The University of Maryland, Baltimore County is an American public research university, located in Baltimore County, Maryland, United States, mostly in the community of Catonsville, approximately 10 minutes from downtown Baltimore City and 30 minutes from Washington, D.C. With a fall 2014 enrollment of about 14,000 students, over 50 undergraduate majors, over 60 graduate programs, and the first university research park in Maryland, UMBC has been named the #1 up-and-coming university for six years in a row, since 2009, by US News & World Report. In addition, US News & World Report has placed UMBC in the top ten for best undergraduate teaching six years in a row, being placed at #5, the second highest-ranked public university.Established as a part of the University System of Maryland in 1966, the university specializes in the natural science and engineering, while also offering programs in the liberal arts. Athletically, the UMBC Retrievers have 19 NCAA Division I teams that participate in the America East Conference. Wikipedia.
University of Maryland Baltimore County | Date: 2016-12-14
Methods employed for the discovery, enrichment, and characterization of a marine consortium of fermentative and methanogenic microorganisms developed from the solid waste digestor of a fully contained, land-based, marine recirculating aquaculture system are described. The methanogenic microbial consortium discovered is capable of reducing over 90% of marine fish waste in an aquaculture system to biomethane and carbon dioxide at saline concentrations found in marine aquaculture. Systems and methods for the treatment of marine fish waste utilizing the methanogenic marine consortium are also disclosed.
University of Maryland Baltimore County | Date: 2016-12-16
The present invention provides for nutrient extraction and recovery devices that use the Donnan Membrane Principle (DMP) to cause spontaneous separation of dissolved ions along electrochemical potential gradients, wherein anions and cations such as H_(2)PO_(4)^(), HPO_(4)^(2), PO_(4)^(3), Mg^(2+), Ca^(2+), NH_(4)^(+), and K^(+) are moved from manure containing waste streams through cation and anion exchange membranes into a recovery stream thereby precipitating target compounds including but not limited to struvite, potassium struvite and hydroxyapatite.
University of Maryland, Baltimore and University of Maryland Baltimore County | Date: 2017-02-08
The present invention discloses methods and systems to control magnetic fields and magnetic field induced currents, and more particularly to provide stimulations within a patients body, such as deep brain stimulation, in a non-invasive manner and with greater focus and control than has been afforded by prior known methods and systems. In accordance with certain aspects of an embodiment, an array of magnetic coils is provided and positionable about a portion of a patients body. During operation, at least some of the magnetic coils function as DC coil pairs configured to generate a DC magnetic field, while at least some of the other magnetic coils function as transient magnetic field generators to generate an induced current within a portion of the patients body, such as in a region of the patients brain. The system is configured such that the DC magnetic fields may be used to manipulate the transient magnetic fields, in turn allowing significantly improved control and focus of the induced current within a specifically desired volume of interest within a patients body.
Zandberg D.P.,University of Maryland Baltimore County
CA: a cancer journal for clinicians | Year: 2013
Human papillomavirus (HPV), one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases worldwide, has an established role in the pathogenesis of genital malignancies such as cervical cancer. The virus has also been implicated in the oncogenesis of nongenital cancers including head and neck malignancies (specifically oropharyngeal cancers) as well as anal cancer. There is less clarity regarding its role in lung and esophageal cancers. Worldwide, the incidence and prevalence of HPV-associated oropharyngeal cancer has been increasing over time. These patients have improved outcomes compared with those with HPV-negative oropharyngeal cancers, and there is continued interest in designing treatments specifically for this HPV-positive subgroup. Clinicians continue to gain an understanding of HPV in anal cancers and the risk factors associated with infection and progression to malignancy. This has potential implications for the eventual screening of high-risk groups. While HPV vaccination is currently approved for the prevention of cervical cancer, it also has potential in the prevention of all HPV-associated malignancies. In this review, current understanding of the role of HPV in nongenital cancers is discussed, as well as future implications for treatment and prevention. Copyright © 2012 American Cancer Society, Inc.
O'Donnell P.,University of Maryland Baltimore County
Schizophrenia Bulletin | Year: 2011
Schizophrenia and related mental disorders are common and devastating conditions for which we have a limited understanding of their origin and mechanisms. Although this apparent lack of progress despite vast research efforts could be due to difficulties in reproducing the disease in animals, animal work is now providing important insight onto possible pathophysiological changes in the brain. Postmortem studies of human brains have provided data indicating altered local inhibitory circuits in the cerebral cortex in schizophrenia and different developmental, pharmacological, and genetic animal models converge in revealing deficits in cortical interneuron function that can be associated with neurophysiological and behavioral alterations resembling aspects of the disease. Schizophrenia pathophysiology has a complex developmental trajectory because overt symptoms become evident during late adolescence despite earlier events contributing to the disease. The late incidence of schizophrenia can be explained by the protracted maturation of brain circuits implicated in the disease, particularly during adolescence. Excitatory and inhibitory processes in cortical circuits are tightly modulated by dopamine (DA), and many aspects of DA function in cortical regions acquire their adult profile during adolescence. This maturation fails to occur or is abnormal in several different rodent models of schizophrenia, yielding a number of functional and behavioral deficits relevant to the disease. Thus, periadolescent changes in cortical inhibitory circuits are a critical developmental stage likely implicated in the transition to schizophrenia. These observations provide the foundation for novel research-based therapeutic approaches and perhaps will even lead to ways to prevent the progression of the disease in predisposed subjects. © The Author 2009.
Fasano A.,University of Maryland Baltimore County
Physiological Reviews | Year: 2011
The primary functions of the gastrointestinal tract have traditionally been perceived to be limited to the digestion and absorption of nutrients and to electrolytes and water homeostasis. A more attentive analysis of the anatomic and functional arrangement of the gastrointestinal tract, however, suggests that another extremely important function of this organ is its ability to regulate the trafficking of macromolecules between the environment and the host through a barrier mechanism. Together with the gut-associated lymphoid tissue and the neuroendocrine network, the intestinal epithelial barrier, with its intercellular tight junctions, controls the equilibrium between tolerance and immunity to non-self antigens. Zonulin is the only physiological modulator of intercellular tight junctions described so far that is involved in trafficking of macromolecules and, therefore, in tolerance/immune response balance. When the finely tuned zonulin pathway is deregulated in genetically susceptible individuals, both intestinal and extraintestinal autoimmune, inflammatory, and neoplastic disorders can occur. This new paradigm subverts traditional theories underlying the development of these diseases and suggests that these processes can be arrested if the interplay between genes and environmental triggers is prevented by reestablishing the zonulin-dependent intestinal barrier function. This review is timely given the increased interest in the role of a "leaky gut" in the pathogenesis of several pathological conditions targeting both the intestine and extraintestinal organs. Copyright © 2011 the American Physiological Society.
Dunning Hotopp J.C.,University of Maryland Baltimore County
Trends in Genetics | Year: 2011
Horizontal gene transfer is increasingly described between bacteria and animals. Such transfers that are vertically inherited have the potential to influence the evolution of animals. One classic example is the transfer of DNA from mitochondria and chloroplasts to the nucleus after the acquisition of these organelles by eukaryotes. Even today, many of the described instances of bacteria-to-animal transfer occur as part of intimate relationships such as those of endosymbionts and their invertebrate hosts, particularly insects and nematodes, while numerous transfers are also found in asexual animals. Both of these observations are consistent with modern evolutionary theory, in particular the serial endosymbiotic theory and Muller's ratchet. Although it is tempting to suggest that these particular lifestyles promote horizontal gene transfer, it is difficult to ascertain given the nonrandom sampling of animal genome sequencing projects and the lack of a systematic analysis of animal genomes for such transfers. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.
Belas R.,University of Maryland Baltimore County
Trends in Microbiology | Year: 2014
Formation of a bacterial biofilm is a developmental process that begins when a cell attaches to a surface, but how does a bacterial cell know it is on or near a surface in the first place? The phase of this 'swim-or-stick' switch is determined by a sensory transduction mechanism referred to as surface sensing, which involves the rotating bacterial flagellum. This review explores six bacterial species as models of flagellar mechanosensing of surfaces to understand the current state of our knowledge and the challenges that lie ahead. A common link between these bacteria is a requirement for the proper function of the flagellar motor stators that channel ions into the cell to drive flagellar rotation. Conditions that affect ion flow act as a signal that, ultimately, controls the master transcriptional regulatory circuits controlling the flagellar hierarchy and biofilm formation. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.
Florian Fricke W.,University of Maryland Baltimore County |
Rasko D.A.,University of Maryland Baltimore County
Nature Reviews Genetics | Year: 2014
The potential of bacterial whole-genome sequencing (WGS) to complement existing diagnostic infrastructures in clinical microbiology has been shown in proof-of-principle examples and extensively discussed. However, less attention has been drawn to bioinformatic challenges that are associated with the clinical adoption of WGS-based molecular diagnostics. This Perspective article discusses questions that are related to standard operating procedures, computational resource management, and data storage and integration in the context of recent developments in the sequencing and bioinformatics service markets. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited.
Takacs L.,University of Maryland Baltimore County
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2013
This paper reviews the history of mechanochemistry. It begins with prehistoric times, when reactions could be initiated during grinding and rubbing accidentally, and follows the main developments until recent results and current trends. There are very few records on mechanochemistry until the first systematic investigations by Spring and Lea at the end of the 19th century. For the next decades, mechanochemistry developed slowly; minerals, inorganic compounds, and polymers were the main subjects of investigation. The area became more organized in the 1960s, when several large groups were established and the first dedicated conferences were held. Mechanical alloying was invented in 1966 independently and it became a subject of intense research. Interaction between the two topics was established in the 1990s. In recent years, the mechanochemical synthesis of organic compounds was added to the main subjects and the invention of the atomic force microscope provided new ways to manipulate atoms and molecules by direct mechanical action. The theoretical explanation of mechanochemical phenomena is difficult, as the mechanism is system specific and several length and time scales are involved. Thiessen proposed the first theory, the magma-plasma model, in 1967, and deeper insight is being obtained by computer modelling combined with empirical work. Practical applications have been an important motivation throughout the history of mechanochemistry. It is used alone or in combination with other steps in an increasing number of technologies. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.