University of Medical Sciences and Technology
Khartoum, Sudan

The University of Medical science and Technology is a mainly medical oriented college in Khartoum, Sudan. It is located in the Riyad district of Khartoum. It first opened its doors in 1995 with a student body of only forty students and two faculties. It is now home to over one thousand students and eleven faculties.The UMST began as a private, non-profit making educational institution, in Khartoum, Sudan, which was established in 1996 to serve the educational needs of Sudanese, African and Arab students. In a few years the Academy has expanded to ten faculties, namely, Medicine, Pharmacy, Medical Laboratory science, Dentistry, Dental Technology, Nursing, Computer science, Administrative & Financial science Biomedical Engineering and Anaesthetic science. It became a full university in 2007.The UMST offers two master degrees in Nursing and a master degree in Public and Tropical Health. Wikipedia.

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Soran H.,University of Medical Sciences and Technology
Current Opinion in Lipidology | Year: 2017

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In randomized clinical trials, reduction in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk with cholesterol-lowering drugs correlates with the LDL cholesterol decrease. However, because the majority have investigated a fixed statin dose, current guidelines disagree about the use of statin dose titration or non-statin adjunctive cholesterol-lowering drugs. RECENT FINDINGS: We conducted a meta-analysis of all randomized controlled trials with CVD end-points, comparing two intensities of lipid-lowering regimens within the same population, using varying statins doses and/or potency, ezetimibe or PCSK9 inhibitors and compared the observed number of patients needed to be treated for 10 years to prevent one CVD event (NNT) with NNT predicted from trials of predominantly single-dose statin.Some 75439 participants in 10 randomized studies were included. The mean 10-year CVD risk in controls was around 50% and the incremental mean LDL cholesterol decrease 0.95?mmol/l (36.7?mg/dl). Observed NNT closely correlated with those predicted from predominantly single-dose statin trials [18.2 and 17.1; Pearson R=0.844 (P=0.001)]. When pre-treatment LDL cholesterol exceeded 4?mmol/l (155?mg/dl), achieving a target LDL cholesterol of 1.8?mmol/l (70?mg/dl) was the most effective strategy. At lower pre-treatment levels, fixed-dose statin equivalent to atorvastatin 80?mg daily was superior. The target of 40% reduction in non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol was least effective regardless of pre-treatment LDL cholesterol. SUMMARY: We conclude that when initial LDL cholesterol exceeds 4?mmol/l and absolute CVD risk demands it, a target value of 1.8?mmol/l should be achieved, if necessary by adding ezetimibe and/or PCSK9 inhibitors to statin treatment. Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

Zechmeister-Koss I.,Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Health Technology Assessment | Schnell-Inderst P.,University of Medical Sciences and Technology | Zauner G.,DWH Simulation Services
Medical Decision Making | Year: 2014

Background. An increasing number of evidence sources are relevant for populating decision analytic models. What is needed is detailed methodological advice on which type of data is to be used for what type of model parameter. Purpose. We aim to identify standards in health technology assessment manuals and economic (modeling) guidelines on appropriate evidence sources and on the role different types of data play within a model. Methods. Documents were identified via a call among members of the International Network of Agencies for Health Technology Assessment and by hand search. We included documents from Europe, the United States, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand as well as transnational guidelines written in English or German. We systematically summarized in a narrative manner information on appropriate evidence sources for model parameters, their advantages and limitations, data identification methods, and data quality issues. Results. A large variety of evidence sources for populating models are mentioned in the 28 documents included. They comprise research- and non-research-based sources. Valid and less appropriate sources are identified for informing different types of model parameters, such as clinical effect size, natural history of disease, resource use, unit costs, and health state utility values. Guidelines do not provide structured and detailed advice on this issue. Limitations. The article does not include information from guidelines in languages other than English or German, and the information is not tailored to specific modeling techniques. Conclusions. The usability of guidelines and manuals for modeling could be improved by addressing the issue of evidence sources in a more structured and comprehensive format. © The Author(s) 2013.

Roback K.,University of Medical Sciences and Technology | Roback K.,Linköping University
Expert Review of Medical Devices | Year: 2010

Diabetic foot complications are associated with substantial costs and loss of quality of life. This article gives an overview of available and emerging devices for the monitoring of foot temperature as a means of early detection of foot disorders in diabetes. The aim is to describe the technologies and to summarize experiences from experimental use. Studies show that regular monitoring of foot temperature may limit the incidence of disabling conditions such as foot ulcers and lower-limb amputations. Infrared thermometry and liquid crystal thermography were identified as the leading technologies in use today. Both technologies are feasible for temperature monitoring of the feet and could be used as a complement to current practices for foot examinations in diabetes. © 2010 Expert Reviews Ltd.

Mackenzie C.D.,Michigan State University | Homeida M.M.,University of Medical Sciences and Technology | Hopkins A.D.,DoNation | Lawrence J.C.,DoNation
Trends in Parasitology | Year: 2012

Human onchocerciasis, a parasitic disease found in 28 African countries, six Latin American countries and Yemen, causes blindness and severe dermatological problems. In 1987, efforts to control this infection shifted from vector approaches to include the mass distribution of ivermectin - a drug donated by Merck & Co. for disease control in Africa and for disease elimination in the Americas. Currently, almost 25 years later, with the Americas being highly successful and now approaching elimination, new evidence points towards the possibility of successful elimination in Africa. We suggest several major changes in the programmatic approach that through focused goal-directed effort could achieve global elimination of onchocerciasis by 2025. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Alawad A.A.,University of Medical Sciences and Technology
Ethiopian journal of health sciences | Year: 2014

The use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in treating breast cancer has shown efficacy in downstaging primary tumors, and allows breast conservative surgery to be performed instead of mastectomy. This study aims to evaluate patterns of clinical and pathological response after two cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with locally advanced breast cancer. This is a prospective study. Ninety-eight patients who presented from April 2009 through May 2011 with locally advanced breast cancer and treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy were included. The clinical response rate was 83%; 11 patients (11.2%) had a complete clinical remission (cCR); 71 had a partial remission (72.4%); 13 had stable disease (13.3%), and 3 had progressive disease (3.1%). Seven patients had complete pathological response. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy can achieve a high objective response rate in patients with locally advanced breast cancer even after two cycles. We recommend further research to find predictors for response.

Strasser B.,University Institute of Health Sciences | Arvandi M.,University of Medical Sciences and Technology | Siebert U.,University of Medical Sciences and Technology | Siebert U.,Harvard University | Siebert U.,Center for Health Decision Science
Obesity Reviews | Year: 2012

Intra-abdominal obesity is an important risk factor for low-grade inflammation, which is associated with increased risk for diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. For the most part, recommendations to treat or prevent overweight and obesity via physical activity have focused on aerobic endurance training as it is clear that aerobic training is associated with much greater energy expenditure during the exercise session than resistance training. However, due to the metabolic consequences of reduced muscle mass, it is understood that normal ageing and/or decreased physical activity may lead to a higher prevalence of metabolic disorders. Whether resistance training alters visceral fat and the levels of several pro-inflammatory cytokines produced in adipose tissue has not been addressed in earlier reviews. Because evidence suggests that resistance training may promote a negative energy balance and may change body fat distribution, it is possible that an increase in muscle mass after resistance training may be a key mediator leading to a better metabolic control. Considering the benefits of resistance training on visceral fat and inflammatory response, an important question is: how much resistance training is needed to confer such benefits? Therefore, the purpose of this review was to address the importance of resistance training on abdominal obesity, visceral fat and inflammatory response. © 2012 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2012 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

Suliman I.I.,Sultan Qaboos University | Elawed S.O.,University of Medical Sciences and Technology
Radiation Protection Dosimetry | Year: 2013

This study was performed to measure the entrance surface air kerma (ESAK) for optimisation of chest X-ray examination of children in general radiography hospitals in Khartoum. ESAK was estimated using the X-ray tube output exposure and patient-specific exposure parameters collected during routine examinations. The estimated ESAK values per radiography ranged from 17 to 89 μGy, 32 to 161, 67 to 242, 77 to 278; and from 95 to 389 μGy for Newborn, 1, 5, 10 and 15 y children, respectively. Doses are comparable with a previous study and are somewhat higher than the UK reference dose levels. The study demonstrated the necessity to follow guidelines for quality radiograph as a key element in the optimisation of X-ray examination of children. Frequent dose measurements are of particular importance for the optimisation of X-ray examination of children in general radiography hospitals. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

Ahmed M.H.,Wexham Park Hospital | Barakat S.,Sina | Almobarak A.O.,University of Medical Sciences and Technology
Journal of Obesity | Year: 2012

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is prevalent in people with the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes and is present in up to one-third of the general population. Evidence is now accumulating that NAFLD is associated with obesity and diabetes and may serve as a predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The possible mechanisms linking NAFLD and CVD include inflammation and oxidative stress, hyperlipidaemia, insulin resistance, and direct impact of NAFLD on coronary arteries and left ventricular dysfunction. In addition, several studies suggest that NAFLD is associated with high risk of CVD and atherosclerosis such as carotid artery wall thickness and lower endothelial flow-mediated vasodilation independently of classical risk factors and components of the metabolic syndrome. It is not yet clear how treatment of NAFLD will modulate the risk of CVD. Furthermore, studies are urgently needed to establish (i) the pathophysiology of CVD with NAFLD and (ii) the benefit of early diagnosis and treatment of CVD in patients with NAFLD. In the absence of biochemical markers, it is crucial that screening and surveillance strategies are adopted in clinical practice in the growing number of patients with NAFLD and at risk of developing CVD. Importantly, the current evidence suggest that statins are safe and effective treatment for CVD in individuals with NAFLD. © 2012 Mohamed H. Ahmed et al.

Osman T.,University of Medical Sciences and Technology
BMC Medical Education | Year: 2016

Background: Inadequately designed curricula and barriers to research have not enabled students to realize the crucial importance of research to clinical practice. Several studies have reported variable results with regards to research training. The aim of this survey was to evaluate research training at a university in Sudan which had provided research training for 17 years. Methods: A university-based survey design, using a self-administered questionnaire, was conducted among final year medical students who completed 2 years of research training. Descriptive frequency analysis and bivariate analysis were performed using IBM SPSS version 20. Results: The response rate was 76 %. Ninety-five (91.3 %) perceived research important to medicine and 62 (59.6 %) perceived that it should be a requirement for partial fulfillment of the MBBS degree. Elevation of professional standing as a clinician was the prime reason for pursuing a career in research (18/68.2 %). Main reasons for not pursuing a career in research was research being time consuming (49/59.8 %) and focusing on clinical service being more important than clinical research (48/58.5 %). Fifty-five (56.1 %) believe that their supervisor gave them a positive attitude to research. Principle barriers to student research were lack of funding (75/72.1 %), insufficient time (71/68.3 %) and the demands of the curriculum (70/67.3 %). No significant differences were detected between gender and perceptions towards research. Conclusion: The curriculum should be revised to address the gaps in research training. A small group learning model should be adopted to train students in research and provide supervision to group research projects. This model would improve academic learning, skills acquisition, encourage student interest in research, reduce barriers to student research and make better use of limited resources. © 2016 The Author(s).

Goonewardene M.,Ruhuna University | Shehata M.,University of Medical Sciences and Technology | Hamad A.,James Cook University
Best Practice and Research: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynaecology | Year: 2012

Anaemia in pregnancy, defined as a haemoglobin concentration (Hb) < 110 g/L, affects more than 56 million women globally, two thirds of them being from Asia. Multiple factors lead to anaemia in pregnancy, nutritional iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) being the commonest. Underlying inflammatory conditions, physiological haemodilution and several factors affecting Hb and iron status in pregnancy lead to difficulties in establishing a definitive diagnosis. IDA is associated with increased maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality, and long-term adverse effects in the new born. Strategies to prevent anaemia in pregnancy and its adverse effects include treatment of underlying conditions, iron and folate supplementation given weekly for all menstruating women including adolescents and daily for women during pregnancy and the post partum period, and delayed clamping of the umbilical cord at delivery. Oral iron is preferable to intravenous therapy for treatment of IDA. B12 and folate deficiencies in pregnancy are rare and may be due to inadequate dietary intake with the latter being more common. These vitamins play an important role in embryo genesis and hence any relative deficiencies may result in congenital abnormalities. Finding the underlying cause are crucial to the management of these deficiencies. Haemolytic anaemias rare also rare in pregnancy, but may have life-threatening complications if the diagnosis is not made in good time and acted upon appropriately. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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