Bismarck, ND, United States

University of Mary

www.umary.edu
Bismarck, ND, United States

The University of Mary is a four year Catholic university near Bismarck, North Dakota.The university is the largest degree granting institution in Bismarck. It has campuses in Rome and Peru, and also operates academic programs at satellite locations in North Dakota , Minnesota, Montana, Wyoming, Kansas, Missouri, and Arizona. It is endorsed by The Newman Guide to Choosing a Catholic College. Wikipedia.


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For women who miss a breast screening appointment, giving a fixed date and time for a new appointment could improve poor attendance and be a cost-effective way to shift national participation trends, according to an analysis led by QMUL For women who miss a breast screening appointment, giving a fixed date and time for a new appointment could improve poor attendance and be a cost-effective way to shift national participation trends, according to an analysis led by Queen Mary University of London (QMUL). In England, participation in breast cancer screening has been falling in the last ten years, getting close to the national minimum standard of 70 per cent, with screening particularly low in areas of socioeconomic deprivation. The NHS Breast Screening Programme (NHSBSP) invites women aged 50-70 to mammographic screening every three years. The usual practice for those who don't attend their first offered appointment is to issue them with a second invitation letter. Some centres supply 'open' invitations, asking women to telephone to make an appointment, while others send an invitation with a fixed date and time, requiring no effort from the invitee to book an appointment. To test how effective each approach is, a randomised controlled trial took place in six NHSBSP centres in England, involving 26,000 women who had not attended their last appointment. The results, published in Lancet Oncology, showed that attendance within 90 days of the first offered appointment was significantly higher for those receiving a timed appointment (22.3 per cent) than those receiving an open invitation (12.3 per cent), and the increase was higher for women with a lower socioeconomic status. Offering a second timed appointment caused an absolute increase in attendance of 10.4 per cent. The greatest absolute increase in attendance was seen in South East London (13.8 per cent), followed by Sheffield (11.5 per cent), Derby (11 per cent), West London (9.6 per cent), Plymouth (8.2 per cent) and Hull (7.4 per cent). Lead researcher Professor Stephen Duffy from QMUL said: "We often feel that it is too difficult to change people's behaviour, and we should just let people do what they do. But this study seems to indicate that fairly simple changes do substantially change behaviour, and can increase the rate of participation of screening." The researchers even found that offering fixed appointments had a substantial benefit with women who hadn't attended a screening appointment in the last six years, and a small benefit with women who hadn't attended for nine years. Offering timed appointments could also be cost-effective if applied when overbooking appointment slots. Professor Duffy explained: "Clinics currently overbook appointments to take account of the fact that those invited don't all turn up, but these decisions sometimes have to be made on incomplete information. This study helps estimate how likely it is a previous non-attender would show up to their second timed appointment, and could be used to aid decisions on how much to overbook on those time slots." The study was funded by the National Health Service Cancer Screening Programmes and Department of Health Policy Research Programme. Although the six sites were spread across England, a limitation of the study is that they might potentially not be representative of the English population overall. Research paper: 'The Effect Of Second Timed Appointments For Non-Attenders Of Breast Cancer Screening In England: A Randomised Controlled Trial'. Prue C. Allgood, Roberta Maroni, Sue Hudson, Judith Offman, Anne E. Turnbull, Lesley Peacock, Jim Steel, Geraldine Kirby, Christine E. Ingram, Julie Somers, Clare Fuller, Anthony G. Threlfall, Rhian Gabe, Anthony J. Maxwell, Julietta Patnick, Stephen W. Duffy. Lancet Oncology. Once the embargo lifts, the paper will be published here: http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lanonc/article/PIIS1470-2045(17)30340-6/fulltext Queen Mary University of London (QMUL) is one of the UK's leading universities, and one of the largest institutions in the University of London, with 23,120 students from more than 155 countries. A member of the Russell Group, we work across the humanities and social sciences, medicine and dentistry, and science and engineering, with inspirational teaching directly informed by our research. In the most recent national assessment of the quality of research, we were placed ninth in the UK (REF 2014). As well as our main site at Mile End - which is home to one of the largest self-contained residential campuses in London - we have campuses at Whitechapel, Charterhouse Square, and West Smithfield dedicated to the study of medicine, and a base for legal studies at Lincoln's Inn Fields. We have a rich history in London with roots in Europe's first public hospital, St Barts; England's first medical school, The London; one of the first colleges to provide higher education to women, Westfield College; and the Victorian philanthropic project, the People's Palace at Mile End. Today, as well as retaining these close connections to our local community, we are known for our international collaborations in both teaching and research. QMUL has an annual turnover of £350m, a research income worth £125m (2014/15), and generates employment and output worth £700m to the UK economy each year.


News Article | May 24, 2017
Site: www.nature.com

Never have so many private eyes looked down at Earth. In the past decade, about a dozen companies have formed to launch Earth-observing satellites. Few have sought to compete with sophisticated government-built instruments, but that is changing. Private firms have begun to develop satellite radar systems and other advanced technologies in a bid to court scientists and other users, even as the US government is threatening to pare back its stable of satellites. Later this year, for example, the Finnish firm Iceye plans to launch a prototype radar instrument — the first step, the company says, towards a constellation of 20 such probes. Until recently, commercial firms had shied away from pursuing radar satellites because they require heavy instruments and consume a lot of power. For some scientists, the growing variety of commercial data is enabling previously impossible research projects. But others fear that increasing reliance on private satellite observations could short-change science over time, by making data more costly or creating other barriers to access. “If you go the commercial way, you’re going to shrink the user base and you’re going to shrink the amount of knowledge you gain from it,” says Matthew Hansen, a geo­grapher at the University of Mary­land in College Park who uses some private data. Remote-sensing companies typically sell their data to the government and to businesses such as private weather forecasters and agri­cultural firms. They have tended to focus on collecting data in just a few wavelength bands, to provide sharper and more frequent images than government spacecraft can. But various trends — the falling costs of components, the development of small satellites such as CubeSats and improved engineering and manufacturing processes — have allowed firms to pursue more-complex technologies. Several firms are looking to develop satellites equipped with radar, which can gather data at night and through cloud cover — situations in which instruments relying on visible light falter. Iceye’s planned constellation of probes should be able to image a given location many times a day, whereas existing radar-equipped satellites, such as the European Space Agency’s Sentinel-1, return to a given spot only every few days. Other companies with radar projects in development include XpressSAR of Arlington, Virginia, and Urthecast of Vancouver, Canada. Some firms are beginning to explore hyperspectral imaging, which spans a wide range of wavelengths, allowing the detection of specific chemicals. In 2016, Satellogic of Buenos Aires launched two 35-kilogram satellites equipped with custom-designed cameras and light filters. Last month, the company became the first commercial supplier of hyperspectral data. Satellogic’s goal is to fly about 300 satellites, together capable of imaging any location on Earth. And it has already begun to appeal to scientists. The company announced in January that it would give researchers free access to its 30-metre-resolution hyperspectral data. These span optical and near-infrared wavelengths and can help track water pollution and oil spills, and monitor the health of forests and crops. “We are receiving contacts from scientists all over the world,” says Satellogic chief executive Emiliano Kargieman. But most commercial data must be purchased, and some scientists say the cost can limit their usefulness. Unless companies commit to making data archives available to all who need such information, they will freeze out many cash-strapped junior researchers and people in developing countries, Hansen says. And commercial data simply aren’t good enough for many types of study, despite the technical advances. No commercial satellite matches the consistency and stability of the data collected by the US government’s Landsat probes, which have monitored Earth since 1972. Government-funded missions also remain unparalleled in enabling scientists to push frontiers in basic research that may not have immediate applications, says Lorraine Remer, an atmospheric scientist at the University of Maryland in Baltimore. Remer is deputy project scientist for NASA’s planned PACE satellite, and says that she does not know of any instrument aboard a commercial satellite that could produce hyperspectral data to rival those possible with the NASA mission. PACE’s ocean-colour imager will enable researchers to identify specific types of aerosol particle in the air, and plankton types in the ocean. And governments typically provide the raw data that are used to create images, not just the images themselves, adds Andreas Kääb, a geoscientist at the University of Oslo who uses satellite data to study glacier movement. With commercial providers, “once you ask for raw data, you quickly run into problems”, he says. But commercial data may become more enticing if government support for Earth monitoring recedes. In the United States, President Donald Trump has proposed axing three NASA missions in 2018 — including PACE — and scaling back a fourth. “We’re looking at an unpredictable future for Earth-science funding in the US,” Kargieman says. “If we have a capability among the private sector to step in and provide the data that will allow scientists to continue to do research, I think we should do so.”


News Article | May 26, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

A new test, based on a patient's epigenetics, could be an accurate and inexpensive way to find and treat those at highest risk of anal cancer -- a disease with growing incidence in women, men who have sex with men (MSM) and people with HIV A new test, based on a patient's epigenetics*, could be an accurate and inexpensive way to find and treat those at highest risk of anal cancer - a disease with growing incidence in women, men who have sex with men (MSM) and people with HIV. The early research by Queen Mary University of London (QMUL), which was funded by Cancer Research UK, finds that the test could lead to a reduction in painful procedures and minimise the over-treatment of people at low risk. Anal cancer is mostly caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) - the same virus that causes cervical cancer. In 2014, the UK had around 1,300 new cases of anal cancer and 360 deaths. In addition to rising levels in women and MSM, anal cancer is more common in HIV-positive MSM with around 100 cases per 100,000, compared to 25 in HIV-negative MSM, and only 1.5 in men in general. Diagnosis presents many challenges. Full biopsies are painful, and taking a small sample of cells ('cytology') is problematic because lesions can be hidden and clinicians give varying interpretations of results. High-resolution anoscopy, where the anal canal is examined with a high resolution magnifying instrument, is often used as the primary screening tool for high-risk populations but is uncomfortable for the patient, expensive, complex and generates subjective results. Lead researcher Professor Attila Lorincz from QMUL said: "The widespread over-treatment of anal precancerous lesions is necessary today because we don't know which ones will progress to cancer. But this creates a large burden on anoscopy clinics in the UK and the procedures can be detrimental to people's quality of life. Many people are undergoing these procedures unnecessarily, so what we really need is precision medicine to identify those who do need treatment." The research, published in the journal Oncotarget, involved studying anal biopsy specimens from 148 patients in London, including 116 men (mostly MSM). The specimens were analysed to look for genetic markers that may be associated with the presence of anal cancer. The team specifically looked at the patients' epigenetics and found that all of the anal cancers showed the presence of specific epigenetic methylation markers on the patients' EPB41L3 gene (a tumour suppressor gene) and also on certain regions of their viral HPV genome. The results suggests that epigenetic testing may be an accurate and thorough method to indicate whether a patient's lesions are destined to progress to anal cancer. This could reduce the costs, pain and anxiety from other methods of diagnosis, and minimise over-treatment of low risk people. Professor Lorincz added: "We thought this would require a complicated genomic signature involving hundreds of genes, so we were surprised that we could get such an accurate prediction from just two biomarker genes. That's important because the expected cost of the test will be fairly low. "Now that we can identify those at risk, and conversely, those not at risk, we hope to see a big improvement, by making sure that anoscopies and laser or chemical surgery are only given to those who need it." Once developed, the test would involve taking a small sample of cells from the anal canal via a swab and then sending the sample off to a laboratory for epigenetic analysis. While a test could be developed within five years, the researchers caution that the results first need to be confirmed in a much larger study across the UK, and repeated using swab samples rather than the biopsies which were used in the current study. Dr Rachel Orritt, Cancer Research UK's health information officer, said: "This study builds on what we already know about the link between changes to cell DNA and cervical cancer, and shows that similar changes to the DNA in anal cells could suggest anal cancer. "If other studies confirm and build upon these findings, this promising research could be used to develop a less invasive method to help doctors identify people who are at a higher risk of anal cancer and avoid unnecessary procedures for those who are at a lower risk." The researchers say that these types of biomarker - epigenetic methylation biomarkers - are important in a large number of other diseases, and could lead to a completely new approach to diagnostics and drug therapy. Professor Lorincz explained: "These could be the early stages of a discovery of a universal set of biomarkers for any cancer. And there may be implications on therapies, as there are new techniques where the epigenetic pathway can be targeted by drugs. This is going to be the hot new area going forward in the next 15 years, so people need to be paying attention to this space." * 'Epigenetics' describes the naturally-occurring chemical 'tags' on genes which control whether or not they are switched on. Liver cells and kidney cells are genetically identical apart from their epigenetic marks. Research paper: 'Methylation of HPV and a tumor suppressor gene reveals anal cancer and precursor lesions'. Attila T Lorincz, Mayura Nathan, Caroline Reuter, Rhian Warman, Mohamed A Thaha, Michael Sheaff, Natasa Vasiljevic, Amar Ahmad, Jack Cuzick, Peter Sasieni. Oncotarget. Queen Mary University of London (QMUL) is one of the UK's leading universities, and one of the largest institutions in the University of London, with 23,120 students from more than 155 countries. A member of the Russell Group, we work across the humanities and social sciences, medicine and dentistry, and science and engineering, with inspirational teaching directly informed by our research. In the most recent national assessment of the quality of research, we were placed ninth in the UK (REF 2014). As well as our main site at Mile End - which is home to one of the largest self-contained residential campuses in London - we have campuses at Whitechapel, Charterhouse Square, and West Smithfield dedicated to the study of medicine, and a base for legal studies at Lincoln's Inn Fields. We have a rich history in London with roots in Europe's first public hospital, St Barts; England's first medical school, The London; one of the first colleges to provide higher education to women, Westfield College; and the Victorian philanthropic project, the People's Palace at Mile End. Today, as well as retaining these close connections to our local community, we are known for our international collaborations in both teaching and research. QMUL has an annual turnover of £350m, a research income worth £125m (2014/15), and generates employment and output worth £700m to the UK economy each year. * Cancer Research UK is the world's leading cancer charity dedicated to saving lives through research. * Cancer Research UK's pioneering work into the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of cancer has helped save millions of lives. * Cancer Research UK receives no government funding for its life-saving research. Every step it makes towards beating cancer relies on every pound donated. * Cancer Research UK has been at the heart of the progress that has already seen survival in the UK double in the last forty years. * Today, 2 in 4 people survive their cancer for at least 10 years. Cancer Research UK's ambition is to accelerate progress so that by 2034, 3 in 4 people will survive their cancer for at least 10 years. * Cancer Research UK supports research into all aspects of cancer through the work of over 4,000 scientists, doctors and nurses. * Together with its partners and supporters, Cancer Research UK's vision is to bring forward the day when all cancers are cured. For further information about Cancer Research UK's work or to find out how to support the charity, please call 0300 123 1022 or visit http://www. . Follow us on Twitter and Facebook.


The first results from a functional genetic catalogue of the laboratory mouse has been shared with the biomedical research community, revealing new insights into a range of rare diseases and the possibility of accelerating development of new treatments and precision medicine. The research, which generated over 20 million pieces of data, has found 360 new disease models and provides 28,406 new descriptions of the genes' effects on mouse biology and disease. The new disease models are being made available to the biomedical community to aid their research. The International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium (IMPC)* is aiming to produce a complete catalogue of mammalian gene function across all genes. Their initial results, now published in Nature Genetics, is based on an analysis of the first 3,328 genes (15 per cent of the mouse genome coding for proteins). Lead author Dr Damian Smedley from Queen Mary University of London (QMUL) and a Monarch Initiative** Principal Investigator, said: "Although next generation sequencing has revolutionised the identification of new disease genes, there is still a lack of understanding of how these genes actually cause disease. "These 360 new disease models that we've identified in mice represent the first steps of a hugely important international project. We hope researchers will be able to use this knowledge to develop new therapies for patients, which is ultimately what we're all striving to achieve." With its similarity to human biology and ease of genetic modification, the laboratory mouse is arguably the preferred model organism for studying human genetic disease. However, the vast majority of the mouse genome remains poorly understood, as scientists tend to focus their research on a few specific areas of the genome linked to the most common inherited diseases. Development of therapies for rare disease lags far behind, with over half of diagnosed rare diseases still having no known causative gene. This is why the IMPC is aiming to build a complete database that systematically details the functions of all areas of the mouse genome, including neurological, metabolic, cardiovascular, respiratory and immunological systems. Terry Meehan, IMPC Project Coordinator at European Bioinformatics Institute (EMBL-EBI) said: "Mouse models allow us to speed up patient diagnosis and develop new therapies. But before that can work, we need to understand exactly what each gene does, and what diseases it is associated with. This is a significant effort in data collection and curation that goes well beyond the capabilities of individual labs. IMPC is creating a data resource that will benefit the entire biomedical community." The project involves going through the mouse genome systematically and knocking out a particular gene, one by one, in different mice. By looking at the mouse's resulting characteristics in a variety of standardised tests, the team then see if and how the gene knockout manifests itself as a disease, and link their findings to what is already known about the human version of the disease. The 'one by one' knockout approach lends itself to rare gene discovery, as often these diseases are caused by variants of a single gene. More than half of the 3,328 genes characterised have never been investigated in a mouse before, and for 1,092 genes, no molecular function or biological process were previously known from direct experimental evidence. These include genes that have now been found to be involved in the formation of blood components (potentially involved in a type of anaemia), cell proliferation and stem cell maintenance. For the first time, human disease traits were seen in mouse models for forms of Bernard-Soulier syndrome (a blood clotting disorder), Bardet-Biedl syndrome (causing vision loss, obesity and extra fingers or toes) and Gordon Holmes syndrome (a neurodegenerative disorder with delayed puberty and lack of secondary sex characteristics). The team also identified new candidate genes for diseases with an unknown molecular mechanism, including an inherited heart disease called 'Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia' that affects the heart muscle, and Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, which is characterised by nerve damage leading to muscle weakness and an awkward way of walking. Dr Smedley added: "In addition to a better understanding of the disease mechanism and new treatments for rare disease patients, many of the lessons we learn here will also be of value to precision medicine, where the goal is to improve treatment through the customisation of healthcare based on a patient's genomic information." The study was a collaboration between the European Bioinformatics Institute, Medical Research Council Harwell, the Monarch Initiative and QMUL, and funded by the National Institutes of Health. For more information, please contact: * The International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium consists of Medical Research Council Harwell, Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Helmholtz-Zentrum Muenchen, Toronto Centre for Phenogenomics, PHENOMIN, Australian Phenomics Network, RIKEN BioResource Center, CNR Monterotondo, MARC Nanjing University, The Jackson Laboratory, The Davis, Toronto, Charles River and CHORI Consortium (DTCC), Korea Mouse Phenotype Consortium, Bayor College of Medicine, National Laboratory Animal Center (National Applied Research Laboratories - NARLabs, Taiwan), EBI, Czech centre for Phenogenomics (IMG) and Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. ** The Monarch Initiative consists of QMUL, Oregon Health & Science University, The Jackson Laboratory, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, the Garvan Institute in Australia, and the Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin. Research paper: 'Disease model discovery from 3,328 gene knockouts by The International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium' by Meehan et al., Nature Genetics. DOI: 10.1038/ng.3901 Paper is available here after the embargo lifts: http://dx. Queen Mary University of London (QMUL) is one of the UK's leading universities, and one of the largest institutions in the University of London, with 23,120 students from more than 155 countries. A member of the Russell Group, we work across the humanities and social sciences, medicine and dentistry, and science and engineering, with inspirational teaching directly informed by our research. In the most recent national assessment of the quality of research, we were placed ninth in the UK (REF 2014). As well as our main site at Mile End - which is home to one of the largest self-contained residential campuses in London - we have campuses at Whitechapel, Charterhouse Square, and West Smithfield dedicated to the study of medicine, and a base for legal studies at Lincoln's Inn Fields. We have a rich history in London with roots in Europe's first public hospital, St Barts; England's first medical school, The London; one of the first colleges to provide higher education to women, Westfield College; and the Victorian philanthropic project, the People's Palace at Mile End. Today, as well as retaining these close connections to our local community, we are known for our international collaborations in both teaching and research. QMUL has an annual turnover of £350m, a research income worth £125m (2014/15), and generates employment and output worth £700m to the UK economy each year. The European Bioinformatics Institute (EMBL-EBI) is a global leader in the storage, analysis and dissemination of large biological datasets. EMBL-EBI helps scientists realise the potential of 'big data' by enhancing their ability to exploit complex information to make discoveries that benefit humankind. EMBL-EBI is at the forefront of computational biology research, with work spanning sequence analysis methods, multi-dimensional statistical analysis and data-driven biological discovery, from plant biology to mammalian development and disease. We are part of the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), an international, innovative and interdisciplinary research organisation funded by 22 member states and two associate member states, and are located on the Wellcome Genome Campus, one of the world's largest concentrations of scientific and technical expertise in genomics. The Monarch Initiative is an international, NIH Office of Director funded consortium that integrates genotype and phenotype data from a diverse array of human and model and non-model organism data sources using semantic technologies. The Monarch Initiative develops the Human Phenotype Ontology, which provisions interoperability with models such as the mouse. Sophisticated semantic algorithms developed by Monarch and used in this study, have been shown to aid non-exact phenotyping matching against known human diseases and assist in the interrogation of model organism data for rare disease diagnosis. A portal containing the extensive human and model organism genotype-phenotype data, including the IMPC data, is available at http://www. .


Women who are at high risk of developing breast cancer may be failing to take the preventive anti-cancer drug tamoxifen because they are confusing naturally-occurring symptoms with side effects from the medicine, according to a study of nearly 4,000 women led by Queen Mary University of London (QMUL). The researchers say that their findings have important implications about how to communicate with women, because getting it right could improve adherence to medication, thereby helping women to reduce their risk of developing breast cancer. Tamoxifen, which is used to treat women with breast cancer driven by the oestrogen hormone, has been shown to reduce the incidence of breast cancer by at least 30 per cent if it is given before disease develops in women who are at high risk of developing it due to factors such as a family history of breast cancer. The International Breast Intervention Study (IBIS-1)*, which has been running since 1992, has shown that the preventive effects of tamoxifen last at least 20 years. However, only one in six high-risk women opt to take the drug when it is offered and not all of them manage to take it consistently for at least five years. In the study published in the Journal of Clinical Oncology researchers at QMUL, University of Leeds, University of Manchester in the UK and Calvary Mater Newcastle Hospital in Australia analysed data on 3,823 UK women taking part in IBIS-1 who had been randomised to receive placebo or tamoxifen for five years. Overall, 69.7 per cent of women managed to adhere to their treatment for at least 4.5 years (74 per cent taking placebo and 65.2 per cent taking tamoxifen). Symptoms that were reported included nausea or vomiting, headaches, hot flushes and gynaecological symptoms, such as irregular bleeding, vaginal dryness and vaginal discharge. Drop-out rates were highest in the first 12-18 months of follow-up (7.4 per cent on placebo versus 12.2 per cent on tamoxifen). At six months among women who reported symptoms of nausea or vomiting, just over 40 per cent failed to adhere to their treatment, regardless of whether they were receiving placebo or tamoxifen. Co-author of the paper Dr Ivana Sestak from QMUL said: "We found that the association between nausea, vomiting, headaches, hot flushes and gynaecological symptoms and non-adherence to treatment was largely similar between women taking placebo or tamoxifen: the greater the severity the less likely the women were to adhere to their treatment, with the exception of headaches, which were associated with increased non-adherence of 38 per cent only in the placebo group. Therefore, this suggests that women may be attributing normally-occurring, age-related symptoms, such as those experienced around the time of menopause, to their medication instead." Co-author Dr Samuel Smith, Cancer Research UK Fellow and University Academic Fellow at the University of Leeds, said: "The fact that there was a relationship between reporting symptoms and non-adherence among women in the placebo group shows that behaviour is being affected by the symptoms, but these symptoms clearly could not have been caused by the drug because it was a placebo." Better communication with women is important, say the researchers. "Communicating accurate information on side effects to patients, and highlighting that some naturally-occurring symptoms may occur during the course of therapy, could be a useful approach in encouraging adherence. This is particularly important for women who are expected to experience the menopause while taking preventive therapy," said Dr Sestak. "These discussions may encourage more realistic expectations of the likelihood of experiencing side effects." Dr Smith said: "Intervention strategies that help to communicate effectively the harms and benefits of preventive therapy to patients need to be developed. At present interventions that help to improve adherence to medications are few and far between. So we are considering ways to intervene with these patients to ensure the safe and appropriate use of preventive therapy. We are also planning a secondary analysis of the IBIS-II trial, which looked at another anti-cancer drug, anastrazole, versus placebo, to see if the same effects are observed in a separate group of women." For more information, please contact: Research paper: Smith SG, Sestak I, Howell A, et al: Participant-Reported Symptoms and Their Effect on Long-Term Adherence in the International Breast Cancer Intervention Study I (IBIS I). J Clin Oncol doi: 10.1200/JCO.2016.71.7439 The research paper will be available here after the embargo lifts: http://dx. * Women aged between 35 and 70 were recruited to the IBIS-1 study between 1992 and 2001 from various centres in the UK, Australia, New Zealand and other European countries. They were healthy at the time of enrolment, but considered to have at least a two-fold risk of developing breast cancer based on their family history. The categorisation of the women's risk was based on a woman's age, and how many first or second degree relatives with the disease they had and their age at which the disease developed. Women with benign conditions that can be precursors for breast cancer, such as ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), were also eligible to join the study. Queen Mary University of London (QMUL) is one of the UK's leading universities, and one of the largest institutions in the University of London, with 21,187 students from more than 155 countries. A member of the Russell Group, we work across the humanities and social sciences, medicine and dentistry, and science and engineering, with inspirational teaching directly informed by our research. In the most recent national assessment of the quality of research, we were placed ninth in the UK (REF 2014). As well as our main site at Mile End - which is home to one of the largest self-contained residential campuses in London - we have campuses at Whitechapel, Charterhouse Square, and West Smithfield dedicated to the study of medicine, and a base for legal studies at Lincoln's Inn Fields. We have a rich history in London with roots in Europe's first public hospital, St Barts; England's first medical school, The London; one of the first colleges to provide higher education to women, Westfield College; and the Victorian philanthropic project, the People's Palace at Mile End. Today, as well as retaining these close connections to our local community, we are known for our international collaborations in both teaching and research. QMUL has an annual turnover of £350m, a research income worth £125m (2014/15), and generates employment and output worth £700m to the UK economy each year. About the University of Leeds The University of Leeds is one of the largest higher education institutions in the UK, with more than 33,000 students from 147 different countries, and a member of the Russell Group research-intensive universities. We are a top 10 university for research and impact power in the UK, according to the 2014 Research Excellence Framework and we are The Times and The Sunday Times University of the Year 2017 http://www.


Testing blood samples within the first two hours of injury could help predict which critically injured patients are more likely to develop multiple organ failure, according to an early study led by Queen Mary University of London (QMUL). The finding that there is a specific immune response to trauma shortly after injury could also help with the development of new therapies. The publication of the study in PLOS Medicine coincides with the launch of 'Transform Trauma', a national fundraising campaign to raise money for trauma research by Barts Charity*. Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome (MODS) is the failure of several organs (including lung, heart, kidney and liver) which contributes to the deaths and morbidity of many critically injured patients who survive their initial physical insult. It is a poorly understood condition with no proven therapies. Lead researcher Professor Karim Brohi from QMUL's Centre for Trauma Sciences said: "The first minutes or hours after a traumatic injury is a key window where a patient's immune response may set the trajectory for whether they develop organ failure. "This phase is very challenging to study due to the complexity and logistics of the emergency environment, but if we can understand the mechanisms that lead to poor outcomes, we may be able to help bring dramatic improvements through better diagnostics and therapeutics. "Previous research into the blood clotting system, carried out immediately after injury, completely altered our understanding and changed an entire resuscitation paradigm within a decade. It is possible that overcoming the challenges of carrying out immune response research at this critical time point will do the same for our approach to organ dysfunction and protection." The team studied blood samples from 70 critically injured patients at the Royal London Hospital, which were taken immediately on arrival in the resuscitation room (within two hours of injury). They compared these with blood samples taken at 24 hours and 72 hours after injury, and from those with minor injuries and healthy volunteers. Out of 29,385 immune cell genes, they identified only 1,239 immune cell genes that were different between critical and control patients immediately after injury. However, by 24 hours after injury, this response had grown into a widespread immune reaction involving a 'genomic storm' of 6,294 genes. Looking at the genes more closely, the team found that certain white blood cells, including 'natural killer' cells and 'neutrophils', emerged as potentially central to the immediate response to critical injury, while others, such as T-cells and B-cells, were less involved. When comparing the immune cell genes expressed in patients who later developed MODS to those who did not, most differences were seen immediately after injury, where 363 genes had different activity levels between MODS and non-MODS patients, compared to only 33 genes after 24 hours. The researchers say it is the response of these early genes that could be used in the future to determine which patients will later develop MODS. Further analysis of these genes during the initial two hour window found that the development of MODS was associated with biological pathways associated with cell death and survival, rather than inflammatory pathways. This is a very different finding from previous studies (based on bloods from a later time point) where excessive inflammation was thought to produce organ dysfunction. This study is limited by its sample size and requires validation in other critically injured cohorts. Researchers who performed the study were funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR), Medical Research Council, Wellcome Trust, Department of Health, the Royal College of Surgeons and Barts Charity. For more information, please contact: Queen Mary University of London (QMUL) is one of the UK's leading universities, and one of the largest institutions in the University of London, with 21,187 students from more than 155 countries. A member of the Russell Group, we work across the humanities and social sciences, medicine and dentistry, and science and engineering, with inspirational teaching directly informed by our research. In the most recent national assessment of the quality of research, we were placed ninth in the UK (REF 2014). As well as our main site at Mile End - which is home to one of the largest self-contained residential campuses in London - we have campuses at Whitechapel, Charterhouse Square, and West Smithfield dedicated to the study of medicine, and a base for legal studies at Lincoln's Inn Fields. We have a rich history in London with roots in Europe's first public hospital, St Barts; England's first medical school, The London; one of the first colleges to provide higher education to women, Westfield College; and the Victorian philanthropic project, the People's Palace at Mile End. Today, as well as retaining these close connections to our local community, we are known for our international collaborations in both teaching and research. QMUL has an annual turnover of £350m, a research income worth £125m (2014/15), and generates employment and output worth £700m to the UK economy each year.


News Article | February 15, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Women who participate in obstetric and gynaecology clinical trials experience improved health outcomes compared to those who are not involved in trials, according to research by Queen Mary University of London (QMUL). This is the case regardless of whether or not the treatment is found to be effective in the trial. The review of 21 studies* included 20,160 women, and found that participants had 25 per cent better odds of improved health outcomes**, compared with non-participants. The researchers hope the results may lead to more clinicians offering trials to their patients and more women volunteering for trials in a research area that currently faces many challenges. A clinical trial compares the effects of one treatment with another, and normally involves large numbers of volunteer patients in many centres. The results from trials help doctors understand how to treat a particular disease or condition, and are necessary to test the safety and efficacy of new treatments before they are brought into general use. Research on the effect of participation in trials has previously not consistently shown evidence of benefit. This may be because previous work has analysed data from all medical specialities grouped together which could include wide variations in the way care is given within and outside trials. The review, which focuses on pregnancy and reproductive health, is published in BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (BJOG) and is believed to be the first of its kind. It found that the beneficial effect of participating in a trial was largest when it was a high quality clinical trial, and when the trial tested an intervention that was unavailable outside of the trial. Lead researcher Professor Khalid Khan from QMUL said: "Clinical trials are often perceived as 'experiments', 'risky' or 'dangerous'. However, our findings challenge these misconceptions, and show not only that they are safe but that there is a significant benefit associated with participation, with overall 25 per cent chance of better health outcomes." "Interestingly, we also found that participants still experienced benefits irrespective of whether the treatment in the trial was found to be effective or not." Worldwide over 69 million babies are born annually (776,000 in the UK), but only a small proportion of pregnant women are entered into research studies. Pregnancy and reproductive health is an area with unique challenges, dealing with controversial topics (IVF, contraception, abortion), a lack of research funding (less than one per cent of UK government spend) and ethical/legal implications (studies involving pregnant women). As such, research results from general medicine often inform practise in pregnancy patients, which does not always lead to optimum medical care. Ngawai Moss was a participant of QMUL's EMPiRE trial - a study looking at how to control seizures in pregnant women with epilepsy. She said: "I'm very happy that I took part in a clinical trial and would do it all over again without hesitation. I would tell women who are considering whether to join a clinical trial, that the investment of their time is really quite minimal for the reward. "In my case, the trial was pretty straightforward and mainly involved monthly visits to fill in a questionnaire and have a blood test. It was reassuring to be able to see a medical professional on a regular basis, especially as I had a complicated pregnancy. It meant I had access to the team's medical insight, advice and support on general pregnancy-related issues." Professor Khalid Khan from QMUL added: "Women in general are often unrepresented in research, so we hope this may lead to a shift in attitudes and encourage more clinicians and women to be involved in trials. We also hope that patients recognise that research can be even safer than routine healthcare, due to the additional safeguards in place." The researchers say that it is important to remember that research can still be associated with risk, and it is the duty of researchers and clinicians to inform patients of the potential risk and benefit of engagement in research. QMUL's IBIS 3 Feasibility Study is currently looking to recruit post-menopausal breast cancer survivors. The clinical trial will test three types of medicines in 18 hospitals around the UK to find out the best way to prevent the late recurrence of breast cancer. More information on joining the trial is available on the website or by contacting ibis3help@qmul.ac.uk or 020 7882 3510. For more information, please contact: * Example trials analysed in the review included a trial on the use of heparin and aspirin for women with in vitro fertilization implantation failure, and a trial comparing the success of hormone releasing implants with copper-intrauterine devices as contraceptive methods. ** The review included maternal and neonatal health outcomes such as stillbirth, pre-eclampsia, pregnancy rates, Neural tube defect, spontaneous fetal death, treatment satisfaction, treatment acceptability, infant death, caesarean section rate, successful surgery, severe bleeding (abortion), and fetal outcomes. Research paper: 'Participation in clinical trials improves outcomes in women's health: A systematic review and meta-analysis'. Simrit K. Nijjar, Maria I. D'Amico, Noshali A. Wimalaweera, Natalie A.M. Cooper, Javier Zamora, Khalid S. Khan. BJOG 2017. DOI: 10.1111/1471-0528.14528. Once published, the article can be found here: http://onlinelibrary. Queen Mary University of London (QMUL) is one of the UK's leading universities, and one of the largest institutions in the University of London, with 21,187 students from more than 155 countries. A member of the Russell Group, we work across the humanities and social sciences, medicine and dentistry, and science and engineering, with inspirational teaching directly informed by our research. In the most recent national assessment of the quality of research, we were placed ninth in the UK (REF 2014). As well as our main site at Mile End - which is home to one of the largest self-contained residential campuses in London - we have campuses at Whitechapel, Charterhouse Square, and West Smithfield dedicated to the study of medicine, and a base for legal studies at Lincoln's Inn Fields. We have a rich history in London with roots in Europe's first public hospital, St Barts; England's first medical school, The London; one of the first colleges to provide higher education to women, Westfield College; and the Victorian philanthropic project, the People's Palace at Mile End. Today, as well as retaining these close connections to our local community, we are known for our international collaborations in both teaching and research. QMUL has an annual turnover of £350m, a research income worth £125m (2014/15), and generates employment and output worth £700m to the UK economy each year.


News Article | February 15, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Vitamin D supplements protect against acute respiratory infections including colds and flu, according to a study led by Queen Mary University of London (QMUL) Vitamin D supplements protect against acute respiratory infections including colds and flu, according to a study led by Queen Mary University of London (QMUL). The study provides the most robust evidence yet that vitamin D has benefits beyond bone and muscle health, and could have major implications for public health policy, including the fortification of foods with vitamin D to tackle high levels of deficiency in the UK. The results, published in the BMJ, are based on a new analysis of raw data from around 11,000 participants in 25 clinical trials conducted in 14 countries including the UK, USA, Japan, India, Afghanistan, Belgium, Italy, Australia and Canada. Individually, these trials yielded conflicting results, with some reporting that vitamin D protected against respiratory infections, and others showing no effect. Lead researcher Professor Adrian Martineau from QMUL said: "This major collaborative research effort has yielded the first definitive evidence that vitamin D really does protect against respiratory infections. Our analysis of pooled raw data from each of the 10,933 trial participants allowed us to address the thorny question of why vitamin D 'worked' in some trials, but not in others. "The bottom line is that the protective effects of vitamin D supplementation are strongest in those who have the lowest vitamin D levels, and when supplementation is given daily or weekly rather than in more widely spaced doses. "Vitamin D fortification of foods provides a steady, low-level intake of vitamin D that has virtually eliminated profound vitamin D deficiency in several countries. By demonstrating this new benefit of vitamin D, our study strengthens the case for introducing food fortification to improve vitamin D levels in countries such as the UK where profound vitamin D deficiency is common." Vitamin D - the 'sunshine vitamin' - is thought to protect against respiratory infections by boosting levels of antimicrobial peptides - natural antibiotic-like substances - in the lungs. Results of the study fit with the observation that colds and 'flu are commonest in winter and spring, when levels of vitamin D are at their lowest. They may also explain why vitamin D protects against asthma attacks, which are commonly triggered by respiratory viruses. Daily or weekly supplementation halved the risk of acute respiratory infection in people with the lowest baseline vitamin D levels, below 25 nanomoles per litre (nmol/L). However, people with higher baseline vitamin D levels also benefited, although the effect was more modest (10 per cent risk reduction). Overall, the reduction in risk of acute respiratory infection induced by vitamin D was on a par with the protective effect of injectable 'flu vaccine against 'flu-like illnesses. Acute respiratory infections are a major cause of global morbidity and mortality. Upper respiratory infections such as colds and 'flu are the commonest reason for GP consultations and days off work. Acute lower respiratory infections such as pneumonia are less common, but caused an estimated 2.65 million deaths worldwide in 2013. Vitamin D supplementation is safe and inexpensive, so reductions in acute respiratory infections brought about by vitamin D supplementation could be highly cost-effective. The study was conducted by a consortium of 25 investigators from 21 institutions worldwide* and funded by the National Institute for Health Research. Joel Winston, Public Relations Manager (School of Medicine and Dentistry) Queen Mary University of London j.winston@qmul.ac.uk Tel: +44 (0)20 7882 7943 / +44 (0)7970 096 188 * Institutions involved in the research: Edmond and Lily Safra Children's Hospital (Tel Hashomer, Israel), Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth (NH, USA), Harvard School of Public Health (Boston, MA, USA), Jikei University School of Medicine (Tokyo, Japan), Karolinska Institutet (Stockholm, Sweden), Massachusetts General Hospital (Boston, MA, USA), McMaster University (Hamilton, Ontario, Canada), Medical University of Lodz (Poland), QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute (Queensland, Australia), Queen Mary University of London (UK), The Pennsylvania State University (Hershey, PA, USA), Università degli Studi di Milano (Milan, Italy), Universitair ziekenhuis Leuven (Belgium), University of Auckland (New Zealand), University of Birmingham (UK), University of Colorado School of Medicine (Aurora, CO, USA), University of Delhi (India), University of Otago (Christchurch, New Zealand), University of Tampere (Finland), University of Tasmania (Australia), Winthrop University Hospital (Mineola, NY, USA). Research paper: 'Vitamin D supplementation to prevent acute respiratory infections: systematic review and meta-analysis of individual participant data'. Martineau et al. BMJ 2017 Queen Mary University of London (QMUL) is one of the UK's leading universities, and one of the largest institutions in the University of London, with 23,120 students from more than 155 countries. A member of the Russell Group, we work across the humanities and social sciences, medicine and dentistry, and science and engineering, with inspirational teaching directly informed by our research. In the most recent national assessment of the quality of research, we were placed ninth in the UK (REF 2014). As well as our main site at Mile End - which is home to one of the largest self-contained residential campuses in London - we have campuses at Whitechapel, Charterhouse Square, and West Smithfield dedicated to the study of medicine, and a base for legal studies at Lincoln's Inn Fields. We have a rich history in London with roots in Europe's first public hospital, St Barts; England's first medical school, The London; one of the first colleges to provide higher education to women, Westfield College; and the Victorian philanthropic project, the People's Palace at Mile End. Today, as well as retaining these close connections to our local community, we are known for our international collaborations in both teaching and research. QMUL has an annual turnover of £350m, a research income worth £125m (2014/15), and generates employment and output worth £700m to the UK economy each year. The National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) is funded by the Department of Health to improve the health and wealth of the nation through research. The NIHR is the research arm of the NHS. Since its establishment in April 2006, the NIHR has transformed research in the NHS. It has increased the volume of applied health research for the benefit of patients and the public, driven faster translation of basic science discoveries into tangible benefits for patients and the economy, and developed and supported the people who conduct and contribute to applied health research. The NIHR plays a key role in the Government's strategy for economic growth, attracting investment by the life-sciences industries through its world-class infrastructure for health research. Together, the NIHR people, programmes, centres of excellence and systems represent the most integrated health research system in the world. For further information, visit the NIHR website (http://www. ).


The International Nurses Association is pleased to welcome Wendy Bryant, RN, to their prestigious organization with her upcoming publication in the Worldwide Leaders in Healthcare. Wendy Bryant is a Registered Nurse with 11 years of experience in her field and an extensive expertise in all facets of nursing, especially medical/surgical nursing. Wendy is currently serving patients as a Charge Nurse within Navarro Regional Hospital in Corsicana, Texas. Wendy Bryant attended the University of Mary Hardin Baylor in Belton, Texas, graduating with her Bachelor of Science Degree in Nursing in 2005. An advocate for continuing education, Wendy is currently pursuing her Master of Science Degree in Nursing with a Family Nurse Practitioner concentration at Kaplan University. She holds additional certifications in Advanced Cardiac Life Support, Basic Life Support, Pediatric Advanced Life Support, and is also EKG and Telemetry Certified. To keep up to date with the latest advances and developments in nursing, Wendy maintains a professional membership with the American Nurses Association. Throughout her career, Wendy has worked in many areas of the nursing field, including pediatrics, geriatrics, home health care, and in hospital settings. She attributes her success to her mother, who has always been a strong influence in her life. When she is not assisting her patients, Wendy enjoys running marathons. Learn more about Wendy Bryant here: http://inanurse.org/network/index.php?do=/4135237/info/ and be sure to read her upcoming publication in Worldwide Leaders in Healthcare.


Grant
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: S-STEM:SCHLR SCI TECH ENG&MATH | Award Amount: 501.25K | Year: 2015

Over the past decade, the Bakken oil boom has had a significant impact on the western North Dakota economy and landscape, resulting in an increased need for wildlife conservationists and environmental scientists to study the energy industrys interactions with the environment. To address this need, The University of Marys Expanding Career Opportunities in Wildlife and Environmental Biology (ECOWEB) project will recruit and enroll 12 academically talented students with financial need in the UM biology programs wildlife conservation or environmental science track. The ECOWEB project will award scholarships ranging from $8,000 to $10,000 per year and enhance student support structures and connections to work-based, research, and graduate school opportunities, so as to ensure students obtain a bachelors degree and successfully transition to STEM employment or graduate school. The ECOWEB Project will have broad and significant impacts in the following ways: 1) enhancing collaborations between UM and other institutions by providing graduate school visits and collaborative research opportunities for S-STEM scholars; 2) enhancing the Biology Departments partnerships with regional biology-related industries and agencies by establishing internship opportunities and seminar events; 3) increasing the number and quality of research opportunities for biology students as well as opportunities to participate and present at professional conferences; 4) increasing the number of biology graduates from populations traditionally underrepresented in STEM; and 5) strategically disseminating evaluation findings within the UM community and to other postsecondary institutions and STEM professionals to advance knowledge and practice about student recruitment and support structures that increase retention to graduation and career preparation.

The ECOWEB project will accomplish three objectives that address local needs. Objective 1: Identify and recruit a diverse population of 12 academically talented students with financial need for the UM biology programs wildlife conservation or environmental science track. The recruitment plan includes digital and print marketing, local and regional high school recruitment, and Open House events that encourage students from groups traditionally underrepresented in STEM. Objective 2: Enhance student support structures to ensure wildlife conservation and environmental science students obtain a bachelors degree within four years. The project will employ strategies and support structures that increase student retention to graduation, enable students to complete their degree in four years, and prepare graduates for successful transition into the wildlife conservation and environmental science workforce or graduate programs. UM Biology Department faculty and student support administrators will collaboratively develop, implement, and assess an array of new and enhanced support services, including: a) an S-STEM cohort model that emphasizes an S-STEM identity and community learning, b) an S-STEM-specific First Year Experience course, c) faculty and peer mentorships, d) a monthly seminar series with industry experts and researchers working in wildlife conservation and environmental science fields, e) biology-related service-learning projects, f) summer research and internship opportunities, and g) student participation in national and regional professional conferences. Objective 3: Enable S-STEM scholars to secure employment in target fields or enter a biology graduate program within one year of graduation. The ECOWEB project will prepare scholars for the STEM workforce or graduate school by providing key support services and activities, including career counseling, GRE preparation, a seminar series, internship opportunities, and field trips to graduate programs. Assessment of the efficacy of these different activities will help contribute to expanding the knowledge base regarding the circumstances under which scholarship projects of this type are successful.

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