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Moore G.E.,Monash University | Lindenmayer A.W.,Monash University | McConchie G.A.,Monash University | Ryan M.M.,Royal Melbourne Hospital | And 5 more authors.
Neuromuscular Disorders | Year: 2016

Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive neuromuscular disease of variable severity. Progressive muscle wasting and impairment in functional ability in SMA have a profound influence on nutritional outcomes. This systematic review summarises the existing evidence on nutrition in SMA. The search strategy was conducted across five databases in August 2014, and updated in March 2016, using key terms relating to growth, nutrition requirements, dietary intake and nutrition management. Studies were selected for inclusion using a two pass method, and data systematically extracted using standardised forms. Thirty-nine studies met eligibility criteria. Body composition is abnormal in patients with SMA, and feeding and swallowing issues are prevalent among sufferers of SMA types I and II. Nutritional management practices vary internationally. There is a paucity of literature regarding nutrition requirements in SMA, although it appears that energy expenditure may be reduced. Children with SMA require individualised nutritional management in order to address their growth and nutrition requirements. There is an urgent need for larger, coordinated, prospective intervention studies of nutrition in SMA. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. Source

Green K.,National Parks and Wildlife Service | Davis N.E.,University of MelbourneVictoria | Robinson W.A.,Charles Sturt University
Australian Mammalogy | Year: 2014

The ability to utilise a diet of shrubs or trees is key to the survival of herbivores in deep snow. However, reduction in snow depth with climate change may allow herbivores into higher elevations where herb fields are dominant. Wallabia bicolor occurs above the winter snowline of the Snowy Mountains in the subalpine zone, whereas Macropus rufogriseus, does not although it is present in alpine Tasmania. The winter diet of W. bicolor in the Snowy Mountains consisted of shrubs, trees, and herbs. With >60% of food sources (shrubs and trees) available above the snow, the change from occupation of habitat below the winter snowline to above requires little change in its diet. Consumption of shrubs, forbs and monocots by M. rufogriseus was similar between the Snowy Mountains and alpine Tasmania. M. rufogriseus includes a high proportion of shrubs in its diet; however, it may be excluded from snow-covered habitat due to a lesser ability to utilise poor-quality browse. Globally, migratory herbivores respond to deep snow with seasonal movements. However, W. bicolor and M. rufogriseus are not migratory and can only occupy higher elevations of the Snowy Mountains as snow depth and duration diminish. Because they do not currently occupy the alpine zone and the vegetation has not evolved to accommodate their presence, their impact on alpine vegetation is likely to be greater than migratory alpine grazers/browsers. © Australian Mammal Society 2014. Source

Un C.H.,Swinburne University of Technology | Sanjayan J.G.,Swinburne University of Technology | San Nicolas R.,Swinburne University of Technology | San Nicolas R.,University of MelbourneVictoria | And 2 more authors.
Construction and Building Materials | Year: 2015

The long-term behaviour of concrete beams constructed with geopolymer concrete (GPC) is investigated. Self-weight and sustained load of 1 kPa are applied on top of the beams at the age of 14 days to simulate construction conditions. Creep tests on cylinders conducted with sustained loading commenced at the ages of 14 days and 28 days. The results from creep tests on GPC show higher creep in the specimens loaded at 14 days than those loaded at 28 days. Predictions of beam deflections are performed by using RCM, EMM and AEMM with input parameters of properties of GPC from experimental data, including elastic modulus, modulus of rupture, creep and shrinkage. These property tests show that GPC can achieve sufficient strength for structural designs, but both compressive strength and flexural tensile strength are affected by drying, which causes differential drying shrinkage and microcracking at the drying surfaces. The predicted deflections by these analysis methods are compared with the experimental results from beams, and show that RCM gives the worse performance of the three methods. The investigation concludes that the AEMM can be used for long-term deflection calculations for GPC beams with minor parameter modifications. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Penman T.D.,University of Wollongong | Penman T.D.,University of MelbourneVictoria | Collins L.,University of Western Sydney | Syphard A.D.,Conservation Biology Institute | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Wildfires can pose a significant risk to people and property. Billions of dollars are spent investing in fire management actions in an attempt to reduce the risk of loss. One of the key areas where money is spent is through fuel treatment - either fuel reduction (prescribed fire) or fuel removal (fuel breaks). Individual treatments can influence fire size and the maximum distance travelled from the ignition and presumably risk, but few studies have examined the landscape level effectiveness of these treatments. Here we use a Bayesian Network model to examine the relative influence of the built and natural environment, weather, fuel and fuel treatments in determining the risk posed from wildfire to the wildland-urban interface. Fire size and distance travelled was influenced most strongly by weather, with exposure to fires most sensitive to changes in the built environment and fire parameters. Natural environment variables and fuel load all had minor influences on fire size, distance travelled and exposure of assets. These results suggest that management of fuels provided minimal reductions in risk to assets and adequate planning of the changes in the built environment to cope with the expansion of human populations is going to be vital for managing risk from fire under future climates. © 2014, Public Library of Science. All rights reserved. Source

Pearson-Dennett V.,University of South Australia | Flavel S.C.,University of South Australia | Wilcox R.A.,Medical School Flinders UniversitySouth Australia | Thewlis D.,University of South Australia | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Use of illicit stimulant drugs such as methamphetamine, cocaine, and ecstasy are a significant worldwide problem. However, little is known about the effect of these drugs on movement. The aim of the current study was to investigate hand function in adults with a history of illicit stimulant use. We hypothesized that prior use of illicit stimulant drugs is associated with abnormal manipulation of objects. The study involved 22 subjects with a history of illicit stimulant use (aged 29±8 yrs; time since last use: 1.8±4.0 yrs) and two control groups comprising 27 non-drug users (aged 25±8 yrs) and 17 cannabis users with no history of stimulant use (aged 22±5 yrs). Each subject completed screening tests (neuropsychological assessment, medical history questionnaire, lifetime drug history questionnaire, and urine drug screen) prior to gripping and lifting a light-weight object with the dominant right hand. Horizontal grip force, vertical lift force, acceleration, and first dorsal interosseus electromyographic (EMG) activity were recorded during three trials. In trial one, peak grip force was significantly greater in the stimulant group (12.8±3.9 N) than in the control groups (non-drug: 10.3±4.6 N; cannabis: 9.4±2.9 N, P<0.022). However, peak grip force did not differ between groups in trials two and three. The results suggest that individuals with a history of stimulant use overestimate the grip force required to manipulate a novel object but, are able to adapt grip force in subsequent lifts. The results suggest that movement dysfunction may be an unrecognized consequence of illicit stimulant use. © 2014 Pearson-Dennett et al. Source

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