,Eastern Michigan University
ICWiSe 2014 - 2014 IEEE Conference on Wireless Sensors | Year: 2014

Litigation faced by the NFL has called for better prevention and understanding of concussions and other sports injuries. To achieve this, sports officials have turned to wireless sensor networks, or WSNs, in the form of helmet sensors that automatically report any harmful injuries to attendants on the sidelines. While this approach provides players with a greater assurance of safety and a faster response to their injuries, the security weaknesses of WSNs must be addressed. These systems, being not only recently developed but also highly resource-constrained, may be easily manipulated by those looking to gain information about players (a form of passive attack) or even attempting to remove them from the game through the sending of false reports (a form of active attack). To prevent attacks such as these, we propose a system that uses a modification of the AES-CCM protocol as well as a novel attack detection system that uses probabilistic methods to report any harmful behavior to the user. The system's power usage due to injury reports is compared to a probability model that is based on past research that recorded the likelihood of injury for the positions played in professional football. This system offers many advantages over conventional cryptography as it is a lightweight approach that costs few resources; individual helmet sensors need only send simple power reports to a central base station which uses on-the-grid power to conduct security analysis. Provided below is detail of the paper which describes the problem in greater detail, a section that details the system architecture, a section that explains the AES-CCM protocol, and an explanation of the probabilistic approach. This is followed by a security analysis that compares the approach to several other approaches found in the literature, and finally a conclusion. © 2014 IEEE.

Tang K.L.,University of Michigan-Flint | Lumbantobing D.N.,George Washington University | Lumbantobing D.N.,Smithsonian Institution | Mayden R.L.,Saint Louis University
Copeia | Year: 2013

The cyprinid genus, Oxygaster Van Hasselt, 1823, is the name-bearing type genus of the family-group name Oxygastri Bleeker, 1860, which predates many of the commonly used family-group names for the family Cyprinidae. Historically, the phylogenetic position of Oxygaster within the cyprinid phylogeny has been poorly understood, resulting in an uncertain status for its associated family-group name. The phylogenetic placement of Oxygaster and the status of the family-group name Oxygastri are examined herein using sequence data from four loci: two mitochondrial (cytochrome b, cytochrome c oxidase I) and two nuclear (opsin, recombination activating gene 1). A combined data matrix of 4117 bp for 109 taxa was collected and analyzed. Our results recovered Oxygaster within a large and taxonomically disorganized clade, one that has been reported in other studies on the Cyprinidae. The position of Oxygaster has wide-ranging consequences which led us to synonymize a number of cyprinid subfamilies and reorganize the current cyprinid classification. We recognize a monophyletic Oxygastrinae Bleeker, 1860 that includes the following genera: Aphyocypris, Candidia, Ctenopharyngodon, Culter, Hemigrammocypris, Hypophthalmichthys, Ischikauia, Macrochirichthys, Megalobrama, Metzia, Nicholsicypris, Nipponocypris, Ochetobius, Opsariichthys, Oxygaster, Parachela, Paralaubuca, Pararasbora, Parazacco, Squaliobarbus, Xenocyprioides, Xenocypris, Yaoshanicus, and Zacco. We place the following family-group names into the synonymy of Oxygastrinae Bleeker, 1860: Cultrinae Kryzhanovsky, 1947; Hypophthalmichthyinae Günther, 1868; Opsariichthyinae Rendahl, 1928; Squaliobarbinae Howes, 1981; and Xenocypridinae Günther, 1868. © 2013 by the American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists.

Mani M.,University of Michigan-Flint | Alawa M.,University of Michigan-Flint | Kalyanasundaram A.,University of Michigan-Flint
ACM International Conference Proceeding Series | Year: 2011

Provenance that records the derivation history of data is useful for a wide variety of applications, including those where an audit trail needs to be provided, where the sources and the trust-level attributed to the sources contribute to determining the trust-level in results etc. There have been different efforts in the past for representing provenance information, the most notable being the Open Provenance Model (OPM). OPM defines structures for representing the provenance information as a graph with nodes and edges, and also specifies inference queries. Our work builds on these by proposing query language constructs, that the users will find useful for manipulating the provenance information. Rather than specifying a query language, we define two classes of algebraic constructs: content-based operators that operate on the content of nodes and edges, and structure-based operators that operate on the graph structure of the provenance graph. These content-based and the structure-based constructs can be combined to express a wide variety of interesting queries on the provenance data that go much beyond simple inference queries as expressible using Datalog/SQL. © 2011 ACM.

Mazumder Q.H.,University of Michigan-Flint
American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Fluids Engineering Division (Publication) FEDSM | Year: 2014

Solid particle erosion is a micromechanical process that is influenced by flow geometry, material of the impacting surface, impact angle, particle size and shape, particle velocity, flow condition and fluid properties. Among the various factors, particle size and velocity have been considered to be the most important parameters that cause erosion. Particle size and velocity are influenced by surrounding flow velocities and carrying fluid properties. Higher erosion rates have been observed in gas-solid flow in geometries where the flow direction changes rapidly, such as elbows, tees, valves, etc., due to local turbulence and unsteady flow behaviors. S-bend geometry is widely used in different fluid handling applications such as automotive, oil and gas, arteries and blood vessels. This paper presents the results of a Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) simulation of diluted gas-solid and liquid-solid flows through an S-Bend and the dynamic behavior of entrained solid particles in the flow. CFD analyses were performed at five different particle sizes ranging between 50 and 300 microns. Maximum erosive wear was observed at smaller particle sizes and compared to the larger sizes. The location of maximum erosion was at different locations in the first bend as compared to the second bend. Copyright © 2014 by ASME.

Alam F.E.,University of South Carolina | Liu Y.C.,Cornell University | Liu Y.C.,University of Michigan-Flint | Avedisian C.T.,Cornell University | And 2 more authors.
Proceedings of the Combustion Institute | Year: 2015

Recent interest in alternative and bio-derived fuels has emphasized butanol over ethanol as a result of its higher energy density, lower vapor pressure and more favorable gasoline blending properties. Numerous efforts have examined the combustion of butanol from the perspective of low dimensional gas-phase transport configurations that facilitate modeling and validation of combustion kinetics. However, fewer studies have focused on multiphase butanol combustion, and none have appeared on isolated droplet combustion that couples experiments with robust modeling of the droplet burning process. This paper presents such an experimental/numerical modeling study of isolated droplet burning characteristics of n-butanol. The experiments are conducted in an environment that simplifies the transport process to one that is nearly one-dimensional as promoted by burning in a reduced gravity environment. Measurements of the evolution of droplet diameter (Do = 0.56-0.57 mm), flame standoff ratio (FSR = Df/D) and burning rate (K) are made in the standard atmosphere under reduced gravity and the data are compared against numerical simulation. The detailed model is based on a comprehensive time-dependent, sphero-symmetric droplet combustion simulation that includes spectrally resolved radiative heat transfer, multi-component diffusive transport, full thermal property variations and detailed chemical kinetic. The simulations are carried out using both a large order kinetic mechanism (284 species, 1892 reactions) and a reduced order mechanism (44 species, 177 reactions). The results show that the predicted burning history and flame standoff ratios are in good agreement with the measurements for both the large and reduced order mechanisms. Additional simulations are conducted for varying oxygen concentration to determine the limiting oxygen index and to elucidate the kinetic processes that dictate the extinction of the flame at these low oxygen concentrations. © 2014 The Combustion Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

McKibbin W.F.,University of Michigan-Flint | Shackelford T.K.,Oakland University
Aggression and Violent Behavior | Year: 2011

Females of many species have recurrently faced the adaptive problem of rape over the species' evolutionary history. In humans, rape of women by men has occurred throughout recorded history and across cultures, and exacts on women severe psychological, physical, and reproductive costs. Women therefore may have evolved psychological mechanisms that motivate rape avoidance behaviors. We provide an overview of recent theoretical and empirical research addressing women's rape avoidance psychology and behavior from an evolutionary perspective. This research indicates that women may possess evolved mechanisms that motivate rape avoidance. We conclude by highlighting several directions for research that may further clarify the design features of human female evolved mechanisms that motivate rape avoidance. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Gerber L.H.,George Mason University | Gerber L.H.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Stout N.,National Naval Medical Center | McGarvey C.,DCM Consulting Ltd. | And 5 more authors.
Supportive Care in Cancer | Year: 2011

Cancer-related fatigue is common, complex, and distressing. It affects 70-100% of patients receiving chemotherapy and a significant number who have completed their treatments. We assessed a number of variables in women newly diagnosed with primary breast cancer (BrCa) to determine whether biological and/or functional measures are likely to be associated with the development of clinically significant fatigue (CSF). Two hundred twenty-three women participated in a study designed to document the impact of the diagnosis and treatment of primary breast cancer on function. Forty-four had complete data on all variables of interest at the time of confirmed diagnosis but prior to treatment (baseline) and ≥9 months post-diagnosis. Objective measures and descriptive variables included history, physical examination, limb volume, hemoglobin, white blood cell count, and glucose. Patient-reported outcomes included a verbal numerical rating of fatigue (0-10, a score of ≥4 was CSF), five subscales of the SF-36, Physical Activity Survey, and Sleep Questionnaire. At baseline, the entire cohort (n=223) and the subset (n=44) were not significantly different for demographic, biological, and self-reported data, except for younger age (p=0.03) and ER+ (p=0.01). Forty-five percent had body mass index (BMI)≥25, 52% were post-menopause, and 52% received modified radical mastectomy, 39% lumpectomy, 52% chemotherapy, 68% radiation, and 86% hormonal therapy. Number of patients with CSF increased from 1 at baseline to 11 at ≥9 months of follow-up. CSF at ≥9 months significantly correlated with BMI≥25, abnormal white blood cell count, and increase in limb volume and inversely correlated with vigorous activity and physical function (p<0.05). Fatigue increases significantly following the treatment of BrCa. Predictors of CSF include high BMI and WBC count, increase in limb volume, and low level of physical activity. These are remediable. © 2010 The Author(s).

Ganguly R.,University of Michigan-Flint | Lynch R.S.,McGill University | Charlton J.C.,Pennsylvania State University | Eracleous M.,Pennsylvania State University | And 8 more authors.
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | Year: 2013

We present a census of zabs≃2 intrinsic (those showing partial coverage) and associated (zabs ~ zem) quasar absorption-line systems detected in the Hubble Space Telescope archive of Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph echelle spectra. This work complements the Misawa et al. survey of 2

Runnoe J.C.,University of Wyoming | Ganguly R.,University of Michigan-Flint | Brotherton M.S.,University of Wyoming | DiPompeo M.A.,University of Wyoming
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | Year: 2013

We have obtained Infrared Telescope Facility/SpeX spectra of eight moderate-redshift (z = 0.7-2.4), radio-selected (log R* ≈ 0.4-1.9) broad absorption line (BAL) quasars. The spectra cover the rest-frame optical band. We compare the optical properties of these quasars to those of canonically radio-quiet (log R* ≲ 1) BAL quasars at similar redshifts and to low-redshift quasars from the Palomar-Green catalogue. As with previous studies of BAL quasars, we find that [O III] 5007 is weak, and optical Fe II emission is strong, a rare combination in canonically radio-loud (log R* ≳ 1) quasars. With our measurements of the optical properties, particularly the Balmer emission-line widths and the continuum luminosity, we have used empirical scaling relations to estimate black hole masses and Eddington ratios. These lie in the range (0.4-2.6) × 109Mȯ and 0.1-0.9, respectively. Despite their comparatively extreme radio properties relative to most BAL quasars, their optical properties are quite consistent with those of radio-quiet BAL quasars and dissimilar to those of radio-loud non-BAL quasars. While BAL quasars generally appear to have low values of [OIII] λ5007/FeII an extreme of 'Eigenvector 1', the Balmer line widths and Eddington ratios do not appear to significantly differ from those of unabsorbed quasars at similar redshifts and luminosities.© 2013.

Shang Z.,Tianjin Normal University | Shang Z.,University of Wyoming | Brotherton M.S.,University of Wyoming | Wills B.J.,University of Texas at Austin | And 17 more authors.
Astrophysical Journal, Supplement Series | Year: 2011

We have produced the next generation of quasar spectral energy distributions (SEDs), essentially updating the work of Elvis et al. by using high-quality data obtained with several space- and ground-based telescopes, including NASA's Great Observatories. We present an atlas of SEDs of 85 optically bright, non-blazar quasars over the electromagnetic spectrum from radio to X-rays. The heterogeneous sample includes 27 radio-quiet and 58 radio-loud quasars. Most objects have quasi-simultaneous ultraviolet-optical spectroscopic data, supplemented with some far-ultraviolet spectra, and more than half also have Spitzer mid-infrared Infrared Spectrograph spectra. The X-ray spectral parameters are collected from the literature where available. The radio, far-infrared, and near-infrared photometric data are also obtained from either the literature or new observations. We construct composite SEDs for radio-loud and radio-quiet objects and compare these to those of Elvis et al., finding that ours have similar overall shapes, but our improved spectral resolution reveals more detailed features, especially in the mid- and near-infrared. © 2011. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

Tang K.L.,University of Michigan-Flint | Agnew M.K.,Saint Louis University | Hirt M.V.,University of Minnesota | Lumbantobing D.N.,George Washington University | And 13 more authors.
Zootaxa | Year: 2013

The cyprinid subfamily Oxygastrinae is composed of a diverse group of fishes that has been taxonomically and phylogenetically problematic. Their great variation in appearance, life histories, and trophic diversity resulted in uncertainty regarding their relationships, which led to their historical classification across many disparate subfamilies. The phylogenetic relationships of Oxygastrinae are resolved based on sequence data from four loci: cytochrome b, cytochrome c oxidase I, opsin, and recombination activating gene 1. A combined data matrix consisting of 4114 bp for 144 taxa was compiled and analyzed using maximum likelihood and parsimony optimality criteria. The subfamily Oxygastrinae is recovered as a monophyletic group that includes Ancherythroculter, Aphyocypris, Candidia, Chanodichthys, Ctenopharyngodon, Culter, Distoechodon, Elopichthys, Hainania, Hemiculter, Hemiculterella, Hemigrammocypris, Hypophthalmichthys, Ischikauia, Macrochirichthys, Megalobrama, Metzia, Mylopharyngodon, Nicholsicypris, Nipponocypris, Ochetobius, Opsariichthys, Oxygaster, Parabramis, Parachela, Paralaubuca, Pararasbora, Parazacco, Plagiognathops, Pseudobrama, Pseudohemiculter, Pseudolaubuca, Sinibrama, Squaliobarbus, Toxabramis, Xenocyprioides, Xenocypris, Yaoshanicus, and Zacco. Of these genera, the following were found to be monophyletic: Aphyocypris, Distoechodon, Hypophthalmichthys, Nipponocypris, Opsariichthys, Parachela, Paralaubuca, Plagiognathops, Xenocyprioides, and Xenocypris. The following genera were not monophyletic: Metzia, Hemiculter, Toxabramis, Ancherythroculter, Chanodichthys, Culter, Megalobra-ma. The remainder are either monotypic or were represented by only a single species. Four genera not examined in this study are provisionally classified in Oxygastrinae: Anabarilius, Longiculter, Pogobrama, and Rasborichthys. Copyright © 2013 Magnolia Press.

Suzuki R.,University of Michigan-Flint | Peterson J.J.,Oregon Health And Science University | Weatherby A.V.,Licensed Clinical Psychologist | Buckley D.I.,Oregon Health And Science University | And 3 more authors.
Health Promotion Practice | Year: 2012

This article describes the development of Promoting Access to Health Services (PATHS), an intervention to promote regular use of clinical preventive services by women with physical disabilities. The intervention was developed using intervention mapping (IM), a theory-based logical process that incorporates the six steps of assessment of need, preparation of matrices, selection of theoretical methods and strategies, program design, program implementation, and evaluation. The development process used methods and strategies aligned with the social cognitive theory and the health belief model. PATHS was adapted from the workbook Making Preventive Health Care Work for You, developed by a disability advocate, and was informed by participant input at five points: at inception through consultation by the workbook author, in conceptualization through a town hall meeting, in pilot testing with feedback, in revision of the curriculum through an advisory group, and in implementation by trainers with disabilities. The resulting PATHS program is a 90-min participatory small-group workshop, followed by structured telephone support for 6 months. © 2012 Society for Public Health Education.

Fry D.K.,University of Michigan-Flint | Huang M.H.,University of Michigan-Flint | Rodda B.J.,University of Michigan-Flint
International Journal of Rehabilitation Research | Year: 2016

People with multiple sclerosis (MS) experience a high rate of falls and have decreased static and dynamic balance. The purpose of this study was to determine best predictors of static standing balance, as measured by a single limb stance (SLS) timed test, in ambulatory persons with MS (PwMS) from among commonly used medical and rehabilitation clinical tests. Ambulatory PwMS participated in a single test session. Medical exam data gathered included the Function System (FS) neurologic exam and Expanded Disability Status Score (EDSS). A variety of commonly administered rehabilitation clinical tests addressing static balance, dynamic balance, gait endurance, functional lower extremity strength, abdominal and respiratory muscle strength were completed. Descriptive statistics, Pearson product moment correlations, and forward step-wise linear regressions were calculated. Twenty-eight ambulatory PwMS completed this study. Mean age was 54.74 years. Mean SLS score was 14.6 s. Pyramidal, sensory, bowel/bladder, and visual FS scores and the EDSS were significantly correlated with SLS. Maximal step length scores were significantly correlated with SLS at P less than 0.05 and the Functional Stair Test (FST) and 6-min walk test were correlated with SLS at P less than 0.10. Medical exam data EDSS and FS sensory explain 72.1% of the variance in SLS scores. Rehabilitation exam data FS sensory and FST explain 68.8% of the variance. The FS sensory, EDSS, and FST together explain 73.3% of the variance. Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

Alsalaheen B.,University of Michigan-Flint | Haines J.,University of Michigan-Flint | Yorke A.,University of Michigan-Flint | Diebold J.,University of Michigan-Flint
Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports | Year: 2016

The King-Devick test appears to be a promising tool in screening for concussions. However, limited evidence exists on the baseline associations between the K-D test and age and baseline screening tools used after concussion. Additionally, there are no published reference values for the K-D test in high school football players. The K-D test, the Balance Error Scoring System, and the Limits of Stability (LOS) test were administered to 157 high school football players. Additionally, a subsample of 62 participants completed the test twice to examine the reliability of K-D test. There was no relationship between the K-D test and the BESS, or the reaction time and directional control of LOS test. Students aged between 16 and 18 years demonstrated faster K-D test performance compared to students between 13 and 15 years of age. However, there was no association between K-D test and history of concussion. The reliability of the K-D test was (ICC2,1 = 0.89), and the minimal detectable change was 6.10 s. Normative reference values for high school football players are presented in this study. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

Li J.,CAF Institute of Chemical Industry of Forest Products | Li J.,Key Laboratory of Biomass Energy and Material | Li J.,National Engineering Laboratory for Biomass Chemical Utilization | Li J.,Key Laboratory on Forest Chemical Engineering | And 14 more authors.
Natural Product Research | Year: 2013

16-Isopropyl-5, 9-dimethyltetracyclo [, 10.0 4, 9] hexadec-15-ene-5, 14-dicarboxylic acid (1b) was prepared from rosin through a Diels-Alder addition reaction. Then, a group of Schiff bases derived from 1b was synthesised. Their structures were characterised by IR, 1H-NMR, MS and elemental analysis. The antibacterial activities of these newly synthesised Schiff bases were also investigated. The results show that these compounds possess antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Among them, compounds 5a, 5b and 5c, exhibit remarkable antibacterial activity against E. coli. © 2013 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Broadbent J.,University of Michigan-Flint | Dakki M.A.,University of Michigan-Flint
Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking | Year: 2015

The popularity of online recreational activities, such as social networking, has dramatically increased the amount of time spent on the Internet. Excessive or inappropriate use of the Internet can result in serious adverse consequences. The current study used a behavioral economic task to determine if the amount of time spent online by problematic and nonproblematic users can be modified by price. The Internet Purchase Task was used to determine how much time undergraduate students (N=233) would spend online at 13 different prices. Despite high demand for Internet access when access was free, time spent online by both problematic and nonproblematic users decreased dramatically, even at low prices. These results suggest that the amount of time spent online may be modified by having a tangible cost associated with use, whereas having free access to the Internet may encourage excessive, problematic use. © 2015, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

Jin H.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Uludag S.,University of Michigan-Flint | Lui K.-S.,University of Hong Kong | Nahrstedt K.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign
2014 IEEE International Conference on Smart Grid Communications, SmartGridComm 2014 | Year: 2015

To facilitate more efficient control, massive amounts of sensors or measurement devices will be deployed in the Smart Grid. Data collection then becomes non-trivial. In this paper, we study the scenario where a data collector is responsible for collecting data from multiple measurement devices, but only some of them can communicate with the data collector directly. Others have to rely on other devices to relay the data. We first develop a communication protocol so that the data reported by each device is protected again honest-but-curious data collector and devices. To reduce the time to collect data from all devices within a certain security level, we formulate our approach as an integer linear programming problem. As the problem is NP-hard, obtaining the optimal solution in a large network is not very feasible. We thus develop an approximation algorithm to solve the problem. We test the performance of our algorithm using real topologies. The results show that our algorithm successfully identifies good solutions within reasonable amount of time. © 2014 IEEE.

Fortsch S.M.,University of Michigan-Flint
Operations Research for Health Care | Year: 2016

A focus in global healthcare today is on the task of improving supply chains. The main challenges in this task include uncertainty in demand, inventory management, and limited human resources. This study addresses some of the above challenges faced by blood centers by introducing practical methods for accurate blood demand forecasting, which will allow for lowering of costs, reduction of blood wastage, and conservation of limited resources. Six blood centers were visited in New York State during the years of 2010 and 2011. In all locations, demand-forecasting was completed using the popular Microsoft Excel spreadsheet software; however, this field research study shows the demand for blood is nonstationary and cannot be accurately forecasted using Excel, at least not without writing a macro. Daily demand data was obtained from one of the above blood centers for the period of January 2006 through December 2012, and multiple approaches were used to predict blood demand. At the end of the study, the Box-Jenkins methodology was shown to be the optimal choice to forecast demand. It provided accurate demand forecasts for total blood demand (TBD) and all individual blood types with the exception of type A-. The Box-Jenkins methodology was also easy for practitioners to apply, and required only a small investment in software designed to handle this approach. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

Yardley T.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Uludag S.,University of Michigan-Flint | Nahrstedt K.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Sauer P.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign
Proceedings - Frontiers in Education Conference, FIE | Year: 2015

The energy sector worldwide has embarked on a transformational process to modernize the over-a-century-old power grid under an umbrella term of the Smart Grid. This vast infrastructural upgrade and operational change involves integration of a variety of advanced digital computing, communications and industrial control technologies. This brings new capabilities, but also necessitates a re-education of the aging workforce and training of the emerging workforce. While training does exist, the training approach and the accessibility of that training is often at odds with the needs of the utilities. To support this education and training need, in this paper we introduce the beginning of a modular, hands-on and open Smart Grid cybersecurity educational training platform and supporting materials together with an assessment of a preliminary version leveraged at the Trustworthy Cyber Infrastructure for the Power Grid (TCIPG) Summer School held in 2013. We base pedagogical pillars onto: (1) Active Learning that promotes analysis, synthesis, and evaluation of the content from Bloom's taxonomy, (2) The theory of project-based learning, (3) Piaget's learn-by-doing posture, and (4) Constructivist perspective of education. The main goal of this effort is to develop a complete, phased, and modular learning platform to provide the essential base knowledge and hands-on training exercises for understanding and demonstrating competency in Smart Grid cybersecurity. © 2014 IEEE.

Uludag S.,University of Michigan-Flint | Sauer P.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Nahrstedt K.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Yardley T.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign
Proceedings - Frontiers in Education Conference, FIE | Year: 2015

At the tipping of a paradigm shift in the way energy is produced, transmitted and delivered, the research efforts have not been paralleled by the curricular development. With rapid pace of changes in the field of Smart Grid (SG), the traditional research and educational efforts have been a major domain for electrical engineers. As a mode of discovery and education, interdisciplinarity facilitates broadened perspectives, ability to synthesize, analyze, integrate, and apply knowledge, and out-of-the-box thinking. The major contributions of this paper are discussion of requirements of the educational efforts in SG with special emphasis on multidisciplinarity, survey of the related work, which is the first in the literature to the best of our knowledge, and a discussion of the content for such an effort. A mixed team of power engineers and computer scientists are developing a layered curriculum starting from the introductory material from a variety of SG topics. A distinguishing advantage is the availability of many software tools and the state-of-the-art testbed as a result of years of research. © 2014 IEEE.

Mani M.,University of Michigan-Flint | Alkabour N.,University of Michigan-Flint | Alao D.,University of Michigan-Flint
Proceedings - Frontiers in Education Conference, FIE | Year: 2015

Active learning refers to instruction where the learners play an active role in learning and has been found to increase student retention, improve acquisition of higher order thinking and reasoning skills, and improve performance in STEM courses. Two main active learning techniques: student response systems (aka. clickers) and flipped classroom assignments, were incorporated in University of Michigan-Flint computer science (CS) courses. This paper describes how clickers have been incorporated in CS courses and their impact on student learning. There are several ways of evaluating student learning, and tests have traditionally been considered an incomplete and limited reflection of the students' knowledge. In our prior work [11], students' metacognitive knowledge has been used as an effective measure of students' learning. Metacognitive knowledge can be considered to include knowledge of the person, the task, and the available strategies. In this work, we want our students to be aware of their level of understanding of the topics in a course. A student can use this knowledge along with knowledge of the task and available strategies to achieve the cognitive goals. This paper studies how clickers participation impacts student learning as measured by metacognitive knowledge. © 2014 IEEE.

Williams D.R.,Boston University | John D.A.,Boston University | Oyserman D.,University of Michigan | Sonnega J.,University of Michigan-Flint | And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Public Health | Year: 2012

Objectives. Our goal in this study was to better understand racial and socioeconomic status (SES) variations in experiences of racial and nonracial discrimination. Methods. We used 1999 and 2000 data from the YES Health Study, which involved a community sample of 50 Black and 50 White respondents drawn from 4 neighborhoods categorized according to racial group (majority Black or majority White) and SES (≤150% or > 250% of the poverty line). Qualitative and quantitative analyses examined experiences of discrimination across these neighborhoods. Results. More than 90% of Blacks and Whites described the meaning of unfair treatment in terms of injustice and felt certain about the attribution of their experiences of discrimination. These experiences triggered similar emotional reactions (most frequently anger and frustration) and levels of stress across groups, and low-SES Blacks and Whites reported higher levels of discrimination than their moderate-SES counterparts. Conclusions. Experiences of discrimination were commonplace and linked to similar emotional responses and levels of stress among both Blacks and Whites of low and moderate SES. Effects were the same whether experiences were attributed to race or to other reasons.

Park S.I.,Texas A&M University | Park S.I.,U.S. Food and Drug Administration | Park S.I.,Samsung | Bisgin H.,U.S. Food and Drug Administration | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

A crucial step of food contamination inspection is identifying the species of beetle fragments found in the sample, since the presence of some storage beetles is a good indicator of insanitation or potential food safety hazards. The current pratice, visual examination by human analysts, is time consuming and requires several years of experience. Here we developed a species identification algorithm which utilizes images of microscopic elytra fragments. The elytra, or hardened forewings, occupy a large portion of the body, and contain distinctive patterns. In addition, elytra fragments are more commonly recovered from processed food products than other body parts due to their hardness. As a preliminary effort, we chose 15 storage product beetle species frequently detected in food inspection. The elytra were then separated from the specimens and imaged under a microscope. Both global and local characteristics were quantified and used as feature inputs to artificial neural networks for species classification. With leave-one-out cross validation, we achieved overall accuracy of 80% through the proposed global and local features, which indicates that our proposed features could differentiate these species. Through examining the overall and per species accuracies, we further demonstrated that the local features are better suited than the global features for species identification. Future work will include robust testing with more beetle species and algorithm refinement for a higher accuracy. © This is an open access article, free of all copyright, and may be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, modified, built upon, or otherwise used by anyone for any lawful purpose. The work is made available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication.

Huang X.,CAF Institute of Chemical Industry of Forest Products | Huang X.,Yancheng Institute of Technology | Liu H.,CAF Institute of Chemical Industry of Forest Products | Shang S.,CAF Institute of Chemical Industry of Forest Products | And 2 more authors.
RSC Advances | Year: 2016

Analysis of the equilibrium and dynamic surface tension of epoxidized soybean oil grafted hydroxyethyl cellulose (H-ESO-HEC) surfactants with different molecular weights were carried out at pH values that ranged from 8 to 13. A variation in the surface activity of the H-ESO-HEC surfactants was found in the premicellar concentration range because of the formation of surface-active premicellar species, depending on the pH and surfactant concentration. The H-ESO-HEC polymeric surfactants displayed excellent surface properties at pH values that ranged from 9 to 10, and the critical micelle concentration decreased with increasing molecular weight, as expected. The adsorption behavior of H-ESO-HEC polymeric surfactants at the air/solution interface was analyzed by using the Ward and Tordai equation. The effective diffusion coefficients of H-ESO-HEC polymeric surfactants increased with pH values, with the exception of pH 13, and also improved with increasing molecular weight. Furthermore, H-ESO-HEC surfactants with higher molecular weights had larger micelles. © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Tang C.,University of Michigan-Flint | Chen Y.,University of California at Irvine | Chen Y.,Clinical Translational Science Institute | Lee S.,University of California at Irvine
Behaviour and Information Technology | Year: 2015

We conducted an observational study in an emergency department (ED) to acquire an in-depth understanding of the activities and processes involved in the ED patient outflow and the challenges encountered in the outflow coordination with heterogeneous and autonomous stakeholders within and across organisations. We identified that inefficient patient outflow not only led to overcrowding in the ED because patients could not be admitted to the ED, but it also affected the operation of other inpatient units and that of external organisations. Moreover, the overcrowding issue was found to be contingent on how efficiently the multiple, concurrent, and intertwined patient outflow work was coordinated. The patient outflow coordination work was primarily non-clinical, and invisible in the current information system. Therefore, we propose to make the non-clinical coordination outflow work visible and be supported in the information system as efficient outflow is crucial to the efficiency of the overall patient flow. © 2014 Taylor & Francis.

Kodjebacheva G.D.,University of Michigan-Flint | Kodjebacheva G.D.,University of Michigan | Sabo T.,University of Michigan-Flint
Journal of Public Health (United Kingdom) | Year: 2016

Background To investigate the influence of premature birth on conditions among children aged 6-17 years. Methods The National Survey of Children's Health in the USA added a question on premature birth for the first time in the 2011-12 wave. The influence of being born premature on different conditions while controlling for sociodemographic factors was assessed using logistic regression. A total of 6882 out of 62 078 (11.1%) of children aged 6-17 years were born premature. Results Compared with children whowere not born premature, those who were born prematurewere more likely to have cerebral palsy [odds ratio (OR) 9.6, confidence interval (CI): 7.4-12.4], vision problems (OR 2.3, CI: 2.0-2.6), hearing problems (OR 1.7, CI: 1.6-2.0) and a special healthcare need (OR 1.7, CI: 1.6-1.8). Children who were born premature had an increased likelihood of not being on a sports team or not taking sports lessons after school or on weekends during the past 12 months than those whowere not born premature (OR 1.2, CI: 1.1-1.3). Conclusions Prematurity may be associated with negative outcomes as infants transition into childhood and adolescence. Interventions within the life-course perspective are needed to alleviate the long-term consequences of prematurity.

Aluko O.,University of Michigan-Flint | Mazumder Q.,University of Michigan-Flint
WCE 2010 - World Congress on Engineering 2010 | Year: 2010

An analytical model was developed to investigate the choice of failure criterion based on characteristic length method for predicting composite joint strength. The available experimental data for joint strength in literature were used to determine the accuracy of analytically obtained results. The analysis utilized six failure criteria, where it was shown that among the failure criteria investigated no one gave a best fit for all the three plates evaluated for strength, and the fit of individual failure theories is variable from one type of material to another. The results also showed that the accuracy of this method can be improved by computing the average predicted values of more than three failure criteria.

Cales S.L.,University of Wyoming | Brotherton M.S.,University of Wyoming | Shang Z.,University of Wyoming | Shang Z.,Tianjin Normal University | And 7 more authors.
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2011

We present images of 29 post-starburst quasars (PSQs) from a Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) Wide Field Channel Snapshot program. These broadlined active galactic nuclei (AGNs) possess the spectral signatures of massive (M burst ∼1010 M ⊙), moderate-aged stellar populations (hundreds ofMyr). Thus, their composite nature provides insight into the AGN-starburst connection. We measure quasar-to-host galaxy light contributions via semi-automated two-dimensional light profile fits of point-spread-function-subtracted images. We examine the host morphologies and model the separate bulge and disk components. The HST/ACS-F606W images reveal an equal number of spiral (13/29) and early-type (13/29) hosts, with the remaining three hosts having indeterminate classifications. AGNs hosted by early-type galaxies have on average greater luminosity than those hosted by spiral galaxies. Disturbances such as tidal tails, shells, star-forming knots, and asymmetries are seen as signposts of interaction/merger activity. Disturbances like these were found in 17 of the 29 objects and are evenly distributed among early-type and spiral galaxies. Two of these systems are clearly merging with their companions. Compared to other AGNs of similar luminosity and redshift, these PSQs have a higher fraction of early-type hosts and disturbances. Our most luminous objects with disturbed early-type host galaxies appear to be consistent with merger products. Thus, these luminous galaxies may represent a phase in an evolutionary scenario for merger-driven activity. Our less luminous objects appear to be consistent with Seyfert galaxies not requiring triggering by major mergers. Many of these Seyferts are barred spiral galaxies. © 2011. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

Panja B.,University of Michigan-Flint | Scott Z.,University of Michigan-Flint | Meharia P.,Eastern Michigan University
International Journal on Smart Sensing and Intelligent Systems | Year: 2015

Litigation faced by the NFL has called for better prevention and understanding of concussions and other sports injuries. To achieve this, sports officials have turned to wireless sensor networks, or WSNs, in the form of helmet sensors that automatically report any harmful injuries to attendants on the sidelines. While this approach provides players with a greater assurance of safety and a faster response to their injuries, the security weaknesses of WSNs must be addressed. These systems, being not only recently developed but also highly resource-constrained, may be easily manipulated by those looking to gain information about players (a form of passive attack) or even attempting to remove them from the game through the sending of false reports (a form of active attack). To prevent attacks such as these, we propose a system that uses a modification of the AES-CCM protocol as well as a novel attack detection system that uses probabilistic methods to report any harmful behavior to the user. The system's power usage due to injury reports is compared to a probability model that is based on past research that recorded the likelihood of injury for the positions played in professional football. This system offers many advantages over conventional cryptography as it is a lightweight approach that costs few resources; individual helmet sensors need only send simple power reports to a central base station which uses on-the-grid power to conduct security analysis. Provided below is detail of the paper which describes the problem in greater detail, a section that details the system architecture, a section that explains the AES-CCM protocol, and an explanation of the probabilistic approach. This is followed by a security analysis that compares the approach to several other approaches found in the literature, and finally a conclusion.

Jarvinen M.K.,University of Michigan-Flint | Chinnaswamy K.,University of Michigan-Flint | Sturtevant A.,University of Michigan-Flint | Hatley N.,University of Michigan-Flint | Sucic J.F.,University of Michigan-Flint
Brain Research | Year: 2010

Proprotein convertases (PCs) comprise a large family of subtilisin-like, eukaryotic, serine endoproteases that process substrates important in the development, homeostasis, and pathology of the nervous system. Despite important interactions with these substrates, including neurotrophins, PC expression throughout normal postnatal development and disease progression in the brain remains unknown. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether the expression profiles of widely expressed and tissue-specific PCs varied during normal brain development or neurological disorders. We examined the expression of mRNAs for seven PCs in the visual cortex of normal and visually impaired mice at 10 postnatal developmental time points between Week 1 and Week 35. Widely expressed PCs (furin, PACE4, PC5, and PC7) all exhibited a similar expression profile. High mRNA levels were seen at Week 1 with levels generally lower over the next 5-6 weeks. In visually impaired mice, widely expressed PCs again all exhibited a similar expression profile, but it was dramatically different than observed in normal mice. The temporal expression of tissue-specific PCs varied in wild-type mice. Interestingly, this variability was sharply reduced in visually impaired mice. Overall, these data suggest a timetable of altered PC expression that corresponds closely with the formation of functional visual maps in the visual cortex. The implications of these findings are discussed in the context of neurotrophin processing and synaptogenesis in the developing visual cortex. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Cornett A.,University of Michigan-Flint | Sucic J.F.,University of Michigan-Flint | Hillsburg D.,Emmanuel College at Boston | Cyr L.,Emmanuel College at Boston | And 7 more authors.
Brain Research | Year: 2011

Genes encoding the proteins of cytoskeletal intermediate filaments (IF) are tightly regulated, and they are important for establishing neural connections. However, it remains uncertain to what extent neurological disease alters IF gene expression or impacts cells that express IFs. In this study, we determined the onset of visual deficits in a mouse model of progressive retinal degeneration (Pde6b - mice; Pde6b + mice have normal vision) by observing murine responses to a visual task throughout development, from postnatal day (PND) 21 to adult (N = 174 reliable observations). Using Q-PCR, we evaluated whether expression of the genes encoding two Type III IF proteins, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and vimentin was altered in the visual cortex before, during, and after the onset of visual deficits. Using immunohistochemical techniques, we investigated the impact of vision loss on the density and morphology of astrocytes that expressed GFAP and vimentin in the visual cortex. We found that Pde6b - mice displayed 1) evidence of blindness at PND 49, with visual deficits detected at PND 35, 2) reduced GFAP mRNA expression in the visual cortex between PND 28 and PND 49, and 3) an increased ratio of vimentin:GFAP-labeled astrocytes at PND 49 with reduced GFAP cell body area. Together, these findings demonstrate that retinal degeneration modifies cellular and molecular indices of glial plasticity in a visual system with drastically reduced visual input. The functional consequences of these structural changes remain uncertain. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Creech C.J.,University of Michigan-Flint
The Nurse practitioner | Year: 2011

This study explored NPs' management of chronic musculoskeletal pain via a record review of 50 uninsured patients. The findings include a summary of the utilization of services and treatments along with demographic data. Recommendations for education, practice, and further research are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited.

Millen A.E.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Nie J.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Sahli M.W.,University of Michigan-Flint | Mares J.A.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Nutrition, Health and Aging | Year: 2016

Objectives: Vitamin D status has been hypothesized to protect against development of early age-related macular degeneration (AMD) via its anti-inflammatory properties and its possible beneficial influence on blood pressure control. We investigated the association between vitamin D status and prevalent early AMD in a community-based cohort. Design: This was a cross-sectional study. Setting: This was a secondary data analysis of already existing data from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (ARIC) cohort collected from 1990 to 1995. Participants: There were 9,734 (7,779 Caucasians, 1,955 African American) ARIC participants (aged 46 to 70 at visit 2 [1990-1992]) with 25(OH)D data available at visit 2, AMD assessment at visit 3 (1993-1995), and complete covariate data. Measurements: Vitamin D status was assessed with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations from bloods drawn at visit 2. Prevalent, early AMD (n=511) was assessed at visit 3 (1993-95) with nonmydriatic retinal photographs of one randomly chosen eye. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for early AMD by categories of 25(OH)D in nmol/L (deficient <30, inadequate 30-<50, and two categories of adequate status: 50-<75 and ≥75). Linear trend was estimated using continuous 25(OH)D concentrations. ORs were adjusted for age, race, and smoking status. We further adjusted for hypertension status to examine if vitamin D status influenced early AMD via its effects on blood pressure. Exploratory analyses of effect modification by age, sex, race and high risk genotypes [Y402H complement factor H (CFH) rs1061170 and the A69S age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2 (ARMS2) rs10490924 polymorphisms] were conducted. Results: The prevalence of early AMD was 5%, and 5% of participants were vitamin D deficient. The adjusted OR (95% CIs) for early AMD among those with adequate (=75 nmol/L) compared to deficient (<30 nmol/L) vitamin D status was 0.94 (0.59-1.50), p-trend=0.86. Further adjustment for hypertension status did not influence results (OR [95% CI]=0.95 [0.59-1.52], p-trend=0.84). Results did not vary significantly by age, race, sex, early AMD subtype (soft drusen or retinal pigment epithelium depigmentation), or ARMS2 genotype. Results did not vary significantly by CFH genotype in African Americans. The p for multiplicative interaction between 25(OH)D and CFH genotype was 0.06 in Caucasians, but OR [95% CIs] for AMD by vitamin D status were similar in each CFH genotype and not statistically significant. Conclusion: Vitamin D status was not associated with early AMD in this cohort sample. © 2016 Serdi and Springer-Verlag France

Xu T.,Chinese Academy of Forestry | Xu T.,Shenzhen Guanheng New Materials Technology Co. | Liu H.,Chinese Academy of Forestry | Song J.,University of Michigan-Flint | And 4 more authors.
Chinese Chemical Letters | Year: 2015

With the natural rosin derivative (maleopimaric acid, MPA) as the raw material, imide modified vinyl poly(dimethylsiloxane) (MP-VMS) was synthesized and characterized by 1H NMR and 13C NMR. The curing kinetic parameters of MP-VMS were determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) at various heating rates (5, 8, 10, 15 °C/min) from the Kissingner, Ozawa and Crane methods. The activation energy (Ea), pre-exponential factor (A) and reaction order (n) were respectively 18.6 kJ/mol, 71,108 and 0.902. The low-temperature and high-temperature resistance of its curing product were respectively investigated by DSC and thermogravimetric analysis. The results showed that incorporation of MPA could significantly improve the thermal stability of silicone while had no effect on the low-temperature resistance, and the Tmax (the temperature corresponding to the maximum weight loss rate) increased by 70.7 °C. © 2015 Chinese Chemical Society and Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Kim Y.-M.,University of Michigan-Flint | Stokes K.,University of Michigan-Flint | Chi Y.,University of Michigan-Flint
Vibration Institute Annual Training Conference 2013 | Year: 2013

We introduce one method of addressing the problem of finding the Revolutions per minute of a DC motor without the use of a commercial tachometer, through the use of Dragon Board-12 embedded system. The method we chose to use involved setting up a low pass filter circuit to reduce noise and voltage to a level that the safe for use with the Dragon Board-12. The output from the low-pass filter was then passed through an analog to digital converter which was coded using C code, to convert the signal into a machine readable input. The input was then converted into revolutions per minute and then stored for 15ms, at which time an average was taken (to reduce noise) and then sent to the LCD screen as the tachometer output in revolutions per minute. Additionally, we identified DC motor using motor input voltage and output rpm data. The Matlab data shows its usefulness.

Deca J.,Catholic University of Leuven | Marsh T.R.,University of Warwick | Ostensen R.H.,Catholic University of Leuven | Morales-Rueda L.,Symetrica | And 6 more authors.
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | Year: 2012

About 50 per cent of all known hot subdwarf B stars (sdBs) reside in close (short-period) binaries, for which common-envelope ejection is the most likely formation mechanism. However, Han et al. predict that the majority of sdBs should form through stable mass transfer leading to long-period binaries. Determining orbital periods for these systems is challenging and while the orbital periods of ∼100 short-period systems have been measured, there are no periods measured above 30d. As part of a large programme to characterize the orbital periods of sdB binaries and their formation history, we have found that PG1018-047 has an orbital period of 759.8 ± 5.8d, easily making it the longest period ever detected for a sdB binary. Exploiting the Balmer lines of the subdwarf primary and the narrow absorption lines of the companion present in the spectra, we derive the radial velocity amplitudes of both stars, and estimate the mass ratio M MS/M sdB= 1.6 ± 0.2. From the combination of visual and infrared photometry, the spectral type of the companion star is determined to be mid-K. © 2012 The Authors Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society © 2012 RAS.

Sun P.,CAF Institute of Chemical Industry of Forest Products | Zhang K.,CAF Institute of Chemical Industry of Forest Products | Shang S.,CAF Institute of Chemical Industry of Forest Products | Shang S.,Beijing Institute of Technology | And 3 more authors.
RSC Advances | Year: 2016

Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is an effective and sustainable way to covert biomass into functional carbonaceous materials. Effects of condition parameters on the morphology and particle size distributions were evaluated. However, the absence of porosity of HTC materials limits their wide applications. Activation of HTC materials could solve this problem. Traditional activation methods, which use strong base or acid as activating agent, could lead to pollutions. Here, we prepared microporous activated carbon spheres from ethyl cellulose under static air atmosphere. The resultant activated carbon spheres were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), FT-IR spectrometer, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and nitrogen adsorption. Results reveal that the obtained carbon spheres show smooth surface, good dispersion and abundant surface functional groups. In addition, the spherical carbon exhibits high adsorption abilities for different kinds of dyes, which is important for environment protection. © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Siegel M.H.,Pennsylvania State University | Hoversten E.,Pennsylvania State University | Bond H.E.,US Space Telescope Science Institute | Stark M.,Pennsylvania State University | And 2 more authors.
Astronomical Journal | Year: 2012

We present an analysis of over 150 ks of data on the planetary nebula WeBo1 (PN G135.6+01.0) obtained with the Swift Ultraviolet Optical Telescope (UVOT). The central object of this nebula has previously been described as a late-type K giant barium star with a possible hot companion, most likely a young pre-white dwarf. UVOT photometry shows that while the optical photometry is consistent with a large cool object, the near-ultraviolet (NUV) photometry shows far more UV flux than could be produced by any late-type object. Using model stellar atmospheres and a comparison to UVOT photometry for the pre-white dwarf PG1159-035, we find that the companion has a temperature of at least 40,000K and a radius of, at most, 0.056 R ⊙. While the temperature and radius are consistent with a hot compact stellar remnant, they are lower and larger, respectively, than expected for a typical young pre-white dwarf. This likely indicates a deficiency in the assumed UV extinction curve. We find that higher temperatures more consistent with expectations for a pre-white dwarf can be derived if the foreground dust has a strong "blue bump" at 2175 Å and a lower R V . Our results demonstrate the ability of Swift to both uncover and characterize hot hidden companion stars and to constrain the UV extinction properties of foreground dust based solely on UVOT photometry. © © 2012. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

Kim Y.-M.,University of Michigan-Flint | Yixuan C.,University of Michigan-Flint
Vibration Institute Annual Training Conference 2013 | Year: 2013

As the blade is getting bigger, wind turbine undergoes severe structural stress on the entire system. In addition, the location of wind turbine is recently moved to offshore, it becomes more important to reduce structural load. However, it is well known that the system pole of wind turbine is close to unit circuit which can make the system unstable easily. Thus, in this research, we apply pole placement technique to controller design in order to make the system stable. To illustrate, we studied DC motor simulation preliminarily and then, applied to benchmark model of wind turbine. The simulation output shows that the pole placement technique is useful to make system stable.

Sahli M.W.,University of Michigan-Flint | Mares J.A.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Meyers K.J.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Klein R.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | And 5 more authors.
Ophthalmic Epidemiology | Year: 2016

Purpose: We tested the hypothesis that dietary intake of lutein is inversely associated with prevalence of diabetic retinopathy (DR) due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and location within the retina.Methods: We used logistic regression to examine the association between prevalent DR and energy-adjusted lutein intake by quartile (Q) using data collected from 1430 Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (ARIC) participants with diabetes (n = 994 white, n = 508 black). DR was assessed from 45° non-mydriatic retinal photographs of one randomly chosen eye taken at visit 3 (1993-1995). Dietary lutein intake was estimated using a 66-item food frequency questionnaire at visit 1 (1987-1989).Results: Median estimated daily lutein intake was 1370 μg/1000 kcals and prevalence of DR was ~21%. We found a crude association between lutein and DR (odds ratio, OR, 2.11, 95% confidence interval, CI, 1.45-3.09 for Q4, high intake, vs. Q1, low intake; p for trend <0.0001), which was attenuated after adjustment for ethnicity, duration of diabetes, glycosylated hemoglobin levels, field center and energy intake (OR 1.41, 95% CI 0.87-2.28; p for trend = 0.01). In analyses limited to persons with short diabetes duration (<6 years), the association no longer persisted (OR 0.94, 95% CI 0.31-2.16; p for trend =0.72) compared to the association in those with longer diabetes duration (≥6 years; OR 1.58, 95% CI 0.91-2.75; p for trend = 0.01).Conclusion: Contrary to our hypothesis, we found that the odds of higher lutein intake were greater among those with DR than those without DR. However, after adjusting for confounders, intake of lutein was not associated with DR. © 2016 Taylor & Francis.

Douglas C.C.,University of Michigan-Flint
Energy Economics | Year: 2010

Previous studies have found evidence of asymmetric price adjustment in U.S. retail gasoline prices in that gasoline prices rise more rapidly in response to a cost increase than fall in response to a cost decrease. By estimating a threshold cointegration model that allows for multiple regimes, I am able to test how sensitive this result is to outlying observations. In contrast to previous studies, I find little evidence of asymmetry for the vast majority of observations and that the asymmetry is being driven by a small number of outlying observations. © 2009 Elsevier B.V.

Owolabi G.,Howard University | Egboiyi B.,Howard University | Whitworth H.,Howard University | Aluko O.,University of Michigan-Flint
ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Proceedings (IMECE) | Year: 2012

Numerous theoretical models have been developed to predict the fatigue strength reduction factor (also known as fatigue notch factor), an important parameter in fatigue life prediction of notched components. These models include: the classical average stress method, the fracture mechanics method, the stress field intensity method, the strain energy method, and the weakest link method. However, most of these methods do not incorporate explicit sensitivity to materials microstructure. Accordingly, notch sensitivity remains a highly empirical subject in spite of significant advances in microstructure-sensitive modeling. This paper gives a detailed literature review of these methods and addresses their limitations. It also discusses a recently developed probabilistic method for microstructure-sensitive fatigue notch factor. The probabilistic method provides a very strong physical basis for fatigue strength reduction and associated notch sensitivity; thus it can be used to determine the effect of notches on reduction of fatigue resistance in a way that directly incorporates microstructure. The results obtained using the new probabilistic framework and other conventional methods are compared with experimental data for notched components. The probabilistic framework gives better correlation with experimental results for the notch sensitivity and notch size effect than the conventional approaches including the Neuber's, the Peterson, and the fracture mechanics methods. Copyright © 2012 by ASME.

Aluko O.,University of Michigan-Flint | Whitworth H.A.,Howard University | Owolabi G.,Howard University
ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Proceedings (IMECE) | Year: 2012

An analytical solution is presented for determining the stress distribution in pin loaded composite joints using Lekhnitskii's complex stress function approach. In this analysis, it is assumed that the pin is rigid, no clearance exists between pin and plate, and Coulomb friction is assumed to act throughout the contact region. The analysis also assumes that the contact boundary at the pin-plate interface spans through half of the hole boundary. The boundary conditions at the pin-plate interface are specified in terms of the trigonometric series used to represent the displacement field in the contact zone. Numerical results are presented for stress distribution in (±45°)s and (04°/±45°)s carbon fibers reinforced laminates. Copyright © 2012 by ASME.

Allison M.,University of Michigan-Flint | Clarke P.J.,Florida International University | He X.,Florida International University
Procedia Computer Science | Year: 2015

The prevalent application of domain-specific modeling languages (DSMLs) requires developers to initially specify the requirements for a software product as a domain-specific model then transform that model to a high-level language for subsequent execution. An alternative is to realize behavior directly by executing the models using a specialized interpreter. One category of interpreted domain-specific modeling languages (DSMLs) derives behavior from changes to models at runtime. These are termed interpreted DSMLs or simply i-DSMLs. Existing interpreters for i-DSMLs exhibit tight coupling between the implicit model of execution (MoE) and the semantics of the domain. The interweaving of these two concerns compounds the challenge of developing interpreters for new i-DSMLs without a significant investment in resources. This paper introduces a generalized approach to developing i-DSML interpreters by utilizing a generic framework that is loosely coupled to the domain-specific knowledge as swappable framework extensions. We present a prototype as validation of our approach implemented using a metamodel based architecture to instantiate the interpreter for two distinct cyber-physical domains. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license.

Blackwood J.,University of Michigan-Flint | Shubert T.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Fogarty K.,Western Michigan University | Chase C.,Western Michigan University
Journal of Nutrition, Health and Aging | Year: 2016

Objectives: Cognitive intervention studies have reported improvements in various domains of cognition as well as a transfer effect of improved function post training. Despite the availability of web based cognitive training programs, most intervention studies have been performed under the supervision of researchers. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to first, examine the feasibility of a six week home based computerized cognitive training (CCT) program in a group of community dwelling older adults and, second, to determine if a CCT program which focused on set shifting, attention, and visual spatial ability impacted fall risk measure performance. Design: This pilot study used a pretest/posttest experimental design with randomization by testing site to an intervention or control group. Participants: Community dwelling older adults (mean age = 74.6 years) participated in either the control (N=25) or the intervention group (N=19). Intervention: Intervention group subjects participated in 6 weeks of home based CCT 3x/week for an average of 23 minutes/session, using an online CCT program. Measurements: Comparisons of mean scores on three measures of physical function (usual gait speed, five times sit to stand, timed up and go) were completed at baseline and week 7. Results: Following the completion of an average of 18 sessions of CCT at home with good adherence (86%) and retention (92%) rates, a statistically significant difference in gait speed was found between groups with an average improvement of 0.14m/s in the intervention group. Conclusion: A home based CCT program is a feasible approach to targeting cognitive impairments known to influence fall risk and changes in gait in older adults. © 2016, Serdi and Springer-Verlag France.

Huang M.-H.,University of Michigan-Flint | Brown S.H.,University of Michigan
Gait and Posture | Year: 2013

Reaching tasks are commonly performed during daily activities and require anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) to ensure a stable posture during movement execution. Age-related changes in APAs may impact dynamic balance and cause postural instability during reaching tasks made from standing. The present study examined age differences in postural control during reaching to targets located at different heights. Fourteen young adults (aged 20.0 ± 1.5 yrs) and 16 community-dwelling older adults (aged 73.4 ± 5.3 yrs) participated in the study. The task involved reaching forward to grasp a cylinder, and returning to an upright position as fast and accurately as possible. Postural control was analyzed using the center of pressure (COP) during four phases of the task: COP displacement during APA production, COP trajectory smoothness during the reach and return phases, and COP path length during the recovery phase following movement. APA amplitude measured by COP displacement and COP path length during the recovery phase was larger in older compared to young adults. Dynamic balance represented by COP trajectory smoothness was reduced with age. In both age groups, APA amplitude was largest and COP trajectory smoothness the least during low target reaches. The results demonstrate that, while older adults can alter APAs in order to maintain postural stability, control of COP during movement execution, particularly during low target reaches, is compromised with aging. These findings have clinical implications for both the assessment of dynamic balance and the development of balance training programs. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Panja B.,University of Michigan-Flint | Gennarelli T.,University of Michigan-Flint | Meharia P.,Eastern Michigan University
2015 1st Conference on Mobile and Secure Services, MOBISECSERV 2015 | Year: 2015

In this paper we propose a new approach to prevent and detect potential cross-site scripting attacks. Our method called Buffer Based Cache Check, will utilize both the server-side as well as the client-side to detect and prevent XSS attacks and will require modification of both in order to function correctly. With Cache Check, instead of the server supplying a complete whitelist of all the known trusted scripts to the mobile browser every time a page is requested, the server will instead store a cache that contains a validated trusted instance of the last time the page was rendered that can be checked against the requested page for inconsistencies. We believe that with our proposed method that rendering times in mobile browsers will be significantly reduced as part of the checking is done via the server, and fewer checking within the mobile browser which is slower than the server. With our method the entire checking process isn't dumped onto the mobile browser and as a result the mobile browser should be able to render pages faster as it is only checking for untrusted content whereas with other approaches, every single line of code is checked by the mobile browser, which increases rendering times. © 2015 IEEE.

Burgess F.,Wayne State University | Galambos L.,Wayne State University | Howland A.,Wayne State University | Yalamanchili M.,Wayne State University | Pfalzer L.A.,University of Michigan-Flint
Rehabilitation Oncology | Year: 2016

Background: Weakness and decreased muscular strength are a common morbidities following treatment for colorectal cancer. Accurate clinical assessment of strength and muscular endurance following colorectal cancer treatments is essential to identify deficits and plan effective physical therapy interventions. Purpose: To identify strength and muscular endurance outcome measures that have strong psychometric properties and are clinically useful for examination of individuals treated for colorectal cancer. Methods: Multiple electronic databases were searched between December 13, 2014, and March 4, 2015. Studies of tools used to assess strength and muscular endurance were included if they were peer-reviewed publications from 1995 to March of 2014 in English, reported psychometric properties, clinically feasible methods, and were conducted on adults. Each outcome measure was independently reviewed and rated by 2 reviewers. If there was disagreement, a third reviewer rated the measure. A single Cancer Evaluation Database to Guide Effectiveness (EDGE) Task Force Outcome Measure Rating Form was completed for each tool, and a recommendation was made using the 4-point Cancer EDGE Task Force Rating Scale. Results: Of the original 4922 articles identified, 21 were reviewed. Five clinical measures of strength were identified: hand grip strength, hand-held dynamometry, isometric strength, manual muscle testing, and trunk flexion strength/lower extremity (LE) dynamometry, along with muscle endurance. Hand-held dynamometry and hand grip strength and using dynamometry were rated a 3 (recommended for clinical use). Manual muscle testing, isometric strength testing, and trunk flexion/LE dynamometry were rated a 2B (unable to recommend at this time because of poor psychometric properties). Muscular endurance testing was rated 1 (unable to recommend at this time because of a lack of psychometric support). Isokinetic testing for muscle strength and endurance has been reported in pilot testing in patients with colorectal cancer; however, sample size was small (n = 4) and the clinical utility is poor. Conclusions: Using objective hand-held dynamometry for muscle strength testing provides precise measurement to assess baseline status and monitor change among those being treated for colorectal cancer. No measures for muscle endurance in the colorectal cancer population with adequate psychometrics were identified. Copyright © 2016 Oncology Section, APTA.

Kram Y.A.,University of Washington | Mantey S.,University of Washington | Mantey S.,University of Michigan-Flint | Corbo J.C.,University of Washington
PLoS ONE | Year: 2010

The avian retina possesses one of the most sophisticated cone photoreceptor systems among vertebrates. Birds have five types of cones including four single cones, which support tetrachromatic color vision and a double cone, which is thought to mediate achromatic motion perception. Despite this richness, very little is known about the spatial organization of avian cones and its adaptive significance. Here we show that the five cone types of the chicken independently tile the retina as highly ordered mosaics with a characteristic spacing between cones of the same type. Measures of topological order indicate that double cones are more highly ordered than single cones, possibly reflecting their posited role in motion detection. Although cones show spacing interactions that are cell type-specific, all cone types use the same density-dependent yardstick to measure intercone distance. We propose a simple developmental model that can account for these observations. We also show that a single parameter, the global regularity index, defines the regularity of all five cone mosaics. Lastly, we demonstrate similar cone distributions in three additional avian species, suggesting that these patterning principles are universal among birds. Since regular photoreceptor spacing is critical for uniform sampling of visual space, the cone mosaics of the avian retina represent an elegant example of the emergence of adaptive global patterning secondary to simple local interactions between individual photoreceptors. Our results indicate that the evolutionary pressures that gave rise to the avian retina's various adaptations for enhanced color discrimination also acted to fine-tune its spatial sampling of color and luminance. © 2010 Kram et al.

Tang C.,University of Michigan-Flint | Chen Y.,University of California at Irvine
Proceedings of the Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences | Year: 2015

This paper reports how a nurse-managed primary care clinic (NMPCC) prepared for the implementation of an Electronic Health Record (EHR) system with limited resources. EHR adoption is a complex task that requires not only implementing a system but also an integration of the system into the existing sociotechnical environments. In this study, we identified three stages of the process improvement meetings conducted at the clinic: (1) understanding routines, roles, and practices, (2) identifying problems and deficiencies, and (3) iterating interventions by optimizing resources through reconfiguring artifacts and work practices. Importantly, we found the staff jointly reflecting on one another's experiences and practices by making sense of the collaborative work. We regarded this sense-making process as collaborative reflection, and argued that it enhanced technology readiness of the NMPCC through creating a more technology-compatible and collaborative sociotechnical environment for the impending EHR implementation. © 2015 IEEE.

Farmer M.E.,University of Michigan-Flint
ICASSP, IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing - Proceedings | Year: 2013

Accurate and robust registration of image pairs is of interest in many fields that use computer vision such as surveillance and medical diagnostics. In each of these fields the area-based (or voxel-based) approach to image registration is popular, however it is known that these methods are sensitive to illumination change where incorrect results are common. Past work in applying chaos theory to computer vision has demonstrated that the underlying physics of illumination change versus contextual change result in very different behavior when analyzed in phase space. Illumination is deterministic and results in non-fractal phase space behavior, while contextual change is chaos-like and results in complex fractal regions in phase space. A chaos-theoretic approach to image registration is presented with favorable results compared to the traditional and very popular Mutual Information measure. © 2013 IEEE.

Mazumder Q.H.,University of Michigan-Flint
WCE 2010 - World Congress on Engineering 2010 | Year: 2010

It is conceivable that over the next decade, all students will have access to some form of internet-based device while attending classes. The work presented in this paper investigated how web-based metacognition tools influence student capacity to self-assess their understanding (learning), student regulation of their learning (confidence level), class dynamics (reaction) and instructor methods. Student self-assessment associated with specific lecture slides were collected and compared with content-specific questions later in the examination. A set of online questions were used to evaluate student understanding on specific materials presented in the slides. Students were also asked to self-assess their confidence level in their answers. A web-based metacognition tool "LectureTools" was used to collect student responses. Correlation of correct answers with the self-assessment is presented to reflect on what the student thought they understood versus the outcome of their exam scores. The study evaluates how students may regulate their own learning and improve their ability to self-assess their understanding more critically. The ultimate goal is to empower students to become a better learner by self-assessment and evaluation of their own knowledge.

Springer B.A.,Proponency Office for Rehabilitation and Reintegration | Levy E.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | McGarvey C.,CLM Consulting Services LLC | Pfalzer L.A.,University of Michigan-Flint | And 4 more authors.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment | Year: 2010

In order to determine the extent and time course of upper limb impairment and dysfunction in women being treated for breast cancer (BC), and followed prospectively, a novel physical therapy surveillance model post-treatment was used. Subjects included adult women with newly diagnosed, untreated, unilateral, Stage I to III BC, and normal physiological and biomechanical shoulder function. Subjects were excluded if they had a previous history of BC, or prior injury or surgery of the affected upper limb. Measurements included body weight, shoulder ranges of motion (ROM), manual muscle tests, pain levels, upper limb volume, and an upper limb disability questionnaire (ULDQ). Measurements were taken at baseline (pre-surgery), and 1, 3-6, and 12 months post-surgery. All subjects received pre-operative education and exercise instruction and specific physical therapy (PT) protocol after surgery including ROM and strengthening exercises. All measures of function were significantly reduced 1 month post-surgery, but most recovered to baseline levels by 1-year post-surgery. Some subjects developed signs of lymphedema 3-12 months post-surgery, but this did not compromise function. Shoulder abduction, flexion, and external rotation, but not internal rotation ROM, were associated with the ULDQ. Most women in this cohort undergoing surgery for BC who receive PT intervention may expect a return to baseline ROM and strength by 3 months. Those who do not reach baseline, often continue to improve and reach their pre-operative levels by 1-year post-surgery. Lymphedema develops independently of shoulder function 3-12 months post-surgery, necessitating continued monitoring. A prospective physical therapy model of surveillance allows for detection of early and later onset of impairment following surgery for BC in this specific cohort of patients. © 2010 US Government.

Kodjebacheva G.D.,University of Michigan-Flint | Kodjebacheva G.D.,University of Michigan | Sabo T.,University of Michigan-Flint | Parker S.,University of Michigan-Flint
Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology | Year: 2016

Background Studies on the influences of pediatric asthma on health and access to health care were conducted in limited geographic areas or age groups. Objective To investigate associations of asthma with health, use of medical care, mental health or educational services, activity limitations, problems in paying bills, and frustrations in obtaining health care among children in the United States. Caregivers reported children's conditions. Methods Logistic regression models were adjusted for sociodemographic factors in the nationally representative 2011/2012 National Survey of Children's Health. Results Of the 91,116 children 0 to 17 years old, 14.6% had reported asthma. Of children 0 to 17 years old with asthma, 21.2% were non-Hispanic black. Of children 0 to 17 years old without asthma, 12.2% were non-Hispanic black. In children 0 to 17 years old, compared with children without asthma, children with asthma had an increased odds to have reported fair or poor health, receive more medical care, mental health, and educational services than usual, have activity limitations, have medical bills that the family had problems paying (odds ratio 1.5, 95% confidence interval 1.3-1.7), and have caregivers who were frustrated in obtaining care (odds ratio 1.5, 95% confidence interval 1.2-1.7). The odds ratios for the associations between asthma and all outcomes were higher in the 0- to 5-year-old compared with the 6- to 17-year-old group. Conclusion When adjusting for sociodemographic variables, caregivers have problems paying bills and obtaining health care services for their child. To develop age-appropriate interventions, more research is needed to understand why families have difficulties accessing health care. © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology.

Alsalaheen B.A.,University of Michigan-Flint | Whitney S.L.,University of Pittsburgh | Whitney S.L.,King Saud University | Marchetti G.F.,Duquesne University | And 4 more authors.
Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine | Year: 2016

Objective: To examine the relationship between cognitive and balance performance in adolescents with concussion. Design: Retrospective case series. Setting: Tertiary. Patients: Sixty patients. Interventions: Correlation analyses were performed to describe the relationship between symptoms, cognitive measure, and balance measure at the time of initiation of vestibular physical therapy. Main Outcome Measures: Cognitive performance was assessed using the Immediate Post-concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT). The dizziness and balance function measures included dizziness severity rating, Activities-specific Balance Confidence scale (ABC), Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI), Functional Gait Assessment, gait speed, Timed "UP and GO," Five Times Sit to Stand, and Sensory Organization Test (SOT). To account for multiple comparisons, the False Discovery Rate method was used. Results: Performance measures of balance were significantly correlated with cognitive measures. Greater total symptom scores were related to greater impairment in the ABC and DHI (r = 0.35-0.39, P ≤ 0.008) and worse performance in condition 2 of the SOT (r = 20.48, P = 0.004). Among the ImPACT composite scores, lower memory scores were correlated with impaired balance performance measures (r = 0.37-0.59, P ≤ 0.012). Lower visual memory was also correlated with worse ABC scores. Conclusions: The significant relationships reported between the cognitive performance scores and balance measures may reflect that similar levels of functioning exist across domains in individuals with protracted recovery who receive vestibular physical therapy. Clinical Relevance: The weak-to-moderate relationships warrant the continuous use of multiple domains of assessment. A better understanding to the relationships between the domains of functioning after concussion may improve the overall management approach for adolescents with concussion. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

Isikman A.O.,TOBB University of Economics and Technology | Yildirim S.A.,TOBB University of Economics and Technology | Altun C.,TOBB University of Economics and Technology | Uludag S.,TOBB University of Economics and Technology | And 2 more authors.
2013 IEEE Globecom Workshops, GC Wkshps 2013 | Year: 2013

The conception of the Smart Grid (SG) paradigm is to offer many benefits to the transmission, distribution, and consumption of energy. One catalyzer ingredient of the SG repertoire of changes is the idea of microgrids. As a new low voltage distribution subsystem, microgrids are expected to improve reliability, help integrate distributed resources, isolate power disturbances, and ameliorate load and supply balance. In this paper, we study a microgrid power scheduling problem with renewable sources and energy storage where five different classes of appliances are prioritized by smart meters. A novel formulation and solution based on mixed integer programming are proposed. Preliminary simulations show the efficacy of the optimization to schedule power among users and appliances of a microgrid in terms of the total power consumed and the number of power usage requests accepted by the system. © 2013 IEEE.

Dakeev U.,University of Michigan-Flint | Mazumder Q.H.,University of Michigan-Flint | Yildiz F.,Sam Houston State University | Baltaci K.,University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee
ASEE Annual Conference and Exposition, Conference Proceedings | Year: 2015

To meet the increasing demand for renewable energy, amount of energy harnessed by wind turbine must be increased. The objective of the current study is to design and development of a new blade geometry for small scale wind turbines that will generate more power than the currently available designs. A modified cone shaped, flow directing device was also designed and installed at upstream of the wind turbine to increase the air velocity. Experiments were conducted with and without the above mentioned device to compare the power generated by the turbine. The experimental results demonstrated an increase in power output by 60% when the cone shaped device was used. A new blade was designed and constructed that will be able to utilize the downstream effect of the flow directing device. The new blade design was capable of generating 400 watts of power output when used in conjunction with the flow directing device. The number of blades, location, and surface area of the blades were considered during the design process. © American Society for Engineering Education, 2015.

Baltaci K.,University of Wisconsin - Stout | Yildiz F.,Sam Houston State University | Peng A.S.,University of Wisconsin - Stout | Dakeev U.,University of Michigan-Flint
ASEE Annual Conference and Exposition, Conference Proceedings | Year: 2015

With continued advances, technology has become an indispensable part of our personal and social life, with its significant benefits. On the downside, technology increases our dependency on limited sources of energy and threatens our world with climate change and environmental pollution. Technology affects every individual's life, regardless of nationality, gender, race, or occupation. This fact is closely related to the purpose of general education, which is a requirement for college students in our modern education system. General education aims to not only place students into a major specialization based on their interests, but it also aims to help students gain universal skills and knowledge in many diverse areas to meet life's wide-ranging challenges intelligently and creatively. Today, industry and business needs graduates from all majors across the board that holds the profound knowledge of energy, technology, the environment, and sustainability. Industry and business need students who can not only understand the complex relationship between these topics, but also can analyze and evaluate problems as well as able to offer the best possible solutions to such problems. The purpose of this paper is to report in detail on the development of a course on renewable energy and sustainability, titled "Renewable Energy and Sustainability," and to provide an assessment plan for the course. The proposed course is designed as general education course. This course does not have a prerequisite and is open to students from all majors as a general education elective. The course uses a combination of lectures, reading discussions, case studies, and demonstrations. Class content includes an extensive review of various renewable energy resources, as well as an analysis of the economic, social, and environmental effects of renewable energy systems. It also analyzes the effects of politics and government regulation of renewable energy. © American Society for Engineering Education, 2015.

Baltaci K.,University of Wisconsin - Stout | Dakeev U.,University of Michigan-Flint | Yildiz F.,Sam Houston State University
ASEE Annual Conference and Exposition, Conference Proceedings | Year: 2015

Low student enrollments coupled high global demand for qualified graduates has become a serious concern in engineering education. As the demand for professionals with engineering degrees increases, colleges and universities are trying to use many programs and activities during high school and college to attract more students to engineering, especially woman and minority students. Unfortunately, forty to fifty percent of engineering students drop out or switch to other majors. This indicates that keeping students in engineering is as important as having more students enroll in engineering degrees. In support of that, cost analysis shows that recruiting new students is more expensive than retaining students already enrolled. In an effort to understand students better, accurately determine the reasons behind low retention and high dropout, and provide services students truly need, a survey was administered at Bridgemont Community and Technical College (BCTC). A total of 139 students from seven different engineering technology programs were surveyed. From those surveyed, 40.75% were 22 years or older, 48.12% were first-generation college students, and 93.53% were full-time students. Besides basic demographics, respondents provided information on how many hours per week they worked, if a lack of funding delayed or slowed their progress to matriculation, if they felt that employment prevented them from studying and completing their assignments, their reasons for being employed while attending college, and how concerned they were about having available funds to finance their college education. In this paper, the data is analyzed to provide valuable information for a National Science Foundation (NSF) scholarship in science, engineering, technology, and mathematics (S-STEM) grant application. The results are further analyzed to give direction for more effective retention efforts, including advisement about courses and workloads. © American Society for Engineering Education, 2015.

Tzeng H.-M.,University of Michigan-Flint | Titler M.G.,University of Michigan | Ronis D.L.,University of Michigan | Ronis D.L.,Veterans Affairs Center for Clinical Management Research | Yin C.-Y.,Chinese Culture University
BMC Health Services Research | Year: 2012

Background: Fall prevention programs for hospitalized patients have had limited success, and the effect of programs on decreasing total falls and fall-related injuries is still inconclusive. This exploratory multi-hospital study examined the unique contribution of call light response time to predicting total fall rates and injurious fall rates in inpatient acute care settings. The conceptual model was based on Donabedian's framework of structure, process, and health-care outcomes. The covariates included the hospital, unit type, total nursing hours per patient-day (HPPDs), percentage of the total nursing HPPDs supplied by registered nurses, percentage of patients aged 65 years or older, average case mix index, percentage of patients with altered mental status, percentage of patients with hearing problems, and call light use rate per patient-day. Methods. We analyzed data from 28 units from 4 Michigan hospitals, using archived data and chart reviews from January 2004 to May 2009. The patient care unit-month, defined as data aggregated by month for each patient care unit, was the unit of analysis (N = 1063). Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used. Results: Faster call light response time was associated with lower total fall and injurious fall rates. Units with a higher call light use rate had lower total fall and injurious fall rates. A higher percentage of productive nursing hours provided by registered nurses was associated with lower total fall and injurious fall rates. A higher percentage of patients with altered mental status was associated with a higher total fall rate but not a higher injurious fall rate. Units with a higher percentage of patients aged 65 years or older had lower injurious fall rates. Conclusions: Faster call light response time appeared to contribute to lower total fall and injurious fall rates, after controlling for the covariates. For practical relevance, hospital and nursing executives should consider strategizing fall and injurious fall prevention efforts by aiming for a decrease in staff response time to call lights. Monitoring call light response time on a regular basis is recommended and could be incorporated into evidence-based practice guidelines for fall prevention. © 2012 Tzeng et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Wei M.,Oracle Inc. | Rundensteiner E.A.,Worcester Polytechnic Institute | Mani M.,University of Michigan-Flint
Proceedings - International Conference on Data Engineering | Year: 2015

Because of high volumes and unpredictable arrival rates, stream processing systems cannot always keep up with input data streams, resulting in buffer overflow and uncontrolled loss of data. Load shedding and spilling, the two prevalent technologies designed to solve this overflow problem by dropping or flushing data to disk, suffer from serious shortcomings. Dropping data suffers in that partial output is lost forever, while flushing may waste precious resources due to making the strong assumption that flushed data can and will eventually still be processed. In this paper, we propose our solution, INSURE, integrating structure-based drop and flush techniques within one unified framework for XML stream systems. Our INSURE framework provides an optimized fine-grained load reduction solution that achieves high quality result production. First, the fusion candidate lattice models the space of load reduction solutions incorporating both drop and flush decisions, called fusion candidates. Second, our systematic analysis of fusion candidates and their interrelationships in the fusion candidate lattice reveals important relationships, including the monotonicity of their feasibility and profitability properties. Third, based upon this fusion candidate lattice model, a family of optimization strategies for the selection of fusion candidates is designed to successfully maximize the overall result quality. Experimental results demonstrate that INSURE consistently achieves higher quality results compared to the state-of-the-art techniques, yet with negligible overhead. © 2015 IEEE.

Alsalaheen B.,University of Michigan-Flint
Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation | Year: 2015

OBJECTIVE:: To review the literature on the reliability of the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT). DESIGN:: Systematic review of the relevant literature in PubMed, CINAHL, and PSYCHINFO. Studies were evaluated using the STROBE instrument and custom developed items. RESULTS:: Search yielded 5 943 articles. Ten studies met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. With the exception of processing speed, all composite scores consistently exhibited poor to moderate reliability (ie, intraclass correlation coefficient <0.80). When considering 2 time points, participants who were misclassified as experiencing a “reliable change” in any score ranged between 5% and 26% for verbal memory, 2.2% and 19.6% for visual memory, 4% and 24% for processing speed, and 4% and 23.2% for reaction time. CONCLUSIONS:: The Pearson r correlation coefficient and average measures intraclass correlation coefficient may be inappropriately utilized to examine the reliability of ImPACT scores. Given the poor to moderate reliability of most ImPACT scores, clinicians should be cautious when ImPACT is used as a criterion for medical clearance to return to play after concussion. Because of its widespread use in concussion-related clinical research, researchers must exercise due diligence when utilizing ImPACT to evaluate outcomes after concussion or to validate other outcome measures. © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

Fitzgerald C.J.,University of South Carolina | Horgan T.G.,University of Michigan-Flint | Himes S.M.,Kansas State University
Evolution and Human Behavior | Year: 2016

Previous research has shown that people are better at remembering attractive faces than unattractive faces, possibly because physical attractiveness is a sign of increased mate value. However, perceivers may rely on additional appearance cues (e.g., bodily features, dress) when assessing mate value. Thus, men may remember more about a female target when she possesses more attractive bodily features, such as a waist-to-hip ratio that approaches the optimal .70. Two studies were conducted to examine whether female waist-to-hip ratio influences the number of details men recall and recognize about a female target. Study 1 utilized a free recall method, whereas Study 2 consisted of a recognition method. Results indicated that men who viewed a female target with a waist-to-hip ratio of .50 or .90 recalled and recognized significantly fewer details than men who viewed a female target with a waist-to-hip ratio of .60,70, or .80. These data illustrate adaptive memory, whereby perceivers better remember information of greater adaptive value to them, because this information may lead them to make better fitness-related decisions about whom to potentially mate with. Limitations regarding the realism of the photographs and generalizability of the data are also discussed. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.

Liu H.,Chinese Academy of Forestry | Cui S.,Chinese Academy of Forestry | Shang S.,Chinese Academy of Forestry | Wang D.,Chinese Academy of Forestry | Song J.,University of Michigan-Flint
Carbohydrate Polymers | Year: 2013

Polymers from renewable biomass are viable supplements for synthetic polymers. In this study, cellulose nanocrystals (CNs) were used as nanofillers to improve properties of rosin-based waterborne polyurethanes (RWPU). The morphology, structure, thermal, and mechanical properties of the RWPU/CNs nanocomposites were investigated. It demonstrated that CNs were compatible with RWPU and dispersed homogeneously in the polymer matrix. CNs as nanofillers improved tensile strength of RWPU significantly. Tensile strength of RWPU/CNs composite films increased from 28.2 to 52.3 MPa with increasing CNs amount from 0 to 20 wt%. Moreover, the thermal stability of RWPU was also improved by CNs and the glass transition temperature of RWPU/CNs decreased comparing with RWPU. This work provided a novel pathway for preparation of biomass-based WPU with excellent properties from cellulose and rosin. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Rosencrants T.D.,University of Michigan-Flint | Ashley W.S.,Northern Illinois University
Natural Hazards | Year: 2015

Weather-related disasters and affiliated losses in the USA have amplified over time. However, prior research using normalization schemes on damage tallies suggests that weather hazard losses are not necessarily rising when inflation, changes in wealth, and growth in population are accounted. This study evaluates the latter factor, assessing if population changes and a sprawling development mode have led to increasing potential for tornado disasters in the USA. Specifically, this research shows where and how quickly tornado exposure is growing by appraising spatiotemporal trends in gridded population and housing unit data for five metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs). The macroscale risk to tornadoes is represented by tornado day climatology and is related to the exposure of the five MSAs, which include Atlanta, GA; Chicago, IL; Dallas/Fort Worth, TX; Oklahoma City, OK; and St. Louis, MO. Supplementing the macroscale investigation, an observationally derived, hypothetical violent tornado track is transposed on various development types in each MSA to determine the microscale changes in human and built-environment exposure. Results demonstrate increased exposure in all MSAs at both the macro- and microscale. Of the five MSAs studied, Dallas, TX, had the greatest potential for a tornado disaster due to the higher risk for tornado occurrence comingling with the amount of MSA exposure. These results reveal further that amplifying exposure is a major impetus behind intensifying severe weather impacts and losses. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht

Li W.,University of Michigan-Flint
Journal of Global Optimization | Year: 2011

This study investigates the properties of the edges in a set of locally optimal tours found by multi-start search algorithm for the traveling salesman problem (TSP). A matrix data structure is used to collect global information about edges from the set of locally optimal tours and to identify globally superior edges for the problem. The properties of these edges are analyzed. Based on these globally superior edges, a solution attractor is formed in the data matrix. The solution attractor is a small region of the solution space, which contains the most promising solutions. Then an exhausted enumeration process searches the solution attractor and outputs all solutions in the attractor, including the globally optimal solution. Using this strategy, this study develops a procedure to tackler a multi-objective TSP. This procedure not only generates a set of Pareto-optimal solutions, but also be able to provide the structural information about each of the solutions that will allow a decision-maker to choose the best compromise solution. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Uludag S.,University of Michigan-Flint | Balli M.F.,TOBB University of Economics and Technology | Selcuk A.A.,TOBB University of Economics and Technology | Tavli B.,TOBB University of Economics and Technology
2015 IEEE Globecom Workshops, GC Wkshps 2015 - Proceedings | Year: 2015

One of the the most propitious enablers of the Smart Grid paradigm, and a rather low-hanging fruit, is Demand Response (DR) programs. DR is a set of courses of actions to reach and maintain the supply-demand equilibrium of the power grid from the side of the demand through price or incentive-based routines. The latter includes many programs with some bidding component. The general consensus among the experts is that the impact of the benefits is multiplied as DR program participation from the consumption side increases. However, there is an increasing awareness in public about privacy implications of many technological implementations including SG and DR deployments. In this paper, we are proposing a fully private bidding mechanism as part of a DR program to protect all the bidding details except for the winning price and winner at the end of the auction. To the best of our knowledge, ours is the first approach in the literature that accomplishes full privacy in a DR program without relying on a trusted third party. Preliminary simulation results show that the proposed mechanism presents a feasible solution for day-ahead and hour-ahead bidding mechanisms in the SG. © 2015 IEEE.

Chen S.-T.,Tunghai University | Huang H.-N.,Tunghai University | Chen C.-J.,Tunghai University | Tseng K.-K.,Harbin Institute of Technology | Tu S.-Y.,University of Michigan-Flint
Digital Signal Processing: A Review Journal | Year: 2013

This study aims to present an adaptive audio watermarking method using ideas of wavelet-based entropy (WBE). The method converts low-frequency coefficients of discrete wavelet transform (DWT) into the WBE domain, followed by the calculations of mean values of each audio as well as derivation of some essential properties of WBE. A characteristic curve relating the WBE and DWT coefficients is also presented. The foundation of the embedding process lies on the approximately invariant property demonstrated from the mean of each audio and the characteristic curve. Besides, the quality of the watermarked audio is optimized. In the detecting process, the watermark can be extracted using only values of the WBE. Finally, the performance of the proposed watermarking method is analyzed in terms of signal to noise ratio, mean opinion score and robustness. Experimental results confirm that the embedded data are robust to resist the common attacks like re-sampling, MP3 compression, low-pass filtering, and amplitude scaling. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Tang C.,University of Michigan-Flint | Chen Y.,Clinical Translational Science Institute | Semaan B.,Syracuse University
CSCW 2015 - Proceedings of the 2015 ACM International Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing | Year: 2015

Non-profit organizations (NPOs) are often resourcerestricted and rely on volunteers to function. As such, their human infrastructure-The social system supporting work-is different from conventional organizations, and technologies that function in a traditional organization with a stable workforce may not work in NPOs. Through an investigation of the deployment of an Electronic Health Record (EHR) system in a safety-net free clinic serving underprivileged populations, we report how the EHR system disrupted the human infrastructure-namely, the work typically enacted by volunteers. Specifically, there was a mismatch between the technological and human infrastructures leading to diminished volunteer roles, an increased workload for paid employees, and a negative impact on the quality of patient care. In turn, employees acted to reconcile the disrupted human infrastructure by creating new work roles for volunteers, re-establishing the quality of patient care, and developing workarounds for volunteers to resume their volunteer work. Finally we discuss how the commercial EHR system failed to support the fluid volunteer-based human infrastructure of the free clinic. © 2015 ACM.

Majumdar N.,Drexel University | Majumdar N.,University of the Sciences in Philadelphia | Majumdar N.,Illinois Institute of Technology | Paez G.L.,University of Michigan-Flint | And 4 more authors.
Fly | Year: 2010

Proper activation of the Ras/MAPK pathway is broadly required during development, and in many cases, signal transduction downstream of the receptor is linear. Thus, different mechanisms exist to properly regulate the large number of specific developmental outputs that are required by the activation of this pathway. Previously, we have reported a regulated cytoplasmic sequestration of phosphorylated MAPK (pMAPK) in developing Drosophila compound eyes and wings "called MAPK Cytoplasmic Hold". In the developing wing, we have shown that cytoplasmic hold promotes the differentiation of wing vein tissue, while pMAPK nuclear translocation regulates growth and division. We had also suggested that the Ras pathway signals for inducing cell growth and cell division split upstream of the nuclear translocation of MAPK itself. Here, we further refine the role of MAPK in Drosophila. We report evidence that suggests, for the first time, that the phosphorylation of MAPK is itself another step in the regulation of cell growth and division in both Drosophila wing and eye cells. We show that inhibition of MAPK phosphorylation, or pMAPK nuclear translocation, is sufficient to block cell growth, but not cell division. These data suggest that non-phosphorylated MAPK is sufficient to induce cell division, but not cell growth, once inside the nucleus of the cell. © 2010 Landes Bioscience.

Kim Y.-M.,University of Michigan-Flint
International Conference on Control, Automation and Systems | Year: 2013

In this paper, we applied several types of predictor-based system identification technique to various systems such as electronics, process industry, biomedical, and heating system in order to compare its performance. The PBSID technique shows the best performance with consistent identification, which is based on the Kalman observer calculated from the Riccati equation. The observer matrix is guaranteed to be stable even the original system is unstable regardless with the fact that the identified system is under open or closed loop. Its effectiveness is demonstrated with simulation using the Matlab ©. © 2013 IEEE.

Panja B.,University of Michigan-Flint | Fattaleh D.,University of Michigan-Flint | Mercado M.,University of Michigan-Flint | Robinson A.,University of Michigan-Flint | Meharia P.,Eastern Michigan University
Proceedings of the 2013 International Conference on Collaboration Technologies and Systems, CTS 2013 | Year: 2013

The goal of providing a totally secure mobile based internet banking environment continues to be a moving target exacerbated by the free and readily available flow of information on the Internet at the disposal of would be attackers. As new security measures are devised, new attack vectors are developed to thwart these measures. A trusted device segregated from the Internet and potential malware seems like a simple, straight-forward solution. With the rapid development of smart phones and the plethora of smart phone applications becoming developed, the lines between the cellular network and the internet are being blurred, rendering the phone a not-so-trusted device. In this paper we show how existing smart phone banking applications can be tampered to capture user information and password. © 2013 IEEE.

Alhosban A.,University of Michigan-Flint | Hashmi K.,Wayne State University | Malik Z.,Wayne State University | Medjahed B.,University of Michigan
Proceedings - 9th IEEE International Symposium on Service-Oriented System Engineering, IEEE SOSE 2015 | Year: 2015

Service Oriented Architectures (SOAs) enable the automatic creation of business applications from independently developed and deployed Web services. As Web services are inherently a priori unknown (in terms of dependability), how to deliver reliable Web services compositions is a significant and challenging problem. In this paper, we propose a framework for infusing dependability in SOAs through self-healing. We identify a set of high-level exception handling strategies based on the composition components' QoS performances and consumer requirements. Multiple recovery plans are produced and evaluated according to the performance of the included services, to select and execute the best recovery plan. We assess the overall system dependability using the generated plan and the available invocation information of the included services. Experiment results indicate the applicability of our method, and show the improved performance in comparison with similar existing approaches. © 2015 IEEE.

Gu Y.,Nanjing Institute of Technology | Gu Y.,CAF Institute of Chemical Industry of Forest Products | Gu Y.,National Engineering Laboratory for Biomass Chemical Utilization | Gu Y.,Key and Open Laboratory on Forest Chemical Engineering | And 19 more authors.
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2013

There was rarely high-purity α-terpineol or pure-monomer α-terpineol in China due to difficulty in isolating α-terpineol and γ-terpineol. Aiming at the separation problem, α-terpineol was directional synthesized by one-step method in a uniform system. The influence factors of stereochemistry structure, thermodynamic analysis and stability of reactants, products and carbocations were researched, conducting the experiments in optimal reaction conditions. All the influence factors about generating trend of objective product α-terpineol and byproduct γ-terpineol were discussed and the reaction mechanism was studied. This paper provided certain theoretical basis on prepare high-purity α-terpineol. © (2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

Panja B.,University of Michigan-Flint | Bhargava B.,Purdue University | Pati S.,University of Michigan-Flint | Paul D.,University of Michigan-Flint | And 2 more authors.
Recent Patents on Computer Science | Year: 2013

Over the next decade, cloud computing has a good chance of becoming a widely used technology. However, many challenges face the cloud to be overcome before the average user or business team will trust their vital information with a cloud server. Most of these challenges tie into developing sound security measures for the cloud. One of the largest security obstacles is how to defend against a Denial-of-Service (DOS) or Distributed Denial-of-Service (DDOS) attacks from taking down a cloud server. DOS attacks are nothing new; many strategies have been proposed and tested against DOS attacks on networks. However, none have been able to completely prevent DOS attacks. The search continues for an effective solution to keep data available to legitimate users who need it when the cloud network that stores that data is the target of a DOS attack. The method proposed (DOSBAD) in this paper will explain how effectively detecting the band-width limit of a cloud network and the bandwidth currently in use to know when a DOS is beginning along with the dis-cussion of very few patents. © 2013 Bentham Science Publishers.

Mazumder Q.H.,University of Michigan-Flint | Siddique S.A.,University of Michigan-Flint
Journal of Computational Multiphase Flows | Year: 2011

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was performed for a two-phase air-water flow through a horizontal to vertical 900 elbow with a 12.7 mm pipe diameter. Three different air velocities of 15.24, 30.48, and 45.72 m/sec along with three different water velocities of 0.1, 1.0, and 10.0 m/sec were used in this study. To analyze the flow behavior in the elbow, pressure and velocity profiles at six different upstream and downstream locations of the elbow were compared. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was performed for 9 different cases using FLUENT commercial code. A mixture model was used to account for different gas and liquid velocities to solve continuity, momentum and energy equations. CFD analysis results showed a decrease in pressure as fluid leaves the elbow in addition to a larger pressure drop at higher air velocities. No significant change in pressure was observed when water velocity was increased from 0.1 to 1.0 m/sec compared to water velocity change from 1.0 to 10.0 m/sec. The normalized pressure drop was larger at lower air velocities compared to higher water velocities. CFD analysis results were compared with available experimental data showing a reasonably good agreement.

Cohen E.T.,Rutgers University | Potter K.,Rockhurst University | Allen D.D.,San Francisco State University | Bennett S.E.,State University of New York at Buffalo | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of MS Care | Year: 2015

Despite the well-known benefits of using standardized outcome measures (OMs) in clinical practice, a variety of barriers interfere with their use. In particular, rehabilitation therapists lack sufficient knowledge in selecting appropriate OMs. The challenge is compounded when working with people with multiple sclerosis (MS) owing to heterogeneity of the patient population and symptom variability in individual patients. To help overcome these barriers, the American Physical Therapy Association appointed the Multiple Sclerosis Outcome Measures Task Force to review and make evidence-based recommendations for OM use in clinical practice, education, and research specific to people with MS. Sixty-three OMs were reviewed based on their clinical utility, psychometric properties, and a consensus evaluation of the appropriateness of use for people with MS. We sought to illustrate use of the recommendations for two cases. The first case involves a 43-year-old man with new-onset problems after an exacerbation. The second case pertains to an outpatient clinic interested in assessing the effectiveness of their MS rehabilitation program. For each case, clinicians identified areas that were important to assess and various factors deemed important for OM selection. Criteria were established and used to assist in OM selection. In both cases, the described processes narrowed the selection of OMs and assisted with choosing the most appropriate ones. The recommendations, in addition to the processes described in these two cases, can be used by clinicians in any setting working with patients with MS across the disability spectrum. © 2015 Consortium of Multiple Sclerosis Centers.

Feinberg I.,Georgia State University | Frijters J.,Brock University | Johnson-Lawrence V.,University of Michigan-Flint | Greenberg D.,Georgia State University | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

This paper presents data from the Program for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies with a focus on the interrelationships among health information seeking behavior (HISB), and health status or use of preventive health measures for U.S. adults both with and without a high school diploma. Key results of ordinal and binary logistic regression analyses indicated that, after controlling for demographic factors, (1) adults with a high school diploma use more text-based health information sources while adults without a high school diploma use more oral sources, (2) using the Internet as a source of health information is more strongly related to reporting excellent/very good health status than having a high school diploma, (3) those without a high school diploma who use the Internet report the largest increase in health status over any other health information source, and (4) for those with learning disability or vision problem, a high facility in reading English is an important predictor of whether the Internet is used as a health information source. The Internet appears to play a key role in both enhancing health status and enabling use of preventive measures for those with and without a high school diploma; although, individuals without a high school diploma who use the Internet for health information derive substantial benefit in health status. © 2016 Feinberg et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Johnson-Lawrence V.,University of Michigan-Flint | Griffith D.M.,Vanderbilt University | Watkins D.C.,University of Michigan
American Journal of Men's Health | Year: 2013

Racial/ethnic differences in health are evident among men. Previous work suggests associations between mental and physical health but few studies have examined how mood/anxiety disorders and chronic physical health conditions covary by age, race, and ethnicity among men. Using data from 1,277 African American, 629 Caribbean Black, and 371 non-Hispanic White men from the National Survey of American Life, we examined associations between race/ethnicity and experiencing one or more chronic physical health conditions in logistic regression models stratified by age and 12-month mood/anxiety disorder status. Among men <45 years without mood/anxiety disorders, Caribbean Blacks had lower odds of chronic physical health conditions than Whites. Among men aged 45+ years with mood/anxiety disorders, African Americans had greater odds of chronic physical health conditions than Whites. Future studies should explore the underlying causes of such variation and how studying mental and chronic physical health problems together may help identify mechanisms that underlie racial disparities in life expectancy among men. © The Author(s) 2013.

Huang X.,CAF Institute of Chemical Industry of Forest Products | Liu H.,CAF Institute of Chemical Industry of Forest Products | Shang S.,CAF Institute of Chemical Industry of Forest Products | Shang S.,Chinese Academy of Forestry | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2015

Epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) grafted hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) was prepared via ring-opening polymerization, in which the hydroxyl groups of HEC acted as initiators and the polymeric ESO were covalently bonded to the HEC. Hydrolysis of ESO-grafted HEC (ESO-HEC) was performed with sodium hydroxide, and the hydrolyzed ESO-HEC (H-ESO-HEC) products were characterized via Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies, high-temperature gel permeation chromatography (HT-GPC), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results indicated that ring-opening polymerization of ESO occurred with the hydroxyl groups of HEC as initiators. The molecular weights of the H-ESO-HEC products were varied by adjusting the mass ratio of HEC and ESO. Through neutralizing the carboxylic acid of H-ESO-HEC with sodium hydroxide, novel polymeric surfactants (H-ESO-HEC-Na) were obtained, and the effects of polymeric surfactants on the surface tension of water were investigated as a function of concentration of H-ESO-HEC-Na. The H-ESO-HEC-Na was effective at lowering the surface tension of water to 26.33 mN/m, and the critical micelle concentration (CMC) value decreased from 1.053 to 0.157 g/L with increases in molecular weights of the polymeric surfactants. Rheological measurements indicated that the H-ESO-HEC-Na solutions changed from pseudoplastic property to Newtonian with increasing shear rate. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

Alsup J.,University of Michigan-Flint | Papantonopoulos E.,National Technical University of Athens | Siopsis G.,University of Tennessee at Knoxville | Yeter K.,University of Tennessee at Knoxville
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2013

We discuss a holographic model consisting of a U(1) gauge field and a scalar field coupled to a charged AdS black hole under a spatially homogeneous chemical potential. By turning on a higher-derivative interaction term between the U(1) gauge field and the scalar field, a spatially dependent profile of the scalar field is generated spontaneously. We calculate the critical temperature at which the transition to the inhomogeneous phase occurs for various values of the parameters of the system. We solve the equations of motion below the critical temperature, and show that the dual gauge theory on the boundary spontaneously develops a spatially inhomogeneous charge density. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Liao S.,Jiangxi Agricultural University | Song J.,University of Michigan-Flint | Wang Z.,Jiangxi Agricultural University | Chen J.,Jiangxi Agricultural University | And 5 more authors.
Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters | Year: 2014

Molecular interactions between terpenoid mosquito repellents and three typical human-secreted attractants, ammonia, 1-octen-3-ol, and formic acid were studied. Relative energies, bond distances, and bond angles of the molecular interactions were obtained at HF level to evaluate the interaction intensity and types. The effects of molecular interactions on repellency were investigated by the subsequent quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) study. The results of this study suggest that attractant-repellent interaction should not be ignored and could be helpful for future research on the repelling mechanism of mosquito repellents. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Kim Y.-M.,University of Michigan-Flint
International Conference on Control, Automation and Systems | Year: 2013

This paper presents probabilistically robust controller design technique based on model predictive control theory. Recent probabilistic robust control theory allows us to design controller without any restriction on the structure of uncertainties. Model predictive control theory is useful for dealing with constraints on design parameter. Subgradient optimization technique is used to find Suboptimal. © 2013 IEEE.

Hayman L.W.,University of Michigan-Flint | Lucas T.,Wayne State University | Porcerelli J.H.,Wayne State University | Porcerelli J.H.,University of Rochester
Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease | Year: 2014

Although stress is linked to mental and physical health, self-reports of stress may be operationalized using measures that emphasize cognitive appraisals of stressors or that simply record stressor exposure. Theory and research suggest that appraisal-based measures may be superior in measuring self-reports of stress. However, use of exposure-based measures persists, especially in ethnic disparities research. This study examined the utility of appraisal-based versus exposure-based stress measures in linking stress to mental and physical health in low-income black women. Measures emphasizing cognitive appraisals were superior in predicting mental and physical health because global stress rating best predicted physical health whereas mental health was best predicted by perceived stress. A checklist of exposure to stressful events was not substantially predictive of either mental or physical health, suggesting that cognitive appraisals of stressors are important in linking stress to health perceptions in blacks. The results also suggest that stress impacts mental health first, which then, in turn, influences physical health. Overall, these results illuminate the importance of cognitive appraisals in linking stress to perceptions of mental and physical health in black women. © 2014 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Kruger J.S.,University of Toledo | Kodjebacheva G.D.,University of Michigan-Flint | Kodjebacheva G.D.,University of Michigan | Kunkel L.,Greater Flint Health Coalition | And 2 more authors.
Community Dental Health | Year: 2015

Objective: To identify barriers to children’s access to dental care. Basic research design: A cross-sectional health survey. Setting: All residential census tracts in Genesee County, Michigan, USA. Participants: 498 adults who reported having children in their households, extracted from 2,932 randomly selected adult participants in the 2009 and 2011 surveys. Main measures: Stepwise logistic regression was used to predict two dependent variables: children’s lack of any visits to dentists’ offices and unmet dental care needs (defined as needing dental care but not receiving it due to cost) in the previous year as reported by the adults. Independent variables included gender, age, education, race/ethnicity, financial planning, financial distress, fear of crime, stress, depressive symptoms, experiences of discrimination, and neighbourhood social capital. Results: Of the 498 adults, 29.9% reported that they had children who had not visited a dentist in the past 12 months and 13% reported that they had household children with unmet dental care needs in the past year. Adults who reported higher depressive symptoms, lower neighbourhood social capital, greater financial distress, and who were younger were more likely to have household children who did not visit a dentist in the past year. Financial distress was the only significant predictor when controlling for other variables to predict unmet dental care needs. Conclusions: Factors beyond financial distress affect children’s dental care; these include parental depressive symptoms and lower neighbourhood social capital. Interventions promoting parental mental health and social integration may increase dental care among children. © BASCD 2015.

Yan-Jie C.,CAF Institute of Chemical Industry of Forest Products | Xiao-Ping R.,CAF Institute of Chemical Industry of Forest Products | Xiao-Ping R.,Beijing Institute of Technology | Shi-Bin S.,CAF Institute of Chemical Industry of Forest Products | And 3 more authors.
Letters in Drug Design and Discovery | Year: 2013

A series of oxime ester derivatives containing dehydroabietyl group were synthesized from dehydroabietic acid. Their structures were characterized by IR, 1HNMR, MS, and elemental analysis. The preliminary antibacterial activity results indicate that these compounds display extensive anti-bacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Staphyloccocus aureu, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia aerogenes and Staphyloccocus epidermidis. Compounds (5a, 5b, 5c, 5d, 5e, 5f) exhibit excellent anti-bacterial activity against Escherichia coli with the diameter of inhibition zone is 10.91mm, 11.03mm, 12.92mm, 13.48mm, 11.59mm and 11.58mm respectively, compared with the diameter of inhibition zone of 9.66mm of the commercial compound bromogeramine. Furthermore, Compounds(5d) exhibited the same level of antibacterial activity against Staphyloccocus epidermidis when compared with bromogeramine and Ampicillin Na. © 2013 Bentham Science Publishers.

Mazumder Q.H.,University of Michigan-Flint | Ahmed K.,University of Michigan-Flint | Zhao S.,University of Michigan-Flint
Journal of Fluids Engineering, Transactions of the ASME | Year: 2016

Solid particle erosion is a micromechanical process that removes material from the surface. Erosion is a leading cause of failure in fluid handling equipment such as pumps and pipes. An investigation was conducted using an S-bend geometry with 12.7 mm inside diameter, r/D ratio of 1.5 with three different air velocities and two different particle sizes. This paper presents the preliminary results of an investigation to determine the location of erosion for a wide range of conditions. The experimental results showed the location of maximum erosion at 29-42 deg from the inlet at 45.72 m/s air velocity with 300 Î1/4m particle sizes. © Copyright 2016 by ASME.

Huang M.H.,University of Michigan-Flint | Righter A.,University of Michigan-Flint | Shilling T.,Childrens Therapy Corner
Rehabilitation Oncology | Year: 2016

Background: Mobility difficulty in cancer survivors is the leading functional problem that impacts independence, participation, and quality of life. Purpose: This study examined the relationships of demographics, health-related variables, Timed Up and Go (TUG), and short version of Activities-specific Balance Confidence scale (ABC-6) with respect to mobility limitations in older cancer survivors. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study at a university-based laboratory. Forty cancer survivors (aged = 67.8 ± 8.90 years) living in the community participated. Comorbidity was measured using Functional Comorbidity Index (FCI). The TUG and the ABC-6 were administered. Mobility limitations were measured using the Physical Functioning subscale of the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36v2 (PFS). Descriptive statistics were calculated for all variables. Independent-samples t test was used to compare between-group differences in scores of the PFS for dichotomous variables, and the Pearson correlation was used to examine the association of continuous variables with the PFS. A stepwise regression model evaluated the relationships between demographics, health-related variables, TUG, and ABC-6 with the PFS. Results: Body mass index, FCI, TUG, and ABC-6, but not age or years since cancer diagnoses, significantly correlated with the PFS (P <.05). In the final regression model, a history of falls, comorbidity, and ABC-6 were significant predictors of mobility limitations as measured by the PFS (P <.001). Conclusion and Discussion: Together with a history of falls and comorbidity, the ABC-6, a self-report measure of balance confidence, predicted mobility limitations. Clinicians should consider using the ABC-6 to detect deficits underlying mobility problems when treating older cancer survivors. Copyright © 2016 Oncology Section, APTA.

Huang M.H.,University of Michigan-Flint | Timmes S.,Good Shepherd Rehabilitation Network
Rehabilitation Oncology | Year: 2016

Background: The utilization of standardized outcomes measures is essential in evidence-based practice. Balance impairments are common sequelae associated with cancer. There is a lack of evidence supporting the psychometric properties of balance tests in cancer survivors. Balance Evaluation Systems Test (BESTest) is a comprehensive tool for balance, but its length limits its utility in clinical settings. Purpose: This study's aim was to develop and validate a short version of the BESTest in cancer survivors. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted at a university-based laboratory. Forty-three cancer survivors (age = 66.7 ± 8.55 years) living in the community and without a neurologic diagnosis participated. The BESTest and the Activity-specific Balance Confidence (ABC) scale were administered. The Cronbach α and item-total correlations were calculated for the BESTest to identify each item's contribution to the total score and to create a new test (BESTest-6). Spearman correlations examined concurrent validity of the BESTest, BESTest-6, ABC scale, and ABC-6. Results: Six items from the BESTest with the highest item-total correlations, hip/trunk lateral strength, lateral functional reach, single-leg stance, backward compensatory stepping, standing on foam eyes closed, and Timed Up and Go, were included in the BESTest-6. Scores of the BESTest-6 correlated significantly with those of the BESTest, ABC scale, and ABC-6 (P <.05). Discussion and Conclusion: The BESTest-6 demonstrated good-excellent concurrent validity with the BESTest and ABC-6 in community-dwelling cancer survivors 55 years or older. Each item in the BESTest-6 represents a different category of balance skills. Assessment of balance using the BESTest-6 can assist clinicians in developing a plan of care that targets specific balance impairments. Copyright © 2016 Oncology Section, APTA.

Davies C.C.,Baptist Health Lexington | Colon G.,Covenant Healthcare | Geyer H.,University of Dayton | Pfalzer L.,University of Michigan-Flint | Fisher M.I.,University of Dayton
Rehabilitation Oncology | Year: 2016

Background: The medical treatment of prostate cancer results in multiple impairments in body structure and declines functional abilities, resulting in activity limitations and participation restrictions. Measurement of functional mobility is an essential outcome measure in survivorship care. Purpose: The purpose of this systematic review is to make recommendations of the best measurement tools to assess functional mobility in men treated for prostate cancer based on psychometric properties and clinical utility. Methods: Multiple electronic databases were searched from February to March 2014. Studies of tools used to assess functional mobility were included if they met the following criteria: reported psychometric properties, were clinically feasible methods, and were published in the English language. Each outcome measure was reviewed independently and rated by 2 reviewers separately. A single Cancer EDGE (Evaluation Database to Guide Effectiveness) Task Force Outcome Measure Rating Form was completed for each category of functional mobility assessment, and a recommendation was made using the 4-point Cancer EDGE Task Force Rating Scale. Results: Of the original 38 373 articles found, 87 were included in this review. Conclusion: Seven tests are highly recommended by the Oncology EDGE Task Force, 2-Minute Walk Test and 6-Minute Walk Test, 10-Meter Timed Walk, Timed Up and Go, 5 times sit to stand, based on good clinical utility and psychometric properties. © 2016 Oncology Section, APTA.

Millunchick J.M.,University of Michigan | Anderson E.M.,University of Michigan | Pearson C.,University of Michigan-Flint | Sarney W.L.,U.S. Army | Svensson S.P.,U.S. Army
Journal of Applied Physics | Year: 2013

We present a kinetic model predicting anion incorporation in InAsSb. Included are the effects of As desorption, Sb segregation, and Sb displacement by As, any of which may be limited by the In flux if it is comparatively larger. The model captures experimental data over a range of growth conditions for the InAsSb system using activation energies for desorption and Sb segregation found in literature. The activation energy for Sb displacement found in this work is 1.3 eV. This model is general and should be valid for other mixed anion systems, or, appropriately modified, mixed cation systems and mixed anion/cation systems such as AlInAsSb. © 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.

Almoguera P.A.,U.S. Government Accountability Office | Douglas C.C.,University of Michigan-Flint | Herrera A.M.,Wayne State University
Oxford Review of Economic Policy | Year: 2011

This paper extends the framework of Green and Porter (1984) and Porter (1983a) to encompass the case of a cartel (OPEC) faced by a competitive fringe (non-OPEC oil producers). Estimation of a simultaneous equation switching regression model allows us to examine which market structure better characterizes the world oil market during the 1974-2004 period and to test whether switches between collusive and non-cooperative behaviour occurred. The null hypothesis that no switch occurred is rejected in favour of the alternative that both cooperative and non-cooperative behaviour was observed. We find that, although there were periods in which oil prices were measurably higher owing to collusion among OPEC members, overall OPEC has not been effective in systematically raising prices above Cournot competition levels. Our results suggest that, on average over the period of study, OPEC's behaviour is best described as Cournot competition in the face of a competitive fringe constituted by non-OPEC producers. © The Authors 2011. Published by Oxford University Press.

Freedman H.,University of Michigan-Flint | Adebisi T.,Detroit Labs | Tang C.,University of Michigan-Flint | Syed Z.,University of Michigan-Flint
Proceedings of the ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, CSCW | Year: 2016

Social media has dramatically altered the ways in which people share experiences. Through on-site observations during the Art of Video Games exhibition in a local museum and an examination of related Instagram postings, we found that visitors try to re-experience their memories and to collectively reminisce about their past gaming. We also discuss the implications of our findings as ways to encourage visitor engagement and to build a natural storehouse of knowledge.

Huang M.H.,University of Michigan-Flint | Brown S.H.,University of Michigan
Gait and Posture | Year: 2015

Reaching is an important component of daily activities with goals to interact and acquire objects in the environment. The task context of reaching, as determined by the behavioral goal and the properties of the object, can influence the control of posture and movements. This study examined age differences in postural stability during a forward reach under two task contexts, grasping versus pointing to a target. Young and older participants living in the community performed the tasks from the standing position. They reached forward, grasped or pointed to a target, and then returned to an upright posture as fast as possible. Postural stability was analyzed using the center of pressure (COP) during two phases of the task: the reaching movement phase and the returning movement phase. In the grasping context, the COP path deviations were significantly larger in older compare to young participants during both the reach and the return movement phases. In addition, during the return movement phase, only older participants showed a context-dependent increase in COP path deviations after grasping compared to pointing. The results highlight the impact of task context on postural stability during standing reach in young and older adults. Interventions for older adults with balance problems should consider incorporating activities that involve the interaction with objects of various properties in the environment. Future studies are necessary to investigate the factors underlying the person-environment interplay of postural control and the adaptation of anticipatory postural control associated with object interaction during functional tasks in older adults. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Ledet D.,University of Memphis | Aplin-Kalisz C.,University of Michigan-Flint | Filter M.,University of Michigan-Flint | Dycus P.,LeBonheur Childrens Hospital
Journal of Neuroscience Nursing | Year: 2016

Aims: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of screening and teaching interventions for sleep-wake disturbances in parents of childhood patients with epilepsy. Methods: This was a prospective, descriptive study using convenience sampling. After informed consent was obtained from eligible parents who agreed to participate, study questionnaires were administered. All parents were provided with an individualized teaching intervention. Study tools were readministered 8-12 weeks later to evaluate if the individualized teaching intervention altered or improved sleep-wake disturbances. Results: The t value for the paired t test of the Epworth Sleepiness Scale prescore and postscore was 0.000 with a two-tailed probability value of 1.000, and the t value for the paired t test of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index prescore and postscore was 0.713 with a two-tailed probability value of.492, indicating no significant difference between pre and post Epworth Sleepiness Scale or Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scores. Conclusions: A sleep hygiene teaching intervention for parents of children with epilepsy was not effective in this setting of an inner-city epilepsy monitoring unit in changing postintervention scores on measures of both nighttime sleep quality and daytime sleepiness. These results must be interpreted with caution secondary to the small number included in the initial phase of this study. A larger number of participants will be needed to verify these findings. If the results remain consistent with a larger number, studies evaluating variables of cause may be helpful to determine more effective interventions. © 2015 American Association of Neuroscience Nurses.

Uludag S.,University of Michigan-Flint | Karakus M.,University of Michigan-Flint | Guler E.,University of Michigan-Flint | Turner S.W.,University of Michigan-Flint | Kita A.,University of Michigan-Flint
Proceedings - Frontiers in Education Conference, FIE | Year: 2012

The impact of the computing field is becoming more profound everyday in all facets of modern society. Despite significant efforts from academia and relatively high demand for computing, technology producers are needed more than ever. This has been corroborated by a recent NSF Press Release [1], stating that computing is the only STEM discipline with more job openings than college graduates to fill them up. A major responsibility for such an outcome rests upon educators' ability to produce professionals capable of handling ever more complex technical challenges. In this challenging environment, the importance of practical work in science and engineering, supported by lab exercises, is widely known. While it is desirable to create physical laboratories for teaching these technologies, it is not always possible nor desirable. In this paper, we present an effective alternative approach, in the form of an affordable, virtualized laboratory environment that can be used in a variety of computing and engineering courses, as well as in other fields, in lieu of physical labs. Results of a survey supporting the validity of this approach are also presented. Students in four different classes were surveyed concerning the effectiveness and desirability of this virtual laboratory approach. The survey results indicate that student response to and interest in the virtual environment is very strong. © 2012 IEEE.

Guler E.,University of Michigan-Flint | Uludag S.,University of Michigan-Flint | Karakus M.,University of Michigan-Flint | Turner S.W.,University of Michigan-Flint
2012 International Conference on Information Technology Based Higher Education and Training, ITHET 2012 | Year: 2012

Educators in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) fields, especially in computing and engineering, must be flexible, up-to-date, and able to offer their students practical experience with continually changing information technologies. The importance of practical work in science and engineering, supported by lab exercises, is widely known. While it is desirable to create physical laboratories for teaching these technologies, it is not always possible nor feasible. Cost, availability, and environmental effects of physical space represent constraints on building physical infrastructure. Additionally, cost effectiveness is becoming increasingly more important, and purchasing a specific technology offers no guarantees that it will not soon become obsolete. In this paper, we present our response to these challenges in the form of an affordable, virtualized laboratory environment that can be used in a variety of computing and engineering courses, as well as in other fields, in lieu of physical computing labs. This environment allows instructors and students to build more complex settings than are typically available in physical laboratories. To date, the environment has been used at our institution for courses in computer networking, operating systems, database, programming and security, with plans in place for use in additional advanced computer science and information systems courses. © 2012 IEEE.

Karakus M.,University of Michigan-Flint | Uludag S.,University of Michigan-Flint | Guler E.,University of Michigan-Flint | Turner S.W.,University of Michigan-Flint | Ugur A.,Central Michigan University
2012 International Conference on Information Technology Based Higher Education and Training, ITHET 2012 | Year: 2012

In this age of growing importance for interdisciplinary studies, the field of computing, and its indispensable component, programming, have become increasingly important not only for STEM areas but also for many other fields. Computational chemistry, bio-informatics, computational linguistics, computational toxicology, etc. are just a few examples of the crossover disciplines that benefit significantly from the developments in the computing and Information Technology (IT). Instructors are facing more challenges today than ever in trying to come up with new, fresh and appealing methodologies to attract and retain students in delivering computing and IT related topics to a much broader audience. Computing courses and topics both for majors and non-majors need new approaches that motivate students to feel comfortable with the lifelong learning of computing concepts and tools. The goal of this paper is to summarize our teaching experience in and the great potential of App Inventor for Android (AIA) in broadening the appeal and diffusion of fundamental computing and programming concepts. With a pedagogical foundation stemming from constructionist learning and contextualized computing education, we present our motivation and the details of courses that can greatly benefit from AIA. © 2012 IEEE.

Johnson-Lawrence V.,University of Michigan-Flint | Schulz A.J.,University of Michigan | Zenk S.N.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Israel B.A.,University of Michigan | Rowe Z.,Friends of Parkside
Annals of Epidemiology | Year: 2015

Purpose: Individuals who perceive more neighborhood challenges are less physically active. Territoriality, an observable positive marker of social presence and defensible space in the neighborhood, may influence the association between neighborhood challenges and physical activity (PA). We hypothesized that greater territoriality would reduce the negative effects of neighborhood challenges on PA levels. Methods: Data were collected by the Healthy Environments Partnership in an urban Midwestern city. Multilevel regressions were used to test associations in a sample of 696 white, black, and Hispanic adults older than 25 years. Results: Territoriality moderated associations between residents' perceptions of neighborhood challenges and PA. Contrary to our hypothesis, individuals who perceived more neighborhood challenges and lived in areas with more territoriality markers (e.g., buildings with decorations, buildings with security signage, and neighborhood watch signs) were less physically active than other respondents (. b=-2.41, standard error=0.84, P<.01). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that associations between perceived neighborhood challenges and PA are shaped by the context in which the individual lives. Our study provides empirical evidence that individual perceptions and observed neighborhood characteristics are joint contributors to PA and suggest the need for continued research to characterize the complexity of individual and contextual factors that contribute to PA. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

Mixer S.J.,University of Tennessee at Knoxville | McFarland M.R.,University of Michigan-Flint | Andrews M.M.,University of Michigan-Flint | Strang C.W.,University of Bristol
Nurse Education Today | Year: 2013

Background: Nursing educators worldwide are challenged to integrate the care of culturally diverse people into coursework to prepare a nursing workforce to deliver culturally congruent care (CCC). Care that recipients consider safe, satisfying, and beneficial is the essence of CCC. To effectively teach and role model such care for students, it is important for faculty to experience it at work. While substantive literature exists on promoting health, wellbeing, and a healthy work environment for nurses in practice, there is a limited focus on these topics for nursing faculty. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to discover care practices that helped faculty teach students to provide CCC. This article reports' findings related to the theme that care is essential for the health and wellbeing of general nursing faculty who prepare students to provide CCC. Theoretical Framework and Method: This qualitative ethnonursing research study, guided by the culture care theory, used open-ended interviews to discover care practices that enhanced faculty's ability to teach students to provide CCC. The study was conducted in two public university baccalaureate nursing programs in urban and rural settings in the Southeastern United States. Purposive sampling was used to recruit 27 tenured, tenured-track, and clinical nursing faculty. Interview data were analyzed using Leininger's four phases of ethnonursing data analysis. Qualitative criteria were used to ensure rigor and included participant confirmation of patterns and themes. Findings and Discussion: Faculty health and wellbeing were described as embracing each other's cultural similarities and differences, caring for self, caring for others, offering respect, and engaging in mentoring/co-mentoring. Evidence-based recommendations to promote faculty health and wellbeing are presented. Creating a caring scholarly community that supports nursing faculty health and wellbeing provided essential support for faculty who prepared students, often through role modeling, to provide CCC. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Palaskar N.,University of Michigan-Flint | Syed Z.,University of Michigan-Flint | Banerjee S.,Clarkson University | Tang C.,University of Michigan-Flint
Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on High Assurance Systems Engineering | Year: 2016

Touch dynamics (or touch based authentication) refers to a behavioral biometric for touchscreen devices wherein a user is authenticated based on his/her executed touch gestures. In this work, we present the results of a series of empirical techniques to detect habituation in the user's touch profile, its detrimental effect on authentication accuracy and strategies to overcome these effects. Habituation here refers to changes in the user's profile and/or noise within it due to the user's familiarization with the device and software application. The results of this work show that habituation causes the user's touch profile to evolve significantly and irrevocably over time even after the user is familiar with the device and software application. This phenomenon considerably degrades classifier accuracy. We show that this effect can be best mitigated using approximately 300 most recent user inputs and retraining the classifier. The retrained classifier can be used with minimal increase in error rate on up to 75 new user inputs. This results in an error rate of 3.68% that sets the benchmark in this field for a realistic test setup. Finally, we quantify the benefits of vote-based reclassification of predicted class labels and show that this technique is vital for achieving high accuracy in realistic touch-based authentication systems. © 2016 IEEE.

Perez-Rosas V.,University of Michigan | Abouelenien M.,University of Michigan | Mihalcea R.,University of Michigan | Burzo M.,University of Michigan-Flint
ICMI 2015 - Proceedings of the 2015 ACM International Conference on Multimodal Interaction | Year: 2015

Hearings of witnesses and defendants play a crucial role when reaching court trial decisions. Given the high-stake nature of trial outcomes, implementing accurate and effective computational methods to evaluate the honesty of court testimonies can offer valuable support during the decision making process. In this paper, we address the identification of deception in real-life trial data. We introduce a novel dataset consisting of videos collected from public court trials. We explore the use of verbal and non-verbal modalities to build a multimodal deception detection system that aims to discriminate between truthful and deceptive statements provided by defendants and witnesses. We achieve classification accuracies in the range of 60-75% when using a model that extracts and fuses features from the linguistic and gesture modalities. In addition, we present a human deception detection study where we evaluate the human capability of detecting deception in trial hearings. The results show that our system outperforms the human capability of identifying deceit. © 2015 ACM.

Alsalaheen B.,University of Michigan-Flint | Stockdale K.,University of Michigan-Flint | Pechumer D.,University of Michigan-Flint | Broglio S.P.,University of Michigan
Sports Medicine | Year: 2016

Background: The immediate post concussion assessment and cognitive testing (ImPACT) is the most widely used concussion assessment tool. Despite its popularity, it is unclear if validation studies for the ImPACT test covered all aspects of validity to support its widespread use in research and clinical practice. Objective: The purpose of this report is to review literature surrounding the validity and the utility of the ImPACT test. Data sources and appraisal: A systematic review of relevant studies in PubMed, CINAHL, and PsycINFO was carried out. Studies were evaluated using the STROBE (strengthening the reporting of observational studies in epidemiology) or the STARD (standards for reporting of diagnostic accuracy) criteria. Results: The literature search yielded 5968 studies. Sixty-nine studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the qualitative review. Although the convergent validity of ImPACT was supported, evidence of discriminant and predictive validity, diagnostic accuracy and responsiveness was inconclusive. The utility of the ImPACT test after acute symptom resolution was sparse. The review found many factors influenced the validity and utility of ImPACT scores. Conclusion: Clinicians must consider the benefit of ImPACT testing for their patients on a case-by-case scenario and must take the psychometric properties of the test into account when interpreting results. © 2016 Springer International Publishing Switzerland

Grayver E.,The Aerospace Corporation | Keating R.,Northwestern University | Parower A.,University of Michigan-Flint
IEEE Aerospace Conference Proceedings | Year: 2015

Simultaneously transmitting and receiving on the same frequency has long been considered a fundamental impossibility in wireless communication. Recent research activity has sought to challenge this limit. The main challenge is dealing with very high self-interference due to the high power transmit (TX) signal leaking into the receive (RX) path. The larger the difference between the TX and RX power, the more challenging the problem. A link to a low Earth orbit (LEO) satellite requires at least 130 dB of cancellation for full duplex communication to be achievable. This paper presents initial results for a ground-LEO full-duplex link. Starting with a link budget, we derive the expected power levels, and therefore the required cancellation. We then formulate features of the satellite channel that make it feasible to even consider achieving 130 dB of cancellation. Unlike previous efforts that focused on relatively low-cost implementations suitable for commercial market, this effort relies on expensive and hand-tuned components. The initial goal is to develop a link suitable for a small LEO satellite (e.g. cubesat) with limited (1 MHz) bandwidth. The paper then provides initial experimental results using high-end RF and mixed-signal components. Cancellation is achieved using a combination of RF and baseband techniques. This paper presents the best known amount of self-interference cancellation with RF and baseband techniques. This goal is clearly ambitious and the work is not yet complete. However, the results are promising enough to warrant additional research. © 2015 IEEE.

Grayver E.,The Aerospace Corporation | Chin A.,The Aerospace Corporation | Hsu J.,The Aerospace Corporation | Stanev S.,The Aerospace Corporation | And 2 more authors.
IEEE Aerospace Conference Proceedings | Year: 2015

Cubesats offer relatively lost-cost access to space. They are actively used for a wide range of scientific studies and technology development efforts. Small size, relatively low available power, and highly constrained cost have typically limited the radios on these satellites to low data rates. In this paper we present our first AeroCube 915 MHz software defined radio based on a Zynq processor and using Lime Micro transceiver developed to address the low-cost constraint while at the same time offering a state-of-the-art communications link. The radio supports a wide range of modulations and powerful error correction code capable of 10 Mbps. The coding and modulation can be adapted in real-time as the range from the ground station to the satellite changes to maximize downlink throughput. © 2015 IEEE.

Allison M.,University of Michigan-Flint | Turner S.,University of Michigan-Flint | Allen A.A.,Georgia Southern University
10th International Conference on Computer Science and Education, ICCSE 2015 | Year: 2015

One challenge to the cloud computing paradigm is the task complexity associated with designing and managing multi-cloud solutions based on operational objectives. Heterogeneous vendor interfaces and a lack of standardization compounds this complexity and may eventually lead to vendor lock-in. In this article we present a model driven approach to allowing network administrators to intuitively describe and rapidly realize non-trivial IaaS behavior in realtime. We have developed iCloudML, an interpreted domain-specific modeling language and its interpreter as tooling support for the domain. © 2015 IEEE.

Kodjebacheva G.,University of Michigan-Flint | Kodjebacheva G.,University of Michigan | Kruger D.J.,University of Michigan | Rybarczyk G.,University of Michigan-Flint
Journal of Public Health (United Kingdom) | Year: 2015

Aim The study investigated the socio-demographic differences in the association between depressive symptoms and higher body mass index (BMI). Subjects and methods In Genesee County, Michigan, random samples of households were drawn from all residential census tracts. The Speak to Your Health! Survey was administered among adults aged 18 years and older in these households. To conduct this cross-sectional study, data from three waves of survey data collection (2007, 2009 and 2011) were combined resulting in a sample of 3381 adults. Self-reported height and weight were used to calculate BMI. Depressive symptoms were assessed with Brief Symptoms Inventory items. Socio-demographic factors included age, race/ethnicity, gender and education. Results Using stepwise linear regression, gender (β = 0.04, P = 0.02) and the interaction terms of race/ethnicity × depressive symptoms (β = 0.15, P < 0.001) and gender × depressive symptoms (β = 0.05, P = 0.01) uniquely predicted BMI. Conclusion Women had a higher BMI than men, and depressive symptoms were more strongly associated with BMI among African Americans and women than among non-Latino Whites and men. Tailored interventions to alleviate depressive symptoms in African Americans and females may help decrease racial/ethnic and gender differences in depressive symptoms and obesity. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health.

Andries A.M.,Al. I. Cuza University | Mehdian S.,University of Michigan-Flint | Stoica O.,Al. I. Cuza University
Engineering Economics | Year: 2013

In this paper we use a non-parametric stepwise approach to examine the efficiency and productivity of Romanian banking industry and its determinants in the face of European integration, during a five-year period, from 2004 to 2008. We limit our sample to this period in order to exclude the effect of the global financial crisis on production performance of the banking industry. Moreover, 2004-2008 is an important period because during this time frame, Romania was being considered for membership to European Union and for that reason Romanian authorities implemented a set of mandatory legislative improvements that accelerated the path towards market economy. We develop a two-stage empirical model that involves estimating bank performance in the first stage and assessing its determinants in the second one. In order to measure the productivity growth of the banking industry, we calculate Malmquist productivity growth index using a non-parametric linear programming approach.Our results suggest that during the period under study, the privately-owned banks in Romania have been significantly more efficient and have enjoyed a higher productivity growth compared with the state-owned banks. Results of this research may offer directions to banking regulators for institution of suitable policies for encouraging banks to employ more efficient production practices and to supply high quality services at the lowest costs possible. The policy implication of our findings are a) Romanian banking firms should alter their “input mix” to reduce operational costs in order to enhance their efficiency and b) Romanian government authorities need to design regulatory acts to promote mergers and acquisition among banks to assist them to improve their overall efficiency by expansion and achieving optimal size. © 2013, Kauno Technologijos Universitetas. All rights reserved.

Kim Y.-M.,University of Michigan-Flint
Proceedings - 2013 6th International Symposium on Resilient Control Systems, ISRCS 2013 | Year: 2013

This paper presents fault detection filter design in mixed H-/H ∞ objective formulation based on probabilistic robustness theory. With the recently developed probabilistic robustness theory, fault detection filter is designed which is robust to model uncertainty without structural restriction. Normally, fault detection filter is designed to satisfy two objectives such as low sensitivity (H∞) to disturbance but, high sensitivity (H-) to actual fault. An approach is developed to apply probabilistic robustness theory to mixed type filter design. © 2013 IEEE.

Farmer M.E.,University of Michigan-Flint
ICINCO 2011 - Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Informatics in Control, Automation and Robotics | Year: 2011

The traditional D-S conditioning is based on a collection of 'experts' inputting their evidence and accumulating the beliefs. Researchers have often adopted this same mechanism for integrating evidence from single sources of evidence over time, such as seen in sensor networks. The traditional D-S conditioning ensures the order of inputs does not matter. While this is sensible for a collection of experts we propose that it is not suitable for a single input providing streams of evidence. Research in psychology show order of integration of evidence does matter, and depending on the application humans have a preference for recency or primacy. Estimation theory provides frameworks for analyzing data over time, and recently some researchers have proposed integrating evidence in an estimation-inspired manner. We then propose a Kalman-filter based approach for integrating temporal streams of evidence from a single sensor. We then propose the system uncertainty be modeled by the conflict defined by Dempster. We then define a real-time evidence accumulation system for airbag suppression and demonstrate that the Kalman filter-based approach indeed out-performs Dempster-Shafer based evidence accumulation.

Farmer M.E.,University of Michigan-Flint
2011 8th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Video and Signal Based Surveillance, AVSS 2011 | Year: 2011

Accurate and robust attention direction has been of substantial interest in the computer vision community, particularly for industrial surveillance systems that initiate recording at the onset of motion or an interesting contextual event. One key issue is minimizing false alarms to limit video record bandwidth and capacity. One issue that these systems face is high false alarm rates under sudden illumination change. In this paper we propose a system which applies measures from chaos theory and fractal analysis to provide a robust pre-attentive processing engine for motion detection. Results compare quite favorably in terms of probability of detection versus false detection rate against traditional methods for low-level change detection, namely Sum of Absolute Differences, and Gaussian Mixture Models. The proposed chaos-based method is shown to have superior performance. Additionally the proposed approach has an intuitive justification based on creation and flow of information between image frames, and consequently a very intuitive and problem-based threshold determination. © 2011 IEEE.

Wei P.,Tianjin Normal University | Shang Z.,Tianjin Normal University | Shang Z.,University of Wyoming | Brotherton M.S.,University of Wyoming | And 5 more authors.
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2013

We present Spitzer InfraRed Spectrograph low-resolution spectra of 16 spectroscopically selected post-starburst quasars (PSQs) at z 0.3. The optical spectra of these broad-lined active galactic nuclei (AGNs) simultaneously show spectral signatures of massive intermediate-aged stellar populations making them good candidates for studying the connections between AGNs and their hosts. The resulting spectra show relatively strong polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission features at 6.2 and 11.3 μm and a very weak silicate feature, indicative of ongoing star formation and low dust obscuration levels for the AGNs. We find that the mid-infrared composite spectrum of PSQs has spectral properties between ULIRGs and QSOs, suggesting that PSQs are hybrid AGN and starburst systems as also seen in their optical spectra. We also find that PSQs in early-type host galaxies tend to have relatively strong AGN activities, while those in spiral hosts have stronger PAH emission, indicating more star formation. © 2013. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

McLaury B.S.,University of Tulsa | Shirazi S.A.,University of Tulsa | Viswanathan V.,University of Tulsa | Mazumder Q.H.,University of Michigan-Flint | Santos G.,Ecopetrol SA
Journal of Energy Resources Technology, Transactions of the ASME | Year: 2011

Predicting erosion resulting from the impact of solid particles such as sand is a difficult task, since it is dependent on so many factors. The difficulty is compounded if the particles are entrained in multiphase flow. Researchers have developed models to predict erosion resulting from solid particles in multiphase flow that account for a variety of factors. However, no model currently accounts for the flow orientation on the severity of erosion. This work provides three sets of experimental results that demonstrate pipe orientation can have a significant impact on the amount of erosion for annular flow. A semimechanistic model to predict erosion in annular flow is also outlined that accounts for the upstream flow orientation. © 2011 American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

Smith S.J.,University of Nottingham | Long A.,University of Nottingham | Long A.,University of Michigan-Flint | Barrow J.H.,University of Nottingham | And 3 more authors.
Neuro-Oncology | Year: 2011

Pediatric high-grade gliomas (World Health Organization grades III and IV astrocytomas) remain tumors with a very poor prognosis for which novel therapeutic strategies are needed. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) is known to have multiple functions in tumors, including singlestrand DNA repair and induction of caspase-independent apoptosis. PARP has been suggested as a therapeutic target in adult malignancies, and this study examines whether it could also be a potential target in pediatric high-grade glioma. Tissue microarrays containing 150 formalin-fixed pediatric high-grade gliomas were examined by immunohistochemistry for levels of PARP and expression of apoptosis inducing factor (AIF). Full retrospective clinical and survival data were available for this cohort. Stratification and statistical analysis was performed to assess the effect of PARP status on prognosis. The level of PARP immunopositivity had a statistically significant inverse correlation(P =.019) with survivalin supratentorial pediatric high-grade glioma. AIF staining was notable for its absence in the majorityof tumors but with moderate levels of expression in surrounding normal brain. PARP is expressed at high levels in many pediatric highgrade gliomas, and in these tumors, the ability of PARP to activate AIF appears to have been lost. PARP may therefore represent a promising therapeutic target for these lesions and warrants evaluation in clinical trials. © The Author(s) 2011.

Aluko O.,University of Michigan-Flint | Gotham S.,Michigan Technological University | Chinkanjanarot S.,Michigan Technological University | Radue M.,Michigan Technological University | Odegard G.M.,Michigan Technological University
Proceedings of the American Society for Composites - 30th Technical Conference, ACS 2015 | Year: 2015

A computational molecular dynamics model for determining the thermomechanical properties of EPON 862 and DETDA systems was developed using OPLS all atoms force field. The approach for building heavily cross-linked epoxy-based network is defined and presented. The simulations allowed thermal properties such as glass transition temperature and coefficient of thermal expansion; as well as elastic properties of the materials to be estimated. The results exhibited a good agreement with both available experimental data and simulated results in literature. Copyright © 2015 by DEStech Publications, Inc. and American Society for Composites. All rights reserved.

Williams D.R.,Human Development and Health | Williams D.R.,Harvard University | Haile R.,Columbia University | Mohammed S.A.,University of Washington | And 4 more authors.
Ethnicity and Health | Year: 2012

Objective. To explore levels of perceived racial and non-racial discrimination and their associations with self-esteem and mastery in the USA and South Africa. Design. We used ordinary least square regressions to test the cross-sectional associations between discrimination and psychological resources using two national probability samples of adults: the National Survey of American Life and the South African Stress and Health Study. Results. Levels of perceived racial discrimination were higher in the USA than in South Africa. In the USA, both African-Americans and Caribbean Blacks have comparable or higher levels of self-esteem and mastery than Whites. In contrast, South African Whites have higher levels of both self-esteem and mastery than Africans, Coloureds, and Indians. Perceived discrimination, especially chronic everyday discrimination, is inversely related to self-esteem and mastery in both societies. In South Africa, stress and socioeconomic status (SES) but not discrimination are important determinants of racial differences in self-esteem and mastery. Conclusions. In two racialized societies, perceived discrimination acts independent of demographic factors, general stressors, social desirability bias, racial identity, and SES, to negatively affect the psychological resources of self-esteem and mastery. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Farmer M.E.,University of Michigan-Flint
ICINCO 2011 - Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Informatics in Control, Automation and Robotics | Year: 2011

The traditional D-S conditioning is based on a collection of 'experts' inputting their evidence and accumulating the beliefs. Researchers have often adopted this same mechanism for integrating evidence from single sources of evidence over time, such as seen in sensor networks. One issue with this approach is that the order of inputs does not matter. While this is sensible for a collection of experts we propose that it is not suitable for a single input providing streams of evidence. Likewise research in psychology show order of integration of evidence does matter, and depending on the application humans have a preference for recency or primacy. Estimation theory provides frameworks for analyzing data over time, and recently some researchers have proposed integrating evidence in an estimation-inspired manner. In light of this we propose a Kalman-filter based approach for integrating single sensor evidence over time where the evidence conflict plays the role of system noise in adapting the filter gain.

Piscotty R.J.,Oakland University | Piscotty R.J.,University of Michigan | Tzeng H.-M.,University of Michigan-Flint
CIN - Computers Informatics Nursing | Year: 2011

The implementation of clinical information systems can have a profound impact on nurses and their productivity. Poorly implemented systems can lead to unintended consequences that may have a negative impact on clinical processes and patient outcomes. Executives must have adequate knowledge to address nurses' concerns related to implementation. This study explored the clinical information system implementation readiness activities adopted by chief nurse executivesin hospital settings. A descriptive qualitative design was used, including interviews with six chief nurse executives, held from December 2003 through March 2004. The constant comparative method was used to analyze the interviews to extract readiness activity themes and compare these to the literature. The synthesized themes showed that the executives were knowledgeable about and engaged in several key areas, but not all, of the implementation readiness process. The majority of responses were classified into the thematic areas of champion support, staff preparation for change, training, organizational alignment, planning, and vendor support. The theme of a lack of vendor support was not identified in previous studies but was clear in the responses of the chief nurse executives interviewed. Copyright © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Wu J.,Pennsylvania State University | Charlton J.C.,Pennsylvania State University | Misawa T.,Pennsylvania State University | Misawa T.,Shinshu University | And 2 more authors.
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2010

We employ detailed photoionization models to infer the physical conditions of intrinsic narrow absorption line systems found in high-resolution spectra of three quasars at z = 2.6-3.0. We focus on a family of intrinsic absorbers characterized by Nv lines that are strong relative to the Lya lines. The inferred physical conditions are similar for the three intrinsic Nv absorbers, with metallicities greater than 10 times the solar value (assuming a solar abundance pattern), and with high ionization parameters (log U ∼ 0). Thus, we conclude that the unusual strength of the Nv lines results from a combination of partial coverage, a high ionization state, and high metallicity. We consider whether dilution of the absorption lines by flux from the broad emission line region can lead us to overestimate the metallicities and we find that this is an unlikely possibility. The high abundances that we infer are not surprising in the context of scenarios in which metal enrichment takes place very early on in massive galaxies. We estimate that the mass outflow rate in the absorbing gas (which is likely to have a filamentary structure) is less than a few M ⊙ yr-1 under the most optimistic assumptions, although it may be embedded in a much hotter, more massive outflow. © 2010. The American Astronomical Society.

Alsup J.,University of Michigan-Flint | Papantonopoulos E.,National Technical University of Athens | Siopsis G.,University of Tennessee at Knoxville
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2013

We discuss a novel mechanism to set up a gravity dual of FFLO states in strongly coupled superconductors. The gravitational theory utilizes two U(1) gauge fields and a scalar field coupled to a charged AdS black hole. The first gauge field couples with the scalar sourcing a charge condensate below a critical temperature, and the second gauge field provides a coupling to spin in the boundary theory. The scalar is neutral under the second gauge field. By turning on an interaction between the Einstein tensor and the scalar, it is shown that, in the low temperature limit, an inhomogeneous solution possesses a higher critical temperature than the homogeneous case, giving rise to FFLO states. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Of recent commercial interest are so-called deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) patents, and specifically gene patents, a subset of DNA patents that contain protein-encoding nucleic acid sequences. Heller and Eisenberg addressed the 'tragedy of the anticommons', whereby biomedical research is negatively impacted by an over proliferation of gene patents, although a review of research studies initiated over the last decade has not provided the evidence of biomedical research having been negatively impacted by single-gene patents. To remedy future potential patent-related issues to whole-genome sequencing research, it is recommended for the biotechnology industry's two major industry associations to institute an advisory policy among its memberships for each company to voluntarily recognize a patent liability exemption for firms engaged in pure (basic) whole-genome sequencing research. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

Wang D.,Worcester Polytechnic Institute | Mani M.,University of Michigan-Flint | Rundersteiner E.A.,Worcester Polytechnic Institute
ACM International Conference Proceeding Series | Year: 2010

The federated database architecture has been introduced to maintain the autonomy of individual data sources yet accomplish federated task for diverse applications from traditional enterprises to computational sciences. We identify two challenging problems of query optimization in large-scale database federation systems. First, run-time conditions of data sources have a profound effect on the performance of database federations, yet the distributed environment of database federations makes it prohibitively expensive for the optimizer to gather rapidly uctuating run-time conditions from remote data sources. Second, large-scale database federation systems are often widely distributed and built on heterogeneous networks, thus efficiently utilizing network resources is of ever increasing importance for query scheduling. In this paper, we propose to exploit the clustered hierarchical structure of database federations to solve these two problems. Our Cluster-and-Conquer strategy coordinates hierarchical clusters of data sources to optimize and process queries cooperatively. Within each cluster we employ an I/O-bound cost model with run-time conditions being accessible with relatively little delay. While among clusters a network-bound cost model is instead utilized to capture the network heterogeneity and optimize the query plans for efficient network utilization. The experimental study on the prototype database federation system with real-world network settings shows the effectiveness of our Cluster-and-Conquer strategy for scheduling data-intensive queries, as well as demonstrates the performance benefits of our proposed strategies over existing state-of-art solutions. Copyright 2010 ACM.

Cales S.L.,University of Concepción | Cales S.L.,University of Wyoming | Brotherton M.S.,University of Wyoming | Shang Z.,University of Wyoming | And 10 more authors.
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2013

We present optical spectroscopy of a sample of 38 post-starburst quasars (PSQs) at z ∼ 0.3, 29 of which have morphological classifications based on Hubble Space Telescope imaging. These broad-lined active galactic nuclei (AGNs) possess the spectral signatures of massive intermediate-aged stellar populations, making them potentially useful for studying connections between nuclear activity and host galaxy evolution. We model the spectra in order to determine the ages and masses of the host stellar populations, and the black hole masses and Eddington fractions of the AGNs. Our model components include an instantaneous starburst, a power law, and emission lines. We find that the PSQs have M BH ∼ 108 M⊙ accreting at a few percent of Eddington luminosity and host ∼1010.5 M ⊙ stellar populations which are several hundred Myr to a few Gyr old. We investigate relationships among these derived properties, spectral properties, and morphologies. We find that PSQs hosted in spiral galaxies have significantly weaker AGN luminosities, older starburst ages, and narrow emission-line ratios diagnostic of ongoing star formation when compared to their early-type counterparts. We conclude that the early-type PSQs are likely the result of major mergers and were likely luminous infrared galaxies in the past, while spiral PSQs with more complex star formation histories are triggered by less dramatic events (e.g., harassment, bars). We provide diagnostics to distinguish the early-type and spiral hosts when high spatial resolution imaging is not available. © 2013. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved..

Mazumder Q.H.,University of Michigan-Flint | Zhao S.,University of Michigan-Flint | Ahmed K.,University of Michigan-Flint
Modelling and Simulation in Engineering | Year: 2015

Solid particle erosion is a mechanical process that removes material by the impact of solid particles entrained in the flow. Erosion is a leading cause of failure of oil and gas pipelines and fittings in fluid handling industries. Different approaches have been used to control or minimize damage caused by erosion in particulated gas-solid or liquid-solid flows. S-bend geometry is widely used in different fluid handling equipment that may be susceptible to erosion damage. The results of a computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation of diluted gas-solid and liquid-solid flows in an S-bend are presented in this paper. In addition to particle impact velocity, the bend radius may have significant influence on the magnitude and the location of erosion. CFD analysis was performed at three different air velocities (15.24 m/s-45.72 m/s) and three different water velocities (0.1 m/s-10 m/s) with entrained solid particles. The particle sizes used in the analysis range between 50 and 300 microns. Maximum erosion was observed in water with 10 m/s, 250-micron particle size, and a ratio of 3.5. The location of maximum erosion was observed in water with 10 m/s, 300-micron particle size, and a ratio of 3.5. Comparison of CFD results with available literature data showed reasonable and good agreement. © 2015 Quamrul H. Mazumder et al.

Zajacova A.,University of Wyoming | Johnson-Lawrence V.,University of Michigan-Flint
SSM - Population Health | Year: 2016

This Short Communication builds on recent findings that documented an anomaly in the education-health gradient: adults who attended college but did not earn a BA (the subbaccalaureate group) reported an equal or higher level of health problems than adults with high school (HS) diploma. Our aim is to test whether this anomaly holds when we eliminate potential reporting differences, by examining biomarker levels in the subbaccalaureate vs HS groups.Using the restricted 1999-2012 NHANES, we estimate models of biomarkers for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases as a function of educational attainment, including three subbaccalaureate levels: "some college", vocational associate degree (AA), and academic AA.The data show that adults with "some college" or vocational AA have no systematic advantage over HS graduates in most biomarker indices while academic AA is associated with a significantly better risk profile compared to HS. The findings indicate that the adults with some college and vocational AA degrees do not benefit from their college experience in terms of improved physiological risk profile.This pattern underscores the need to understand and explain the anomalous health pattern that concerns 28% of American adults in the subbaccalaureate group among whom many reap little health payoffs to postsecondary schooling. © 2016 The Authors.

Kodjebacheva G.D.,University of Michigan-Flint | Kodjebacheva G.D.,University of Michigan | Coleman A.L.,University of California at Los Angeles
American Journal of Health Promotion | Year: 2015

Purpose. To investigate the perceptions, behaviors, and recommendations that parents, school nurses, and teachers have regarding children's use of eyeglasses. Approach. Focus groups with parents, school nurses, and teachers were conducted. Setting. The study took place in one Southern California school district. Participants. There were 39 participants, including 24 parents, seven school nurses, and eight teachers. Method. An experienced moderator guided the focus group discussions. Transcripts were analyzed using grounded theory techniques. Results. Participants perceive visual impairment as a serious problem in the development of children. The lack of eyeglasses may lead to problems such as tiredness, headaches, inability to focus on school work, and decreased reading speed. Participants experienced disappointment, unhappiness, worry, and concern when they realized they needed eyeglasses at a young age. Negative societal perceptions toward eyeglasses, lack of eye doctors in minority communities, parental perceptions that children do not need eyeglasses, and peer bullying of children wearing eyeglasses are key obstacles to children's use of eyeglasses. Participants suggest school and national campaigns featuring respected public figures who wear eyeglasses to promote positive attitudes toward eyeglasses. Conclusion. Parents and teachers who closely follow the academic development of children have observed that visual impairment has negative consequences for the scholastic achievement of children. They recommend interventions to promote the attractiveness of eyeglasses in society. The participants discuss the need for a national preventative message for eye care similar to the message for dental care. The public health message should emphasize the importance of embracing and respecting differences among individuals. Copyright © 2015 by American Journal of Health Promotion, Inc.

Nigmatkulov G.A.,National Research Nuclear University MEPhI | Ponosov A.K.,National Research Nuclear University MEPhI | Akgun U.,University of Iowa | Alkhazov G.,RAS Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute | And 120 more authors.
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2016

We report the measurement of the one-dimensional charged kaon correlation functions using 600GeV/c σ-, π- and 540GeV/c p beams from the SELEX (E781) experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron. K±K± correlation functions are studied for three transverse pair momentum, kT, ranges and parameterized by a Gaussian form. The emission source radii, R, and the correlation strength, λ, are extracted. The analysis shows a decrease of the source radii with increasing kaon transverse pair momentum for all beam types. © 2015 The Authors.

Morckel V.,University of Michigan-Flint | Terzano K.,Westfield State University
Journal of Physical Activity and Health | Year: 2014

Background: This study examines the relationships between physical activity, travel attitudes, commute mode choice, and perceived neighborhood characteristics. A recent study found that people who walk or bike during their commute exercise more outside of the commute than do people who commute by mass transit or car. The current study seeks to explain what might account for this relationship, using ANOVA models (Method) conducted on survey data from 3 cities. Results: Perceived neighborhood characteristics and travel attitudes influence participants' reported physical activity levels both during the commute and outside of the commute. Conclusion: While the study does not establish causality, the results provide some support for the notion that policy makers interested in increasing physical activity levels should consider changing not only the physical environment, but also perceived neighborhood characteristics and travel attitudes. © 2014 Human Kinetics, Inc.

Uludag S.,University of Michigan-Flint | Lui K.-S.,University of Hong Kong | Ren W.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Nahrstedt K.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign
IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid | Year: 2016

Deployment of data generation devices such as sensors and smart meters have been accelerating toward the vision of smart grid. The volume of data to be collected increases tremendously. Secure, efficient, and scalable data collection becomes a challenging task. In this paper, we present a secure and scalable data communications protocol for smart grid data collection. Under a hierarchical architecture, relay nodes [also known as data collectors (DCs)] collect and convey the data securely from measurement devices to the power operator. While the DCs can verify the integrity, they are not given access to the content, which may pave the way for third party providers to deliver value-added services or even the data collection itself. We further present optimization solutions for minimizing the total data collection time. © 2015 IEEE.

McNally R.C.,University of Limerick | Cavusgil E.,University of Michigan-Flint | Calantone R.J.,Michigan State University
Journal of Product Innovation Management | Year: 2010

A considerable body of research informs the relationship of product innovativeness with firm and environmental variables as well as the impact of product innovativeness on product financial success. While providing significant insight, the extant literature exhibits conflicting findings that raise questions as to how, specifically, product innovativeness contributes to product financial performance. This study ties together several streams of research related to the product innovativeness construct to enhance understanding of the product innovativeness'product financial performance relationship. The product innovativeness construct is deconstructed by conceptualizing the relationships among three dimensions of product innovativeness: technological discontinuity, marketing discontinuity, and customer discontinuity. Product innovativeness is distinguished from product advantage, and the relationships among product innovativeness dimensions, product advantage, and product financial performance are empirically tested. The results reveal that, indeed, product innovativeness consists of three separate dimensions that exhibit no or moderate correlations with product advantage. Furthermore, product advantage positively and marketing discontinuity negatively influence product financial performance. Finally, the study also examines how project protocols impact the product innovativeness dimensions. Project protocols, also known as product definitions, describe the general parameters a new product should exhibit (i.e., target segments, product functions and features, base technology, pricing, communication and distribution channels, and required resources) as well as the priorities of the general parameters. Because they guide product design and set priorities and have been found to be a dominant driver of product financial performance, project protocols are important. The present study enhances understanding of how project protocols influence the dimensions of product innovativeness, finding that project protocols positively impact product financial performance indirectly through product advantage and marketing discontinuity. © 2010 Product Development & Management Association.

Tzeng H.M.,University of Michigan-Flint
Medsurg nursing : official journal of the Academy of Medical-Surgical Nurses | Year: 2011

The purpose of this exploratory survey study was to determine the perspectives of patients and family visitors about the reasons for and nature of patient- and family-initiated call lights, call light use, and response time to call lights. Fifty-three percent of participants (n = 63) perceived most of their call lights mattered to their safety. Participants believed answering call lights should be a priority among patient care tasks as a critical aspect of nursing staff roles.

Mert B.,TOBB University of Economics and Technology | Aradag U.,TOBB University of Economics and Technology | Uludag S.,TOBB University of Economics and Technology | Uludag S.,University of Michigan-Flint | Unver H.O.,TOBB University of Economics and Technology
International Conference on Power Engineering, Energy and Electrical Drives | Year: 2013

With the bidirectional information and power flow provided by the Smart Grid, many new ideas are being promoted to augment and improve the energy usage in different settings. One such extension is the concept of microgrids. This paper proposes a framework and architecture for controlling the Energy Management System of a microgrid-based Eco-Industrial Park (EIP) by means of a Multi-Agent System (MAS), called AMGEM (an Architecture for a MicroGrid-based EIP using MAS). To the best of our knowledge, AMGEM is the first framework in the literature proposing a microgrid-based EIP by means of a MAS infrastructure. Potential benefits of using MAS as control mechanism are discussed throughout the paper with the previous studies on MAS applications in power engineering. Our study emphasizes on microgrid market control mechanism for both electricity and byproducts of the companies composing the EIP. Ontology of the proposed design, the MAS architecture, the Market Model and the Auction Methodology are all elaborated in the paper. © 2013 IEEE.

Hemphill T.A.,University of Michigan-Flint
Research Technology Management | Year: 2010

A debate continued in the biotechnology and other industries regarding the definition of patentable intellectual property (IP) and find solutions to the problems faced by them regarding the existence of a biomedical anticommons. Most research studies initiated over a period of time were unable to provide convincing evidence that biomedical research was negatively affected by the existence of a biomedical anticommons despite the argument presented by the Secretary's Advisory Committee in 2010. Several experts asked a number of researchers from the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industry and academia about the effects of research tool patents and licensing on industrial or academic biomedical research. They found that drug discovery was unable to be adversely affected by proliferating patents, that R&D projects remained manageable, and that firms and institutions had developed a number of working solutions to limit the complexities of working with intellectual properties.

Gezer D.,TOBB University of Economics and Technology | Gezer D.,TUBITAK - Marmara Research Center | Uludag S.,TOBB University of Economics and Technology | Uludag S.,University of Michigan-Flint
International Conference on Power Engineering, Energy and Electrical Drives | Year: 2013

Automation is a very important technology for sustainability and reliability in generation, transmission and distribution of the power system. The goal of the Distribution Automation Systems (DASs) in power grid is to improve the operational efficiency, reliability, and power quality by enabling operators to monitor and control various distribution components and thus decreasing response times after a fault occurs. With the introduction of the Smart Grid (SG) vision and its concepts, DAS has to be improved with additional features, such as integration of renewables, open architecture communications infrastructure and demand side management. In this paper, we report a pre-SG era DAS, referred to as TUDOSIS, and evaluate it in light of the generally agreed SG conceptualization framework. An analysis of missing components and features to augment TUDOSIS with the state-of-the-art SG capabilities is provided as well as potential methods of implementing them. © 2013 IEEE.

Tang K.L.,University of Michigan-Flint | Fielitz C.,Emory & Henry College
Mitochondrial DNA | Year: 2013

The family Muraenidae is one of the largest and most recognizable eel groups. Moray eels are key components of marine ecosystems but their relationships remain poorly understood. The phylogenetic relationships of the morays are examined herein using mitochondrial 12S and 16S sequence data, totaling 1673 bp for 139 taxa. The results of our analyses found support for a monophyletic family Muraenidae that is part of a monophyletic suborder Muraenoidei, which is revised to include the anguilliform families Heterenchelyidae and Myrocongridae, and to exclude the family Chlopsidae. The muraenids form two monophyletic subfamilies, Muraeninae and Uropterygiinae. Of the genera that had multiple species included for analysis, only the type genus of the family, Muraena, is found to be monophyletic. In the subfamily Uropterygiinae, Uropterygius is not recovered as a monophyletic genus. In the subfamily Muraeninae, the species-rich piscivorous genera, Enchelycore and Gymnothorax, and the durophagous genus, Echidna, are demonstrably not monophyletic. The monotypic Gymnomuraena is the sister group to all other muraenine species. The relationships within Muraenidae require much additional study and its genera remain in urgent need of revision. The order Anguilliformes is revised herein to include four suborders: Anguilloidei, Congroidei, Muraenoidei, and Synaphobranchoidei. All four families of the order Saccopharyngiformes are nested within Anguilliformes, recovered as part of a clade that includes Anguillidae; the saccopharyngiform families are referred to the suborder Anguilloidei sensu novum. © 2021 Informa UK, Ltd.

Alsalaheen B.A.,University of Michigan-Flint | Whitney S.L.,University of Pittsburgh | Whitney S.L.,King Saud University | Marchetti G.F.,Duquesne University | And 4 more authors.
Pediatric Physical Therapy | Year: 2014

PURPOSE: To describe the performance of high school adolescents during common functional gait and balance measures used in vestibular physical therapy. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 91 participants determined their performance on the Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC) scale, Dynamic Gait Index, Functional Gait Assessment, Timed "Up and Go" (TUG), Five Times Sit to Stand (FTSTS) test, tests of gait speed (GS), and the Balance Error Scoring System. In a subset of this sample, GS, TUG, and the FTSTS were repeated twice to examine test-retest reliability. RESULTS: The measures of GS, TUG, and FTSTS were normally distributed. The Activities-specific Balance Confidence, Dynamic Gait Index, and Functional Gait Assessment exhibited a ceiling effect. The timed measures exhibited moderate to good reliability. CONCLUSIONS: These performance scores may provide end points for discharge from vestibular physical therapy. However, clinicians should be aware of the ceiling effect exhibited by some measures. Copyright © 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health /Lippincott Williams & Wilkins and Section on Pediatrics of the American Physical Therapy.

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