Entity

Time filter

Source Type

Melbourne, Australia

Levinger P.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Levinger P.,La Trobe University | Menz H.B.,La Trobe University | Morrow A.D.,La Trobe University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Arthroplasty | Year: 2013

We investigated the biomechanical changes that occur in the lower limb following total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Lower limb joint kinematics and kinetics were evaluated in 32 patients before and 12. months following TKA and 28 age-matched controls. Analysis of variance with Bonferroni-adjusted post-hoc tests showed no significant changes in knee joint kinematics and kinetics following TKA despite significant improvements in pain and function. Significant increases in peak ankle plantarflexion and dorsiflexion moments and ankle power generation were observed which may be a compensatory response to impaired knee function to allow sufficient power generation for propulsion. Differences in knee gait parameters may arise as a result of the presence of osteoarthritis and mechanical changes associated with TKA as well as retention of the pre-surgery gait pattern. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. Source


Zhang L.,Harbin Institute of Technology | Zhang L.,King Abdulaziz University | Zhuang S.,Harbin Institute of Technology | Shi P.,University of Adelaide | Shi P.,Victoria University of Melbourne
Automatica | Year: 2015

This paper is concerned with H∞ filtering for a class of switched linear systems in discrete-time domain. A more general class of switching signals, the persistent dwell-time (PDT) switching is considered rather than the dwell-time or average dwell-time switching often studied in the literature. The concept on a stage of switching in the type of PDT switching signals is introduced, and each stage consists of a period of persistence and a dwell-time portion in which no switching occurs. A proper Lyapunov function suitable to the PDT switching is constructed, which is not only mode-dependent but also quasi-time-dependent (QTD). Then, a QTD filter is designed such that the resulting filtering error system is globally uniformly asymptotically stable and has a guaranteed H∞ noise attenuation performance. Certain techniques are explored such that the obtained performance index is of strictly non-weighted H∞ norm, which contrasts with the weighted (or called exponential) ones, i.e., weaker noise attenuation in the existing literature of switched systems with average dwell-time. An example of mass-spring system is provided to show the validity and potential of the developed results. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Mendez-Villanueva A.,ASPIRE Academy for Sports Excellence | Mendez-Villanueva A.,University of Western Australia | Edge J.,University of Western Australia | Suriano R.,University of Western Australia | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

The physiological equivalents of power output maintenance and recovery during repeated-sprint exercise (RSE) remain to be fully elucidated. In an attempt to improve our understanding of the determinants of RSE performance we therefore aimed to determine its recovery following exhaustive exercise (which affected intramuscular and neural factors) concomitantly with those of intramuscular concentrations of adenosine triphosphate [ATP], phosphocreatine [PCr] and pH values and electromyography (EMG) activity (a proxy for net motor unit activity) changes. Eight young men performed 10, 6-s all-out sprints on a cycle ergometer, interspersed with 30 s of recovery, followed, after 6 min of passive recovery, by five 6-s sprints, again interspersed by 30 s of passive recovery. Biopsies of the vastus lateralis were obtained at rest, immediately after the first 10 sprints and after 6 min of recovery. EMG activity of the vastus lateralis was obtained from surface electrodes throughout exercise. Total work (TW), [ATP], [PCr], pH and EMG amplitude decreased significantly throughout the first ten sprints (P<0.05). After 6 min of recovery, TW during sprint 11 recovered to 86.3±7.7% of sprint 1. ATP and PCr were resynthesized to 92.6±6.0% and 85.3±10.3% of the resting value, respectively, but muscle pH and EMG amplitude remained depressed. PCr resynthesis was correlated with TW done in sprint 11 (r = 0.79, P<0.05) and TW done during sprints 11 to 15 (r = 0.67, P<0.05). There was a ~2-fold greater decrease in the TW/EMG ratio in the last five sprints (sprint 11 to 15) than in the first five sprints (sprint 1 to 5) resulting in a disproportionate decrease in mechanical power (i.e., TW) in relation to EMG. Thus, we conclude that the inability to produce power output during repeated sprints is mostly mediated by intramuscular fatigue signals probably related with the control of PCr metabolism. © 2012 Mendez-Villanueva et al. Source


Karsten B.,University of Greenwich | Jobson S.A.,The University of Winchester | Hopker J.,University of Kent | Jimenez A.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Beedie C.,Aberystwyth University
International Journal of Sports Medicine | Year: 2014

The purpose of this study was to investigate the level of agreement between laboratory-based estimates of critical power (CP) and results taken from a novel field test. Subjects were fourteen trained cyclists (age 40±7 yrs; body mass 70.2±6.5kg; VO2max 3.8±0.5L·min -1). Laboratory-based CP was estimated from 3 constant work-rate tests at 80%, 100% and 105% of maximal aerobic power (MAP). Field-based CP was estimated from 3 all-out tests performed on an outdoor velodrome over fixed durations of 3, 7 and 12min. Using the linear work limit (Wlim) vs. time limit (Tlim) relation for the estimation of CP1 values and the inverse time (1/t) vs. power (P) models for the estimation of CP2 values, field-based CP1 and CP2 values did not significantly differ from laboratory-based values (234±24.4W vs. 234±25.5W (CP1); P<0.001; limits of agreement [LOA], -10.98-10.8W and 236±29.1W vs. 235±24.1W (CP2); P<0.001; [LOA], -13.88-17.3W. Mean prediction errors for laboratory and field estimates were 2.2% (CP) and 27% (W′). Data suggest that employing all-out field tests lasting 3, 7 and 12min has potential utility in the estimation of CP. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart, New York. Source


Xu D.,Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics | Jiang B.,Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics | Shi P.,University of South Wales | Shi P.,Victoria University of Melbourne
International Journal of Applied Mathematics and Computer Science | Year: 2012

Based on a Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy model and an inverse system method, this paper deals with the problem of actuator fault estimation for a class of nonlinear dynamic systems. Two different estimation strategies are developed. Firstly, T-S fuzzy models are used to describe nonlinear dynamic systems with an actuator fault. Then, a robust sliding mode observer is designed based on a T-S fuzzy model, and an inverse system method is used to estimate the actuator fault. Next, the second fault estimation strategy is developed. Compared with some existing techniques, such as adaptive and sliding mode methods, the one presented in this paper is easier to be implemented in practice. Finally, two numerical examples are given to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed techniques. Source


Mandic S.,University of Otago | Myers J.,Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System | Myers J.,Stanford University | Selig S.E.,Deakin University | Levinger I.,Victoria University of Melbourne
Current Heart Failure Reports | Year: 2012

It is now accepted that exercise training is a safe and effective therapeutic intervention to improve clinical status, functional capacity, and quality of life in people with chronic heart failure (CHF). Nevertheless, this therapeutic modality remains underprescribed and underutilized. Both aerobic and resistance training improve exercise capacity and may partially reverse some of the cardiac, vascular, and skeletal muscle abnormalities in individuals with CHF. Aerobic training has more beneficial effects on aerobic power (peak oxygen consumption) and cardiac structure and function than resistance exercise training, while the latter is more effective for increasing muscle strength and endurance and promoting favorable arterial remodeling. Combined aerobic and resistance training is the preferred exercise intervention to reverse or attenuate the loss of muscle mass and improve exercise and functional capacity, muscle strength, and quality of life in individuals with CHF. The challenge now is to translate these research findings into clinical practice. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source


Wu Z.,Zhejiang University | Shi P.,University of South Wales | Shi P.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Su H.,Zhejiang University | Chu J.,Zhejiang University
International Journal of Systems Science | Year: 2012

This article deals with the problem of delay-dependent state estimation for discrete-time neural networks with time-varying delay. Our objective is to design a state estimator for the neuron states through available output measurements such that the error state system is guaranteed to be globally exponentially stable. Based on the linear matrix inequality approach, a delay-dependent condition is developed for the existence of the desired state estimator via a novel Lyapunov functional. The obtained condition has less conservativeness than the existing ones, which is demonstrated by a numerical example. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source


Bosevski M.,University of Macedonia | Stojanovska L.,Victoria University of Melbourne
Vascular Health and Risk Management | Year: 2015

In order to assess the progression of carotid-artery disease in type 2 diabetic cohort (n=207 patients), the dynamic change in carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and the occurrence of plaques were followed for a period of 31.35±10.59 months. The mean CIMT at the beginning of the study was 0.9178±0.1447 mm, with a maximal value of 1.1210±0.2366 mm. The maximal value of CIMT changed by 0.07 mm/year. Progression of CIMT was noted in 86.8% and its regression in 7.8% of patients. The occurrence of carotid plaques was detected in 41.8% of patients. Multiple regression analysis revealed the maximal value of CIMT to be associated with diastolic blood pressure, despite mean CIMT being predicted by body mass index. The presence of peripheral arterial disease and hypo-high-density lipoproteinemia were found to be predictors for the occurrence of carotid plaques. Our data have clinical implications in predicting risk factors for the progression of carotid-artery disease in type 2 diabetic patients for their appropriate management. © 2015 Bosevski and Stojanovska. Source


Zurzolo G.A.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Zurzolo G.A.,Murdoch Childrens Research Institute | Koplin J.J.,Murdoch Childrens Research Institute | Mathai M.L.,Murdoch Childrens Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Medical Journal of Australia | Year: 2013

Objective: To examine the behaviour and perception of parents of food-allergic children with and without a history of anaphylaxis in relation to precautionary labelling on packaged foods and to understand consumers' perception of the "may be present" statement advocated by VITAL (voluntary incidental trace allergen labelling). Design, setting and participants: Questionnaire-based study of parents of a consecutive series of 497 children who attended the Department of Allergy and Immunology at the Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, from 1 August to 31 October 2011, of whom 293 met our criteria of having an existing medically diagnosed food allergy, and of whom 246 had enough information provided to be included in our analysis. Main outcome measures: Parents' responses about their behaviour and perceptions relating to precautionary food labels, and a comparison between parents of children with a past history of anaphylaxis and those with a past history of mild to moderate IgE allergic reactions. Results: Avoidance of foods with precautionary labels diff ered depending on the wording of the precautionary statement, with 74 parents (65%) ignoring the statement "made in the same factory" compared with 24 (22%) for "may be present". There was no evidence of a diff erence in participants' behaviour or perceptions depending on whether or not their child had a history of anaphylaxis. Conclusions: Consumers are choosing a gradient level of risk based on the wording of the precautionary statements and appear to be complacent about precautionary labelling. Many statements are now being disregarded by a sizeable proportion of parents of food-allergic children, including those caring for children with a past history of anaphylaxis. This may be due to inadequacies in food labelling legislation. Policies that promote greater clarity and consistent use of precautionary statements may help to deal with this complacency. Source


Reavley N.J.,University of Melbourne | Mccann T.V.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Jorm A.F.,University of Melbourne
Early Intervention in Psychiatry | Year: 2012

Aims: With approximately 50% of young people aged 18-24 in tertiary education, these are potential settings for programmes to improve mental health literacy. A survey was carried out with students and staff of a tertiary education institution to investigate psychological distress, actions to deal with mental health problems and first-aid behaviours. Methods: Telephone interviews were carried out with 774 students of an Australian metropolitan university (with 422 staff as a comparison group). They answered questions relating to psychological distress, actions to deal with mental health problems and first-aid behaviours. Results: Students were more likely to be psychologically distressed than staff (21% vs. 13%) and 27% reported experiencing a problem similar to that described in a depression vignette. The most common actions taken were talking to a close friend, physical activity and talking to close family. Over 72% of students with a problem had sought professional help, most often from a general practitioner or counsellor. Only 10% reported seeking help from a student counsellor. Helpful first-aid behaviours were common and were seen in over 90% of students who had a family member or close friend with a similar problem. Conclusions: There is a need for further investigation of levels and factors associated with psychological distress in higher education students along with an exploration of barriers to and enablers of use of student counselling services. High levels of help seeking from friends and first-aid behaviours provided point to the need for effective peer-to-peer education. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd. Source


Li D.-Z.,Victoria University of Melbourne
Blood Coagulation and Fibrinolysis | Year: 2015

Type A acute aortic dissection is a life-threatening vascular emergency because of its high morbidity and mortality. Platelet is a pivotal ingredient involved in the development of acute aortic dissection. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether mean platelet volume (MPV)/platelet count ratio predicts in-hospital complications and long-term mortality in type A acute aortic dissection. In this single-center and prospective cohort study, 106 consecutive patients with Stanford type A acute aortic dissection admitted to the hospital within 12?h after onset were recruited. The best cut-off value of MPV/platelet count ratio predicting all-cause mortality was determined by the receiver operator characteristic analysis. Patients were divided into high (H-MPV/platelet count) and low (L-MPV/platelet count) groups based on the cut-off value of 7.49 (10?fl/10/l). Patients were followed up for 3.5 years. Of the 106 acute aortic dissection patients, 71 (67.0%) died during the study period, with a median follow-up duration of 570 days. Compared to the L-MPV/platelet count group, patients with H-MPV/platelet count had a higher risk of in-hospital complications including hypotension, hypoxemia, myocardial ischemia/infarction, conscious disturbance, pericardial tamponade, paraplegia, and poor survival (all P? Source


Yi X.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Ling S.,Nanyang Technological University | Wang H.,Nanyang Technological University
IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems | Year: 2013

Password-authenticated key exchange (PAKE) is where a client and a server, who share a password, authenticate each other and meanwhile establish a cryptographic key by exchange of messages. In this setting, all the passwords necessary to authenticate clients are stored in a single server. If the server is compromised, due to, for example, hacking or even insider attack, passwords stored in the server are all disclosed. In this paper, we consider a scenario where two servers cooperate to authenticate a client and if one server is compromised, the attacker still cannot pretend to be the client with the information from the compromised server. Current solutions for two-server PAKE are either symmetric in the sense that two peer servers equally contribute to the authentication or asymmetric in the sense that one server authenticates the client with the help of another server. This paper presents a symmetric solution for two-server PAKE, where the client can establish different cryptographic keys with the two servers, respectively. Our protocol runs in parallel and is more efficient than existing symmetric two-server PAKE protocol, and even more efficient than existing asymmetric two-server PAKE protocols in terms of parallel computation. © 1990-2012 IEEE. Source


Braakhuis A.J.,University of Auckland | Hopkins W.G.,Victoria University of Melbourne
Sports Medicine | Year: 2015

Many athletes supplement with antioxidants in the belief this will reduce muscle damage, immune dysfunction and fatigue, and will thus improve performance, while some evidence suggests it impairs training adaptations. Here we review the effect of a range of dietary antioxidants and their effects on sport performance, including vitamin E, quercetin, resveratrol, beetroot juice, other food-derived polyphenols, spirulina and N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Older studies suggest vitamin E improves performance at altitude, with possible harmful effects on sea-level performance. Acute intake of vitamin E is worthy of further consideration, if plasma levels can be elevated sufficiently. Quercetin has a small beneficial effect for exercise of longer duration (>100 min), but it is unclear whether this benefits athletes. Resveratrol benefits trained rodents; more research is needed in athletes. Meta-analysis of beetroot juice studies has revealed that the nitrate component of beetroot juice had a substantial but unclear effect on performance when averaged across athletes, non-athletes and modes of exercise (single dose 1.4 ± 2.0 %, double dose 0.5 ± 1.9 %). The effect of addition of polyphenols and other components to beetroot juice was trivial but unclear (single dose 0.4 ± 3.2 %, double dose −0.5 ± 3.3 %). Other food-derived polyphenols indicate a range of performance outcomes from a large improvement to moderate impairment. Limited evidence suggests spirulina enhances endurance performance. Intravenous NAC improved endurance cycling performance and reduced muscle fatigue. On the basis of vitamin E and NAC studies, acute intake of antioxidants is likely to be beneficial. However, chronic intakes of most antioxidants have a harmful effect on performance. © 2015, Springer International Publishing Switzerland. Source


Wittwer G.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Banerjee O.,CSIRO
Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics | Year: 2015

This study uses a dynamic multi-regional Computable General Equilibrium model of the Australian economy to examine the impacts of developing irrigated agriculture in remote North West Queensland. A potential investment and operational scenario is implemented using three alternative forecast baselines. In the first run using a business-as-usual baseline, there is a welfare loss from irrigation development, even with an optimistic shift in farm productivity and factor endowments in North West Queensland. In the second run, baseline demand for Australia's exports is assumed to grow at a faster rate and there is a small welfare gain. Simulating climate change impacts on crop yields, the forecast baseline of the third run includes a gradual reduction in farmland productivity in southern Australia. The simulations show the impacts of both supply and demand shifts on the welfare outcome, but on balance, clear welfare gains do not arise from the potential irrigation development. © 2014 Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society Inc. Source


Hrysomallis C.,Victoria University of Melbourne
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research | Year: 2010

There are different football codes played around the world, and most of them involve contact and collision during competition. Upper-body strength and power are important for success in American football, rugby league, rugby union, and Australian football. The goal of the preseason conditioning program is usually to maximize muscular fitness before the competitive season. The in-season program is usually intended to maintain the preseason gains, but it is unclear as to whether the preseason levels of upper-body strength and power can be maintained or even increased during the in-season. The aims of this review were to investigate and identify any general trends in the training programs and results of football studies that have monitored levels of upper-body strength and power preseason, in-season, or postseason. Six studies were identified: 4 involved American college football and the other 2 involved rugby codes and included professional athletes. For most studies, resistance training was conducted 4 times per week preseason and reduced to 2 times per week in-season. The bench press exercise was used as the measure of upper-body strength, and only one of the rugby studies measured upper-body power and used bench press throws. It was found that upper-body strength or power could be maintained or even increased past the mid-season point, but this may be dependent on age, football code, and level of play. At the end of the season, decreases were starting to be reported but only for 2 studies. Surprisingly, an increase in strength was reported postseason for college rugby league players. From the available information, it seems that an in-season periodized program that includes high-intensity resistance training may optimize strength and power ability during the in-season, but more research is required that compares the effectiveness of conditioning programs with varying combinations of training variables. © 2010 National Strength and Conditioning Association. Source


Guo Q.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Tran A.V.,La Trobe University
Journal of Optical Communications and Networking | Year: 2013

The wavelength-division-multiplexed passive optical network (WDM-PON) has been generally regarded as a promising solution to the next-generation access network that will be required to deliver services over 40 Gb/s. However, fiber dispersion often limits the capacity and reach of WDM-PONs. Compared with dispersion compensation fiber, which is bulky and expensive with significant power loss, digital signal processing is a more suitable way to mitigate chromatic dispersion in PONs. Furthermore, expense is a critical concern in the WDM-PON, due to its need for a large number of lasers and a complex wavelength control mechanism. One practical solution is to reuse the downstream (DS) signal as the carrier for the upstream (US) modulation. In this case, the residual DS signal after remodulation can seriously degrade US transmission. In addition, system performance can be deteriorated by the unwanted reflection as uplinks and downlinks share one wavelength. In this paper, we propose using modified duobinary (MD) coding in the DS to improve its dispersion tolerance and reduce the crosstalk between DS and US induced by remodulation and reflection. MD is a correlative level code that can reduce signal bandwidth and achieve DC balance. We demonstrate a 15 km WDM-PON delivering a 40 Gb/s MD-coded signal in the downlink and a 10 Gb/s on-off keying signal in the uplink. Compared with no coding, the maximal allowable extinction ratio of the DS signal (ERd) is improved by 4 dB. Moreover, the reflection tolerance of the uplink and downlink is enhanced by 5 and 4 dB, respectively. In addition, investigations on the use of different equalizers in the DS to further suppress fiber dispersion confirm that the superior performance of nonlinear equalization in MD-coded transmission and that the network reach can be extended to 25 km by a nonlinear decision feedback equalizer. © 2009-2012 OSA. Source


Wu Z.-G.,Zhejiang University | Shi P.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Shi P.,University of Adelaide | Su H.,Zhejiang University | Chu J.,Zhejiang University
IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems | Year: 2013

In this paper, the problem of dissipativity analysis is discussed for discrete-time stochastic neural networks with time-varying discrete and finite-distributed delays. The discretized Jensen inequality and lower bounds lemma are adopted to deal with the involved finite sum quadratic terms, and a sufficient condition is derived to ensure the considered neural networks to be globally asymptotically stable in the mean square and strictly (Q, S, R)-γ-dissipative, which is delay-dependent in the sense that it depends on not only the discrete delay but also the finite-distributed delay. Based on the dissipativity criterion, some special cases are also discussed. Compared with the existing ones, the merit of the proposed results in this paper lies in their reduced conservatism and less decision variables. Three examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness and benefits of our theoretical results. © 2013 IEEE. Source


Zhou Q.,Nanjing University of Science and Technology | Shi P.,University of Adelaide | Shi P.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Xu S.,Nanjing University of Science and Technology | Li H.,Bohai University
IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems | Year: 2013

This paper considers the problem of observer-based adaptive neural network (NN) control for a class of single-input single-output strict-feedback nonlinear stochastic systems with unknown time delays. Dynamic surface control is used to avoid the so-called explosion of complexity in the backstepping design process. Radial basis function NNs are directly utilized to approximate the unknown and desired control input signals instead of the unknown nonlinear functions. The proposed adaptive NN output feedback controller can guarantee all the signals in the closed-loop system to be mean square semi-globally uniformly ultimately bounded. Simulation results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods. © 2012 IEEE. Source


Wu Z.-G.,Zhejiang University | Shi P.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Shi P.,University of Adelaide | Su H.,Zhejiang University | Chu J.,Zhejiang University
IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems | Year: 2013

This paper studies the problem of sampled-data control for master-slave synchronization schemes that consist of identical chaotic Lur'e systems with time delays. It is assumed that the sampling periods are arbitrarily varying but bounded. In order to take full advantage of the available information about the actual sampling pattern, a novel Lyapunov functional is proposed, which is positive definite at sampling times but not necessarily positive definite inside the sampling intervals. Based on the Lyapunov functional, an exponential synchronization criterion is derived by analyzing the corresponding synchronization error systems. The desired sampled-data controller is designed by a linear matrix inequality approach. The effectiveness and reduced conservatism of the developed results are demonstrated by the numerical simulations of Chua's circuit and neural network. © 2013 IEEE. Source


Papadopoulos T.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Armatas C.,St. Georges University
International Journal of Electronic Commerce Studies | Year: 2013

This paper reports on the impact and benefits of integrated business learning (IBL) on student learning in vocational Information Communication Technology (ICT) courses. Student reactions to learning experiences located in workplaces and those that model work-practices are explored through experiential learning theories and employability models. Using surveys, in-depth interviews and focus groups, the student voice is captured and triangulated with teacher and industry practitioner observations of student capabilities and employability. The findings show that students highly value and benefit from IBL that provides meaningful connections to the real world of work. Learners are motivated by structured and tailored experiences that provide a strong alignment between the curriculum and professional practice, providing opportunities for both personal and professional development. The critical importance of authentic and situated learning postulated by social development theories is validated in these evaluation findings, which also highlight the efficacy of government facilitated industry engagement for inducing curriculum innovation. Source


Wu Z.-G.,Zhejiang University | Shi P.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Shi P.,University of Adelaide | Su H.,Zhejiang University | Chu J.,Zhejiang University
IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems | Year: 2013

This paper studies the problem of sampled-data exponential synchronization of complex dynamical networks (CDNs) with time-varying coupling delay and uncertain sampling. By combining the time-dependent Lyapunov functional approach and convex combination technique, a criterion is derived to ensure the exponential stability of the error dynamics, which fully utilizes the available information about the actual sampling pattern. Based on the derived condition, the design method of the desired sampled-data controllers is proposed to make the CDNs exponentially synchronized and obtain a lower-bound estimation of the largest sampling interval. Simulation examples demonstrate that the presented method can significantly reduce the conservatism of the existing results, and lead to wider applications. © 2012 IEEE. Source


Hrysomallis C.,Victoria University of Melbourne
Sports Medicine | Year: 2013

Along with the enjoyment and the other positive benefits of sport participation, there is also the risk of injury that is elevated in contact sport. This review provides a summary of injury incidence in Australian Rules Football (ARF), identifies injury risk factors, assesses the efficacy of interventions to reduce injury risk and makes recommendations for future research. The most common injuries were found to be muscle strains, particularly hamstrings; joint ligament sprains, especially ankle; haematomas and concussion. The most severe joint injury was anterior cruciate ligament rupture. Mouthguards are commonly worn and have been shown to reduce orofacial injury. There is evidence that thigh pads can reduce the incidence of thigh haematomas. There is a reluctance to wear padded headgear and an attempt to assess its effectiveness was unsuccessful due to low compliance. The most readily identified risk factor was a history of that injury. There were conflicting findings as to the influence strength imbalances or deficit has on hamstring injury risk in ARF. Static hamstring flexibility was not related to risk but low hip flexor/quadriceps flexibility increased hamstring injury risk. High lower-limb and high hamstring stiffness were associated with an elevated risk of hamstring injury. Since stiffness can be modulated through strength or flexibility training, this provides an area for future intervention studies. Low postural balance ability was related to a greater risk of ankle injury in ARF, players with poor balance should be targeted for balance training. There are preliminary data signifying a link between deficiencies in hip range of motion and hip adductor strength with groin pain or injury. This provides support for future investigation into the effectiveness of an intervention for high-risk players on groin injury rate. Low cross-sectional area of core-region muscle has been associated with more severe injuries and a motor control exercise intervention that increased core muscle size and function resulted in fewer games missed due to injury. A randomized controlled trial of the effectiveness of eccentric hamstring exercise in decreasing hamstring injury rate in ARF players was unsuccessful due to poor compliance from muscle soreness; a progressive eccentric training intervention for ARF should be given future consideration. Jump and landing training reduced injury risk in junior ARF players and it would be advisable to include this component as part of a neuromuscular training intervention. A multifaceted programme of sport-specific drills for hamstring flexibility while fatigued, sport skills that load the hamstrings and high-intensity interval training to mimic match playing conditions showed some success in reducing the incidence of hamstring injuries in ARF. A countermeasure designed to reduce injury risk is more likely to be adopted by coaches and players if it also has the scope to enhance performance. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2013. Source


Schutt S.,Victoria University of Melbourne
International Journal of Virtual and Personal Learning Environments | Year: 2013

The authors' team has been working with virtual worlds since 2006, deploying them in diverse contexts including secondary schools, special schools, vocational education and training, higher education and the community sector. Here the authors outline their operational experience of the complex web of interrelated factors involved in running virtual world projects. The authors discuss project development models, institutional politics, activity types and working with teachers and students. They conclude that embedding virtual worlds in education can be rewarding but also difficult at times, with qualities of nimbleness and self-reinvention required of project teams. Copyright © 2012, IGI Global. Source


Tastan Bishop O.,Rhodes University | Tastan Bishop O.,Sabanci University | Edkins A.L.,Rhodes University | Blatch G.L.,Rhodes University | Blatch G.L.,Victoria University of Melbourne
Journal of Experimental Zoology Part B: Molecular and Developmental Evolution | Year: 2014

Molecular chaperones and their associated co-chaperones play an important role in preserving and regulating the active conformational state of cellular proteins. The chaperone complement of the Indonesian Coelacanth, Latimeria menadoensis, was elucidated using transcriptomic sequences. Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) and heat shock protein 40 (Hsp40) chaperones, and associated co-chaperones were focused on, and homologous human sequences were used to search the sequence databases. Coelacanth homologs of the cytosolic, mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homologs of human Hsp90 were identified, as well as all of the major co-chaperones of the cytosolic isoform. Most of the human Hsp40s were found to have coelacanth homologs, and the data suggested that all of the chaperone machinery for protein folding at the ribosome, protein translocation to cellular compartments such as the ER and protein degradation were conserved. Some interesting similarities and differences were identified when interrogating human, mouse, and zebrafish homologs. For example, DnaJB13 is predicted to be a non-functional Hsp40 in humans, mouse, and zebrafish due to a corrupted histidine-proline-aspartic acid (HPD) motif, while the coelacanth homolog has an intact HPD. These and other comparisons enabled important functional and evolutionary questions to be posed for future experimental studies. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source


Hrysomallis C.,Victoria University of Melbourne
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research | Year: 2015

The purpose of this study was to compare the acute effect of box squats with barbell (BBSquat), box squats with elastic resistance bands (BandSquat), and static stretches (SStretch) on external power during a 20-kg weighted jump squat. Twelve male athletes performed each of the 3 warm-up protocols on separate occasions in a randomized order. Weighted jump squat power was assessed using a linear position transducer attached to the bar of a Smith machine. Jump power was measured pre-warm-up and 5 and 10 minutes post-warm-up protocol. The BBSquat protocol involved 3 sets of 3RM, BandSquat involved 3 sets of 3 repetitions using highest resistance elastic bands, and the SStretch protocol comprises two 30-second stretches for muscles of the lower limbs. Jump power significantly increased from pre-warm-up to 5 and 10 minutes post-warm-up for both the BandSquat and BBSquat protocols. There was no statistical difference in power values between BandSquat and BBSquat. Power output significantly decreased from pre-warm-up to 5 and 10 minutes post-warm-up for the SStretch protocol. The BandSquat was just as effective as BBSquat in augmenting acute jump power. The SStretch was detrimental to jump performance. A practical warm-up using relatively inexpensive and portable equipment such as elastic resistance bands was just as effective as a warm-up protocol that requires more substantial and less transportable equipment such as a squat rack and associated free weights. The BandSquat warm-up may be considered more accessible for athletes at various competition levels. © 2015 National Strength and Conditioning Association. Source


Shi P.,University of Adelaide | Shi P.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Zhang Y.,Henan University of Technology | Agarwal R.K.,Washington University in St. Louis
Neurocomputing | Year: 2015

This paper investigates the problem of stochastic finite-time state estimation for a class of uncertain discrete-time Markovian jump neural networks with time-varying delays. A state estimator is designed to estimate the network states through available output measurements such that the resulted error dynamics is stochastically finite-time stable. By stochastic Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional approach, sufficient conditions are derived for the error dynamics to be stochastic finite-time stable. The desired state estimator is designed via linear matrix inequality technique. Simulation examples are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the obtained results. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source


Li H.,Harbin Institute of Technology | Wang C.,Harbin Institute of Technology | Shi P.,University of South Wales | Shi P.,Victoria University of Melbourne | And 2 more authors.
Neurocomputing | Year: 2010

This paper investigates the problem of passivity analysis for a class of uncertain discrete-time stochastic neural networks with mixed time delays. Here the mixed time delays are assumed to be discrete and distributed time delays and the uncertainties are assumed to be time-varying norm-bounded parameter uncertainties. By constructing a novel Lyapunov functional and introducing some appropriate free-weighting matrices, delay-dependent passivity analysis criteria are derived. Furthermore, the additional useful terms about the discrete time-varying delay will be handled by estimating the upper bound of the derivative of Lyapunov functionals, which is different from the existing passivity results. These criteria can be developed in the frame of convex optimization problems and then solved via standard numerical software. Finally, a numerical example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed results. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source


The network component of household electricity bills served by government-owned network service providers in Australia more than doubled between 2007 and 2013. Their regulated assets and profits more than tripled over this period. These outcomes have been delivered under a similar system of price cap regulation that has delivered quite different outcomes in Great Britain, and in Victoria (Australia) to the privately owned network service providers in that state. We conclude that changes in operating conditions, demand, customer numbers or reliability do not explain this. Rather we find that government ownership has undermined the authority and independence of economic regulation. The Australian experience in the regulation of government-owned electricity distributors casts doubt on the assumption that regulation can be entirely independent of government ownership, or would operate in the same way as for an entity in private ownership. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Mouchawar J.,Kaiser Permanente | Korch C.,Aurora University | Byers T.,Aurora University | Pitts T.M.,Aurora University | And 5 more authors.
Cancer Research | Year: 2010

Although germline TP53 mutations have been identified in women with breast cancer from families meeting Li-Fraumeni criteria, their contribution to breast cancer per se is not well known, but is thought to be minimal. We aimed to determine the prevalence of germline TP53 mutations in subgroups of early-onset breast cancer. Germline TP53 mutation status was assessed by DNA sequencing, screening for heterozygous single-nucleotide polymorphisms, and Multiplex Ligation-Dependent Probe Amplification analyses. From an Australian population-based series of invasive breast cancers, we studied (a) 52 women diagnosed before age 30 years unselected for family history [very early-onset (VEO)] and (b) 42 women diagnosed in their 30s with two or more first- or second-degree relatives with breast or ovarian cancer [early-onset family history (EO-FH)]. Of the VEO group, two (4%) had a mutation: G13203A (exon 6 missense) in a 24-year-old and a large 5,338-bp genomic deletion in a 26-year-old. Neither had a family cancer history that met Li-Fraumeni criteria. Of the EO-FH group, three (7%) had a mutation: T13240G (a known intron 5 splicing mutation) in a 36-year-old from a classic Li-Fraumeni family; G12299A (exon 4 missense) in a 33-year-old from a Li-Fraumeni-like family; and 14058delG (exon 7 frame-shift) in a 39-year-old with a family cancer history that did not meet Li-Fraumeni criteria. Germline TP53 mutations play a larger role in early-onset breast cancer than previously thought, and in this context, can be evident outside clinically defined Li-Fraumeni families. ©2010 AACR. Source


Kaiseler M.,University of Porto | Polman R.C.J.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Nicholls A.R.,University of Hull
European Journal of Sport Science | Year: 2012

In this study, we examined the influence of the Big Five personality dimensions (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Openness to Experience) on the appraisal (intensity, control) of a self-selected stressor, coping, and perceived coping effectiveness. Participants were 482 athletes (305 males, 177 females) who played a variety of sports. Results indicate that the Big Five dimensions influenced coping selection, coping effectiveness, stress intensity, and perceived control of the stressors, but not the type of self-selected stressor. In particular, Neuroticism predicted higher stressor intensity and Agreeableness lower stressor intensity. Neuroticism predicted lower perceived stressor control and Conscientiousness higher perceived stressor control. Higher levels of Neuroticism were directly and indirectly associated with more emotion and avoidance coping strategies and less problem-focused coping strategies. The other four personality dimensions were also associated with the selection of coping strategies that were perceived to be effective. This study provides support for the notion that the Big Five personality dimensions directly influence appraisal, coping, and coping effectiveness among the sample. Coping was also influenced indirectly by personality through the appraisal process. The Neuroticism dimension was found to be associated with the selection of less adaptive coping strategies and lower levels of reported coping effectiveness. The other four personality dimensions were associated with more adaptive coping strategies that were rated as effective. © 2012 European College of Sport Science. Source


Mahmoud M.S.,King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals | Shi P.,University of South Wales | Shi P.,Victoria University of Melbourne
Signal Processing | Year: 2012

This paper investigates the stability and H∞ filtering problems for a class of linear discrete-time switched systems with average dwell time (ADT) switching by allowing the Lyapunov-like functions to increase during the running time of subsystems. In this way, the issue of asynchronous switching between system modes and filters is captured. It is established that the proposed Lyapunov-like functions facilitates the mode-dependent design since the unmatched filters are allowed to perform in the interval of asynchronous switching before the matched ones are applied. The conditions of the existence of admissible asynchronous H∞ filters are derived, and numerical examples are provided to show the potential and effectiveness of the developed results. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Su X.,Harbin Institute of Technology | Wu L.,Harbin Institute of Technology | Shi P.,University of South Wales | Shi P.,Victoria University of Melbourne | And 2 more authors.
IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Part B: Cybernetics | Year: 2012

This paper is concerned with the problem of H∞ model reduction for Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy stochastic systems. For a given mean-square stable T-S fuzzy stochastic system, our attention is focused on the construction of a reduced-order model, which not only approximates the original system well with an H∞ performance but also translates it into a linear lower dimensional system. Then, the model reduction is converted into a convex optimization problem by using a linearization procedure, and a projection approach is also presented, which casts the model reduction into a sequential minimization problem subject to linear matrix inequality constraints by employing the cone complementary linearization algorithm. Finally, two numerical examples are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods. © 1996-2012 IEEE. Source


Yang R.,Harbin Institute of Technology | Yang R.,University of South Wales | Zhang Z.,Harbin Institute of Technology | Shi P.,University of South Wales | Shi P.,Victoria University of Melbourne
IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks | Year: 2010

This brief addresses the stability analysis problem for stochastic neural networks (SNNs) with discrete interval and distributed time-varying delays. The interval time-varying delay is assumed to satisfy 0 < d1 ≤ d(t) ≤ d2 and is described as d(t) = d1+h(t) with 0 ≤ h(t) ≤ d2 - d1 . Based on the idea of partitioning the lower bound d1, new delay-dependent stability criteria are presented by constructing a novel Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional, which can guarantee the new stability conditions to be less conservative than those in the literature. The obtained results are formulated in the form of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). Numerical examples are provided to illustrate the effectiveness and less conservatism of the developed results. © 2009 IEEE. Source


Cretney R.,Victoria University of Melbourne
Geography Compass | Year: 2014

Resilience has fast become a popular catchphrase used by government, international finance organisations, NGOs, community groups and activists all over the globe. Despite its widespread use, there remains confusion over what resilience is and the purpose it serves. Resilience can, in some cases, speak to a desire to successfully respond and adapt to disruptions outside of the status quo. However, this conceptualisation of resilience is far from uncontested. Emerging research has shown a lack of consideration for power, agency and inequality in popular and academic use of these frameworks. Criticism has also been raised regarding the use of resilience to justify projects informed by neoliberal ideologies that aim to decrease state involvement, increase community self-reliance and restructure social services. Despite this, resilience is being used by community and activist groups that aim to address local and global environmental and social issues.With this critical insight, the need has arisen to question what is being maintained, for whom and by whom, through these discourses of resilience. In this review, I trace the evolution of the concept in the literature. Building on this, I discuss three interpretations of the resilience paradigm in current academic, political and activist arenas. I conclude by discussing possible future directions for critical geographic perspectives of resilience. © 2014 The Author(s) Geography Compass © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source


Budden D.M.,University of Melbourne | Hurley D.G.,University of Melbourne | Crampin E.J.,Victoria University of Melbourne
Epigenetics and Chromatin | Year: 2015

Background: Predictive modelling of gene expression is a powerful framework for the in silico exploration of transcriptional regulatory interactions through the integration of high-throughput -omics data. A major limitation of previous approaches is their inability to handle conditional interactions that emerge when genes are subject to different regulatory mechanisms. Although chromatin immunoprecipitation-based histone modification data are often used as proxies for chromatin accessibility, the association between these variables and expression often depends upon the presence of other epigenetic markers (e.g. DNA methylation or histone variants). These conditional interactions are poorly handled by previous predictive models and reduce the reliability of downstream biological inference. Results: We have previously demonstrated that integrating both transcription factor and histone modification data within a single predictive model is rendered ineffective by their statistical redundancy. In this study, we evaluate four proposed methods for quantifying gene-level DNA methylation levels and demonstrate that inclusion of these data in predictive modelling frameworks is also subject to this critical limitation in data integration. Based on the hypothesis that statistical redundancy in epigenetic data is caused by conditional regulatory interactions within a dynamic chromatin context, we construct a new gene expression model which is the first to improve prediction accuracy by unsupervised identification of latent regulatory classes. We show that DNA methylation and H2A.Z histone variant data can be interpreted in this way to identify and explore the signatures of silenced and bivalent promoters, substantially improving genome-wide predictions of mRNA transcript abundance and downstream biological inference across multiple cell lines. Conclusions: Previous models of gene expression have been applied successfully to several important problems in molecular biology, including the discovery of transcription factor roles, identification of regulatory elements responsible for differential expression patterns and comparative analysis of the transcriptome across distant species. Our analysis supports our hypothesis that statistical redundancy in epigenetic data is partially due to conditional relationships between these regulators and gene expression levels. This analysis provides insight into the heterogeneous roles of H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 in the presence of the H2A.Z histone variant (implicated in cancer progression) and how these signatures change during lineage commitment and carcinogenesis. © 2015 Budden et al. Source


Sood S.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Yu L.,Innate Immune Laboratory | Visvanathan K.,Innate Immune Laboratory
Liver Transplantation | Year: 2015

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) can reactivate following liver transplantation. Management of patients currently considered low risk based on pretransplant serology remains contentious, with universal prophylaxis and preemptive strategies suffering from significant deficiencies. We hypothesized that a CMV-specific T cell assay performed early after transplant as part of a preemptive strategy could better stratify "low-risk" (recipient seropositive) patients. We conducted a prospective, blinded, observational study in 75 adult recipients. QuantiFERON-cytomegalovirus was performed both before and at multiple times after transplant. Low-risk patients (n=58) were monitored as per unit protocol and treatment was commenced if CMV>1000 copies/mL (DNAemia). Twenty patients needed antiviral treatment for other reasons and were censored (mainly for rejection or herpes simplex virus infection); 19/38 (50%) of the remaining low-risk patients developed DNAemia at mean 34.6 days after transplant. A week 2 result of <0.1 IU/mL was significantly associated with risk of subsequent DNAemia (hazard ratio [HR], 6.9; P=0.002). The positive predictive value of 80% suggests these patients are inappropriately labeled low risk and are actually at high likelihood of CMV reactivation. A secondary cutoff of <0.2 IU/mL was associated with moderate risk (HR, 2.8; P=0.01). In conclusion, a protocol based on a single early CMV-specific T cell based assay would offer improved risk stratification and individualization of patient management after transplant. This could offer improved drug and service utilization and potentially result in significant improvements over both currently used protocols to manage supposedly low-risk patients. © 2015 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases. Source


Fryer G.,A.T. Still University | Fryer G.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Adams J.H.,A.T. Still University
Spine Journal | Year: 2011

Background context: Zygapophyseal joint injury and inflammation have been proposed as causes of acute benign spinal pain, but this etiology has not been investigated. Purpose: To investigate the presence of periarticular tissue inflammation and zygapophysial joint synovitis in the cervical region using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in subjects with acute unilateral cervical pain and limited motion (acute "crick in the neck" <48 hours from onset), as well as the feasibility of recruiting these subjects. Study design/setting: Three-month case series in a university setting and private radiology clinic. Patient sample: Five subjects (three women and two men; mean age, 31.6 years; standard deviation [SD], 12.4). Methods: Each subject was examined by a researcher experienced in manual medicine to assess active range of neck movement and the side and symptomatic segmental level of pain. Subjects then underwent a blinded MRI investigation, which included sagittal images through the entire neck and cervical spine and axial images from C2 to T1. Evidence of capsule or periarticular edema and joint space T2 increase was recorded and scored. Additionally, signs of muscle edema, alignment, disc disease, facet arthritic change, and spinal stenosis were recorded. Results: Subjects presented with mean current pain of 4.8 (SD, 1.6; visual analog scale, 0-10), worst pain since onset of 7.0 (SD, 0.7), and duration of symptoms of 12.4 hours (SD, 14.1). The plane of active motion most commonly limited was rotation to the painful side, followed by side bending to the painful side and extension. No MRI findings demonstrated clear evidence of synovial effusion or inflammation around the joints of the cervical spine. In some individuals, signs of muscle edema, altered alignment, disc and facet arthrosis, and spinal stenosis were noted, but these did not appear to be related to the side of pain or symptomatic level. Conclusions: No evidence of cervical joint inflammation was detected, and more sensitive imaging methods may be required to detect inflammatory changes in or around the cervical joints of subjects with acute benign neck pain. Recruitment of subjects with acute "crick in the neck" pain (<48 hours duration) is difficult but feasible over a long data collection period. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source


Lin Z.,Beijing Institute of Technology | Xia Y.,Beijing Institute of Technology | Shi P.,Harbin University of Science and Technology | Shi P.,Victoria University of Melbourne | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Innovative Computing, Information and Control | Year: 2011

In this paper, robust sliding mode control is investigated for a class of uncertain systems with time-delay in discrete-time. The uncertainties include both mismatched parametric uncertainties in the state model and the matched external disturbance. After- deriving sufficient conditions for the existence of linear sliding surfaces based on linear matrix inequality (LMI), robust reaching motion control is presented. A simulation study shows the effectiveness of the control scheme. ICIC International © 2011. Source


Wu Z.-G.,Zhejiang University | Shi P.,University of South Wales | Shi P.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Su H.,Zhejiang University | Chu J.,Zhejiang University
International Journal of Systems Science | Year: 2012

This article considers the problem of delay-dependent stability analysis for a class of discrete-time singular systems with Markovian jump and time-varying delay. The transition probabilities in Markov chain are assumed to be partially unknown. In terms of linear matrix inequality approach, the delay-dependent criteria are proposed to ensure the underlying system to be regular, causal and stochastically stable. Several numerical examples are given to demonstrate the effectiveness and less conservatism of the obtained results. © 2012 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source


Basin M.,Autonomous University of Nuevo Leon | Shi P.,University of South Wales | Shi P.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Soto P.,Autonomous University of Nuevo Leon
Information Sciences | Year: 2012

This paper presents the mean-square optimal data-based quadratic-Gaussian controller for stochastic nonlinear polynomial systems with a polynomial multiplicative noise, a linear control input, and a quadratic criterion over linear observations. The mean-square optimal closed-form controller equations are obtained using the separation principle, whose applicability to the considered problem is substantiated. As an intermediate result, the paper gives a closed-form solution of the optimal regulator (control) problem for stochastic nonlinear polynomial systems with a polynomial multiplicative noise, a linear control input, and a quadratic criterion. Performance of the obtained mean-square optimal data-based controller is verified in the illustrative example against the conventional LQG controller that is optimal for linearized systems. Simulation graphs demonstrating overall performance and computational accuracy of the designed optimal controller are included. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source


Zhao X.,China University of Petroleum - East China | Zhang L.,Harbin Institute of Technology | Shi P.,University of South Wales | Shi P.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Liu M.,Harbin Institute of Technology
IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control | Year: 2012

In this paper, the stability and stabilization problems for a class of switched linear systems with mode-dependent average dwell time (MDADT) are investigated in both continuous-time and discrete-time contexts. The proposed switching law is more applicable in practice than the average dwell time (ADT) switching in which each mode in the underlying system has its own ADT. The stability criteria for switched systems with MDADT in nonlinear setting are firstly derived, by which the conditions for stability and stabilization for linear systems are also presented. A numerical example is given to show the validity and potential of the developed techniques. © 2011 IEEE. Source


Gook D.A.,Victoria University of Melbourne
Reproductive BioMedicine Online | Year: 2011

The potential advantages of being able to cryopreserve oocytes have been apparent for many decades. Technical difficulties associated with the unique properties of the mammalian oocyte initially retarded rapid development in this area but recent advances have overcome many of the problems. A stage has now been reached where oocyte cryopreservation can be considered an important component of human assisted reproductive technology. The potential advantages of being able to cryopreserve oocytes have been apparent for many decades. Technical difficulties associated with the unique properties of the mammalian oocyte initially retarded rapid development in this area but recent advances have overcome many of the problems. A stage has now been reached where oocyte cryopreservation can be considered an important component of human assisted reproductive technology. © 2010, Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Li H.,Harbin Institute of Technology | Gao H.,Harbin Institute of Technology | Shi P.,University of South Wales | Shi P.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Shi P.,University of South Australia
IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks | Year: 2010

In this brief, the problem of passivity analysis is investigated for a class of uncertain neural networks (NNs) with both discrete and distributed time-varying delays. By constructing a novel Lyapunov functional and utilizing some advanced techniques, new delay-dependent passivity criteria are established to guarantee the passivity performance of NNs. Essentially different from the available results, when estimating the upper bound of the derivative of Lyapunov functionals, we consider and best utilize the additional useful terms about the distributed delays, which leads to less conservative results. These criteria are expressed in the form of convex optimization problems, which can be efficiently solved via standard numerical software. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate the effectiveness and less conservatism of the proposed results. © 2006 IEEE. Source


Su X.,Chongqing University | Wu L.,Harbin Institute of Technology | Shi P.,University of Adelaide | Shi P.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Song Y.-D.,Chongqing University
Automatica | Year: 2014

This paper investigates the problem of Hankel-norm output feedback controller design for a class of T-S fuzzy stochastic systems. The full-order output feedback controller design technique with the Hankel-norm performance is proposed by the fuzzy-basis-dependent Lyapunov function approach and the conversion on the Hankel-norm controller parameters. Sufficient conditions are established to design the controllers such that the resulting closed-loop system is stochastically stable and satisfies a prescribed performance. The desired output feedback controller can be obtained by solving a convex optimization problem, which can be efficiently solved by standard numerical algorithms. Finally, a Henon map system is used to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed techniques. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Shen Y.,University of New South Wales | Shen Y.,Macquarie University | Meng Q.,Zhejiang University | Meng Q.,Fudan University | And 2 more authors.
Automatica | Year: 2014

This paper investigates a stochastic optimal control problem with delay and of mean-field type, where the controlled state process is governed by a mean-field jump-diffusion stochastic delay differential equation. Two sufficient maximum principles and one necessary maximum principle are established for the underlying system. As an application, a bicriteria mean-variance portfolio selection problem with delay is studied to demonstrate the effectiveness and potential of the proposed techniques. Under certain conditions, explicit expressions are provided for the efficient portfolio and the efficient frontier, which are as elegant as those in the classical mean-variance problem without delays. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Joyce C.,Edith Cowan University | Burnett A.,Edith Cowan University | Burnett A.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | Ball K.,Victoria University of Melbourne
Sports Biomechanics | Year: 2010

It is believed that increasing the X-factor (movement of the shoulders relative to the hips) during the golf swing can increase ball velocity at impact. Increasing the X-factor may also increase the risk of low back pain. The aim of this study was to provide recommendations for the three-dimensional (3D) measurement of the X-factor and lower trunk movement during the golf swing. This three-part validation study involved; (1) developing and validating models and related algorithms (2) comparing 3D data obtained during static positions representative of the golf swing to visual estimates and (3) comparing 3D data obtained during dynamic golf swings to images gained from high-speed video. Of particular interest were issues related to sequence dependency. After models and algorithms were validated, results from parts two and three of the study supported the conclusion that a lateral bending/flexion-extension/axial rotation (ZYX) order of rotation was deemed to be the most suitable Cardanic sequence to use in the assessment of the X-factor and lower trunk movement in the golf swing. The findings of this study have relevance for further research examining the X-factor its relationship to club head speed and lower trunk movement and low back pain in golf. © 2010 Taylor & Francis. Source


Zhou Q.,University of Portsmouth | Zhou Q.,Nanjing University of Science and Technology | Shi P.,University of South Wales | Shi P.,Victoria University of Melbourne | And 2 more authors.
IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Part B: Cybernetics | Year: 2012

This paper focuses on the problem of neural-network-based decentralized adaptive output-feedback control for a class of nonlinear strict-feedback large-scale stochastic systems. The dynamic surface control technique is used to avoid the explosion of computational complexity in the backstepping design process. A novel direct adaptive neural network approximation method is proposed to approximate the unknown and desired control input signals instead of the unknown nonlinear functions. It is shown that the designed controller can guarantee all the signals in the closed-loop system to be semiglobally uniformly ultimately bounded in a mean square. Simulation results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the developed control design approach. © 1996-2012 IEEE. Source


Ahn C.K.,Korea University | Shi P.,University of Adelaide | Shi P.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Basin M.V.,Autonomous University of Nuevo Leon | Basin M.V.,Saint Petersburg State University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics
IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control | Year: 2015

This paper investigates the problems of two-dimensional (2-D) dissipative control and filtering for a linear discrete-time Roesser model. First, a novel sufficient condition is proposed such that the discrete-time Roesser system is asymptotically stable and 2-D (Q,S,R)α-dissipative. Special cases, such as 2-D passivity performance and 2-D H ∞ performance, and feedback interconnected systems are also discussed. Based on this condition, new 2-D (Q,S,R)α-dissipative state-feedback and output-feedback control problems are defined and solved for a discrete-time Roesser model. The design problems of 2-D (Q,S,R)α-dissipative filters of observer form and general form are also considered using a linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach. Two examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness and potential of the proposed design techniques. © 1963-2012 IEEE. Source


Che D.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Li A.,University of Melbourne | Chen X.,University of Melbourne | Hu Q.,University of Melbourne | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Lightwave Technology | Year: 2015

Data center interconnect has stimulated the research on the short-reach communications with data rate beyond 100G per wavelength and transmission distance of hundreds of kilometers. Aiming at the high-speed short-reach communications, we recently proposed the Stokes vector direct detection (SV-DD) that realizes a linear complex optical channel similar to the coherent detection. In SV-DD, the transmitter places the signal and the carrier onto the orthogonal polarizations, while the receiver achieves the polarization insensitive 3-D detection in the Stokes space with the digital signal processing enabled polarization acquisition. SV-DD achieves 100% spectral efficiency with reference to the single-polarization coherent detection, and simultaneously attains the receiver phase diversity and the cancellation of photo-detection nonlinearity. We experimentally demonstrate the SV-DD signal transmission over 160-km standard single-mode fiber at data rates of both 80 and 160-Gb/s. SV-DD significantly decreases both the system hardware and DSP complexity compared with the polarization multiplexed coherent detection, while increases the system spectrum efficiency compared with the conventional intensity modulation direct detection. Therefore, SV-DD offers a cost-effective solution for the 100G per wavelength and beyond metropolitan area network (MAN). It also owns the potentials to be deployed in the future high-speed passive optical network (PON). © 2014 IEEE. Source


Wu Z.-G.,Zhejiang University | Shi P.,University of Adelaide | Shi P.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Su H.,Zhejiang University | Chu J.,Zhejiang University
Automatica | Year: 2014

This paper is concerned with the problem of asynchronous l2-L filtering for discrete-time stochastic Markov jump systems with sensor nonlinearity. The sensor nonlinearity is assumed to occur randomly according to a stochastic variable satisfying the Bernoulli distribution. A sufficient condition is first given such that the resultant filtering error system, which is a kind of nonhomogeneous Markov jump system, is stochastically stable with a guaranteed l2-L performance index. Then the existence criterion of the desired asynchronous filter with piecewise homogeneous Markov chain is proposed in terms of a set of linear matrix inequalities. A numerical example is given to show the effectiveness and potential of the developed theoretical results. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Suppakul P.,Kasetsart University | Sonneveld K.,KS PackExpert and Associates | Bigger S.W.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Miltz J.,Technion - Israel Institute of Technology
LWT - Food Science and Technology | Year: 2011

The diffusion of linalool and methylchavicol from thin (45-50 μm) antimicrobial low-density polyethylene-based films was evaluated after immersion in isooctane and the effect of temperature (4, 10, or 25 °C) on the diffusion rate was evaluated. The kinetics of linalool and methylchavicol release showed a non-Fickian behavior at the lowest temperature. An increase in temperature from 4 °C to 25 °C resulted in an increase in the diffusion coefficient from 4.2 × 10 -13 m 2 s -1 to 2.5 × 10 -12 m 2 s -1 for linalool and from 3.5 × 10 -13 m 2 s -1 to 1.1 × 10 -12 m 2 s -1 for methylchavicol. The effect of temperature on the diffusion coefficient followed an Arrhenius-type model (r 2 = 0.972) in relation to a time-response function with a Hill coefficient. Activation energies of 57.8 kJ mol -1 (linalool) and 42.8 kJ mol -1 (methylchavicol) were observed. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Taft A.J.,La Trobe University | Hooker L.,La Trobe University | Humphreys C.,University of Melbourne | Hegarty K.,University of Melbourne | And 4 more authors.
BMC Medicine | Year: 2015

Background: Mothers are at risk of domestic violence (DV) and its harmful consequences postpartum. There is no evidence to date for sustainability of DV screening in primary care settings. We aimed to test whether a theory-informed, maternal and child health (MCH) nurse-designed model increased and sustained DV screening, disclosure, safety planning and referrals compared with usual care. Methods: Cluster randomised controlled trial of 12 month MCH DV screening and care intervention with 24 month follow-up. The study was set in community-based MCH nurse teams (91 centres, 163 nurses) in north-west Melbourne, Australia. Eight eligible teams were recruited. Team randomisation occurred at a public meeting using opaque envelopes. Teams were unable to be blinded. The intervention was informed by Normalisation Process Theory, the nurse-designed good practice model incorporated nurse mentors, strengthened relationships with DV services, nurse safety, a self-completion maternal health screening checklist at three or four month consultations and DV clinical guidelines. Usual care involved government mandated face-to-face DV screening at four weeks postpartum and follow-up as required. Primary outcomes were MCH team screening, disclosure, safety planning and referral rates from routine government data and a postal survey sent to 10,472 women with babies ≤ 12 months in study areas. Secondary outcomes included DV prevalence (Composite Abuse Scale, CAS) and harm measures (postal survey). Results: No significant differences were found in routine screening at four months (IG 2,330/6,381 consultations (36.5 %) versus CG 1,792/7,638 consultations (23.5 %), RR = 1.56 CI 0.96-2.52) but data from maternal health checklists (n = 2,771) at three month IG consultations showed average screening rates of 63.1 %. Two years post-intervention, IG safety planning rates had increased from three (RR 2.95, CI 1.11-7.82) to four times those of CG (RR 4.22 CI 1.64-10.9). Referrals remained low in both intervention groups (IGs) and comparison groups (CGs) (<1 %). 2,621/10,472 mothers (25 %) returned surveys. No difference was found between arms in preference or comfort with being asked about DV or feelings about self. Conclusion: A nurse-designed screening and care model did not increase routine screening or referrals, but achieved significantly increased safety planning over 36 months among postpartum women. Self-completion DV screening was welcomed by nurses and women and contributed to sustainability. Trial registration: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, ACTRN12609000424202, 10/03/2009. © 2015 Taft et al. Source


Sun X.-M.,Dalian University of Technology | Du S.-L.,Dalian University of Technology | Shi P.,University of Adelaide | Shi P.,Victoria University of Melbourne | And 2 more authors.
IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers | Year: 2014

The paper is concerned with the problem of input-to-state stability (ISS) for nonlinear delay systems with large delay periods (LDP). The concepts of the length rate of LDP and the frequency of LDP are introduced. First the considered system is converted into a switched delay system which may include an unstable subsystem. Then based on a piecewise Lyapunov functional, the ISS properties of the systems are developed under the constraints of the length rate and the frequency of LDP. ISS for a special kind of nonlinear delay systems is also considered and the conditions of nonlinear matrix inequalities (NLMIs) are proposed to guarantee the ISS properties of such a system. A numerical example and an example of a series DC motor are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed methods. © 2014 IEEE. Source


Li H.,Bohai University | Gao H.,Harbin Institute of Technology | Gao H.,King Abdulaziz University | Shi P.,University of Adelaide | And 2 more authors.
Automatica | Year: 2014

This paper is concerned with the stabilization problem for a class of Markovian stochastic jump systems against sensor fault, actuator fault and input disturbances simultaneously. In the proposed approach, the original plant is first augmented into a new descriptor system, where the state vector, disturbance vector and fault vector are assembled into the state vector of the new system. Then, a novel augmented sliding mode observer is presented for the augmented system and is utilized to eliminate the effects of sensor faults and disturbances. An observer-based mode-dependent control scheme is developed to stabilize the resulting overall closed-loop jump system. A practical example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed design methodology. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


McDonnell M.J.,Victoria University of Melbourne | MacGregor-Fors I.,Institute Ecologia
Science | Year: 2016

The discipline of urban ecology arose in the 1990s, primarily motivated by a widespread interest in documenting the distribution and abundance of animals and plants in cities. Today, urban ecologists have greatly expanded their scope of study to include ecological and socioeconomic processes, urban management, planning, and design, with the goal of addressing issues of sustainability, environmental quality, and human well-being within cities and towns. As the global pace of urbanization continues to intensify, urban ecology provides the ecological and social data, as well as the principles, concepts and tools, to create livable cities. Source


Yano J.-I.,Meteo - France | Lane T.P.,Victoria University of Melbourne
Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres | Year: 2014

Convectively generated gravity waves are an unresolved process in global models. However, parameterization of their effects is difficult because the parameterized wave spectrum must be linked to the convective source, which is itself parameterized. Here we use the NAM-SCA model (nonhydrostatic anelastic model with segmentally constant approximation), which is midway between a cloud-resolving model and convection parameterization. Unlike conventional convection parameterizations, NAM-SCA is built directly upon a nonhydrostatic anelastic model, and thus it describes dynamical processes consistently but in a "compressed" manner (i.e., with truncation via a spatiotemporal adaptive mesh) that facilitates its potential use as a parameterization. As a result, under the dynamical framework of NAM-SCA, convection generates a spectrum of gravity waves in a physically consistent manner without any additional assumptions or simplifications. The present study examines the capacity of NAM-SCA for generating gravity waves from convection under varying degree of "compression" and assesses its viability as a physically consistent convective gravity wave source parameterization. By taking the TWP-ICE (Tropical Warm Pool-International Cloud Experiment) period for the case study, NAM-SCA successfully represents the convectively generated gravity waves even down to the compression rate of 0.1. Analysis in the wave number frequency space shows that the compression behaves as a weak low-pass filter in wave number, but higher-frequency components generated by dynamic adaptation partially compensate the filtering effect making the net Reynolds stress relatively insensitive to compression. ©2014. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved. Source


Ashraf R.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Smith S.C.,Deakin University
International Food Research Journal | Year: 2016

Screening and characterization of probiotic strains is crucial for achieving expected health benefits. In the current study, seventeen lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and probiotic strains were screened for survival in simulated gastric juice (pH 3 and 2) and bile (0.5% or 2.0%) for 3 and 12h, and antibiotic tolerance pattern using Etest® and Kirby Bauer Disc diffusion method. All tested strains exhibited survival during simulated gastric transit at pH 3 for 3 h. Lactobacillus reuteri, L. rhamnosus G5435, L. acidophilus 388, L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus 11842, Streptococcus thermophilus 1342, Bifidobacterium lactis BB12 and S. thermophilus M5 were found intrinsically tolerant to gastric and small intestinal transit and most tolerant strains among tested LAB (% survival ≥ 55). All strains were susceptible to ampicillin and erythromycin. Vancomycin and streptomycin tolerances were most common among species whereas tolerances for gentamicin, clindamycin and tetracycline were rare. The tolerances could provide additional benefit to strains in colonizing and replenishing gut microbiota after antibiotic therapy. The results obtained in the study confirm that strain viability in gastric and bile solution and antibiotic susceptibility are important attributes in the selection of potentially probiotic bacteria. © 2008 IFRJ. Source


Ayyash M.M.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Sherkat F.,RMIT University | Shah N.P.,University of Hong Kong
Journal of Dairy Research | Year: 2013

The effect of partial substitution of NaCl with KCl on texture profile, soluble Ca, K, Na, and P, and microstructure of low-moisture mozzarella cheese (LMMC) was investigated. LMMC batches were prepared using four combinations of NaCl and KCl salt viz., NaCl only, NaCl:KCl, 3:1, 1:1 and 1:3 (w/w); all used at of 46Â g/kg curd and plasticised in 4% brine containing the above salt mixtures. Texture profile, microstructure, and percentages of soluble Ca, K, Na, and P were determined. There were no significant differences in hardness, cohesiveness, adhesiveness, and gumminess among the experimental LMMC batches. Environmental scanning electron microscopy images showed compact and homogeneous structure of LMMC at day 27 of storage; however, no significant difference was observed among the experimental LMMC batches. Hardness increased significantly in all experimental LMMC during storage. LMMC salted with NaCl/KCl mixtures had almost similar sensory properties compared with the control. There was no significant difference in creaminess, bitterness, saltiness, sour-acid, and vinegary taste among the experimental LMMC at the same storage period. Copyright © Proprietors of Journal of Dairy Research 2012. Source


Gorman A.D.,Australian Institute of Sport | Gorman A.D.,University of Queensland | Abernethy B.,University of Queensland | Farrow D.,Australian Institute of Sport | Farrow D.,Victoria University of Melbourne
Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology | Year: 2013

The present study compared traditional measures of pattern recall to measures of anticipatory recall and decision-making to examine the underlying mechanisms of expert pattern perception and to address methodological limitations in previous studies where anticipatory recall has generally been overlooked. Recall performance in expert and novice basketball players was measured by examining the spatial error in recalling player positions both for a target image (traditional recall) and at 40-ms increments following the target image (anticipatory recall). Decision-making performance was measured by comparing the participant's response to those identified by a panel of expert coaches. Anticipatory recall was observed in the recall task and was significantly more pronounced for the experts, suggesting that traditional methods of spatial recall analysis may not have provided a completely accurate determination of the full magnitude of the experts' superiority. Accounting for anticipatory recall also increased the relative contribution of recall skill to decision-making accuracy although the gains in explained variance were modest and of debatable functional significance. © 2013 © 2013 The Experimental Psychology Society. Source


Guay P.-J.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Weston M.A.,University of Vic | Symonds M.R.E.,University of Vic | Glover H.K.,University of Vic | Glover H.K.,Pioneer Catchment and Landcare Group
Austral Ecology | Year: 2013

The ability of birds to perceive, assess and appropriately respond to the presence of relatively novel threats is important to their survival. We hypothesized that the cognitive capacity of birds will influence their ability for accurate response to novelty. We used brain volume as a surrogate for cognitive capacity and postulated that larger brained birds would moderate their responses when presented with a benign, frequently occurring stimulus, such as a person, because they would habituate more readily. We conducted phylogenetic generalized least square regression to investigate the relationship between brain volume and flight initiation distance (FID; the distance to which a bird can be approached before initiating escape behaviour), while controlling for confounding factors including body size (body mass and wing length) and migration status. We compared seven different models using combinations of these parameters using Akaike's information criterion to determine the best approximating model(s) explaining FID. The two best-supported models included only wing length and only body mass with Akaike weights of 0.396 and 0.311 respectively. No model including brain volume had an Akaike weight greater than 0.083 and brain volume was poorly correlated with FID in models after controlling for body mass. Thus, brain volume does not appear to strongly relate to bravery among these shorebirds. © 2012 Ecological Society of Australia. Source


Aughey R.J.,Victoria University of Melbourne
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance | Year: 2011

Background: Australian football (AF) is a highly intermittent sport, requiring athletes to accelerate hundreds of times with repeated bouts of high-intensity running (HIR). Players aim to be in peak physical condition for finals, with anecdotal evidence of increased speed and pressure of these games. Purpose: However, no data exists on the running demands of finals games, and therefore the aim of this study was to compare the running demands of finals to regular season games with matched players and opponents. Methods: Player movement was recorded by GPS at 5 Hz and expressed per period of the match (rotation), for total distance, high-intensity running (HIR, 4.17-10.00 m·s-1) and maximal accelerations (2.78-10.00 m·s -2). All data was compared for regular season and finals games and the magnitude of effects was analyzed with the effect size (ES) statistic and expressed with confidence intervals. Results: Each of the total distance (11%; ES: 0.78 ± 0.30), high-intensity running distance (9%; ES: 0.29 ± 0.25) and number of maximal accelerations (97%; ES: 1.30 ± 0.20) increased in finals games. The largest percentage increases in maximal accelerations occurred from a commencement velocity of between 3-4 (47%; ES: 0.56 ± 0.21) and 4-5 m·s-1 (51%; ES: 0.72 ± 0.26), and with <19 s between accelerations (53%; ES: 0.63 ± 0.27). Conclusion: Elite AF players nearly double the number of maximal accelerations in finals compared with regular season games. This large increase is superimposed on requirements to cover a greater total distance and spend more time at high velocity during finals games. Players can be effectively conditioned to cope with these increased demands, even during a long competitive season. © 2011 Human Kinetics, Inc. Source


Stephens A.N.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Groeger J.A.,University of Hull
Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour | Year: 2014

Two experiments investigated the effects of lead-driver status on the anger-experienced and aggression-expressed in traffic scenarios in which the lead drivers' actions were determined by an event obviously beyond, or within, their control. Experiment I contrasted reactions to lead-cars bearing Learner driver markings (Low Status) or similar unmarked cars (Control), while Experiment II contrasted reactions to Ambulances (High Status) or otherwise identical generic work vans (Control). Reported anger, heart-rate and behaviour were measured while drivers drove. When the lead vehicle slowed or changed course because of the actions of another road user, drivers were reliably more angered when slowed by a learner driver than an unmarked sedan. Drivers reported less anger when slowed by an Ambulance, than by a work van, when there was no apparent cause for the lead-vehicle slowing. Driver behaviour also differed according to lead-vehicle status. Drivers allowed greater headway between themselves and a slower ambulance, but drove closer to the work-van, and followed Learner drivers at a dangerously close distance, leaving greater headway behind a similar, unmarked car. Reliable differences in subjective anger ratings and behaviour suggest that anger experienced and expressed depends not just on the actions of the perpetrator but on the perceived status of that perpetrator. Higher status vehicles appear to be forgiven their indiscretions more readily even when there are no extenuating circumstances, whilst lower status drivers are likely to be blamed more readily for circumstances beyond their control. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Peterson E.L.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Peterson E.L.,University of Queensland
Resources, Conservation and Recycling | Year: 2016

This paper documents the utility of the online tool "rainwater harvesting and demand simulation" forwarded by URL http://gettanked.org/, and categorizes performance variability with respect to Köppen-Geiger climatic classifications of the Australian continent. This is a novel tool because it dynamically calculates the irrigation and evaporative cooling demands in addition to any particular per diem allocation of potable water. The analysis may be either from a finite storage tank of specified capacity, or drawn from water mains, but the present paper is focused on the design of secure off-grid rainwater harvesting systems (RWHS). The nominal consumption target of 155 L per diem per capita must be reduced by varying degrees depending on the locality. Higher demand can be met if sufficient catchment and capacity are provided, or if regular tanker deliveries are readily available. Alternatively, demand restrictions are tabulated as guidance to avoid running dry within the constraints of a nominal 10,000 L capacity storage with 100 m2 catchment - defining the sustainable load per diem (SLPD) during a "worst case" epoch - this is the break-point for off-grid security. SLPD varies from 86 to 124 L/d among most temperate maritime climate stations, and between 35 and 42 L/d at most desert climate stations. The supporting on-line operating manual includes tabulations of demand for evaporative cooling and irrigation together with the sustainable yield of a rainwater harvest system at 128 locations throughout Australia. Dynamics of non-potable demands should be resolved before using the GetTanked design tool for any particular dwelling or workplace. Indoor and potable water demand must be disaggregated from irrigation, pool evaporation, and evaporative cooling in order to fully exploit the GetTanked tool. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Oliveira R.S.,State University Londrina | Leicht A.S.,James Cook University | Bishop D.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Barbero-Alvarez J.C.,University of Granada | Nakamura F.Y.,State University Londrina
International Journal of Sports Medicine | Year: 2013

The aim of this study was to determine the changes in physical performance and resting heart rate variability (HRV) in professional futsal players during the pre-season and in-season training periods. 11 athletes took part in the study (age=24.3±2.9 years; height=176.3±5.2 cm; weight=76.1±6.3 kg), and performed a repeated-sprint ability (RSA) test [6×40 m (20+20 m with a 180° change of direction) sprints separated by 20 s of passive recovery] and Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1) at 3 different moments (M1=beginning of pre-season; M2=end of pre-season; M3=mid in-season). The HRV indices were assessed at the same moments. After the short pre-season (3-week), mean RSA time (RSAmean) (M1=7.43±0.2 s; M2=7.24±0.2 s; P=0.003), decrement in RSA performance (RSAdecrement) (M1=6.7±0.3%; M2=5.0±0.9%; P=0.001), and Yo-Yo IR1 distance (M1=1.244±298 m; M2=1.491±396 m; P=0.002) were significantly improved (P<0.05). During the in-season (i. e., M3), performance in Yo-Yo IR1 and RSAmean were maintained. In contrast, RSAbest (M2=6.89±0.2 to M3=6.69±0.3; P=0.001) was improved and RSAdecrement (M2=5.0±0.9% to M3=6.6±0.9%; P=0.001) was impaired. At M2, there was an increase in HRV vagal-related indices compared with M1 that was maintained at M3. In conclusion, after a short pre-season, futsal players improved their RSA and Yo-Yo IR1 performance with concomitant improvements in HRV. These indices were maintained during the in-season period while RSAbest was improved and RSA decrement impaired. Frequent monitoring of these performances and HRV indices may assist with identification of individual training adaptations and/or early signs of maladaption.© Georg Thieme Verlag KG . Stuttgart . New York. Source


Joyce C.,Edith Cowan University | Burnett A.,Edith Cowan University | Burnett A.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | Cochrane J.,Edith Cowan University | Ball K.,Victoria University of Melbourne
Sports Biomechanics | Year: 2013

The aims of this study were (i) to determine whether significant three-dimensional (3D) trunk kinematic differences existed between a driver and a five-iron during a golf swing; and (ii) to determine the anthropometric, physiological, and trunk kinematic variables associated with clubhead speed. Trunk range of motion and golf swing kinematic data were collected from 15 low-handicap male golfers (handicap = 2.5 ± 1.9). Data were collected using a 10-camera motion capture system operating at 250 Hz. Data on clubhead speed and ball velocity were collected using a real-time launch monitor. Paired t-tests revealed nine significant (p ≤ 0.0019) between-club differences for golf swing kinematics, namely trunk and lower trunk flexion/extension and lower trunk axial rotation. Multiple regression analyses explained 33.7-66.7% of the variance in clubhead speed for the driver and five-iron, respectively, with both trunk and lower trunk variables showing associations with clubhead speed. Future studies should consider the role of the upper limbs and modifiable features of the golf club in developing clubhead speed for the driver in particular. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source


Fforde A.,Victoria University of Melbourne
Water Alternatives | Year: 2010

Vietnam is widely seen as a development success, with rather rapid economic growth and a reported reduced role of the state, yet presents many paradoxes to conventional analytical frameworks. Two of relevance are accounts that stress a combination of a strongly hegemonic regime with weak internal sovereignty in terms of both the internal coherence of the apparat and its interactions with the rest of Vietnamese society, and also associated accounts that deny much role to intentionality in explaining apparent development success. This article will contextualise accounts of political intention and policy development towards water issues in Vietnam through an examination of two main empirics: the evolution of formal policy, understood as documents of the state, as well as of political intention, understood as documents of the ruling Party; and the by now extensive series of 'active' case studies that have examined donor as well as other projects in the sector. It will examine the notion, in the contexts suggested by the Vietnamese experience, that attempts to explain Vietnamese water policy, which have shown a tendency to shift away from assumptions that an analytical framework's categories may easily and without too much risk be extended across different contexts. Rather, comparisons of Vietnamese experience across contexts will tend, if they are to be persuasive, to shift to the use of languages that reflect ontological fluidity, in that what things mean is expected to change over time, without reference to an imagined transcendental and universal 'real'. In this sense, Vietnamese water policy may be usefully understood as an example of how 'success gives voice to the local'. Source


Davies M.J.,University of Ballarat | Young W.,University of Ballarat | Farrow D.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Bahnert A.,Adelaide Football Club Ltd
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance | Year: 2013

Purpose: To compare the agility demands of 4 small-sided games (SSGs) and evaluate the variability in demands for elite Australian Football (AF). Methods: Fourteen male elite Australian Football League (AFL) players (mean ± SD; 21.7 ± 3.1 y, 189.6 ± 9.0 cm, 88.7 ± 10.0 kg, 39.4 ± 57.1 games) completed 4 SSGs of 3 × 45-s bouts each with modified designs. Video notational analysis, GPS at 5 Hz, and triaxial accelerometer data expressed the external player loads within games. Three comparisons were made using a paired t test (P < .05), and magnitudes of differences were reported with effect size (ES) statistics. Results: Reduced area per player (increased density) produced a small increase in total agility maneuvers (SSG1, 7.2 ± 1.3; SSG2, 8.8 ± 4.1), while a large 2D player load was accumulated (P < .05, ES = 1.22). A reduction in players produced a moderate (ES = 0.60) total number of agility maneuvers (SSG 3, 11.3 ± 6.1; SSG 2, 8.3 ± 3.6); however, a greater variability was found. The implementation of a 2-handed-tag rule resulted in a somewhat trivial decline (P > .05, ES = 0.16) in agility events compared with normal AFL tackling rules (SSG 2, 8.3 ± 3.6; SSG 4, 7.8 ± 2.6). Conclusions: SSG characteristics can influence agility-training demand, which can vary considerably for individuals. Coaches should carefully consider SSG design to maximize the potential to develop agility for all players. © 2013 Human Kinetics, Inc. Source


Smith G.,Victoria University of Melbourne
Australasian Journal of Paramedicine | Year: 2016

Background Increasing student enrolments and limited capacity within traditional placements have resulted in a need to reassess the format of clinical placement programs. This study aimed to compare traditional and novel clinical placement experience of third year paramedic science students at Victoria University in order to identify elements that may contribute to identifying an optimum model for future clinical placement programs. Design A descriptive study of clinical placement case exposure with comparative analysis of local and international student cohorts. Setting A paramedic student clinical placement program in two ambulance services: Ambulance Victoria (Australia) and Magen David Adom (Israel). Method Descriptive statistics were used to report patient and student experience factors. Specific case exposure, demonstration of skills and use of pharmacological agents are reported as proportions. Results A total of 441 cases were analysed: 206 and 235 in the local and international study groups respectively. Mean caseload per paramedic student was not significantly different between the study groups at 1.2 cases (95% CI: -2.8–0.4, p=0.1)). The international group engaged in a greater range of shifts, including more afternoon shifts and the opportunity to experience night shifts. Conclusion This study provided the first descriptive analysis of a traditional and international clinical placement experience for paramedic undergraduate students, identifying benefit in both programs. Future studies incorporating a mixed methods design measuring practical exposure will add important depth and understanding to clinical placement optimisation. © 2016, Paramedics Australasia. All rights reserved. Source


Aughey R.J.,Victoria University of Melbourne
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance | Year: 2011

Global positioning system (GPS) technology was made possible after the invention of the atomic clock. The first suggestion that GPS could be used to assess the physical activity of humans followed some 40 y later. There was a rapid uptake of GPS technology, with the literature concentrating on validation studies and the measurement of steady-state movement. The first attempts were made to validate GPS for field sport applications in 2006. While GPS has been validated for applications for team sports, some doubts continue to exist on the appropriateness of GPS for measuring short high-velocity movements. Thus, GPS has been applied extensively in Australian football, cricket, hockey, rugby union and league, and soccer. There is extensive information on the activity profile of athletes from field sports in the literature stemming from GPS, and this includes total distance covered by players and distance in velocity bands. Global positioning systems have also been applied to detect fatigue in matches, identify periods of most intense play, different activity profiles by position, competition level, and sport. More recent research has integrated GPS data with the physical capacity or fitness test score of athletes, game-specific tasks, or tactical or strategic information. The future of GPS analysis will involve further miniaturization of devices, longer battery life, and integration of other inertial sensor data to more effectively quantify the effort of athletes. © 2011 Human Kinetics, Inc. Source


Sonn C.C.,Victoria University of Melbourne
American Journal of Community Psychology | Year: 2016

In this paper, I offer reflections as someone from outside the United States about the Swampscott conference. I refer to Fryer and Fox's (The Community Psychologist, 24, 2014, 1) critique of the "Swampscott discourse" and its role in fixing the birthplace of community psychology. While the critique is important, I note the growing references to international community psychology and the need to view the discipline as a product of social political realities in different contexts, as well as dynamics of dominance and marginality in knowledge production in psychology. The work in the Global South presents opportunities to contribute to developing a decolonizing community psychology through expanding the ecology of knowledge. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016. Source


Luan X.,Jiangnan University | Shi P.,University of South Wales | Shi P.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Liu F.,Jiangnan University
International Journal of Robust and Nonlinear Control | Year: 2011

This paper presents a general framework for robust adaptive neural network (NN)-based feedback linearization controller design for greenhouse climate system. The controller is based on the well-known feedback linearization, combined with radial basis functions NNs, which allows the feedback linearization technique to be used in an adaptive way. In addition, a robust sliding mode control is incorporated to deal with the bounded disturbances and the approximation errors of NNs. As a result, an inherently nonlinear robust adaptive control law is obtained, which not only provides fast and accurate tracking of varying set-points, but also guarantees asymptotic tracking even if there are inherent approximation errors. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source


Ozansoy C.,Victoria University of Melbourne
Turkish Journal of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences | Year: 2016

Bus transfer schemes have long been utilized in the power system industry as a means of supplying system loads with a consistent and reliable source of power. They assist in the switch to alternative sources of power supply in the case of maintenance or failures. The design of such schemes has undergone significant transformation from discrete electromechanical relays to microprocessor-based relays with sophisticated communication capabilities. IEC 61850 is a substation automation standard for the communication between devices in a substation. IEC 61850 makes it possible to integrate intelligent electronic devices on an Ethernet-based peer-to-peer communication network, eliminating the traditional hardwiring between relays. This paper discusses the development of an IEC 61850-based parallel bus transfer scheme for an industrial plant using a complete system design approach. The development of a bus transfer scheme control logic is reported for the first time in this paper, a key attribute of this paper against previously published works in the literature. © 2016 TÜBİTAK. Source


Bowman M.,Victoria University of Melbourne
International Journal of Global Energy Issues | Year: 2011

This paper applies insights from behavioural economics literature to design options in climate policy in order to make suggestions on how to create and pass effective climate regulation. It posits that policymakers can have a more comprehensive toolkit for tackling climate change by utilising knowledge of flawed human behaviour. It makes three main suggestions. First, when pricing carbon, the use of policy bundling helps to counter cognitive biases such as 'loss aversion'. Second, financial incentives are required for clean tech and renewable energy sectors to become competitive with traditional energy markets. Third, climate policy needs to target the finance sector, particularly the banking industry, to encourage capital flow to these alternative energy markets. In this way, effective climate policy may have a nudging effect on a spectrum of decision-makers, with the net benefit of facilitating climate change mitigation and timely transition to a low-carbon global economy. © 2011 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd. Source


Du J.,e Applied Center for Structural and Synchrotron Studies | Du J.,University of South Australia | Morris G.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Pushkarova R.A.,Ian Wark Research Institute | St. C. Smart R.,e Applied Center for Structural and Synchrotron Studies
Langmuir | Year: 2010

The flocculation and solid/liquid separation of four well-characterized kaolinites (2 well, 2 poorly crystallized) have been studied for comparison of surface structure (SEM), aggregate structure during flocculation (cryo-SEM), settling rate, and bed density (with raking). It is shown that major differences in these properties are largely due to crystallinity and consequent surface structure of the extensive (larger dimension "basal") face. Well-crystallized kaolinites, with higher Hinckley indices and lower aspect ratios, have relatively smooth, flat basal surfaces and thicker edge planes promoting both effective initial bridging flocculation (largely edge-edge) and structural rearrangement to face-face during the raking process. This results in faster settling rates and more compact bed structures. Poorly crystallized kaolinites, with low Hinckley indices and high aspect ratios, exhibit ragged, stepped structures of the extensive face with a high proportion of nanosized islands forming cascade-like steps (i.e., multiple edges) contributing up to 30% of the specific surface area and providing flocculant adsorption sites (hydroxyl groups) across this extensive face. This leads to bridging flocculation taking place on both edge and extensive ("basal") planes, producing low-density edge-face structures during flocculation which leads to slow settling rates and poor bed densities. In particular, the complex surface morphology of the poorly crystallized kaolinites resists the transformation of edge-face structures to dense face-face structures under shear force introduced by raking. This results in low sediment density for poorly crystallized kaolinites. The studies suggest that the main influence on settling rates and bed densities of kaolinites in mineral tailings is likely to be related to the crystallinity and surface morphology of the kaolinite. They also suggest that interpretation of kaolinite behavior based on models of a flat (001) basal plane and edge sites only at the particle boundaries is not likely to be adequate for many real, less-crystallized kaolinites. © 2010 American Chemical Society. Source


Hrysomallis C.,Victoria University of Melbourne
Sports Medicine | Year: 2011

The relationship between balance ability and sport injury risk has been established in many cases, but the relationship between balance ability and athletic performance is less clear. This review compares the balance ability of athletes from different sports, determines if there is a difference in balance ability of athletes at different levels of competition within the same sport, determines the relationship of balance ability with performance measures and examines the influence of balance training on sport performance or motor skills.Based on the available data from cross-sectional studies, gymnasts tended to have the best balance ability, followed by soccer players, swimmers, active control subjects and then basketball players. Surprisingly, no studies were found that compared the balance ability of rifle shooters with other athletes. There were some sports, such as rifle shooting, soccer and golf, where elite athletes were found to have superior balance ability compared with their less proficient counterparts, but this was not found to be the case for alpine skiing, surfing and judo. Balance ability was shown to be significantly related to rifle shooting accuracy, archery shooting accuracy, ice hockey maximum skating speed and simulated luge start speed, but not for baseball pitching accuracy or snowboarding ranking points. Prospective studies have shown that the addition of a balance training component to the activities of recreationally active subjects or physical education students has resulted in improvements in vertical jump, agility, shuttle run and downhill slalom skiing. A proposed mechanism for the enhancement in motor skills from balance training is an increase in the rate of force development. There are limited data on the influence of balance training on motor skills of elite athletes. When the effectiveness of balance training was compared with resistance training, it was found that resistance training produced superior performance results for jump height and sprint time.Balance ability was related to competition level for some sports, with the more proficient athletes displaying greater balance ability. There were significant relationships between balance ability and a number of performance measures. Evidence from prospective studies supports the notion that balance training can be a worthwhile adjunct to the usual training of non-elite athletes to enhance certain motor skills, but not in place of other conditioning such as resistance training. More research is required to determine the influence of balance training on the motor skills of elite athletes. © 2011 Adis Data Information BV. All rights reserved. Source


Smith A.C.T.,RMIT University | Stewart B.,Victoria University of Melbourne
Qualitative Health Research | Year: 2012

In this article we explore the social constructions, body perceptions, and health experiences of a serious recreational and competitive bodybuilder and powerlifter community. Data were obtained from a discussion forum appearing within an online community dedicated to muscular development. Forum postings for a period of 36 months were transposed to QSR NVivo, in which a narrative-based analytical method employing Gee's coding approach was employed. We used a priori codes based on Bourdieu's multipronged conceptual categories of social field, habitus, and capital accumulation as a theoretical frame. Our results expose an extreme social reality held by a devoted muscle-building community with a fanatical obsession with muscular hypertrophy and any accouterment helpful in its acquisition, from nutrition and supplements to training regimes and anabolic androgenic substances. Few health costs were considered too severe in this muscular meritocracy, where the strong commanded deference and the massive dominated the social field. © The Author(s) 2012. Source


Menz H.B.,La Trobe University | Auhl M.,La Trobe University | Tan J.M.,La Trobe University | Levinger P.,Victoria University of Melbourne | And 2 more authors.
Arthritis Care and Research | Year: 2016

Objective To compare the effectiveness of prefabricated foot orthoses to rocker-sole footwear in reducing foot pain in people with first metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint osteoarthritis (OA). Methods Participants (n = 102) with first MTP joint OA were randomly allocated to receive individualized, prefabricated foot orthoses or rocker-sole footwear. The primary outcome measure was the pain subscale on the Foot Health Status Questionnaire (FHSQ) at 12 weeks. Secondary outcome measures included the function, footwear, and general foot health subscales of the FHSQ; the Foot Function Index; severity of pain and stiffness at the first MTP joint; perception of global improvement; general health status; use of rescue medication and co-interventions to relieve pain; physical activity; and the frequency of self-reported adverse events. Results The FHSQ pain subscale scores improved in both groups, but no statistically significant difference between the groups was observed (adjusted mean difference 2.05 points, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] -3.61, 7.71; P = 0.477). However, the footwear group exhibited lower adherence (mean ± SD total hours worn 287 ± 193 versus 448 ± 234; P < 0.001), were less likely to report global improvement in symptoms (39% versus 62%; relative risk [RR] 0.63, 95% CI 0.41, 0.99; P = 0.043), and were more likely to experience adverse events (39% versus 16%; RR 2.47, 95% CI 1.12, 5.44; P = 0.024) compared to the orthoses group. Conclusion Prefabricated foot orthoses and rocker-sole footwear are similarly effective at reducing foot pain in people with first MTP joint OA. However, prefabricated foot orthoses may be the intervention of choice due to greater adherence and fewer associated adverse events. © 2016 The Authors. Arthritis Care & Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Rheumatology. Source


Mansoubi M.,Loughborough University | Pearson N.,Loughborough University | Biddle S.J.H.,Loughborough University | Biddle S.J.H.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Clemes S.A.,Loughborough University
Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise | Year: 2016

Purpose Sit-to-stand workstations are becoming common in modern offices and are increasingly being implemented in sedentary behavior interventions. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the introduction of such a workstation among office workers leads to reductions in sitting during working hours, and whether office workers compensate for any reduction in sitting at work by increasing sedentary time and decreasing physical activity (PA) outside work. Methods Office workers (n = 40; 55% female) were given a WorkFit-S, sit-to-stand workstation for 3 months. Participants completed assessments at baseline (before workstation installation), 1 wk and 6 wk after the introduction of the workstation, and again at 3 months (postintervention). Posture and PA were assessed using the activPAL inclinometer and ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometer, which participants wore for 7 d during each measurement phase. Results Compared with baseline, the proportion of time spent sitting significantly decreased (75% ± 13% vs 52% ± 16% to 56% ± 13%), and time spent standing and in light activity significantly increased (standing: 19% ± 12% vs 32% ± 12% to 37% ± 15%, light PA: 14% ± 4% vs 16% ± 5%) during working hours at all follow-up assessments. However, compared with baseline, the proportion of time spent sitting significantly increased (60% ± 11% vs 66% ± 12% to 68% ± 12%) and light activity significantly decreased (21% ± 5% vs 19% ± 5%) during nonworking hours across the follow-up measurements. No differences were seen in moderate-to-vigorous activity during nonworking hours throughout the study. Conclusion The findings suggest that introducing a sit-to-stand workstation can significantly reduce sedentary time and increase light activity levels during working hours. However, these changes were compensated for by reducing activity and increasing sitting outside of working hours. An intervention of a sit-to-stand workstation should be accompanied by an intervention outside of working hours to limit behavior compensation. © 2016 by the American College of Sports Medicine. Source


Cheng Y.,National University of Defense Technology | Wang X.,University of Melbourne | Caelli T.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Li X.,National University of Defense Technology | Moran B.,University of Melbourne
IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems | Year: 2012

In target detection and tracking, the resolvability of multiple closely spaced targets of the sensor measurement is an important criterion for measuring the sensing ability of sensor systems like radar and sonar. The concept of information resolution for a sensor measurement system, which is defined in the framework of information geometry, is introduced. In particular, the information resolution of radar/sonar systems is generalised from the work on existing radar resolution pioneered by Woodward, et al. [1, 2] and defined on statistical manifolds where the intrinsic geometrical structure of both waveform, measurement, and noise models of the underlying sensing devices are conveniently characterized in terms of the Fisher information metric. This work is motivated by the fact that existing radar resolution identifies the ambiguities of the underlying waveforms regardless of the influence of noise but the latter often has significant contributions to outcomes such as target detection and tracking, radar imaging, etc. To this end, information resolution provides a unified statistical measure for the capability of sensing devices for a given application. Examples of basic radar measurements are presented to highlight the importance of information resolution for measurement systems in practical applications. © 2011 IEEE. Source


Barrett R.S.,Griffith University | Mills P.M.,Griffith University | Begg R.K.,Victoria University of Melbourne
Gait and Posture | Year: 2010

Minimum foot clearance (MFC) is the minimum vertical distance between the lowest point of the foot of the swing leg and the walking surface during the swing phase of the gait cycle. MFC is a gait variable that is linked to the mechanism of a trip because reduced MFC for a given step during walking increases the susceptibility to tripping on an unseen obstacle or due to undetected changes in surface height. Given that tripping is a common cause of falls in older persons, this review was undertaken to determine whether ageing and/or history of falls in older adults influences MFC characteristics during level walking. Studies that assessed MFC characteristics including measures of central tendency (mean and/or median), variability (linear and non-linear measures) and shape (skewness, kurtosis) of the MFC distribution were included in the review. The final yield from a search of seven electronic research databases was 12 unique articles that met all the inclusion criteria. Ageing does not appear to alter measures of central tendency or shape of the MFC distribution. However greater MFC variability was observed in older compared to younger adults and older fallers compared to older non-fallers in the majority of studies. Greater MFC variability may contribute to increased risk of trips and associated falls in older compared to young adults and older fallers compared to older non-fallers. © 2010. Source


Yang X.,Harbin Institute of Technology | Gao H.,Harbin Institute of Technology | Shi P.,University of South Wales | Shi P.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Duan G.,Harbin Institute of Technology
International Journal of Control | Year: 2010

In this article, the problem of H control is investigated for a class of mechanical systems with input delay and parameter uncertainties which appear in all the mass, damping and stiffness matrices. Two approaches, norm-bounded and linear fractional transformation (LFT) uncertainty formulations, are considered. By using a new Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional approach, combined with the advanced techniques for achieving delay dependence, improved robust H state-feedback controller design methods are developed. The existence condition for admissible controllers is formulated in the form of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs), and the controller design is cast into a convex optimisation problem subject to LMI constraints. If the optimisation problem is solvable, a desired controller can be readily constructed. The result for the norm-bounded uncertainty case improves the existing ones in terms of design conservatism, and that for the LFT uncertainty case represents the first attempt in this direction. An illustrative example is provided to show the effectiveness and advantage of the proposed controller design methodologies. © 2010 Taylor & Francis. Source


Reavley N.J.,University of Melbourne | McCann T.V.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Jorm A.F.,University of Melbourne
Early Intervention in Psychiatry | Year: 2012

Aim: With approximately 50% of young people aged 18-24 in tertiary education, these are potential settings for programmes to improve mental health literacy. A survey was carried out with students and staff of a tertiary education institution to investigate recognition of depression, help-seeking intentions, beliefs about interventions and stigmatizing attitudes. Methods: Students of an Australian metropolitan university (with staff as a comparison group) participated in a telephone interview. They answered questions relating to mental health literacy. Results: Of the completed interviews, 774 (65%) were students and 422 (35%) were staff. Over 70% of students and staff were able to recognize depression in a vignette, with greater likelihood of recognition in students associated with older age, female gender, being born in Australia and a higher level of education. Over 80% of respondents said they would seek help if they had a problem similar to that of the vignette. However, rates of specific help-seeking intentions for students were relatively low, with only 26% nominating a general practitioner and only 10% nominating a student counsellor. Factors associated with stigmatizing attitudes included male gender, younger age, lower level of education, being born outside Australia and lack of recognition of depression. Conclusions: There is a need for mental health literacy interventions targeted at students, particularly those who are younger, male, born outside Australia and of a lower level of education. As rates of specific help-seeking intentions for students were relatively low, there is a need for further exploration of the barriers to help seeking from professional sources. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd. Source


Navaratna D.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Shu L.,RMIT University | Jegatheesan V.,RMIT University
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2016

A laboratory-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) combined with ultraviolet (UV) disinfection and granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption was researched for over seven months to evaluate the removal efficiencies and mechanisms of a moderately persistent s-triazine herbicide (Ametryn), which is commonly used in Australian sugarcane farmlands. Long-term experiments showed that MBR alone (15h hydraulic retention time (HRT)) can remove 65% of Ametryn from its influent which had a concentration of 1-2. mg/L. A batch study was carried out to assess the mechanisms of removal of Ametryn through MBR and found that 0.1186. mg of Ametryn/g-VSS is adsorbed onto sludge particles when 1. mg/L of Ametryn is added to the mixed liquor and showed a 64% removal after 12. h. This experiment confirmed that 99%, 92% and 83% removal of Ametryn could be achieved only from biodegradation, if the MBR maintains a HRT of 7.5, 2.5 and 1.5. days respectively. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Wu H.-N.,Beihang University | Wang J.-W.,Beihang University | Shi P.,University of South Wales | Shi P.,Victoria University of Melbourne
Automatica | Year: 2011

This paper investigates the problem of L2L∞ filter design for a class of stochastic systems with time-varying delay. The addressed problem is the design of a full order linear filter such that the error system is asymptotically mean-square stable and a prescribed L 2L∞ performance is satisfied. In order to develop a less conservative filter design, a new Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional (LKF) is constructed by decomposing the delay interval into multiple equidistant subintervals, and a new integral inequality is established in the stochastic setting. Then, based on the LKF and integral inequality, the delay-dependent conditions for the existence of L2L∞ filters are obtained in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). The resulting filters can ensure that the error system is asymptotically mean-square stable and the peak value of the estimation error is bounded by a prescribed level for all possible bounded energy disturbances. Finally, two examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Wang G.,Hangzhou Dianzi University | Shi P.,University of Adelaide | Shi P.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Xie Y.,Hangzhou Dianzi University | Shi Y.,Tokai University
Information Sciences | Year: 2016

In this paper, the concept of two-dimensional discrete fuzzy numbers is presented based on the idea of representation theorem of one-dimensional discrete fuzzy numbers. Then a sufficient condition is proposed, which makes a fuzzy set on R2 become a two-dimensional discrete fuzzy number, and the representations of joint membership function and the two edge membership functions of two-dimensional discrete fuzzy number are given. Some special two-dimensional discrete fuzzy numbers are also defined. And then some weak orders in the two-dimensional discrete fuzzy number space are set up based on the mass centers and the degree of ambiguities of two-dimensional discrete fuzzy numbers, and their properties are also investigated. At last, some practical examples are included to demonstrate the effectiveness and potential of the theoretic results obtained. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source


Haugen T.,Norwegian Olympic Federation | Buchheit M.,Myorobie Association | Buchheit M.,Victoria University of Melbourne
Sports Medicine | Year: 2016

The aim of this review is to investigate methodological concerns associated with sprint performance monitoring, more specifically the influence and magnitude of varying external conditions, technology and monitoring methodologies not directly related to human physiology. The combination of different starting procedures and triggering devices can cause up to very large time differences, which may be many times greater than performance changes caused by years of conditioning. Wind, altitude, temperature, barometric pressure and humidity can all combine to yield moderate time differences over short sprints. Sprint performance can also be affected by the athlete’s clothing, principally by its weight rather than its aerodynamic properties. On level surfaces, the track compliance must change dramatically before performance changes larger than typical variation can be detected. An optimal shoe bending stiffness can enhance performance by a small margin. Fully automatic timing systems, dual-beamed photocells, laser guns and high-speed video are the most accurate tools for sprint performance monitoring. Manual timing and single-beamed photocells should be avoided over short sprint distances (10–20 m) because of large absolute errors. The validity of today’s global positioning systems (GPS) technology is satisfactory for long distances (>30 m) and maximal velocity in team sports, but multiple observations are still needed as reliability is questionable. Based on different approaches used to estimate the smallest worthwhile performance change and the typical error of sprint measures, we have provided an assessment of the usefulness of speed evaluation from 5 to 40 m. Finally, we provide statistical guidelines to accurately assess changes in individual performance; i.e. considering both the smallest worthwhile change in performance and the typical error of measurement, which can be reduced while repeating the number of trials. © 2015, Springer International Publishing Switzerland. Source


Knox C.,Rhodes University | Luke G.A.,University of St. Andrews | Blatch G.L.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Pesce E.-R.,Rhodes University
Virus Research | Year: 2011

The heat shock proteins (Hsps) are a diverse subset of molecular chaperones that generally promote the proper folding of proteins after translation and also prevent their aggregation during cellular stress. Paradoxically, cellular chaperones might perform important antiviral functions for host cells, yet, at the same time, might be beneficial for virus replication. Among them, Hsp40 is a specialized co-chaperone that has recently received much attention for its crucial role in both constitutive cellular functions and virus pathogenicity. The aim of this review is to raise awareness of its importance in the life cycles of a wide range of viruses. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source


Zhao S.,CSIRO | Feron P.H.M.,CSIRO | Xie Z.,CSIRO | Zhang J.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Hoang M.,CSIRO
Journal of Membrane Science | Year: 2014

Vapor transfer is an important phenomenon in various thermally driven membrane processes such as membrane distillation (MD), membrane evaporation and membrane condensation. In this study, we explore the mass transfer phenomena in sweeping gas membrane distillation (SGMD) by systematically investigating the effects of operational parameters on the process performance. It is found that mass transfer in SGMD is principally determined by both the evaporation temperature and the sweeping gas flow rate, and is significantly influenced by the operational parameters (i.e. fluid velocities) through multiple effects, including the boundary layer effect on both sides of the membrane, and the temperature polarization effect. We also prove that at low gas flow rates (i.e. insufficient gas vapor-holding capacity) the sweeping gas becomes saturated and water vapor forms droplets due to condensation on the gas side of the membrane. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the interesting mass transfer phenomena in terms of vapor condensation and droplet re-evaporation in SGMD, which are of great significance for the heat and mass transfer in many thermally driven membrane processes using stripping gas. © 2014. Source


Vasiljevic T.,Victoria University of Melbourne
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2012

The main aim of the study was to assess the effect of microparticulation at low pH on the functionality of heat-denatured whey proteins (WP). Spray-dried, microparticulated WP (MWP) powders were produced from 7% (wt/wt) WP dispersions at pH 3, acidified with citric or lactic acid, and microfluidized with or without heat denaturation. Nonmicroparticulated, spray-dried powders produced at neutral pH or pH 3 served as controls. The powders were examined for their functional and physicochemical properties. Denatured MWP had an approximately 2 orders of magnitude reduction in particle size compared with those produced at neutral pH, with high colloidal stability indicated by substantially improved solubility. The detection of monomeric forms of WP in PAGE also confirmed the particle size reduction. Microparticulated WP exhibited enhanced heat stability, as indicated by thermograms, along with better emulsifying properties compared with those produced at neutral pH. However, MWP powders created weaker heat-induced gels at neutral pH compared with controls. However, they created comparatively strong cold acid-set gels. At low pH, a combination of heat and high hydrodynamic pressure produced WP micro-aggregates with improved colloidal stability that affects other functionalities. © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Source


Slee R.,Victoria University of Melbourne
Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties | Year: 2014

This article considers developments in conceptualising and responding to student disruption and disaffection. Commencing with the educational sociologist John Furlong's attempt to fuse psychology and sociology to better understand disaffected students, this essay also engages with a recent attempt at transdisciplinary considerations of student disaffection. It is argued that the biopsychosocial model as advocated by Paul Cooper promises to extend the analysis of student disaffection and disruption. The biopsychosocial model as postulated by Cooper is weighted towards the biopsycho and is limited by scant consideration of the biopolitics of the increasing prevalence of behaviour disorders. Nikolas Rose's examination of the development of medical knowledge is enlisted to suggest broader possibilities for transdisciplinary lines of inquiry. The transdisciplinarity of Cooper's suggested model is important and points to the potential of the responses from across fields of knowledge to assist in building more nuanced understandings of social organisation and behaviour. © 2014 © 2014 SEBDA. Source


Liddle B.,Victoria University of Melbourne
Environmental Modelling and Software | Year: 2013

This paper analyzes urban population's and affluence's (GDP per capita's) influence on environmental impact in developed and developing countries by taking as its starting point the STIRPAT framework. In addition to considering environmental impacts particularly influenced by population and affluence (carbon emissions from transport and residential electricity consumption), the paper determines whether and, if so, how those environmental impact relationships vary across development levels by analyzing panels consisting of poor, middle, and rich countries. The development-based panels approach is an improvement on the GDP per capita polynomial model used in the Environmental Kuznets curve and other literature for several reasons: (i) it allows one to determine whether the elasticity of all variables considered varies according to development; (ii) it is arguably a more accurate description of the development process; (iii) it avoids potentially spurious regressions involving nonlinear transformations of nonstationary variables (GDP per capita squared); and (iv) unlike the polynomial model, it allows for the possibility that elasticities are significantly different across development levels but still positive-precisely the relationship expected for the environmental impacts considered here. Whether or not the elasticity for affluence was greater than that for population was a function of both the choice of dependent variable and the makeup of the panel (all countries, poor, middle, or rich). Furthermore, the estimated elasticities varied, in a nonlinear fashion, according to the development process: U-shaped, inverted U-shaped, and monotonic patterns were revealed, again, depending on the dependent variable. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Yu J.,Qingdao University | Shi P.,University of Adelaide | Shi P.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Shi P.,Harbin Engineering University | And 2 more authors.
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics | Year: 2015

In this paper, observer and command-filter-based adaptive fuzzy output feedback control is proposed for a class of strict-feedback systems with parametric uncertainties and unmeasured states. First, fuzzy logic systems are used to approximate the unknown and nonlinear functions. Next, a fuzzy state observer is developed to estimate the immeasurable states. Then, command-filtered backstepping control is designed to avoid the explosion of complexity in the backstepping design, and compensating signals are introduced to remove the effect of the errors caused by command filters. The proposed method guarantees that all signals in the closed-loop systems are bounded. The main contributions of this paper are the proposed control method can overcome two problems of linear in the unknown system parameter and explosion of complexity in backstepping-design methods and it does not require that all of the states of the system are measured directly. Finally, two examples are provided to illustrate its effectiveness. © 1982-2012 IEEE. Source


Uzzaman W.,Victoria University of Melbourne
Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy | Year: 2010

Purpose: The objective of this research is to find out the barriers to people's participation for good governance in developing countries. The specific objective is to explore the attitude of stakeholders responsible for ensuring people's engagement with local development programs. Design/methodology/approach: Two rural development projects in each of three local government institutions in Bangladesh were selected for this research study. Qualitative methods were used to investigate how actors related to these projects valued people's participation while implementing and using outcomes of these projects. Findings: The findings showed that the meaning of the notion of good governance through effective people's participation that has been imported from the developed democratic economies through international aid agencies remains somewhat unclear and ambiguous in a country such as Bangladesh. Practical implications: This study has revealed that one of the major barriers to people's participation in local government affairs is the traditional attitude of related stakeholders. This study thus, unlocked the practical knowledge about making people's participation effective in implementing development programs, specifically in the developing countries. Originality/value: This paper offers originality and new insight into the participatory governance in developing countries. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited. Source


Zhao J.,Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics | Jiang B.,Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics | Shi P.,Harbin Engineering University | Shi P.,Victoria University of Melbourne | He Z.,Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics
International Journal of Innovative Computing, Information and Control | Year: 2014

In this paper, the problem of structural damage with partial loss vertical tail in aircraft dynamical system is investigated. A linearized aircraft model is introduced firstly, then a damage-tolerant controller based on an adaptive sliding mode control is proposed. Finally, simulations with an aircraft model are conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness and advantages of the proposed design techniques, which can be properly tuned according to structural fault of aircraft. © 2014. Source


Gao H.,Harbin Institute of Technology | Sun W.,Harbin Institute of Technology | Shi P.,University of South Wales | Shi P.,Victoria University of Melbourne
IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology | Year: 2010

This brief investigates the problem of robust sampled- data H∞ control for active vehicle suspension systems. By using an input delay approach, the active vehicle suspension system with sampling measurements is transformed into a continuous- time system with a delay in the state. The transformed system contains non-differentiable time-varying state delay and polytopic parameter uncertainties. A Lyapunov functional approach is employed to establish H∞ the performance, and the controller design is cast into a convex optimization problem with linear matrix inequality (LMI) constraints. A quarter-car model is considered in this brief and the effectiveness of the proposed approach is illustrated by a realistic design example. © 2009 IEEE. Source


Khezri M.,University of New South Wales | Bradford M.A.,University of New South Wales | Vrcelj Z.,Victoria University of Melbourne
International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering | Year: 2015

A description is given of the development and use of the Reproducing Kernel Particle Finite Strip Method for the buckling and flexural vibration analysis of plates with intermediate supports and step thickness changes. The generalized 1-D shape functions of the Reproducing Kernel Particle Method replace the spline functions in the conventional spline finite strip method in the longitudinal direction. The structure of the generalized Reproducing Kernel Particle Method makes it a suitable tool for dealing with derivative-type essential boundary conditions, and its introduction in the finite strip method is beneficial for solving buckling and vibration problems for thin plates in which a number of the essential boundary conditions can include the first derivatives of the displacement function. Moreover, the modified corrected collocation method is further developed for the buckling and free vibration analysis of plates with abrupt thickness changes. This provides a versatile and powerful analysis capability which facilitates the analysis of problems including plate structures with abrupt thickness changes of its component plates. The application of the proposed technique for the treatment of discontinuities and the enforcement of the internal support conditions are illustrated with a series of numerical examples. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source


McIntosh T.,Victoria University of Melbourne
EMNLP 2010 - Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing, Proceedings of the Conference | Year: 2010

Multi-category bootstrapping algorithms were developed to reduce semantic drift. By extracting multiple semantic lexicons simultaneously, a category's search space may be restricted. The best results have been achieved through reliance on manually crafted negative categories. Unfortunately, identifying these categories is non-trivial, and their use shifts the unsupervised bootstrapping paradigm towards a supervised framework. We present NEG-FINDER, the first approach for discovering negative categories automatically. NEG-FINDER exploits unsupervised term clustering to generate multiple negative categories during bootstrapping. Our algorithm effectively removes the necessity of manual intervention and formulation of negative categories, with performance closely approaching that obtained using negative categories defined by a domain expert. © 2010 Association for Computational Linguistics. Source


Abrishamian F.,Osaka Electro-Communication University | Dragomir N.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Morishita K.,University of Melbourne
Applied Optics | Year: 2012

Long-period fiber gratings were inscribed in a commercial silica fiber by a point-by-point arc discharge technique with different discharge conditions. The refractive index (RI) profile change induced by arc discharge was measured using the quantitative phase microscopy for the first time to our knowledge. The causes of the transmission variations induced by different arc discharges and the mechanisms of the RI profile change were investigated based on the measured phase profiles. The RI in the core and the cladding has clearly changed due to arc discharge. The central dip in the core profile diminished very much, and the index gradient became gradual. The resonance wavelengths have fluctuated by discharge current and time owing to variations of the reduction of the core-ladding RI difference and the extent of the RI change region. © 2012 Optical Society of America. Source


Portus M.R.,Praxis Sport Science | Farrow D.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Farrow D.,Australian Institute of Sport
Sports Biomechanics | Year: 2011

This review synthesises the biomechanical and skill acquisition/sport expertise literature focused on the skill of cricket batting. The literature is briefly reviewed and the major limitations, challenges, and suggested future research directions are outlined. This is designed to stimulate researchers to enhance the understanding of cricket batting biomechanics and skill acquisition and in turn assist cricket coaches develop efficacious batting skill development programmes. An interdisciplinary approach between biomechanists and skill acquisition specialists is advocated to further knowledge of the underlying processes and mechanisms of cricket batting expertise. Issues such as skill measurement, practice design, ball machines, skill transfer, the impact of Twenty/20 cricket, video simulation, and skill decomposition are discussed. The ProBatter™ ball machine systems are introduced along with suggestions for best practice approaches for coaches when designing batting skill development programmes. © 2011 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source


Agarwal R.P.,Florida Institute of Technology | Agarwal R.P.,King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals | Agarwal R.P.,University of Witwatersrand | Dragomir S.S.,Victoria University of Melbourne
Computers and Mathematics with Applications | Year: 2010

The main aim of the present paper is to survey different inequalities for convex functions of selfadjoint operators in Hilbert spaces which have appeared recently in the literature. Applications for some particular convex functions of interest are also given. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Ball K.,Victoria University of Melbourne
Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport | Year: 2013

The punt kick is important in many football codes and support leg kinematics and ground reaction forces have been implicated in injury and performance in kicking. Objectives: To evaluate ground reaction forces and support leg kinematics in the punt kick. Design: Cross sectional study. Methods: Seven elite Australian football players performed maximal kicks into a net using both the preferred and non-preferred legs. A force plate measured ground reaction forces and an optical motion capture system (200. Hz) collected kinematic data during the stance phase of the kick. Preferred and non-preferred legs were compared and performance was evaluated by correlating parameters with foot speed at ball contact. Results: Vertical forces were larger than running at a similar speed but did not reach levels that might be considered an injury risk. Braking forces were directed solely posteriorly, as for soccer kicks, but lateral force patterns varied with some players experiencing greater forces medially and others laterally. A more extended support leg, larger peak vertical and braking force during the stance phase and a shorter stance contact time was associated with larger kick leg foot speed at ball contact. No difference existed between the preferred and non-preferred legs for ground reaction forces or support leg mechanics. Conclusions: To punt kick longer, a straighter support leg, less time on the ground and stronger braking should be encouraged. Conditioning the support leg to provide stronger braking potential is recommended. © 2012 Sports Medicine Australia. Source


Wang D.,Dalian University of Technology | Shi P.,University of South Wales | Shi P.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Wang J.,Nanyang Technological University | Wang W.,Dalian University of Technology
International Journal of Robust and Nonlinear Control | Year: 2012

In this paper, the problem of delay-dependent exponential H ∞ filtering for discrete-time switched delay systems is investigated under average dwell time switching signals. Time delay under consideration is interval time-varying in the states. By introducing a proper factor to construct a novel Lyapunov-Krasovskii function and using average dwell time approach, sufficient conditions for the solvability of this problem, dependent on the upper and lower bounds of time-varying delay, are obtained in terms of linear matrix inequalities. A numerical example is presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the developed results. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source


Atanackovic T.M.,State University of Novi Pazar | Novakovic B.N.,University of Novi Sad | Vrcelj Z.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Zorica D.,Serbian Academy of Science and Arts
International Journal of Structural Stability and Dynamics | Year: 2015

This paper presents an analytical investigation on the buckling and post-buckling behavior of rotating nanorods subjected to axial compression and clamped at both ends. The nonlinear governing equations are derived based on the classical Euler-Bernoulli theory and Eringen's nonlocal elasticity model. The critical load parameters such as angular velocity and compressive axial force are determined for given values of nonlocality parameter. The validity, convergence and accuracy of the solutions are established by comparing them with known classical solutions. The numerical results show that an increase in the nonlocality parameter gives rise to an increase in post-buckling deformation. © 2015 World Scientific Publishing Company. Source


Puchinger J.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Raidl G.R.,Vienna University of Technology | Pferschy U.,University of Graz
INFORMS Journal on Computing | Year: 2010

We study the multidimensional knapsack problem, present some theoretical and empirical results about its structure, and evaluate different integer linear programming (ILP)-based, metaheuristic, and collaborative approaches for it. We start by considering the distances between optimal solutions to the LP relaxation and the original problem and then introduce a new core concept for the multidimensional knapsack problem (MKP), which we study extensively. The empirical analysis is then used to develop new concepts for solving the MKP using ILP-based and memetic algorithms. Different collaborative combinations of the presented methods are discussed and evaluated. Further computational experiments with longer run times are also performed to compare the solutions of our approaches to the best-known solutions of another so-far leading approach for common MKP benchmark instances. The extensive computational experiments show the effectiveness of the proposed methods, which yield highly competitive results in significantly shorter run times than do previously described approaches. © 2010 INFORMS. Source


Yang H.,Beijing Institute of Technology | Xia Y.,Beijing Institute of Technology | Shi P.,University of South Wales | Shi P.,Victoria University of Melbourne
International Journal of Robust and Nonlinear Control | Year: 2011

In this paper, a new linear delayed delta operator switched system model is proposed to describe networked control systems with packets dropout and network-induced delays. The plant is a continuous-time system, which is sampled by time-varying random sampling periods. A general delta domain Lyapunov stability criterion is given for delta operator switched systems with time delays. Sufficient conditions for asymptotic stability of closed-loop networked control systems with both packets dropout and network-induced delays are presented in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). A verification theorem is given to show the solvability of the stabilization conditions by solving a class of finite LMIs. Both the case of data packets arrive instantly and the case of invariant sampling periods in delta operator systems are given, respectively. Three numerical examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness and potential of the developed techniques. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source


Gorman A.D.,Australian Institute of Sport | Gorman A.D.,University of Queensland | Abernethy B.,University of Queensland | Abernethy B.,University of Hong Kong | And 2 more authors.
Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology | Year: 2012

It is well established that experts are particularly adept at recalling and/or recognizing the key features of domain-relevant patterns. We compared the recall performance of expert and novice basketball players when viewing static and moving patterns. A novel method of analysis was used where the accuracy of the participants in recalling player positions was compared to actual player positions both at the final frame of pattern presentation and at 50 successive 40 ms increments thereafter. Experts encoded the locations of the players in both the static and moving patterns significantly further in advance of their actual finishing point than did nonexperts. Experts' use of an anticipatory encoding process, which was of a magnitude unmatched by nonexperts, suggests that many previous investigations may have underestimated the extent of the expert advantage in pattern recall. © 2012 Copyright The Experimental Psychology Society. Source


Sullivan-Gunn M.J.,Deakin University | Campbell-O'Sullivan S.P.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Tisdale M.J.,Aston University | Lewandowski P.A.,Deakin University
Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle | Year: 2011

Background: Cancer cachexia is the progressive loss of skeletal muscle protein that contributes significantly to cancer morbidity and mortality. Evidence of antioxidant attenuation and the presence of oxidised proteins in patients with cancer cachexia indicate a role for oxidative stress. The level of oxidative stress in tissues is determined by an imbalance between reactive oxygen species production and antioxidant activity. This study aimed to investigate the superoxide generating NADPH oxidase (NOX) enzyme and antioxidant enzyme systems in murine adenocarcinoma tumour-bearing cachectic mice. Methods: Superoxide levels, mRNA levels of NOX enzyme subunits and the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidise (GPx) and catalase was measured in the skeletal muscle of mice with cancer and cancer cachexia. Protein expression levels of NOX enzyme subunits and antioxidant enzyme activity was also measured in the same muscle samples. Results: Superoxide levels increased 1. 4-fold in the muscle of mice with cancer cachexia, and this was associated with a decrease in mRNA of NOX enzyme subunits, NOX2, p40phox and p67phox along with the antioxidant enzymes SOD1, SOD2 and GPx. Cancer cachexia was also associated with a 1. 3-fold decrease in SOD1 and 2. 0-fold decrease in GPx enzyme activity. Conclusion: Despite increased superoxide levels in cachectic skeletal muscle, NOX enzyme subunits, NOX2, p40phox and p67phox, were downregulated along with the expression and activity of the antioxidant enzymes. Therefore, the increased superoxide levels in cachectic skeletal muscle may be attributed to the reduction in the activity of endogenous antioxidant enzymes. © 2011 The Author(s). Source


Conrad J.G.,Thomson Reuters | Zeleznikow J.,Victoria University of Melbourne
Proceedings of the International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Law | Year: 2015

This paper explores the presence and forms of evaluation in articles published in the journal Artificial Intelligence and Law for the ten-year period from 2005 through 2014. It represents a meta-level study of some the most significant works produced by the AI and Law community, in this case nearly 140 research articles published in the AI and Law journal. It also compares its findings to previous work conducted on evaluation appearing in the Proceedings of the International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Law (ICAIL). In addition, the paper highlights works harnessing performance evaluation as one of their chief scientific tools and the means by which they use it. It extends the argument for why evaluation is essential in formal Artificial Intelligence and Law reports such as those in the journal. As in the case of two earlier works on the topic, it pursues answers to the questions: how good is the system, algorithm or proposal?, how reliable is the approach or technique?, and, ultimately, does the method work? The paper investigates the role of performance evaluation in scientific research reports, underscoring the argument that a performance-based 'ethic' signifies a level of maturity and scientific rigor within a community. In addition, the work examines recent publications that address the same critical issue within the broader field of Artificial Intelligence. © 2015 ACM. Source


Dragomir S.S.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Dragomir S.S.,University of Witwatersrand
Mathematical and Computer Modelling | Year: 2011

In this paper we provide sharp bounds for the error in approximating the Riemann-Stieltjes integral ∫abf(t)du(t) by the trapezoidal rule f(a)+f(b)2·[u(b)-u(a)] under various assumptions for the integrand f and the integrator u for which the above integral exists. Applications for continuous functions of selfadjoint operators in Hilbert spaces are provided as well. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Buszard T.,Australian Catholic University | Farrow D.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Farrow D.,Australian Institute of Sport | Kemp J.,Australian Catholic University
Journal of Sports Sciences | Year: 2013

We examined the influence of instructions on decision-making accuracy using video simulations of game-specific scenarios in Australian football. Skilled performers (average age of 23.4 ± 4.2 years) differing in experience (range 0 to 339 Australian Football League (AFL) matches) assumed the role of the key attacker and verbally indicated their kicking decision. Participants were randomly stratified into three groups: (1) LOOSE (n = 15) - instructed to "keep the ball away from the loose defender"; (2) TTF (n = 15) - instructed to "take the first option"; and (3) NI (control) (n = 16) - given no instructions. Gaze behaviour for a subset of participants (n = 20) was recorded. In the scenarios with an even number of attacking and defensive players, the decision-making accuracy of LOOSE was greater than TTF. This difference was most evident for lesser experienced performers, highlighting that lesser experienced performers are more affected by instructional foci than experienced performers. Gaze behaviour was not affected by instructional foci, but visual search rate was greater in scenarios of greater player number and complexity. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source


Zhang L.,Harbin Institute of Technology | Shi P.,University of South Wales | Shi P.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Shi P.,University of South Australia
International Journal of Systems Science | Year: 2011

This article addresses the filtering problem for a class of discrete-time switched linear parameter varying systems under average dwell time switching. The stability result for general discrete-time switched systems with average dwell time is first presented. A mode-dependent full-order parameterised filter is then designed and the corresponding existence conditions of such filters are derived via LMI formulation. The desired filter gains and the admissible switching signals are obtained for a given system decay degree such that the resulting filter error system is exponentially stable and has a guaranteed H∞ performance. A numerical example is given to demonstrate the potential and effectiveness of the developed theoretical results. © 2011 Taylor & Francis. Source


Basin M.V.,Autonomous University of Nuevo Leon | Shi P.,University of South Wales | Shi P.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Shi P.,University of South Australia | Calderon-Alvarez D.,Autonomous University of Nuevo Leon
International Journal of Systems Science | Year: 2011

This article presents the central finite-dimensional H∞ regulator for nonlinear polynomial systems, which is suboptimal for a given threshold γ with respect to a modified Bolza-Meyer quadratic criterion including the attenuation control term with the opposite sign. In contrast to the previously obtained results, the article reduces the original H ∞ control problem to the corresponding optimal H2 control problem, using this technique proposed in Doyle et al. [Doyle, J.C., Glover, K., Khargonekar, P.P., and Francis, B.A. (1989), 'State-space Solutions to Standard H2 and H∞ Control Problems', IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, 34, 831-847]. This article yields the central suboptimal H∞ regulator for nonlinear polynomial systems in a closed finite-dimensional form, based on the optimal H2 regulator obtained in Basin and Calderon-Alvarez [Basin, M.V., and Calderon-Alvarez, D. (2008b), 'Optimal Controller for Uncertain Stochastic Polynomial Systems', Journal of the Franklin Institute, 345, 293-302]. Numerical simulations are conducted to verify performance of the designed central suboptimal regulator for nonlinear polynomial systems against the central suboptimal H∞ regulator available for the corresponding linearised system. © 2011 Taylor & Francis. Source


Mashford J.,CSIRO | Marlow D.,CSIRO | Tran D.,Victoria University of Melbourne | May R.,United Water International Pty. Ltd.
Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering | Year: 2011

Assessing the condition of sewer networks is an important asset management approach. However, because of high inspection costs and limited budget, only a small proportion of sewer systems may be inspected. Tools are therefore required to help target inspection efforts and to extract maximum value from the condition data collected. Owing to the difficulty in modeling the complexities of sewer condition deterioration, there has been interest in the application of artificial intelligence-based techniques such as artificial neural networks to develop models that can infer an unknown structural condition based on data from sewers that have been inspected. To this end, this study investigates the use of support vector machine (SVM) models to predict the condition of sewers. The results of model testing showed that the SVM achieves good predictive performance. With access to a representative set of training data, the SVM modeling approach can therefore be used to allocate a condition grade to sewer assets with reasonable confidence and thus identify high risk sewer assets for subsequent inspection. © 2011 American Society of Civil Engineers. Source


Yin Y.,Jiangnan University | Shi P.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Shi P.,University of South Australia | Shi P.,University of South Wales | Liu F.,Jiangnan University
Journal of the Franklin Institute | Year: 2011

This paper studies the problem of continuous gain-scheduled PI tracking control on a class of stochastic nonlinear systems subject to partially known jump probabilities and time-varying delays. First, gradient linearization procedure is used to construct model-based linear stochastic systems in the vicinity of selected operating states. Next, based on stochastic Lyapunov stabilization analysis, sufficient conditions for the existence of a PI tracking control are established for each linear model in terms of linear matrix inequalities. Finally, continuous gain-scheduled approach is employed to design continuous nonlinear PI tracking controllers on the entire nonlinear jump system. Simulation example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the developed design techniques. © 2011 The Franklin Institute © 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd. on behalf of The Franklin Institute. Source


Cornish A.K.,Massey University | Broadbent S.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Cheema B.S.,University of Western Sydney
European Journal of Applied Physiology | Year: 2011

Interval training (IT) may induce physiological adaptations superior to those achieved with conventional moderate-intensity continuous training (MCT) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Our objectives were (1) to systematically review studies which have prescribed IT in CAD, (2) to summarize the findings of this research including the safety and physiological benefits of IT, and (3) to identify areas for further investigation. A systematic review of the literature using computerized databases was performed. The search yielded two controlled trials and five randomized controlled trials (RCTs) enrolling 213 participants. IT prescribed in isolation or in combination with resistance training was shown to induce significant and clinically important physiological adaptations in cardiac patients. IT was also shown to improve cardiorespiratory fitness (e.g. VO2max, VO2AT), endothelial function, left ventricle morphology and function (e.g. ejection fraction) to a significantly greater extent when compared with conventional MCT. No adverse cardiac or other life-threatening events occurred secondary to exercise participation in these studies. However, these findings must be interpreted with caution, as methodological limitations were present in all trials reviewed. In conclusion, robustly designed RCTs with thorough and standardized reporting are required to determine the risk and benefits of IT in the broader cardiac patient population. Further research is required to determine optimal IT protocols for the use in cardiac rehabilitation programmes, potentially contributing to novel exercise prescription guidelines for this patient population. © 2010 Springer-Verlag. Source


Leggat S.G.,La Trobe University | Bartram T.,La Trobe University | Stanton P.,Victoria University of Melbourne
Journal of Health, Organisation and Management | Year: 2011

Purpose: Studies of high-performing organisations have consistently reported a positive relationship between high performance work systems (HPWS) and performance outcomes. Although many of these studies have been conducted in manufacturing, similar findings of a positive correlation between aspects of HPWS and improved care delivery and patient outcomes have been reported in international health care studies. The purpose of this paper is to bring together the results from a series of studies conducted within Australian health care organisations. First, the authors seek to demonstrate the link found between high performance work systems and organisational performance, including the perceived quality of patient care. Second, the paper aims to show that the hospitals studied do not have the necessary aspects of HPWS in place and that there has been little consideration of HPWS in health system reform. Design/methodology/approach: The paper draws on a series of correlation studies using survey data from hospitals in Australia, supplemented by qualitative data collection and analysis. To demonstrate the link between HPWS and perceived quality of care delivery the authors conducted regression analysis with tests of mediation and moderation to analyse survey responses of 201 nurses in a large regional Australian health service and explored HRM and HPWS in detail in three case study organisations. To achieve the second aim, the authors surveyed human resource and other senior managers in all Victorian health sector organisations and reviewed policy documents related to health system reform planned for Australia. Findings: The findings suggest that there is a relationship between HPWS and the perceived quality of care that is mediated by human resource management (HRM) outcomes, such as psychological empowerment. It is also found that health care organisations in Australia generally do not have the necessary aspects of HPWS in place, creating a policy and practice gap. Although the chief executive officers of health service organisations reported high levels of strategic HRM, the human resource and other managers reported a distinct lack of HPWS from their perspectives. The authors discuss why health care organisations may have difficulty in achieving HPWS. Originality/value: Leaders in health care organisations should focus on ensuring human resource management systems, structures and processes that support HPWS. Policy makers need to consider HPWS as a necessary component of health system reform. There is a strong need to reorient organisational human resource management policies and procedures in public health care organisations towards high performing work systems. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited. Source


Chen S.-L.,University of Tasmania | Everett S.,Victoria University of Melbourne
Maritime Policy and Management | Year: 2014

Research into port reform in Taiwan and Australia indicates that reform was undertaken in different contexts while committed and adopting similar strategies. Reform in both countries has been consistent with paradigmatic shifts towards market orientation, and within this context, privatisation was considered the preferred option. In both Taiwan and Australia, however, governments, reluctant to relinquish control over their ports, opted for corporatisation models. This article discusses the dynamics and drivers of reform and examines the outcome of these strategies. Both countries commenced port reform with deregulation of dock labour employment and introduced enterprise-based employment replacing the labour pool system. Privatisation of stevedoring operations was introduced at the same time in Taiwan. In the second reform phase, Taiwan amalgamated the four major commercial ports under a single state-owned port company in March 2012, with the objective of reducing inter-port competition and creating a central port planning mechanism. Australian ports, on the other hand, have undergone restructuring with the implementation of corporatisation, privatisation and commercialisation strategies since 1990s. Reform strategies in both countries display some similarities, e.g. rationalisation strategies in both Taiwan and Tasmanian ports, but also display some distinct dissimilarities with the increasing move to privatisation in Australia, e.g. the sale of South Australian ports and in 2010 the sale of the port of Brisbane. © 2013 Taylor & Francis. Source


Michael K.,Victoria University of Melbourne
Campus-Wide Information Systems | Year: 2012

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to identify student and staff experiences with online learning at higher education (HE) using the software Elluminate Live! Design/methodology/approach: This paper adopts a qualitative approach, focusing on the reflections of participants (student and teacher) collated over a 12 month period of piloting online classes with Elluminate Live! Findings: A number of insightful themes and issues emerged from the data collected from the journal reflections as well as other source documents such as meetings and emails. The themes considered in the paper include: increased flexibility and cost reductions, technical challenges, resistance to online learning, extension of online facilities and student engagement, and visual literacy skills. Research limitations/implications: The school's virtual classroom strategies need to address staff and student concerns. Staff training and the establishment of effective support structures for embedding safe, secure, and rewarding virtual classrooms are required. Once these issues have been addressed, online classes can be expanded across numerous discipline areas within the school. Originality/value: Currently, Australian scholarly papers focussing on the use of Elluminate Live! as a teaching tool to help develop curriculum at tertiary level are scarce. The significance of this study is to share the important knowledge garnered through reflective insights (via feedback and journal writing) which can act as a guide to other higher education universities looking at undertaking online learning. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited. Source


Wu L.,Harbin Institute of Technology | Su X.,Harbin Institute of Technology | Shi P.,University of South Wales | Shi P.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Qiu J.,Harbin Institute of Technology
IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems | Year: 2011

This paper is concerned with the problem of ℋ∞ model approximation for discrete-time TakagiSugeno (T-S) fuzzy time-delay systems. For a given stable T-S fuzzy system, our attention is focused on the construction of a reduced-order model, which not only approximates the original system well in an ℋ∞ performance but is also translated into a linear lower dimensional system. By applying the delay partitioning approach, a delay-dependent sufficient condition is proposed for the asymptotic stability with an ℋ∞ error performance for the error system. Then, the ℋ∞ model approximation problem is solved by using the projection approach, which casts the model approximation into a sequential minimization problem subject to linear matrix inequality (LMI) constraints by employing the cone complementary linearization algorithm. Moreover, by further extending the results, ℋ∞ model approximation with special structures is obtained, i.e., delay-free model and zero-order model. Finally, two numerical examples are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods. © 2011 IEEE. Source


Basin M.,Autonomous University of Nuevo Leon | Shi P.,University of South Wales | Shi P.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Calderon-Alvarez D.,Autonomous University of Nuevo Leon
Signal Processing | Year: 2011

This paper presents the joint state filtering and parameter estimation problem for linear stochastic time-delay systems with unknown parameters. The original problem is reduced to the mean-square filtering problem for incompletely measured bilinear time-delay system states over linear observations. The unknown parameters are considered standard Wiener processes and incorporated as additional states in the extended state vector. To deal with the new filtering problem, the paper designs the mean-square finite-dimensional filter for incompletely measured bilinear time-delay system states over linear observations. A closed system of the filtering equations is then derived for a bilinear time-delay state over linear observations. Finally, the paper solves the original joint estimation problem. The obtained solution is based on the designed mean-square filter for incompletely measured bilinear time-delay states over linear observations, taking into account that the filter for the extended state vector also serves as the identifier for the unknown parameters. In the example, performance of the designed state filter and parameter identifier is verified for a linear time-delay system with an unknown multiplicative parameter over linear observations. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Du D.,Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics | Du D.,Huaihai Institute of Technology | Jiang B.,Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics | Shi P.,University of South Wales | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Adaptive Control and Signal Processing | Year: 2011

This paper focuses on the problem of active fault-tolerant control for switched systems with time delay. By utilizing the fault diagnosis observer, an adaptive fault estimate algorithm is proposed, which can estimate the fault signal fast and exactly. Meanwhile, a delay-dependent criterion is obtained with the purpose of reducing the conservatism of the adaptive observer design. Based on the fault estimation information, an observer-based fault-tolerant controller is designed to guarantee the stability of the closed-loop system. In terms of linear matrix inequality, sufficient conditions are derived for the existence of the adaptive observer and fault-tolerant controller. Finally, a numerical example is included to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed approach. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source


Wu L.,Harbin Institute of Technology | Su X.,Harbin Institute of Technology | Shi P.,University of South Wales | Shi P.,Victoria University of Melbourne
Journal of the Franklin Institute | Year: 2011

Linear repetitive processes (LRPs) are a distinct class of two-dimensional (2-D) systems, which have extensive applications in the practical industry, such as, long-wall coal cutting and metal rolling operations. This paper is concerned with the problem of mixed H2/H∞ filter design for discrete LRPs with its application to fault detection. Our attention is focused on the design of a fault-detection filter for generating a residual signal which can be processed to decide whether or not a fault has occurred in the process. A sufficient condition of the mixed H2/H∞ performance for the fault-detection process is proposed. The solvability condition for a desired fault-detection filter is also established, and the corresponding fault-detection filter design is cast into a convex optimization problem which can be efficiently handled by using the standard softwares. A numerical example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed design procedures. © 2010 The Franklin Institute. Source


Luan X.,Jiangnan University | Liu F.,Jiangnan University | Shi P.,University of South Wales | Shi P.,Victoria University of Melbourne
International Journal of Systems Science | Year: 2011

This article proposes a new design approach for robust finite-time H ∞ control of a class of Markov jump systems with partially known information on the transition jump rates. The system under consideration involves norm-bounded parameter uncertainties and external disturbance. The problems of robust finite-time boundedness and finite-time stabilisation of the underlying systems are considered. Then, a H∞ state feedback controller is designed. Sufficient conditions that consider only the known bounds on the transition jump rates are developed in the form of linear matrix inequalities. A numerical example is included to show the usefulness of the theoretic results obtained. © 2011 Taylor & Francis. Source


Zhang J.,Beijing Institute of Technology | Xia Y.,Beijing Institute of Technology | Shi P.,University of South Wales | Shi P.,Victoria University of Melbourne | And 2 more authors.
IET Control Theory and Applications | Year: 2011

This study is concerned with the stability and stabilisation for systems with interval time-varying delay. First, by appropriately choosing Lyapunov functional and using Finsler's lemma, a new delay-dependent stability criteria involving the minimum and maximum delay bounds is obtained. Second, new results for delay-dependent stabilisation of systems with interval time-varying delay are provided on the basis of a linear matrix inequality (LMI) framework. Both state- and observer-based output feedback controllers are designed. Differing existing design approach of observer-based controller, a single-step approach is proposed to overcome the drawback of the two-step LMI approach often encountered in the literature, and the conditions are also delay dependent. Numerical examples are given to demonstrate the effectiveness and the benefits of the proposed method. © 2011 The Institution of Engineering and Technology. Source


Luan X.-L.,Jiangnan University | Liu F.,Jiangnan University | Shi P.,University of South Wales | Shi P.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Shi P.,University of South Australia
Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement and Control, Transactions of the ASME | Year: 2011

In this paper, the problem of finite-time stabilization for a class of uncertain Markov jump systems with partially known transition probabilities is investigated. The main aim of this paper is to derive the finite-time stabilization criteria for the underlying systems when the transition probabilities are partially known and to design a state feedback stabilizing controller such that the trajectories of the system stay within a given bound in a fixed time interval. Sufficient conditions for the existence of the desired controller are established with the linear matrix inequalities framework. A numerical example is used to illustrate the effectiveness of the developed theoretic results. Copyright © 2011 by ASME. Source


Jiang B.,Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics | Zhang K.,Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics | Shi P.,University of South Wales | Shi P.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Shi P.,University of South Australia
IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems | Year: 2011

This paper addresses the problem of integrated robust fault estimation (FE) and accommodation for discrete-time TakagiSugeno (TS) fuzzy systems. First, a multiconstrained reduced-order FE observer (RFEO) is proposed to achieve FE for discrete-time TS fuzzy models with actuator faults. Based on the RFEO, a new fault estimator is constructed. Then, using the information of online FE, a new approach for fault accommodation based on fuzzy-dynamic output feedback is designed to compensate for the effect of faults by stabilizing the closed-loop systems. Moreover, the RFEO and the dynamic output feedback fault-tolerant controller are designed separately, such that their design parameters can be calculated readily. Simulation results are presented to illustrate our contributions. © 2010 IEEE. Source


Bojkova B.,Victoria University of Melbourne
European Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2015

The risk of cancer may be modulated by drugs with pleiotropic effects and diet has been implicated in the efficacy of treatment. The oncopreventive effects of the antidiabetic drug pioglitazone (PIO) and the anti-insomnia drug melatonin (MT), in vivo, have been proven before, but using a standard-type diet. This study evaluated the impact of a high-fat diet on their efficacy in chemically induced mammary carcinogenesis in Sprague–Dawley rats. Mammary tumours were induced by N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (50 mg/kg, intraperitoneal, on the 41st postnatal day). PIO and MT administration was initiated 11 days before the carcinogen application and lasted until the termination of the experiment at 16 weeks. PIO was administered in a diet (10% fat) at a concentration of 100 ppm and MT was administered in tap water (20 mg/l). PIO, MT and the combination did not significantly alter the basic tumour growth parameters. However, histopathology showed a decrease in the high-grade/low-grade tumour ratio, particularly in animals that received combined treatment (P<0.01). Semiquantitative immunohistochemistry indicated the proapoptotic effect of chemoprevention, particularly in the drug combination group (P<0.01), but no changes in tumour cell proliferation and angiogenesis were recorded. Results were evaluated by one-way analysis of variance or the Mann–Whitney U-test, respectively. PIO and MT, alone or in combination, administered to rats fed a high-fat diet reduced the proportion of high-grade tumours and promoted apoptosis in an in-vivo breast cancer model, although it did not suppress tumour growth. The impact of high dietary fat content on the chemopreventive efficacy of these and other substances should be considered in human studies. © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved. Source


Li H.,Bohai University | Sun X.,Bohai University | Shi P.,Harbin Engineering University | Shi P.,University of Adelaide | And 2 more authors.
Information Sciences | Year: 2015

This paper focuses on designing sampled-data controller for interval type-2 (IT2) fuzzy systems with actuator fault. The IT2 fuzzy system and the IT2 state-feedback controller share different membership functions. Firstly, considering the mismatched membership functions, the IT2 fuzzy model and the IT2 state-feedback sampled-data controller are constructed. Secondly, based on Lyapunov stability theory, an IT2 state-feedback sampled-data controller is designed such that the closed-loop system is asymptotically stable. The actuator failure is considered in the control systems. The resulting closed-loop system is reliable since the designed controller can guarantee the asymptotic stability and H∞ performance when the actuator experiences failure. The existence condition of the IT2 fuzzy H∞ sampled-data controller can be expressed by solving a convex optimization problem. An inverted pendulum model is utilized to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed new design techniques. © 2015 Published by Elsevier Inc. Source


Luan X.,Jiangnan University | Liu F.,Jiangnan University | Shi P.,University of South Wales | Shi P.,Victoria University of Melbourne
Circuits, Systems, and Signal Processing | Year: 2010

This paper presents a neural network-based robust finite-time H ∞ control design approach for a class of nonlinear Markov jump systems (MJSs). The system under consideration is subject to norm bounded parameter uncertainties and external disturbance. In the proposed framework, the nonlinearities are initially approximated by multilayer feedback neural networks. Subsequently, the neural networks undergo piecewise interpolation to generate a linear differential inclusion model. Then, based on the model, a robust finite-time state-feedback controller is designed such that the nonlinear MJS is finite-time bounded and finite-time stabilizable. The H ∞ control is specified to ensure the elimination of the approximation errors and external disturbances with a desired level. The controller gains can be derived by solving a set of linear matrix inequalities. Finally, simulation results are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the developed theoretic results. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010. Source


De La Mare J.-A.,Rhodes University | Lawson J.C.,Rhodes University | Chiwakata M.T.,Rhodes University | Beukes D.R.,Rhodes University | And 3 more authors.
Investigational New Drugs | Year: 2012

Red and brown algae have been shown to produce a variety of compounds with chemotherapeutic potential. A recent report described the isolation of a range of novel polyhalogenated monoterpene compounds from the red algae Plocamium corallorhiza and Plocamium cornutum collected off the coast of South Africa, together with the previously described tetraprenylquinone, sargaquinoic acid (SQA), from the brown algae Sargassum heterophyllum. In our study, the algal compounds were screened for antiproliferative activity against metastatic MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells revealing that a number of compounds displayed anti-cancer activity with IC50 values in the micromolar range. A subset of the compounds was tested for differential toxicity in the MCF-7/MCF12A system and five of these, including sargaquinoic acid, were found to be at least three times more toxic to the breast cancer than the non-malignant cell line. SQA was further analysed in terms of its mechanism of cytotoxicity in MDA-MB-231 cells. The ability to initiate apoptosis was distinguished from the induction of an inflammatory necrotic response via flow cytometry with propidium iodide and Hoescht staining, confocal microscopy with Annexin V and propidium iodide staining as well as the PARP cleavage assay. We report that SQA induced apoptosis while a polyhalogenated monoterpene RU015 induced necrosis in metastatic breast cancer cells in vitro. Furthermore, we demonstrated that apoptosis induction by SQA occurs via caspase-3,-6,-8,-9 and-13 and was associated with down-regulation of Bcl-2. In addition, cell cycle analyses revealed that the compound causes G1 arrest in MDA-MB-231 cells. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source


Guo Y.,Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics | Guo Y.,Southwest University of Science and Technology | Jiang B.,Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics | Shi P.,University of South Wales | Shi P.,Victoria University of Melbourne
International Journal of Innovative Computing, Information and Control | Year: 2010

In this paper, an active fault tolerant control strategy is developed for a class of linear state-delayed systems with unknown actuator faults and input constraints. The desigh is a combibation between a direct adaptive control algorithm and multiple model switching, and the μ-modification is introduced in the model reference control architecture. The main features of the proposed control strategy are the reliability and simplicity in tracking against actuator faults. By Lyapunov-Krasovskii theory, the stability of overall system is guaranteed and the boundness of all signals is ensured. Numerical simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed fault-tolerant control scheme. Source


Wu Z.,Yantai University | Cui M.,Yantai University | Xie X.,Qufu Normal University | Shi P.,University of South Wales | Shi P.,Victoria University of Melbourne
IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control | Year: 2011

By introducing the escape time, a new definition of the dissipativity is introduced under some assumptions that are very reasonable for most physical models. Based on this definition, criteria on the existence and the stability of the solution are presented, which can be seen as the extension of Lyapunov method to the non-smooth case. The dissipativity is applied to cascaded nonlinear stochastic systems and interconnected systems to display the superiority of the new framework, which shows that there is no need to calculate the first exit time and the escape time. © 2011 IEEE. Source


Jaakkola T.,University of Jyvaskyla | Watt A.,Victoria University of Melbourne
Journal of Teaching in Physical Education | Year: 2011

The main purpose of the study was to analyze teaching styles used in Finnish physical education. Another aim was to investigate the relationships between background characteristics of teachers and use of teaching styles. The participants of the study were 294 (185 females and 109 males) Finnish physical education teachers. The teachers responded to an electronic questionnaire accessed through a link delivered to them by e-mail. The instrument included background information items (gender, teaching experience, education, school level, mean class size) and questions pertaining to 'teacher use' and 'perceived benefits to students' of the various teaching styles. The results of the study revealed that teachers used the command and practice styles of teaching most frequently and the self-check and convergent discovery styles least frequently. The trend was to use more teachercentered than student-centered styles. The teachers perceived the practice and divergent production styles as most and the reciprocal and convergent discovery styles as least beneficial for their students. © 2011 Human Kinetics, Inc. Source


Wu L.,Harbin Institute of Technology | Su X.,Harbin Institute of Technology | Shi P.,University of South Wales | Shi P.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Qiu J.,Harbin Institute of Technology
IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Part B: Cybernetics | Year: 2011

This paper investigates the problems of stability analysis and stabilization for a class of discrete-time Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy systems with time-varying state delay. Based on a novel fuzzy LyapunovKrasovskii functional, a delay partitioning method has been developed for the delay-dependent stability analysis of fuzzy time-varying state delay systems. As a result of the novel idea of delay partitioning, the proposed stability condition is much less conservative than most of the existing results. A delay-dependent stabilization approach based on a nonparallel distributed compensation scheme is given for the closed-loop fuzzy systems. The proposed stability and stabilization conditions are formulated in the form of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs), which can be solved readily by using existing LMI optimization techniques. Finally, two illustrative examples are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the techniques proposed in this paper. © 2010 IEEE. Source


Tso R.,National Chengchi University | Yi X.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Huang X.,Singapore Management University
Journal of Supercomputing | Year: 2011

The notion of certificateless cryptography is aimed to eliminate the use of certificates in traditional public key cryptography and also to solve the key-escrow problem in identity-based cryptography. Many kinds of security models have been designed for certificateless cryptography and many new schemes have been introduced based on the correspondence of the security models. In generally speaking, a stronger security model can ensure a certificateless cryptosystem with a higher security level, but a realistic model can lead to a more efficient scheme. In this paper, we focus on the efficiency of a certificateless signature (CLS) scheme and introduce an efficient CLS scheme with short signature size. On one hand, the security of the scheme is based on a realistic model. In this model, an adversary is not allowed to get any valid signature under false public keys. On the other hand, our scheme is as efficient as BLS short signature scheme in both communication and computation and, therefore, turns out to be more efficient than other CLS schemes proposed so far. We provide a rigorous security proof of our scheme in the random oracle model. The security of our scheme is based on the k-CAA hard problem and a new discovered hard problem, namely the modified k-CAA problem. Our scheme can be applied to systems where signatures are typed in by human or systems with low-bandwidth channels and/or low-computation power. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source


Koehn S.,University of Abertay Dundee | Morris T.,Victoria University of Melbourne
European Journal of Sport Science | Year: 2014

The main purpose of this study was to examine interaction effects between skill level and performance contexts on the experience of flow in adolescent tennis players. The study employed a factorial design to examine differences in flow frequency between competition and training settings and the independent groups factor of ranking list and club players. Junior tennis players (55 males, 29 females) completed the Dispositional Flow Scale-2 in training and competition settings. A repeated-measure ANCOVA, with years of tennis experience and training hours per week as covariates, showed a significant main effect for skill level, F(1, 82) = 6.67, p<0.05, ηp 2 = 0.08 a significant main effect for performance contexts, F(1, 82) = 7.69, p<0.01, ηp 2 = 0.09, and a significant disordinal interaction, F(1, 82) = 9.93, p<0.01, ηp 2 = 0.11. Lower skilled athletes experienced flow with similar frequency across performance contexts, whereas advanced players experienced flow more often during training than competition. Qualitative results showed that club players' involvement in both performance contexts was mainly based on intrinsic reasons, whereas ranking list players reported intrinsic reasons for training, but a high number of extrinsic reasons for competition. Future studies should take propositions of the flow model into account in order to advance theoretical developments on interaction effects and shed more light into the complex processes underlying flow in sport. © 2014 Copyright European College of Sport Science. Source


Weller S.,Victoria University of Melbourne
Regional Studies | Year: 2012

Weller S. The regional dimensions of the 'transition to a low-carbon economy': the case of Australia's Latrobe Valley, Regional Studies. Translating concern about climate change into practical, effective and politically feasible policy action is a key challenge for contemporary governments. In Australia, the government's failure to launch 'the transition to a low-carbon economy' is reshaping the political landscape. This article argues that progress has stalled because politicians emboldened by the moral challenge of climate action, but schooled in market-based policy solutions, have not acknowledged or made provision for the regional impacts of the economic transformation they propose. © 2012 Copyright Regional Studies Association. Source


Cornall D.,Victoria University of Melbourne
International Journal of Osteopathic Medicine | Year: 2011

Background: A review of the breastfeeding related literature was undertaken to provide background for a qualitative study that explores how osteopaths promote effective breastfeeding. Topics considered relevant to osteopathic practice are presented with the aim of informing and stimulating discussion and further inquiry. Data Sources and Selection: Information is drawn together from the following databases: Lactation Resource Centre of Australian Breastfeeding Association, Cinahl, Cochrane Library, and Medline. Qualitative and quantitative studies of all designs, government and professional association websites, and conference presentations are included as the aim is to generate a broad background on the biological and psychosocial aspects of breastfeeding that could impact on osteopathic practise. The theoretical literature is included in areas where little research is available. Conclusions: A strong evidence base promotes breastfeeding as important health behaviour for a mother and baby; influenced by many complex and sensitive biopsychosocial factors. The theoretical literature and studies that have investigated the biomechanics of breastfeeding provide a rationale for osteopathic treatment to facilitate effective breastfeeding; however little supportive research has been undertaken. Further well designed studies are needed to determine the role that osteopaths might play in supporting a mother-baby dyad to successfully breastfeed. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Hrysomallis. C.,Victoria University of Melbourne
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research | Year: 2012

Resisted movement training is that in which the sports movement is performed with added resistance. To date, the effectiveness on enhancing sprint speed or vertical jump height had not been reviewed. The objectives of this review were to collate information on resisted training studies for sprinting and vertical jumping, ascertain whether resisted movement training was superior to normal unresisted movement training, and identify areas for future research. The review was based on peer-reviewed journal articles identified from electronic literature searches using MEDLINE and SPORTDiscus data bases from 1970 to 2010. Resisted sprint training was found to increase sprint speed but, in most cases, was no more effective than normal sprint training. There was some evidence that resisted sprint training was superior in increasing speed in the initial acceleration phase of sprinting. Resisted jump training in the form of weighted jump squats was shown to increase vertical jump height, but it was no more effective than plyometric depth jump training. Direct comparisons between resisted jump training and unresisted normal jump training were limited, but loaded eccentric countermovement jump squat training with unloaded concentric phase and eccentric landing was shown to generate superior results for elite jumpers. More prospective studies on resisted sprint training are required along with monitoring both kinematic and kinetic adaptations to fully determine any underlying mechanisms for any improvements in sprint speed. Based on the available data, the benefits and superiority of resisted sprint training have not been fully established. As for resisted jump training, although there are some promising findings, these results need to be duplicated by other researchers before resisted jump training can be claimed to be more effective than other forms of jump training. © 2012 National Strength and Conditioning Association. Source


Lyons A.,La Trobe University | Hosking W.,Victoria University of Melbourne
Archives of Sexual Behavior | Year: 2014

Researchers, policymakers, and health agencies have tended to treat gay men as a relatively homogeneous population, with little attention given to its many subcultural identities. In this study, we focused on young gay men and investigated a range of health-related differences according to common subcultural identities, such as Bear, Cub, and Twink. In a nationwide cross-sectional online survey of 1,034 Australian gay men aged 18–39 years, 44 % reported a subcultural identity, the two most common being Cub (9 %) and Twink (20 %). Logistic and linear regression analyses compared Cub- and Twink-identified men and those without a subcultural identity (Non-identified) on a range of health-related outcomes. After adjusting for differences in age and body mass index (BMI), Twink-identified men had the highest risk profile overall, including significantly higher rates of smoking tobacco and alcohol consumption. They were also significantly more likely to report engaging in receptive anal sex. In addition, Cub-identified men were significantly more likely to report being in an ongoing relationship while Non-identified men were significantly less likely to report experiences of discrimination in the past 12 months. Differences on measures of mental health between the three groups were no longer significant after adjusting for age and BMI. In summary, we found numerous health-related differences according to subcultural identity that warrant further investigation by researchers, health agencies, and others concerned with further understanding and addressing health-related challenges of gay men. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source


Li H.,Bohai University | Shi P.,University of Adelaide | Shi P.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Shi P.,Harbin Engineering University | And 2 more authors.
Automatica | Year: 2016

This paper investigates the adaptive sliding mode control problem of nonlinear Markovian jump systems (MJSs) with partly unknown transition probabilities. The system state components are not all unmeasured. The specific information of the model uncertainties and bounds of the nonlinear term and disturbance term are unknown in the controller design process. Moreover, any knowledge of the unknown elements existing in the transition matrix is not required. Our attention is mainly focused on designing the observer-based adaptive sliding mode controller for such a complex system. Firstly, an observer is constructed to estimate the system state. Secondly, we design an integral sliding mode surface and observer-based adaptive sliding mode controller such that the MJSs are insensitive to all admissible uncertainties and satisfy the reaching condition. The stochastic stability of the closed-loop system can be guaranteed. Finally, a numerical example is exploited to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed results. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Abou-Arkoub A.,Hamilton College | Thorn R.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Bousbaine A.,University of Derby
IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement | Year: 2010

The calibration of a multiphase flowmeter is usually highly dependent on the flow regime of the mixture being monitored. Since the flow regime present in a pipeline cannot always reliably be predicted, then online calibration of such instruments is usually required. As the range and capabilities of multiphase flowmeters increase, the problems of how to validate the performance of such instruments online also increases. This study considers the extent to which simple capacitance-sensing techniques can be used to validate the multiphase flowmeters' performance by identifying the carrier, dispersed phase(s), and flow regime in the flow stream. Finite-element analysis, using the ANSYS software, was used to predict the ability of a simple capacitance sensor to identify carrier and phase composition in a range of oil, water, and gas mixtures. The sensor parameters investigated included electrode length, electrode separation, pipe material, and the effect of guards. The results obtained were used to optimize the sensor geometry for reliable identification of carrier and phase(s). The results obtained from the simulation were experimentally verified. It was shown that a capacitance measurement technique combined with statistical and fuzzy-logic-type methods can form the basis of a simple and robust validation unit that could be retrofitted to multiphase flowmeters for online validation. Such a system could be used as an early warning system for instrument malfunctions. © 2010 IEEE. Source


Carolan M.,Victoria University of Melbourne
Midwifery | Year: 2013

Background: the midwifery workforce in Australia is ageing and predominantly part-time. There is considerable interest in the induction and retention of new midwives in the profession. Objective: this study was undertaken to explore 3rd year students' views of the good midwife. It was anticipated that student views would show evidence of early transition and socialisation into the profession. Design: qualitative thematic analysis. Setting: Melbourne, Australia. Participants: all completing midwifery students, in 2010, were invited to participate (n=31). Findings: three broad themes emerged from the analysis: (1) a skilled practitioner; (2) a caring and compassionate individual; and (3) beyond the call of duty: passion and enthusiasm for midwifery. Key conclusions and implications for practice: it was evident that 3rd year students' views of the good midwife were becoming aligned with the views of qualified midwives. Students also acknowledged the importance of safe practice at the same time as supporting women to make decisions. However, their intense passion and enthusiasm for midwifery practice may make them vulnerable to disappointment with the profession. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source


McCann T.V.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Baird J.,NorthWestern Mental Health Old Aged Persons Mental Health Program | Muir-Cochrane E.,Flinders University
BMC Psychiatry | Year: 2014

Background: In psychiatry, most of the focus on patient aggression has been in adolescent and adult inpatient settings. This behaviour is also common in elderly people with mental illness, but little research has been conducted into this problem in old age psychiatry settings. The attitudes of clinical staff toward aggression may affect the way they manage this behaviour. The purpose of this study was to examine the attitudes of clinical staff toward the causes and management of aggression in acute old age psychiatry inpatient settings.Methods: A convenience sample of clinical staff were recruited from three locked acute old age psychiatry inpatient units in Melbourne, Australia. They completed the Management of Aggression and Violence Scale, which assessed the causes and managment of aggression in psychiatric settings.Results: Eighty-five staff completed the questionnaire, comprising registered nurses (61.1%, n = 52), enrolled nurses (27.1%, n = 23) and medical and allied health staff (11.8%, n = 10). A range of causative factors contributed to aggression. The respondents had a tendency to disagree that factors directly related to the patient contributed to this behaviour. They agreed patients were aggressive because of the environment they were in, other people contributed to them becoming aggressive, and patients from certain cultural groups were prone to these behaviours. However, there were mixed views about whether patient aggression could be prevented, and this type of behaviour took place because staff did not listen to patients. There was agreement medication was a valuable approach for the management of aggression, negotiation could be used more effectively in such challenging behaviour, and seclusion and physical restraint were sometimes used more than necessary. However, there was disagreement about whether the practice of secluding patients should be discontinued.Conclusions: Aggression in acute old age psychiatry inpatient units occurs occasionally and is problematic. A range of causative factors contribute to the onset of this behaviour. Attitudes toward the management of aggression are complex and somewhat contradictory and can affect the way staff manage this behaviour; therefore, wide-ranging initiatives are needed to prevent and deal with this type of challenging behaviour. © 2014 McCann et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Wolfenden B.,La Trobe University | Wolfenden B.,Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health | Grace M.,Victoria University of Melbourne
Brain Impairment | Year: 2012

In Australia, 20% of stroke survivors are aged less than 55 years. These younger survivors value age-appropriate, identity-affirming goals, such as resuming employment. This article reports on a small qualitative research project that explored the experiences of young, higher functioning stroke survivors in re-establishing identity and returning to work. The participants understood identity as both an inner sense of self and as socially and discursively constructed. The research found that the participants actively pursued identity continuity while managing biographical disruption. Resumption of life roles and responsibilities were important for identity re-establishment, but fraught, particularly the return to work. The findings suggest that psychosocial rehabilitation could play a greater role in supporting survivors' resumption of valued life roles, including return to work. © 2012 The Authors. Source


Carolan M.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Cassar L.,Western Health Sunshine Hospital
Midwifery | Year: 2010

Objective: to explore the experiences and concerns of an African-born sample of pregnant women receiving antenatal care in Melbourne, Australia. Design: qualitative in-depth interviews. Setting: the African Women's Clinic located in Melbourne's western suburbs, an area known for social deprivation and high numbers of recently arrived African migrants. Participants: 18 pregnant African-born women were interviewed. Findings: African women receiving pregnancy care in Australia undergo a process of adjustment as they travel from a view of pregnancy as not 'special' to valuing continuous antenatal care. Five themes were identified along the trajectory: pregnancy is not special; resettlement is a priority; childbearing is a normal process; coming to value continuous pregnancy care; and cultural sensitivity is important. Throughout each stage, valuing and acceptance of Australian pregnancy care were mediated by the women's cultural beliefs. Conclusion: the African population in Melbourne is not homogenous, and women's experiences differ with cultural background, residential status, educational level and prior experience. All, however, seem to progress through phases of adjustment to value continuous antenatal care. In this climate of change, the provision of a supportive sensitive service appears to promote acceptance of services and attendance at appointments. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Glazier P.S.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Wheat J.S.,Sheffield Hallam University
Sports Medicine | Year: 2014

To date, scientific investigations into the biomechanical aspects of cricket fast bowling techniques have predominantly focused on identifying the mechanical factors that may predispose fast bowlers to lower back injury with a relative paucity of research being conducted on the technical features that underpin proficient fast bowling performance. In this review paper, we critique the scientific literature examining fast bowling performance. We argue that, although many published investigations have provided some useful insights into the biomechanical factors that contribute to a high ball release speed and, to a lesser extent, bowling accuracy, this research has not made a substantive contribution to knowledge enhancement and has only had a very minor influence on coaching practice. To significantly enhance understanding of cricket fast bowling techniques and, therefore, have greater impact on practice, we recommend that future scientific research adopts an interdisciplinary focus, integrating biomechanical measurements with the analytical tools and concepts of dynamical systems motor control theory. The use of qualitative (topological) analysis techniques, in particular, promises to increase understanding of the coordinative movement patterns that define 'technique' in cricket fast bowling and potentially help distinguish between functional and dysfunctional aspects of technique for individual fast bowlers. © 2013 Springer International Publishing Switzerland. Source


Williams J.,Murdoch Childrens Research Institute | Williams J.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Lee K.J.,Murdoch Childrens Research Institute | Lee K.J.,University of Melbourne | And 2 more authors.
Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology | Year: 2010

Aim: Motor skill impairment is a common negative outcome in children born preterm who do not develop cerebral palsy (CP). This study aimed to conduct a systematic review of current data to provide an accurate estimate of the prevalence of non-CP motor impairment in preterm children at school age. Method: We searched the Medline, PubMed, and PsycInfo databases and relevant journals to identify all studies published post-1990 that reported the prevalence of motor impairment in school-aged children born preterm (<37wks' gestation) using standardised motor assessment batteries. We applied a range of exclusionary criteria, with 11 studies included in the final analyses. We identified two levels of motor impairment commonly reported - mild-moderate and moderate - and conducted a random effects meta-analysis to produce a prevalence estimate for each. Results: The pooled estimate for mild-moderate impairment in preterm children was 40.5/100. and for moderate motor impairment the estimate was 19.0/100. There was also a trend for lower motor impairment levels in samples born before 1990 compared with those born after 1990. Interpretation: Children born preterm are at increased risk of motor impairment, with prevalence three to four times greater than in the general population. This highlights the need for improved surveillance and intervention strategies in this group of children. © The Authors. Journal compilation © Mac Keith Press 2009. Source


Carolan M.,Victoria University of Melbourne
Midwifery | Year: 2013

Objective: the aim of this paper was to examine rates of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) among women born in South East Asia, now residing in a developed country. Data sources: established health databases including: SCOPUS, MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE and Maternity and Infant Care were searched for journal papers, published 2001-2011. Study selection: studies that examined GDM among women born in South East Asia (SEA) were sought. Keywords included gestational diabetes and a search term for Asian ethnicity (Asian, Asia, race, ethnic, and ethnicity). Further searches were based on citations and references found in located articles. Of 53 retrieved publications, five met inclusion criteria. Data extraction: data were extracted and organised under the following headings: GDM rates among women born in SEA; screening for GDM; and characteristics of GDM risk for SEA born women. Study quality was assessed by using the CASP (Critical Appraisal Skills Programme) guidelines. Data synthesis: this review produced three main findings: (1) compared to combined Asian groups, GDM rates were lower among SEA women; (2) compared to other Asian sub-groups, GDM rates among SEA women were in the intermediate range; and (3) SEA born women demonstrated consistently higher rates of GDM than women from the same ethnic background who were born in countries such as the US, UK or Australia. Conclusions: from this review, it was clear that a 'one size fits all' approach to Asian ethnicity was not useful for estimating GDM rates among SEA women. There was also considerable difference among women of SEA ethnicity born in South East Asia, compared to women of the same ethnic background born in developed countries. Future research should explore the unique characteristics of GDM risk for these women. Such information is necessary for the development of strategies for the prevention and treatment of GDM among SEA women. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Bigger S.W.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Bigger A.S.,Software Developer
Journal of Chemical Education | Year: 2013

The FluAnisot educational software package is a fully contained tutorial on the technique of fluorescence anisotropy measurement as well as a simulator on which two experiments can be performed. The procedure for each of the experiments is also contained within the package along with example analyses of results that were obtained using the software. © 2013 The American Chemical Society and Division of Chemical Education, Inc. Source


Hatherley R.,Rhodes University | Blatch G.L.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Blatch G.L.,Rhodes University | Bishop O.T.,Rhodes University | Bishop O.T.,Sabanci University
Journal of Biomolecular Structure and Dynamics | Year: 2014

Plasmodium falciparum 70 kDa heat shock proteins (PfHsp70s) are expressed at all stages of the pathogenic erythrocytic phase of the malaria parasite life cycle. There are six PfHsp70s, all of which have orthologues in other plasmodial species, except for PfHsp70-x which is unique to P. falciparum. This research highlights a number of original results obtained by a detailed bioinformatics analysis of the protein. Large-scale sequence analysis indicated the presence of an extended transit peptide sequence of PfHsp70-x which potentially directs it to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Further analysis showed that PfHsp70-x does not have an ER-retention sequence, suggesting that the protein transits through the ER and is secreted into the parasitophorous vacuole or beyond into the erythrocyte cytosol. These results are consistent with experimental findings. Next, possible interactions between PfHsp70-x and exported P. falciparum Hsp40s or host erythrocyte Hsp40 were interrogated by modelling and docking. Docking results indicated that interaction between PfHsp70-x and each of the Hsp40s, regardless of biological feasibility, seems equally likely. This suggests that J domain might not provide the specificity in the formation of unique Hsp70-Hsp40 complexes, but that the specificity might be provided by other domains of Hsp40s. By studying different structural conformations of PfHsp70-x, it was shown that Hsp40s can only bind when PfHsp70-x is in a certain conformation. Additionally, this work highlighted the possible dependence of the substrate-binding domain residues on the orientation of the α-helical lid for formation of the substrate-binding pocket. © 2013 © 2013 Taylor & Francis. Source


Ivey G.,Victoria University of Melbourne
Clinical psychology & psychotherapy | Year: 2014

This paper reports on a qualitative study investigating clinical psychology programme selectors' perceptions of psychological 'woundedness' in the autobiographical narratives of applicants for clinical psychology training. Woundedness was here defined in terms of the ongoing or residual psychological impact of adverse experiences and psychic conflicts. Ten selectors were presented with a sample of applicants' written autobiographical narratives, differentiated by the conspicuous presence or absence of psychological woundedness. The selectors, who were not informed of the specific aims of the study, ranked applicant protocols and were interviewed individually about their impressions of the protocols and the criteria that they used to rank them. Most selectors were positively biased toward 'wounded' narratives and suspicious of those in which woundedness was manifestly absent. Although generally disposed to favour wounded applicants, how woundedness was presented, rather than the mere presence of it, was a discriminating feature in selectors' appraisal of wounded narratives. Selectors were concerned that unresolved woundedness may compromise applicants' professional boundaries, impair self-reflective capacity and lead to damaging countertransference enactments. The relative extent to which applicant woundedness appeared to be resolved was significant in selectors' assessment of applicants' clinical training potential. A distinction is thus proposed between obstructive and facilitative woundedness in clinical psychology applicants. A sample of clinical psychology programme selectors identified psychological woundedness as a significant feature in applicant autobiographies. Selectors favoured applicant autobiographies showing evidence of woundedness. The distinction between obstructive and facilitative woundedness is important in how the selector sample evaluated woundedness. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source


Wu Z.-G.,Zhejiang University | Shi P.,University of South Wales | Shi P.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Su H.,Zhejiang University | Chu J.,Zhejiang University
Expert Systems with Applications | Year: 2012

The problem of delay-dependent stability analysis is investigated for discrete-time Markovian jump neural networks with mixed time-delays (both discrete and infinity-distributed time delays). The Markov chain in the underlying neural networks is finite piecewise homogeneous. A delay-dependent condition is derived for the addressed neural networks to be globally asymptotically stable. As an extension, we further consider the stability analysis problem for the same type of neural networks but with partially known transition probabilities. Two numerical examples are given to demonstrate the usefulness of the derived methods. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Glazier P.S.,Victoria University of Melbourne
Human Movement Science | Year: 2015

Sports performance is generally considered to be governed by a range of interacting physiological, biomechanical, and psychological variables, amongst others. Despite sports performance being multi-factorial, however, the majority of performance-oriented sports science research has predominantly been monodisciplinary in nature, presumably due, at least in part, to the lack of a unifying theoretical framework required to integrate the various subdisciplines of sports science. In this target article, I propose a Grand Unified Theory (GUT) of sports performance-and, by elaboration, sports science-based around the constraints framework introduced originally by Newell (1986). A central tenet of this GUT is that, at both the intra- and inter-individual levels of analysis, patterns of coordination and control, which directly determine the performance outcome, emerge from the confluence of interacting organismic, environmental, and task constraints via the formation and self-organisation of coordinative structures. It is suggested that this GUT could be used to: foster interdisciplinary research collaborations; break down the silos that have developed in sports science and restore greater disciplinary balance to the field; promote a more holistic understanding of sports performance across all levels of analysis; increase explanatory power of applied research work; provide stronger rationale for data collection and variable selection; and direct the development of integrated performance monitoring technologies. This GUT could also provide a scientifically rigorous basis for integrating the subdisciplines of sports science in applied sports science support programmes adopted by high-performance agencies and national governing bodies for various individual and team sports. © 2015. Source


Shim W.G.,Chonnam National University | He K.,Sunchon National University | Gray S.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Moon I.S.,Sunchon National University
Separation and Purification Technology | Year: 2015

Development of a solar assisted direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) system for seawater desalination and an improved mathematical model to predict the permeate flux for unsteady state conditions were investigated. Different types of commercially available polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membranes were used in a solar-DCMD system for seawater desalination. Membrane properties, such as the liquid entry pressure (LEP), pore diameter, effective porosity and pore size distribution, were characterized for each membrane. A two dimensional (2D) flat-plate dynamic model with heat and mass transfer mechanisms was used to predict the permeate flux under different operating conditions. Good agreement between the numerical simulation and experimental results were found. Long-term fouling phenomenon in the DCMD system was experimentally and theoretically examined. The experimental heat energy consumption ranged from 896 kW h/m3 to 1433 kW h/m3, and the gained output ratio (GOR) ranged from 0.44 to 0.70. The solar-DCMD system was run continually for more than 150 days for seawater desalination in Korea. During day time, more than 77.3% of the heating energy was supplied by solar energy. In particular, in the month of September, 95.3% of the heating energy was supplied by solar energy. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Yu H.,Nanjing Audit University | Lu G.,Nantong University | Zheng Y.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Zheng Y.,Shanghai University
Systems and Control Letters | Year: 2011

In this paper, the model-based networked control is addressed for a class of singularly perturbed control systems with nonlinear uncertainties. An approximate linear slow and fast control system of the plant, which can be obtained by omitting the nonlinear uncertainties, are used as a model to estimate the state behavior of the plant between transmission times. The stability of model-based networked control systems is investigated under the assumption that the controller/actuator is updated with the sensor information at constant time intervals. It is shown that there exists the allowable upper bound of the singular perturbation parameter such that the model-based networked control system is globally exponentially stable. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Ahmed S.M.,Aligarh Muslim University | Ahmed S.M.,Texas A&M University at Qatar | Iqbal A.,Qatar University | Abu-Rub H.,Texas A&M University at Qatar | And 3 more authors.
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics | Year: 2011

Multiphase (more than three phases) power electronic converters are required mainly for feeding variable-speed multiphase drive systems. This paper presents one such solution by using a direct ac-ac converter that can be used to supply a nine-phase drive system. The input is a fixed-voltage and fixedfrequency three-phase input, and the output is a variable-voltage and variable-frequency nine-phase output. A simple pulsewidthmodulation technique is developed for the proposed ac-ac converter named as a nonsquare three-to-nine-phase matrixconverter configuration. The developed modulation technique is based on the comparison of a high-frequency carrier signal with the duty ratios. Although the carrier-based scheme is widely employed for the control of back-to-back converters, it has recently been used for controlling a three-to-three-phase matrix converter. This concept is extended in this paper for controlling a threeto-nine-phase matrix converter. With the two techniques that are proposed, one outputs 0.75 of the input magnitude and the other outputs reach 0.762 of the input. This is the maximum value of the output voltage in the linear modulation range that can be achieved in this configuration of the matrix converter. The viability of the proposed control techniques is proved analytically through simulation and an experimental approach. © 2006 IEEE. Source


Yin Y.,Jiangnan University | Shi P.,University of South Wales | Shi P.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Shi P.,University of South Australia | Liu F.,Jiangnan University
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics | Year: 2011

This paper studies the problem of continuous gain-scheduled robust fault detection (RFD) on a class of time-delay stochastic nonlinear systems with partially known jump rates. By means of gradient linearization procedure, stochastic linear models and filter-based residual signal generators are constructed in the vicinity of selected operating states. Furthermore, in order to guarantee the sensitivity to faults and robustness against unknown inputs, an RFD filter (RFDF) is designed for such linear models by first designing H ∞ filters that minimize the influences of the disturbances and modeling uncertainties and then a new performance index that increases the sensitivity to faults. Subsequently, a sufficient condition on the existence of RFDF is established in terms of linear matrix inequality techniques. Finally, a continuous gain-scheduled approach is employed to design continuous RFDFs on the entire nonlinear jump system. A simulation example is given to illustrate that the proposed RFDF can detect the faults correctly and shortly after the occurrences. © 2011 IEEE. Source


Wang G.,Hangzhou Dianzi University | Shi P.,University of South Wales | Shi P.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Shi P.,University of South Australia | Wen C.,Hangzhou Dianzi University
Information Sciences | Year: 2011

In this paper, the problems of fuzzy binary relations on fuzzy n-cell number space and their applications are investigated. Firstly, we have defined some fuzzy approximation relations on fuzzy n-cell number space, and studied their properties. Secondly, as application, we have developed an algorithmic version of classification in an imprecise or uncertain environment by using the fuzzy approximation relations. Practical examples are provided to show the application and rationality of the proposed techniques. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source


Wu Z.-G.,Zhejiang University | Shi P.,University of South Wales | Shi P.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Su H.,Zhejiang University | Chu J.,Zhejiang University
Information Sciences | Year: 2011

The problem of l2-l∞ filter design for discrete-time singular systems with Markovian jump and time-varying delays is investigated in this paper. By using the delay partitioning technique, a delay-dependent condition is established to guarantee the filtering error systems to be stochastically admissible and achieve a prescribed l 2-l∞ performance index. Based on the derived condition, the full-order and reduced-order filters with mode-independent characterization are designed in a unified framework. The corresponding filter parameters can be obtained by solving a set of linear matrix inequalities. The reported results not only depend upon the delay, but also depend upon the partitioning, which aims at reducing the conservatism. Two numerical examples are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source


Wu Z.-G.,Zhejiang University | Shi P.,University of South Wales | Shi P.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Shi P.,University of South Australia | And 2 more authors.
IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Part B: Cybernetics | Year: 2011

In this paper, the problem of stability analysis is investigated for switched neural networks with time-varying delay using linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach. By taking advantage of the average dwell time method, two sufficient conditions are developed to ensure the global exponential stability of the considered neural networks, which are delay-dependent and formulated by LMIs. The state decay estimate is explicitly given. Numerical examples are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed techniques. © 2006 IEEE. Source


Wang M.,South China University of Technology | Liu X.,Lakehead University | Shi P.,University of South Wales | Shi P.,Victoria University of Melbourne
IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Part B: Cybernetics | Year: 2011

This paper is concerned with robust stabilization problem for a class of nonaffine pure-feedback systems with unknown time-delay functions and perturbed uncertainties. Novel continuous packaged functions are introduced in advance to remove unknown nonlinear terms deduced from perturbed uncertainties and unknown time-delay functions, which avoids the functions with control law to be approximated by radial basis function (RBF) neural networks. This technique combining implicit function and mean value theorems overcomes the difficulty in controlling the nonaffine pure-feedback systems. Dynamic surface control (DSC) is used to avoid the explosion of complexity in the backstepping design. Design difficulties from unknown time-delay functions are overcome using the function separation technique, the Lyapunov-Krasovskii functionals, and the desirable property of hyperbolic tangent functions. RBF neural networks are employed to approximate desired virtual controls and desired practical control. Under the proposed adaptive neural DSC, the number of adaptive parameters required is reduced significantly, and semiglobal uniform ultimate boundedness of all of the signals in the closed-loop system is guaranteed. Simulation studies are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed design scheme. © 2006 IEEE. Source


Cao L.,East China Normal University | Zheng Y.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Zheng Y.,Shanghai University | Zhou Q.,East China Normal University
IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control | Year: 2011

The average consensus problem of continuous-time agents in undirected time-varying networks is studied. The network is allowed to be disconnected. A notion called infinite integral connectivity is proposed. Based on the notion, a necessary and sufficient condition for achieving consensus is given. That is, when the network topology is described by an undirected time-varying graph G(t), the agents achieve consensus if and only if the infinite integral graph of G(t) over [0,∞) is connected. This criterion does not hold for directed networks. © 2010 IEEE. Source


Yang R.,Harbin Institute of Technology | Shi P.,University of South Wales | Shi P.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Liu G.-P.,University of South Wales | Liu G.-P.,Harbin Institute of Technology
IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control | Year: 2011

In this technical note, a new class of discrete-time networked nonlinear systems with mixed random delays and packet dropouts is introduced, and the H∞ filtering problem for such systems is investigated. The mixed stochasitc time-delays consist of both discrete and infinite distributed delays and the packet dropout phenomenon occurs in a random way. Furthermore, new techniques are presented to deal with the infinite distributed delay in the discrete-time domain. Sufficient conditions for the existence of an admissible filter are established, which ensure the asymptotical stability as well as a prescribed H∞ performance. Finally, examples are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed filter design scheme in this technical note. © 2011 IEEE. Source


Wang D.,Dalian University of Technology | Wang W.,Dalian University of Technology | Shi P.,University of South Wales | Shi P.,Victoria University of Melbourne
International Journal of Adaptive Control and Signal Processing | Year: 2011

This paper studies the problem of exponential H∞ model reduction for continuous-time switched delay system under average dwell time (ADT) switching signals. Time delay under consideration is interval time varying. Our attention is focused on the construction of the desired reduced order models, which guarantee that the resulting error systems under ADT switching signals are exponentially stable with an H∞ norm bound. By introducing a block matrix and making use of the ADT approach, delay-dependent sufficient conditions for the existence of reduced order models are derived and formulated in terms of strict linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). Owing to the absence of non-convex constraints, it is tractable to construct an admissible reduced order model. The effectiveness of the proposed methods is illustrated via two numerical examples. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source


Cheng Y.,National University of Defense Technology | Wang X.,University of Melbourne | Caelli T.,University of Melbourne | Li X.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Moran B.,University of Melbourne
IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing | Year: 2011

This paper deals with the problem of sensor localization when the localization error is nonlinearly propagated over the sensor network as occurs in Radio Interferometric Positioning System (RIPS). A noise model that takes the location uncertainties of anchor nodes into account in the node localization process has been derived based on a generic nonlinear measurement model that encapsulates the use of many popular node localization techniques. These include circular, parabolic and hyperbolic methods. This development enables the use of a distributed stochastic estimation method for node localization of wireless sensor networks with nonlinear measurements in the presence of anchor node uncertainties. The effectiveness of the derived equivalent noise model is demonstrated via a simulated progressive localization of a mote network using the RIPS measurements. © 2011 IEEE. Source


Wang D.,Dalian University of Technology | Wang W.,Dalian University of Technology | Shi P.,University of South Wales | Shi P.,Victoria University of Melbourne
International Journal of Systems Science | Year: 2011

This article is concerned with the delay-dependent H-filtering problem for discrete-time switched systems with a state delay. By using the switched Lyapunov functional method and choosing a new Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional, and, furthermore, utilising the linearisation technique, sufficient conditions on the existence of a desired filter are formulated as strict linear matrix inequalities. Neither model transformation nor the bounding technique for cross-terms is involved. A numerical example is provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. © 2011 Taylor & Francis. Source


Gao Z.,Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics | Jiang B.,Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics | Shi P.,University of South Wales | Shi P.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Xu Y.,Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics
International Journal of Innovative Computing, Information and Control | Year: 2010

Based on both adaptive and sliding mode control techniques, this paper proposes an integrated approach to fault detection, estimation and fault-tolerant control for near space vehicle (NSVJ) attitude dynamics during re-entry phase. Firstly, the Talcagi and Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy model is employed to approiimate complei nonlinear NSV dynamics with actuator faults. Then, an adaptive fault diagnostic observer is proposed for detecting and estimating the actuator faults. Using the on-line obtained fault information, the fault tolerant control scheme based on the sliding mode technique is developed to compensate for the effects of actuator fault by stabilizing the closed-loop control system. Finally, simulation results are given to show the effectiveness and potential of the proposed techniques when different actuator fault scenarios are tested. © 2010 ISSN. Source


Luan X.,Jiangnan University | Liu F.,Jiangnan University | Shi P.,University of South Wales | Shi P.,Victoria University of Melbourne
International Journal of Innovative Computing, Information and Control | Year: 2010

This paper deals with the problem of stochastic optimal control for a class of nonlinear systems subject to Markovian jump parameters. The nonlinearities in the different jump modes are initially parameterized by multilayer neural networks (MNNs), which lead to neural Markovian jump systems. A stochastic neural Lyapunov function (NLF) is used to analyze the stability of the resulting neural control MJSs. Then, based on this stochastic NLF and the neural model, a linear state feedback controller is designed to stabilize the closed-loop nonlinear system and guaranteed an upper bound of the system performance for all admissible approximation errors of the MNNs. The control gains can be derived by solving a set of linear matrix inequalities. Finally, a single link robot arm is demonstrated to show the effectiveness of the proposed design techniques. ICIC International © 2010. Source


Deng Z.,Beijing Institute of Technology | Shi P.,University of South Wales | Shi P.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Yang H.,Beijing Institute of Technology | Xia Y.,Beijing Institute of Technology
International Journal of Innovative Computing, Information and Control | Year: 2010

In this paper robust H∞ filtering problem for a class of linear fractional uncertain continuous-time nonlinear systems with interval time-varying delays is investigated. The delay factor is assumed to be time-varying and belongs to a given interval, which means that the lower and upper bounds of the interval time-varying delays are available. Furthermore, the derivative of the time-varying delay function can be larger than one. Based on Lyapunov-Krasovslcii functional, a new sufficient condition for the solvability of this problem is presented in terms of linear matrii inequalities (LMIs,). When these LMIs air2 feasible, an eipression of a desired H. filter is given. A numerical example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the developed techniques. © 2010 ISSN. Source


Curran T.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Appleton P.R.,University of Birmingham | Hill A.P.,University of Leeds | Hall H.K.,York St John University
Journal of Sports Sciences | Year: 2013

Research indicates that obsessive and harmonious passion can explain variability in burnout through various mediating processes (e.g., Vallerand, Paquet, Phillippe, & Charest, 2010). The current study extended previous research (Curran, Appleton, Hill, & Hall, 2011; Gustafsson, Hassmén, & Hassmén, 2011) by testing a model in which the effects of passion for sport on athlete burnout were mediated by psychological need satisfaction. One hundred and seventy-three academy soccer players completed self-report measures of passion for sport, psychological need satisfaction, and athlete burnout. Results indicated that psychological need satisfaction mediated the relationship between harmonious passion and athlete burnout but not obsessive passion and athlete burnout. The findings indicate that the inverse relationship between harmonious passion and burnout can be explained by higher levels of psychological need satisfaction. However, this was not the case for obsessive passion, which was not associated with psychological need satisfaction or most symptoms of athlete burnout. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source


Luan X.,Jiangnan University | Shi P.,University of South Wales | Shi P.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Shi P.,University of South Australia | Liu F.,Jiangnan University
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics | Year: 2011

In this paper, an observer-based stabilizing controller has been designed for networked systems involving both random measurement and actuation delays. The developed control algorithm is suitable for networked systems with any type of delays. By the simultaneous presence of binary random delays and making full use of the delay information in the measurement model and controller design, new and less conservative stabilization conditions for networked control systems are derived. The criterion is formulated in the form of a nonconvex matrix inequality of which a feasible solution can be obtained by solving a minimization problem in terms of linear matrix inequalities. An illustrative example is presented to show the applicability of the proposed design technique. © 2010 IEEE. Source


Xu D.,Jiangnan University | Jiang B.,Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics | Shi P.,University of Adelaide | Shi P.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Shi P.,Harbin Engineering University
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics | Year: 2015

In this paper, a decentralized fault-tolerant control (FTC) system is proposed for near-space vehicle (NSV) attitude dynamics. First, NSV reentry attitude dyna mic models with an uncertainty, actuator failure models, and a control surface damage model are described. Next, a new local fault identification algorithm is proposed to iden tify different types of actuator faults, which is based on multiobserver techniques. The local fault identification is constituted by a fault detection observer, fault parameter identification observers, and a decision-making mechanism. Then, a global adaptive sliding-mode observer is used to design the command filter backstepping fault- tolerant controller. Our focus is on the accommodation for actuator faults, control surface damage, uncertainties, and the resulting disturbances of the NSV. Finally, simulation results are given to demonstrate the effectiveness and poten tial of the proposed FTC scheme. © 2015 IEEE. Source


O'Neill B.C.,U.S. National Center for Atmospheric Research | Liddle B.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Jiang L.,U.S. National Center for Atmospheric Research | Smith K.R.,University of California at Berkeley | And 3 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2012

Relations between demographic change and emissions of the major greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO 2) have been studied from diff erent perspectives, but most projections of future emissions only partly take demographic infl uences into account. We review two types of evidence for how CO 2 emissions from the use of fossil fuels are aff ected by demographic factors such as population growth or decline, ageing, urbanisation, and changes in household size. First, empirical analyses of historical trends tend to show that CO 2 emissions from energy use respond almost proportionately to changes in population size and that ageing and urbanisation have less than proportional but statistically signifi cant eff ects. Second, scenario analyses show that alternative population growth paths could have substantial eff ects on global emissions of CO 2 several decades from now, and that ageing and urbanisation can have important eff ects in particular world regions. These results imply that policies that slow population growth would probably also have climate-related benefi ts. Source


Dragomir S.S.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Dragomir S.S.,University of Witwatersrand
Computers and Mathematics with Applications | Year: 2011

New Ostrowski's type inequalities for some classes of continuous functions of selfadjoint operators in Hilbert spaces, under suitable assumptions for the involved operators, are given. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Selle B.,Australian Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries | Muttil N.,Victoria University of Melbourne
Journal of Hydrology | Year: 2011

Genetic Programming is able to systematically explore many alternative model structures of different complexity from available input and response data. We hypothesised that Genetic Programming can be used to test the structure of hydrological models and to identify dominant processes in hydrological systems. To test this, Genetic Programming was used to analyse a data set from a lysimeter experiment in southeastern Australia. The lysimeter experiment was conducted to quantify the deep percolation response under surface irrigated pasture to different soil types, watertable depths and water ponding times during surface irrigation. Using Genetic Programming, a simple model of deep percolation was recurrently evolved in multiple Genetic Programming runs. This simple and interpretable model supported the dominant process contributing to deep percolation represented in a conceptual model that was published earlier. Thus, this study shows that Genetic Programming can be used to evaluate the structure of hydrological models and to gain insight about the dominant processes in hydrological systems. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source


Tseng K.-L.,Aletheia University | Hwang S.-R.,China University of Science and Technology | Dragomir S.S.,Victoria University of Melbourne
Computers and Mathematics with Applications | Year: 2011

In this paper, we establish some HermiteHadamard-type inequalities for convex functions and give several applications for special means. They complete the results from the previous recent paper Tseng et al. (submitted for publication) [11]. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


McDonald B.,Victoria University of Melbourne
European Physical Education Review | Year: 2013

This paper examines the usage of 'race' in high school physical education textbooks in Australia. In particular, it examines the concept of biological 'race' in connection with human performance in sport. DNA studies do not indicate that separate classifiable subspecies (races) exist within modern humans. A content analysis of physical education textbooks in Australia suggests that they are sites that continue to perpetuate myths of 'race' and the 'science' related to it. As such the utilization of biological 'race' as a variable for athletic performance naturalizes embedded biases, is anti-scientific and is potentially indicative of other racist practices within education. Further this commonsense understanding of biological 'race' continues to develop uncritically and unchecked. University students in the fields of exercise science and physical education generally develop from students who excelled in high school physical education (PE). The power of curriculum and pedagogy result in the reproduction of biological 'race' that has become reified in the field of physical education. © The Author(s) 2013. Source


Robinson R.,Victoria University of Melbourne
International Journal of Logistics Research and Applications | Year: 2015

It seems intuitively obvious that firms in supply chains may have more to gain than to lose from learning to cooperate; but it is now more than two decades since Poirier [1999. Advanced Supply Chain Management. San Francisco, CA: Barrett-Koehler] and others called for cooperation in order to capture mutual gains in supply networks and even now ‘cooperation is neither common nor easy’. The simple fact is that not only are supply chains exceptionally complex but so too is the ‘process of cooperating’ – often in the context of antitrust legislation and competition policy. This paper argues that there is a critical need to rethink the principles and processes of cooperation within the broader framework of the competitive behaviour of firms and business strategy. Particularly, it suggests that the relatively recent thinking of Greenwald and Kahn [2005. Competition Demystified A Radically Simplified Approach to Business Strategy. New York, NY: Portfolio, The Penguin Group] in their ‘radically simplified approach to business strategy’ offers sound conceptual insights into cooperation and cooperative strategies for firms not only in markets but also in chains. Furthermore, it notes that the analytical framework for cooperation and cooperative strategies which the authors develop is far removed from the notion of cooperation as ‘commitment and trust and shared thinking’ and from ‘buyer/seller reciprocity’ and ‘collaborative attitudes’ which tend to underwrite much contemporary thinking and research. The paper also argues that the Greenwald and Kahn framework – its single intelligence model of cooperation and cooperative strategies – resonates with real-world relevance, at least for particular supply chains. The paper focuses attention on research into globally significant export coal chains from major east coast Australian ports and in brief case studies finds substantial alignment between concept and practice. © 2015 Taylor & Francis. Source


Barnett C.T.,Nottingham Trent University | Vanicek N.,University of Sydney | Polman R.C.J.,Victoria University of Melbourne
Gait and Posture | Year: 2013

This study examined the adaptation of postural responses in transtibial amputees during both perturbed and volitional dynamic balance tasks during a five-month period following discharge from inpatient rehabilitation. Seven unilateral transtibial amputees performed the sensory organisation test (SOT) and the limits of stability (LOS) test protocols on the NeuroCom Equitest® at one, three and six months post-discharge from in-patient rehabilitation. Overall balance ability improved significantly (p=0.01) following discharge as did utilisation of somatosensory input (p=0.01), with hip strategy use decreasing. Reaction time and movement velocity did not change significantly in the majority of target directions for the LOS test. However, endpoint COG excursion and directional control were significantly increased in a number of directions (p≤0.05). Although balance ability improved following discharge from rehabilitation, participants were heavily reliant upon vision in order to maintain balance. Following discharge from rehabilitation, amputees were seemingly able to increase the spatial and accuracy aspects of volitional exploration of their LOS. However, temporal aspects did not display any adaptation, suggesting a trade-off between these aspects of postural control. Further practice of performing volitional postural movements under increasing time pressure, for example using low-cost gaming tools, may improve balance ability and postural control. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source