The University of Melbourne is an Australian public university located in Melbourne, Victoria. Founded in 1853, it is Australia's second oldest university and the oldest in Victoria. Melbourne was named Australia's best university by Times Higher Education, Academic Ranking of World Universities and National Taiwan University Rankings. Times Higher Education ranks Melbourne as 34th in the world, while the QS World University Rankings places Melbourne 31st in the world. According to QS World University Subject Rankings 2014, the University of Melbourne is ranked 2nd in the world for Education, 8th in Accounting & Finance, and Law, 10th in Psychology, 12th in Medicine, and 15th in Computer Science & IT.Melbourne's main campus is located in Parkville, an inner suburb north of the Melbourne central business district, with several other campuses located across Victoria. Melbourne is a sandstone university and a member of the Group of Eight, Universitas 21 and the Association of Pacific Rim Universities. Since 1872 various residential colleges have become affiliated with the university. There are 12 colleges located on the main campus and in nearby suburbs offering academic, sporting and cultural programs alongside accommodation for Melbourne students and faculty.Melbourne comprises 11 separate academic units and is associated with numerous institutes and research centres, including the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, the Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research and the Grattan Institute. Amongst Melbourne's 15 graduate schools the Melbourne Business School, the Melbourne Law School and the Melbourne Medical School are particularly well regarded.Four Australian prime ministers and five governors-general have graduated from Melbourne. Seven Nobel laureates have been students or faculty, the most of any Australian university. Wikipedia.
Pasricha S.R.,University of Melbourne
Blood | Year: 2013
Despite worldwide economic and scientific development, more than a quarter of the world's population remains anemic, and about half of this burden is a result of iron deficiency anemia (IDA). IDA is most prevalent among preschool children and women. Among women, iron supplementation improves physical and cognitive performance, work productivity, and well-being, and iron during pregnancy improves maternal, neonatal, infant, and even long-term child outcomes. Among children, iron may improve cognitive, psychomotor, and physical development, but the evidence for this is more limited. Strategies to control IDA include daily and intermittent iron supplementation, home fortification with micronutrient powders, fortification of staple foods and condiments, and activities to improve food security and dietary diversity. The safety of routine iron supplementation in settings where infectious diseases, particularly malaria, are endemic remains uncertain. The World Health Organization is revising global guidelines for controlling IDA. Implementation of anemia control programs in developing countries requires careful baseline epidemiologic evaluation, selection of appropriate interventions that suit the population, and ongoing monitoring to ensure safety and effectiveness. This review provides an overview and an approach for the implementation of public health interventions for controlling IDA in low- and middle-income countries, with an emphasis on current evidence-based recommendations.
Boger S.D.,University of Melbourne
Gondwana Research | Year: 2011
The origin of the Antarctic continent can be traced to a relatively small late Archaean cratonic nucleus centred on the Terre Adélie regions of East Antarctica and the Gawler Craton region of South Australia. From the late Archaean to the present, the evolution of the proto-Antarctic continent was remarkably dynamic with quasi-continuous growth driven by accretionary or collisional events, episodically punctuated by periods of crustal extension and rifting. The evolution of the continent can be broken into seven main steps: (1) late Palaeoproterozoic to middle Mesoproterozoic accretion and collision added crust first to the Antarctic nucleus's eastern margin, then to its western margin. These events resulted in the incorporation of the Antarctic nucleus within a single large continent that included all of Proterozoic Australia, a more cryptic Curnamona-Beardsmore Craton and most probably Laurentia. (2) Rifting in the middle to late Mesoproterozoic separated a block of continental crust of unknown dimensions to form an ocean-facing margin, the western edge of which was defined by the ancestral Darling Fault in Western Australia and its unnamed continuation in Antarctica. (3) Inversion of this margin followed shortly and led to the Grenville aged collision and juxtaposition of proto-Antarctica with the Crohn Craton, a continental block of inferred Archaean and Palaeoproterozoic age that now underlies much of central East Antarctica. The Pinjarra Orogen, exposed along the coast of Western Australia, defines the orogenic belt marking this collision. In Antarctica the continuation of this belt has been imaged in sub-ice geophysical datasets and can be inferred from sparse outcrop data and via the widespread dispersal of syn-tectonic zircons. (4) Tectonic quiescence from the latest Mesoproterozoic to the Cryogenian was the forerunner to Ediacaran rifting that separated Laurentia and the majority of the Curnamona-Beardsmore craton from the amalgam of East Antarctica and Australia. The result was the formation of the ancestral Pacific Ocean. (5) The rifting of Laurentia was mirrored by convergence along the opposing margin of the continent. Convergence ultimately sutured material with Indian and African affinities during a series of Ediacaran and Cambrian events related to the formation of Gondwana. These events added much of the crust that today defines the East Antarctic coastline between longitudes 30°W and 100°E. (6) The amalgamation of Gondwana marked a shift in the locus of subduction from between the pre-Gondwana cratons to Gondwana's previously passive Pacific margin. The result was the establishment of the accretionary Terra Australis and Gondwanide orogenies. These were to last from the late Cambrian to the Cretaceous, and together accreted vast sequences of Gondwana derived sediment as well as fragments of older and allochthonous or para-allochthonous continental crust to Gondwana's Pacific margin. (7) The final phases of accretion overlapped with the initiation of extension and somewhat later rifting within Gondwana. Extension started in the late Carboniferous, although continental separation did not begin until the middle Jurassic. Gondwana then fragmented sequentially with Africa-South America, India, Australia and the finally the blocks of New Zealand separating between the middle Jurassic and the late Cretaceous. The late Cretaceous separation of Antarctica and Australia split the original Antarctic nucleus, terminating more than 2.4. billion years of shared evolution. The slightly younger separation of New Zealand formed the modern Antarctic continent. © 2010.
Bowtell D.D.L.,University of Melbourne
Nature Reviews Cancer | Year: 2010
Germline mutation in either BRCA1 or BRCA2 is associated with an increased risk of ovarian cancer, particularly the most common invasive histotype ĝ€" serous carcinoma. In addition, serous ovarian cancers have an unusually high frequency of other molecular events involving BRCA pathway dysfunction. Recent findings show a high frequency of TP53 mutation, chromosomal instability, distinct molecular subtypes and DNA copy number-driven changes in gene expression. These findings suggest a model in which homologous recombination repair deficiency initiates a cascade of molecular events that sculpt the evolution of high-grade serous ovarian cancer and dictate its response to therapy. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.
Nugent K.A.,University of Melbourne
Advances in Physics | Year: 2010
X-ray sources are developing rapidly and their coherent output is growing correspondingly. The increased coherent flux from modern X-ray sources is being matched with an associated development in experimental methods. This article reviews the literature describing the ideas that utilize the increased brilliance from modern X-ray sources. It explores how ideas in coherent X-ray science are leading to developments in other areas, and vice versa. The article describes measurements of coherence properties and uses this discussion as a base from which to describe partially coherent diffraction and X-ray phase-contrast imaging, with applications in materials science, engineering and medicine. Coherent diffraction imaging methods are reviewed along with associated experiments in materials science. Proposals for experiments to be performed with the new X-ray free-electron lasers are briefly discussed. The literature on X-ray photon-correlation spectroscopy is described and the features it has in common with other coherent X-ray methods are identified. Many of the ideas used in the coherent X-ray literature have their origins in the optical and electron communities and these connections are explored. A review of the areas in which ideas from coherent X-ray methods are contributing to methods for the neutron, electron and optical communities is presented.
Kearney R.M.,University of Melbourne
Ecology Letters | Year: 2013
Correlative analyses predict that anthropogenic climate warming will cause widespread extinction but the nature and generality of the underlying mechanisms is unclear. Warming-induced activity restriction has been proposed as a general explanatory mechanism for recent population extinctions in lizards, and has been used to forecast future extinction. Here, I test this hypothesis using globally applied biophysical calculations of the effects of warming and shade reduction on potential activity time and whole-life-cycle energy budgets. These 'thermodynamic niche' analyses show that activity restriction from climate warming is unlikely to provide a general explanation of recent extinctions, and that loss of shade is viable alternative explanation. Climate warming could cause population declines, even under increased activity potential, through joint impacts on fecundity and mortality rates. However, such responses depend strongly on behaviour, habitat (shade, food) and life history, all of which should be explicitly incorporated in mechanistic forecasts of extinction risk under climate change. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.
Carbone F.R.,University of Melbourne
Journal of Immunology | Year: 2015
T cell immunity is often defined in terms of memory lymphocytes that use the blood to access a range of organs. T cells are involved in two patterns of recirculation. In one, the cells shuttle back and forth between blood and secondary lymphoid organs, whereas in the second, memory cells recirculate between blood and nonlymphoid tissues. The latter is a means by which blood T cells control peripheral infection. It is now clear that there exists a distinct memory T cell subset that is absent from blood but found within nonlymphoid tissues. These nonrecirculating tissue-resident memory T (TRM) cells develop within peripheral compartments and never spread beyond their point of lodgement. This review examines fixed immune surveillance by TRM cells, highlighting features that make them potent controllers of infection in nonlymphoid tissues. These features provide clues about TRM cell specialization, such as their ability to deal with sequestered, persisting infections confined to peripheral compartments. © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.
Wong E.,University of Melbourne
Journal of Lightwave Technology | Year: 2012
This paper reviews the future directions of next generation passive optical networks. A discussion on standardized 10 Gb/s passive optical network (PON) systems is first presented. Next, new technologies that facilitate multiple access beyond 10 Gb/s time division multiple access (TDMA)-PONs will be reviewed, with particular focus on the motivation, key technologies, and deployment challenges. The wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) PON will be discussed and in combination with TDMA, the hybrid WDM/TDMA PON will be reviewed in the context of improving system reach, capacity, and user count. Next, discussions on complementary high-speed technologies that provide improved tolerance to system impairments, capacity, and spectral efficiency will be presented. These technologies include digital coherent detection, orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA), and optical code division multiple access (OCDMA). © 2006 IEEE.
Lo K.,University of Melbourne
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2014
Renewable energy and energy efficiency (REEE) policies have far-reaching implications for energy security, climate change, economic competitiveness, pollution, and human livelihood. For these reasons, REEE has become a national priority for the Chinese government, particularly since 2005. This paper aims to critically review China's REEE policies in six sectors: electricity, industry, transportation, buildings, and local government. In addition to examining the progress China has made in the development and implementation of REEE policies, this review also identifies limitations and room for improvement. Finally, five policy recommendations are presented. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Emery B.,University of Melbourne
Science | Year: 2010
Despite the importance of myelin for the rapid conduction of action potentials, the molecular bases of oligodendrocyte differentiation and central nervous system (CNS) myelination are still incompletely understood. Recent results have greatly advanced this understanding, identifying new transcriptional regulators of myelin gene expression, elucidating vital roles for microRNAs in controlling myelination, and clarifying the extracellular signaling mechanisms that orchestrate the development of myelin. Studies have also demonstrated an unexpected level of plasticity of myelin in the adult CNS. These recent advances provide new insight into how remyelination may be stimulated in demyelinating disorders such as multiple sclerosis.
Wille U.,University of Melbourne
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2013
Radical cyclizations and multicomponent radical cascades in solution were studied, which are initiated by intermolecular radical addition to C-C triple bond in alkynes as well as to related C?N triple bonds in nitriles and isonitriles. The reactions were arranged according to the atom that carries the unpaired electron in the attacking radical and cover main group IV-VI elements. The initial radical addition is highly regioselective and in reactions with substrates possessing several π systems, the alkyne moiety is usually attacked with high preference. This selectivity can be rationalized by the reversibility with which the initial radicaladdition occurs in many cases, in particular with Sn- and S centered radicals. Due to their high reactivity, vinyl radicals that are formed through radical attack at the alkyne moiety in enynes. Alkyl radicals resulting from radical addition to an alkene are far less reactive so that the competing dissociation and regeneration of the starting materials is often faster than the forward reaction steps.